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Encyclopedia > Brain tumor
Brain tumor
Classification and external resources
CT scan of brain showing brain cancer metastatic to the left parietal lobe in the peri-ventricular area.
ICD-10 C71., D33.0-D33.2
ICD-9 191, 225.0
DiseasesDB 30781
MedlinePlus 007222 000768
eMedicine emerg/334 
MeSH D001932

A brain tumor is any intracranial tumor created by abnormal and uncontrolled cell division, normally either in the brain itself (neurons, glial cells (astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, ependymal cells), lymphatic tissue, blood vessels), in the cranial nerves (myelin-producing Schwann cells), in the brain envelopes (meninges), skull, pituitary and pineal gland, or spread from cancers primarily located in other organs (metastatic tumors). Primary (true) brain tumors are commonly located in the posterior cranial fossa in children and in the anterior two-thirds of the cerebral hemispheres in adults, although they can affect any part of the brain. In the United States in the year 2005, it was estimated that there were 43,800 new cases of brain tumors (Central Brain Tumor Registry of the United States, Primary Brain Tumors in the United States, Statistical Report, 2005 - 2006),[1] which accounted for 1.4 percent of all cancers, 2.4 percent of all cancer deaths,[2] and 20–25 percent of pediatric cancers.[2][3] Ultimately, it is estimated that there are 13,000 deaths/year as a result of brain tumors.[1] Image File history File links Download high resolution version (630x739, 50 KB) Summary CT scan of breast adenoca metastasized to L parietal area peri-ventricular area. ... negron305 Cat scan redirects here. ... The parietal lobe is a lobe in the brain. ... The ventricular system is a set of structures in the brain continuous with the central canal of the spinal cord. ... The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (most commonly known by the abbreviation ICD) provides codes to classify diseases and a wide variety of signs, symptoms, abnormal findings, complaints, social circumstances and external causes of injury or disease. ... The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems 10th Revision (ICD-10) is a coding of diseases and signs, symptoms, abnormal findings, complaints, social circumstances and external causes of injury or diseases, as classified by the World Health Organization (WHO). ... // C00-D48 - Neoplasms (C00-C14) Malignant neoplasms, lip, oral cavity and pharynx (C00) Malignant neoplasm of lip (C01) Malignant neoplasm of base of tongue (C02) Malignant neoplasm of other and unspecified parts of tongue (C03) Malignant neoplasm of gum (C04) Malignant neoplasm of floor of mouth (C05) Malignant neoplasm of... // C00-D48 - Neoplasms (C00-C14) Malignant neoplasms, lip, oral cavity and pharynx (C00) Malignant neoplasm of lip (C01) Malignant neoplasm of base of tongue (C02) Malignant neoplasm of other and unspecified parts of tongue (C03) Malignant neoplasm of gum (C04) Malignant neoplasm of floor of mouth (C05) Malignant neoplasm of... // C00-D48 - Neoplasms (C00-C14) Malignant neoplasms, lip, oral cavity and pharynx (C00) Malignant neoplasm of lip (C01) Malignant neoplasm of base of tongue (C02) Malignant neoplasm of other and unspecified parts of tongue (C03) Malignant neoplasm of gum (C04) Malignant neoplasm of floor of mouth (C05) Malignant neoplasm of... The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (most commonly known by the abbreviation ICD) provides codes to classify diseases and a wide variety of signs, symptoms, abnormal findings, complaints, social circumstances and external causes of injury or disease. ... The following is a list of codes for International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems. ... The Disease Bold textDatabase is a free website that provides information about the relationships between medical conditions, symptoms, and medications. ... MedlinePlus (medlineplus. ... eMedicine is an online clinical medical knowledge base that was founded in 1996. ... Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) is a huge controlled vocabulary (or metadata system) for the purpose of indexing journal articles and books in the life sciences. ... Cranium can mean: The brain and surrounding skull, a part of the body. ... For malignant tumors specifically, see cancer. ... Mitosis divides genetic information during cell division. ... For other uses, see Brain (disambiguation). ... This article is about cells in the nervous system. ... Neuroglia cells of the brain shown by Golgis method. ... Astrocytes (also known collectively as astroglia) are characteristic star-shaped glial cells in the brain. ... Oligodendrocytes (from Greek literally meaning few tree cells), or oligodendroglia (Greek, few tree glue),[1] are a variety of neuroglia. ... Neuroglia cells of the brain shown by Golgis method. ... In mammals including humans, the lymphatic vessels (or lymphatics) are a network of thin tubes that branch, like blood vessels, into tissues throughout the body. ... f you all The blood vessels are part of the circulatory system and function to transport blood throughout the body. ... Cranial nerves are nerves which start directly from the brainstem instead of the spinal cord. ... Myelin is an electrically insulating phospholipid layer that surrounds the axons of many neurons. ... Named after the German physiologist Theodor Schwann, Schwann cells are a variety of neuroglia that mainly provide myelin insulation to axons in the peripheral nervous system of jawed vertebrates. ... The meninges (singular meninx) are the system of membranes that envelop the central nervous system. ... For other uses of Skull, see Skull (disambiguation). ... Located at the base of the skull, the pituitary gland is protected by a bony structure called the sella turcica. ... The pineal gland (also called the pineal body or epiphysis) is a small endocrine gland in the brain. ... Cancer is a class of diseases or disorders characterized by uncontrolled division of cells and the ability of these to spread, either by direct growth into adjacent tissue through invasion, or by implantation into distant sites by metastasis (where cancer cells are transported through the bloodstream or lymphatic system). ... For the musical composition, see Metastasis (Xenakis composition). ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... A male Caucasian toddler child A child (plural: children) is a young human. ... Human brain viewed from above, showing cerebral hemispheres. ... See Adult. ... For other uses, see Brain (disambiguation). ...

Contents

Classification

Primary tumors

Tumors occurring in the brain include: astrocytoma, pilocytic astrocytoma, dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumor, oligodendrogliomas, ependymoma, glioblastoma multiforme, mixed gliomas, oligoastrocytomas, medulloblastoma, retinoblastoma, neuroblastoma, germinoma and teratoma. Astrocytomas are primary central nervous system tumors that arise primarily in and rarely spread away from the CNS parenchyma contained within the cranial vault. ... It occurs predominantly in children and involves the midline, basal and posterior fossa structures. ... Dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumour, commonly abbreviated DNT, is a type of brain tumour that arises from the oligodendrocyte, a type of brain cell. ... Oligodendrogliomas are a type of glioma that originate from the oligodendrocytes of the brain. ... Ependymoma are tumors arising from the inner lining of the cerebral ventricles (= intracranial) and the remnants of the central canal in the spinal cord. ... Image 1a. ... Oligoastrocytomas are a subset of brain tumor that present with an appearance of mixed glial cell origin, astrocytoma and oligodendroglioma. ... Oligoastrocytomas are a subset of brain tumor that present with an appearance of mixed glial cell origin, astrocytoma and oligodendroglioma. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into brain tumor. ... Retinoblastoma is a cancer of the retina. ... Neuroblastoma is the most common extracranial solid cancer in infancy and childhood. ... Germinomas are neoplasia (commonly referred to as cancers or tumors) which most closely resemble germ line cells. ... Look up teratoma in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...

MRI image showing a low-grade brain glioma in a 28 year-old male. Image created on 2007-07-10.
MRI image showing a low-grade brain glioma in a 28 year-old male. Image created on 2007-07-10.

Most primary brain tumors originate from glia (gliomas) such as astrocytes (astrocytomas), oligodendrocytes (oligodendrogliomas), or ependymal cells (ependymoma). There are also mixed forms, with both an astrocytic and an oligodendroglial cell component. These are called mixed gliomas or oligoastrocytomas. Plus, mixed glio-neuronal tumors (tumors displaying a neuronal, as well as a glial component, e.g. gangliogliomas, disembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumors) and tumors originating from neuronal cells (e.g. gangliocytoma, central gangliocytoma) can also be encountered. Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 191st day of the year (192nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Neuroglia cells of the brain shown by Golgis method. ... A glioma is a type of primary central nervous system (CNS) tumor that arises from glial cells. ... Astrocytomas are intracranial tumors derived from astrocytes. ... Oligodendrogliomas are a type of glioma that originate from the oligodendrocytes of the brain. ... Ependymoma are tumors arising from the inner lining of the cerebral ventricles (= intracranial) and the remnants of the central canal in the spinal cord. ... Oligoastrocytomas are a subset of brain tumor that present with an appearance of mixed glial cell origin, astrocytoma and oligodendroglioma. ... Oligoastrocytomas are a subset of brain tumor that present with an appearance of mixed glial cell origin, astrocytoma and oligodendroglioma. ... Gangliogliomas are rare, benign brain tumors arising from ganglia-type cells. ... Dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumour, commonly abbreviated DNT, is a type of brain tumour that arises from the oligodendrocyte, a type of brain cell. ...


Other varieties of primary brain tumors include: primitive neuroectodermal tumors (PNET, e.g. medulloblastoma, medulloepithelioma, neuroblastoma, retinoblastoma, ependymoblastoma), tumors of the pineal parenchyma (e.g. pineocytoma, pineoblastoma), ependymal cell tumors, choroid plexus tumors, neuroepithelial tumors of uncertain origin (e.g. gliomatosis cerebri, astroblastoma), etc. X-Ray of a child with Ewings sarcoma of the tibia Ewings sarcoma is the common name for primitive neuroectodermal tumor. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into brain tumor. ... Neuroblastoma is the most common extracranial solid cancer in infancy and childhood. ... Retinoblastoma is a cancer of the retina. ... The pineal gland (also called the pineal body or epiphysis) is a small endocrine gland in the brain. ... Parenchyma is a term used to describe a bulk of a substance. ... Ependyma is the thin epithelial membrane lining the ventricular system of the brain and the spinal cord canal. ... The choroid plexus is the area on the ventricles of the brain where cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is produced by modified ependymal cells. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


From a histological perspective, astrocytomas, oligondedrogliomas, oligoastrocytomas, and teratomas may be benign or malignant. Glioblastoma multiforme represents the most aggressive variety of malignant glioma. At the opposite end of the spectrum, there are so-called pilocytic astrocytomas, a distinct variety of astrocytic tumors. The majority of them are located in the posterior cranial fossa, affect mainly children and young adults, and have a clinically favorable course and prognosis. Teratomas and other germ cell tumors also may have a favorable prognosis, although they have the capacity to grow very large. A benign tumor is a tumor that lacks all three of the malignant properties of a cancer. ... For other uses, see Cancer (disambiguation). ... Image 1a. ... It occurs predominantly in children and involves the midline, basal and posterior fossa structures. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Look up teratoma in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Germ cell tumours are ovarian neoplasms derived from germ cells. ...


Another type of primary intracranial tumor is primary cerebral lymphoma, also known as primary CNS lymphoma, which is a type of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma that is much more prevalent in those with severe immunosuppression, e.g. AIDS. Primary CNS lymphoma is a primary intracranial tumor usually present in those with severe immunosuppression --- commonly in those with AIDS --- and represents around 20% of all cases of lymphomas in HIV infection (other types being Burkitts lymphoma and immunoblastic lymphoma). ... For other uses, see AIDS (disambiguation). ...


In contrast to other types of cancer, primary brain tumors rarely metastasize, and in this rare event, the tumor cells spread within the skull and spinal canal through the cerebrospinal fluid, rather than via bloodstream to other organs. Cancer is a class of diseases or disorders characterized by uncontrolled division of cells and the ability of these to spread, either by direct growth into adjacent tissue through invasion, or by implantation into distant sites by metastasis (where cancer cells are transported through the bloodstream or lymphatic system). ... For other uses of Skull, see Skull (disambiguation). ... The spinal canal is the space in vertebrae through which the spinal cord passes. ... Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), Liquor cerebrospinalis, is a clear bodily fluid that occupies the subarachnoid space in the brain (the space between the skull and the cerebral cortex—more specifically, between the arachnoid and pia layers of the meninges). ...


There are various classification systems currently in use for primary brain tumors, the most common being the World Health Organization (WHO) brain tumor classification, introduced in 1993. WHO redirects here. ... Year 1993 (MCMXCIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1993 Gregorian calendar). ...


Secondary tumors and non-tumor lesions

Secondary or metastatic brain tumors originate from malignant tumors (cancers) located primarily in other organs. Their incidence is higher than that of primary brain tumors. The most frequent types of metastatic brain tumors originate in the lung, skin (malignant melanoma), kidney (hypernephroma), breast (breast carcinoma), and colon (colon carcinoma). These tumor cells reach the brain via the blood-stream. For the musical composition, see Metastasis (Xenakis composition). ... When normal cells are damaged or old they undergo apoptosis; cancer cells, however, avoid apoptosis. ... For the village in Tibet, see Lung, Tibet. ... This article is about the organ. ... Melanoma is a malignant tumor of melanocytes. ... The kidneys are the organs that filter wastes (such as urea) from the blood and excrete them, along with water, as urine. ... Renal cell carcinoma, also known by the eponym Grawitz tumor, is the most common form of kidney cancer arising from the renal tubule. ... For other uses, see Breast (disambiguation). ... Breast cancer is cancer of breast tissue. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Large intestine. ... Diagram of the stomach, colon, and rectum Colorectal cancer includes cancerous growths in the colon, rectum and appendix. ...


Some non-tumoral masses and lesions can mimic tumors of the central nervous system. These include tuberculosis of the brain, cerebral abscess (commonly in toxoplasmosis), and hamartomas (for example, in tuberous sclerosis and von Recklinghausen neurofibromatosis). A diagram showing the CNS: 1. ... Tuberculosis (abbreviated as TB for tubercle bacillus or Tuberculosis) is a common and deadly infectious disease caused by mycobacteria, mainly Mycobacterium tuberculosis. ... Brain abscess (or cerebral abscess) is an abscess caused by inflammation and collection of infected material coming from local (ear infection, infection of paranasal sinuses, infection of the mastoid air cells of the temporal bone, epidural abscess) or remote (lung, heart, kidney etc. ... A hamartoma is a common benign tumor in an organ composed of tissue elements normally found at that site but that are growing in a disorganized mass. ... Tuberous sclerosis is a rare genetic disorder characterized by a triad of signs: seizures, mental retardation, and small benign facial skin tumors (angiofibromas). ... Neurofibromatosis type I (NF-1), also known as von Recklinghausen syndrome, comprises, along with neurofibromatosis type II (a. ...


Symptoms of brain tumors may depend on two factors: tumor size (volume) and tumor location. The time point of symptom onset in the course of disease correlates in many cases with the nature of the tumor ("benign", i.e. slow-growing/late symptom onset, or malignant, fast growing/early symptom onset).


Many low-grade (benign) tumors can remain asymptomatic (symptom-free) for years and they may accidentally be discovered by imaging exams for unrelated reasons (such as a minor trauma). In medicine, a disease is asymptomatic when it is at a stage where the patient does not experience symptoms. ...


New onset of epilepsy[4] is a frequent reason for seeking medical attention in brain tumor cases. Epilepsy (often referred to as a seizure disorder) is a chronic neurological condition characterized by recurrent unprovoked seizures. ...


Large tumors or tumors with extensive perifocal swelling edema inevitably lead to elevated intracranial pressure (intracranial hypertension), which translates clinically into headaches, vomiting (sometimes without nausea), altered state of consciousness (somnolence, coma), dilatation of the pupil on the side of the lesion (anisocoria), papilledema (prominent optic disc at the funduscopic examination). However, even small tumors obstructing the passage of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) may cause early signs of increased intracranial pressure. Increased intracranial pressure may result in herniation (i.e. displacement) of certain parts of the brain, such as the cerebellar tonsils or the temporal uncus, resulting in lethal brainstem compression. In young children, elevated intracranial pressure may cause an increase in the diameter of the skull and bulging of the fontanelles. This page is about the condition called edema. ... Intracranial pressure, (ICP), is the pressure exerted by the cranium on the brain tissue, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), and the brains circulating blood volume. ... Idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH), sometimes called benign intracranial hypertension (BIH) or pseudotumor cerebri (PTC) is a neurological disorder that is characterized by increased intracranial pressure (ICP), in the absence of a tumor or other intracranial pathology. ... A headache is a condition of mild to severe pain in the head; sometimes upper back or neck pain may also be interpreted as a headache. ... Heaving redirects here. ... For other uses, see Nausea (disambiguation). ... Consciousness is a quality of the mind generally regarded to comprise qualities such as subjectivity, self-awareness, sentience, sapience, and the ability to perceive the relationship between oneself and ones environment. ... Somnolence (or drowsiness) is a state of near-sleep, a strong desire for sleep, or sleeping for unusually long periods. ... For other uses, see Coma (disambiguation). ... Anisocoria is a condition characterized by an unequal size of the pupils. ... Papilledema is optic disc swelling that is caused by increased intracranial pressure. ... The optic disc or optic nerve head is the location where ganglion cell axons exit the eye to form the optic nerve. ... Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), Liquor cerebrospinalis, is a clear bodily fluid that occupies the subarachnoid space in the brain (the space between the skull and the cerebral cortex—more specifically, between the arachnoid and pia layers of the meninges). ... Intracranial pressure, (ICP), is the pressure exerted by the cranium on the brain tissue, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), and the brains circulating blood volume. ... Intracranial pressure, (ICP), is the pressure exerted by the cranium on the brain tissue, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), and the brains circulating blood volume. ... A hernia is the protrusion of an organ or tissue out of the body cavity in which it normally lies. ... The cerebellar tonsil (amygdaline nucleus) is a rounded mass, situated in the hemispheres of the cerebellum. ... The temporal lobes are part of the cerebrum. ... The brain stem is the stalk of the brain below the cerebral hemispheres. ... Intracranial pressure, (ICP), is the pressure exerted by the cranium on the brain tissue, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), and the brains circulating blood volume. ... For other uses of Skull, see Skull (disambiguation). ... In human anatomy, a fontanelle (or fontanel) is one of two soft spots on a newborn humans skull. ...


Depending on the tumor location and the damage it may have caused to surrounding brain structures, either through compression or infiltration, any type of focal neurologic symptoms may occur, such as cognitive and behavioral impairment, personality changes, hemiparesis, (hemi) hypesthesia, aphasia, ataxia, visual field impairment, facial paralysis, double vision, tremor etc. These symptoms are not specific for brain tumors - they may be caused by a large variety of neurologic conditions (e.g. stroke, traumatic brain injury). What counts, however, is the location of the lesion and the functional systems (e.g. motor, sensory, visual, etc.) it affects. For other uses, see Brain (disambiguation). ... The problem occurs in the brain or nervous system. ... Cognitive The scientific study of how people obtain, retrieve, store and manipulate information. ... Behavior (U.S.) or behaviour (U.K.) refers to the actions or reactions of an object or organism, usually in relation to the environment. ... Hemiparesis is the partial paralysis of one side of the body. ... For other uses, see Aphasia (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Ataxia (disambiguation). ... The term visual field is sometimes used as a synonym to field of view, though they do not designate the same thing. ... Acute facial nerve paralysis is a common problem that involves the paralysis of any structures innervated by the facial nerve. ... Double vision may refer to: Diplopia, the perception of two images from a single object. ... For the film, see Tremors (film). ... For other uses, see Stroke (disambiguation). ... Traumatic brain injury (TBI), traumatic injuries to the brain, also called intracranial injury, or simply head injury, occurs when a sudden trauma causes brain damage. ...


A bilateral temporal visual field defect (bitemporal hemianopia—due to compression of the optic chiasm), often associated with endocrine disfunction—either hypopituitarism or hyperproduction of pituitary hormones and hyperprolactinemia is suggestive of a pituitary tumor. The term visual field is sometimes used as a synonym to field of view, though they do not designate the same thing. ... Bitemporal hemianopia is a specific type of visual disturbance in which sight in the outer half of the visual field of each eye is lost. ... Visual pathway with optic chiasm circled The optic chiasm (from the Greek χλαζειν to mark with an X, after the letter Χ chi) is the part of the brain where the optic nerves partially cross, those parts of the right eye which see things on the right side being connected to the... Hypopituitarism is a medical term describing deficiency (hypo) of one or more hormones of the pituitary gland. ... Hormone is also the NATO reporting name for the Soviet/Russian Kamov Ka-25 military helicopter. ... Prolactin is a hormone secreted by lactotropes in the adenohypophysis (anterior pituitary gland) which is made up of 199 amino acids with a molecular weight of about 23,000 daltons. ...


WHO Classification of Tumors of the Central Nervous System

The website http://www.brainlife.org describes the various WHO (World Health Organization) classifications of brain tumors, from 1979 to 2007. The most recent WHO classification of brain tumors is on page http://www.brainlife.org/who/2007_classification.htm.


Brain tumors in infants and children

In 2000 approximately 2.76 children per 100,000 were affected by a CNS tumor in the United States. This rate has been increasing and by 2005 was 3.0 children per 100,000. This is approximately 2,500-3,000 pediatric brain tumors occurring each year in the US. The tumor incidence is increasing by about 2.7% per year. The CNS Cancer survival rate in children is approximately 60%.[5] However, this rate varies with the age of onset (younger has higher mortality) and cancer type. A diagram showing the CNS: 1. ...


In children under 2, about 70% of brain tumors are medulloblastoma, ependymoma, and low-grade glioma. Less commonly, and seen usually in infants, are teratoma and atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumor.[6] It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into brain tumor. ... Ependymoma are tumors arising from the inner lining of the cerebral ventricles (= intracranial) and the remnants of the central canal in the spinal cord. ... A glioma is a type of primary central nervous system (CNS) tumor that arises from glial cells. ... Look up teratoma in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Atypical Teratoid Rhabdoid Tumor (AT/RT) AT/RT is a highly malignant childhood brain tumor first described in 1978. ...


Signs and symptoms

  • Severe Headaches: This was the most common symptom, with 46% of the patients reporting having headaches. They described the headaches in many different ways, with no one pattern being a sure sign of brain tumor. Many - perhaps most - people get headaches at some point in their life, so this is not a definite sign of brain tumors. You should mention it to your doctors if the headaches are: different from those you ever had before, are accompanied by nausea / vomiting, are made worse by bending over or straining when going to the bathroom.
  • Seizures: This was the second most common symptom reported, with 33% of the patients reporting a seizure before the diagnosis was made. Seizures can also be caused by other things, like epilepsy, high fevers, stroke, trauma, and other disorders. This is a symptom that should never be ignored, whatever the cause. In a person who never had a seizure before, it usually indicates something serious and you must get a brain scan. A seizure is a sudden, involuntary change in behavior, muscle control, consciousness, and/or sensation. Symptoms of a seizure can range from sudden, violent shaking and total loss of consciousness to muscle twitching or slight shaking of a limb. Staring into space, altered vision, and difficulty in speaking are some of the other behaviors that a person may exhibit while having a seizure. Approximately 10% of the U.S. population will experience a single seizure in their lifetime.
  • Nausea and Vomiting: As with headaches, these are non-specific - which means that most people who have nausea and vomiting do NOT have a brain tumor. Twenty-two percent of the people in our survey reported that they had nausea and/or vomiting as a symptom. Nausea and/or vomiting is more likely to point towards a brain tumor if it is accompanied by the other symptoms mentioned here.
  • Vision or hearing problems: Twenty-five percent reported vision problems. This one is easy - if you notice any problem with your hearing or vision, it must be checked out. The eye doctor is the first one to make the diagnosis - because when they look in your eyes, they can sometimes see signs of increased intracranial pressure.[citation needed]
  • Problems with weakness of the arms, legs or face muscles, and strange sensations in your head or hands. Twenty-five percent reported weakness of the arms and/or legs. Sixteen percent reported strange feelings in the head, and 9% reported strange feelings in the hands. This may result in an altered gait, dropping objects, falling, or an asymmetric facial expression. These could also be symptoms of a stroke. Sudden onset of these symptoms is an emergency - you should go to the emergency room. If you notice a gradual change over time, you must report it to your doctor.
  • Behavioral and cognitive problems: Many reported behavioral and cognitive changes, such as: problems with recent memory, inability to concentrate or finding the right words, acting out - no patience or tolerance, and loss of inhibitions - saying or doing things that are not appropriate for the situation.

A headache is a condition of mild to severe pain in the head; sometimes upper back or neck pain may also be interpreted as a headache. ... This article is about the medical condition. ... For other uses, see Nausea (disambiguation). ... Heaving redirects here. ...

Diagnosis

Although there is no specific clinical symptom or sign for brain tumors, slowly progressive focal neurologic signs and signs of elevated intracranial pressure, as well as epilepsy in a patient with a negative history for epilepsy should raise red flags. However, a sudden onset of symptoms, such as an epileptic seizure in a patient with no prior history of epilepsy, sudden intracranial hypertension (this may be due to bleeding within the tumour, brain swelling or obstruction of cerebrospinal fluid's passage) is also possible. Focal neurologic signs also known as focal signs or focal CNS signs are perceptual or behavioral impairments which are caused by lesions in a particular area of the central nervous system. ... This article is about the neurological disorder as it affects humans. ... Idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH), sometimes called benign intracranial hypertension (BIH) or pseudotumor cerebri (PTC) is a neurological disorder that is characterized by increased intracranial pressure (ICP), in the absence of a tumor or other intracranial pathology. ... Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), Liquor cerebrospinalis, is a clear bodily fluid that occupies the subarachnoid space in the brain (the space between the skull and the cerebral cortex—more specifically, between the arachnoid and pia layers of the meninges). ...


Symptoms include phantom odors and tastes. Often, in the case of metastatic tumors, the smell of vulcanized rubber is prevalent.[citation needed] Aroma redirects here. ... Taste (or, more formally, gustation) is a form of direct chemoreception and is one of the traditional five senses. ... Vulcanization is the process of cross-linking elastomer molecules to make the bulk material harder, less soluble and more durable. ...


Imaging plays a central role in the diagnosis of brain tumors. Early imaging methods—invasive and sometimes dangerous—such as pneumoencephalography and cerebral angiography, have been abandoned in recent times in favor of non-invasive, high-resolution modalities, such as computed tomography (CT) and especially magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Benign brain tumors often show up as hypodense (darker than brain tissue) mass lesions on cranial CT-scans. On MRI, they appear either hypo- (darker than brain tissue) or isointense (same intensity as brain tissue) on T1-weighted scans, or hyperintense (brighter than brain tissue) on T2-weighted MRI. Perifocal edema also appears hyperintense on T2-weighted MRI. Contrast agent uptake, sometimes in characteristic patterns, can be demonstrated on either CT or MRI-scans in most malignant primary and metastatic brain tumors. This is due to the fact that these tumors disrupt the normal functioning of the blood-brain barrier and lead to an increase in its permeability. Pneumoencephalography (sometimes abbreviated PEG) is a medical procedure in which cerebrospinal fluid is drained from around the brain and replaced with air, oxygen, or helium to allow the structure of the brain to show up more clearly on an X-ray picture. ... Angiography or arteriography is a medical imaging technique in which an X-ray picture is taken to visualize the inner opening of blood filled structures, including arteries, veins and the heart chambers. ... negron305 Cat scan redirects here. ... MRI redirects here. ... Radiocontrast agents (or simply contrast agents) are compounds used to improve the visibility of internal bodily structures in an X-ray image. ... The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is a membranic structure that acts primarily to protect the brain from chemicals in the blood, while still allowing essential metabolic function. ...


Electrophysiological exams, such as electroencephalography (EEG) play a marginal role in the diagnosis of brain tumors. EEG redirects here. ...


The definitive diagnosis of brain tumor can only be confirmed by histological examination of tumor tissue samples obtained either by means of brain biopsy or open surgery. The histologic examination is essential for determining the appropriate treatment and the correct prognosis. This examination, performed by a pathologist, typically has three stages: interoperative examination of fresh tissue, preliminary microscopic examination of prepared tissues, and followup examination of prepared tissues after immunohistochemical staining or genetic analysis. In general, diagnosis (plural diagnoses) has two distinct dictionary definitions. ... A thin section of lung tissue stained with hematoxylin and eosin. ... For malignant tumors specifically, see cancer. ... Biological tissue is a collection of interconnected cells that perform a similar function within an organism. ... Brain biopsy A biopsy (in Greek: bios = life and opsy = look/appearance) is a medical test involving the removal of cells or tissues for examination. ... “Surgeon” redirects here. ... Prognosis (older Greek πρόγνωσις, modern Greek πρόγνωση - literally fore-knowing, foreseeing) is a medical term denoting the doctors prediction of how a patients disease will progress, and whether there is chance of recovery. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


Treatment and prognosis

Many meningiomas, with the exception of some tumors located at the skull base, can be successfully removed surgically. In more difficult cases, stereotactic radiosurgery, such as Gamma Knife radiosurgery, remains a viable option. Meningiomas are tumors arising from the outer part of the arachnoid mater in the meninges of the brain or the spinal cord. ... Brain biopsy using a needle mounted on a stereotactic frame Stereotactic surgery or stereotaxy is a minimally-invasive form of surgical intervention which makes use of a three-dimensional coordinates system to locate small targets inside the body and to perform on them some action such as ablation (removal), biopsy... Radiosurgery is a medical procedure which allows non-invasive brain surgery, i. ... In medicine, Leksell Gamma Knife is a neurosurgical device used to treat brain tumors. ... Radiosurgery is a medical procedure which allows non-invasive brain surgery, i. ...


Most pituitary adenomas can be removed surgically, often using a minimally invasive approach through the nasal cavity and skull base (trans-nasal, trans-sphenoidal approach). Large pituitary adenomas require a craniotomy (opening of the skull) for their removal. Radiotherapy, including stereotactic approaches, is reserved for the inoperable cases. Pituitary adenomas are tumors that occur in the pituitary gland, and account for about 10% of intracranial neoplasms. ... The nasal cavity (or nasal fossa) is a large air-filled space above and behind the nose in the middle of the face. ... Pituitary adenomas are tumors that occur in the pituitary gland, and account for about 10% of intracranial neoplasms. ... A craniotomy is a surgical operation in which part of the skull (part of the cranium) is removed in order to access the brain. ... Brain biopsy using a needle mounted on a stereotactic frame Stereotactic surgery or stereotaxy is a minimally-invasive form of surgical intervention which makes use of a three-dimensional coordinates system to locate small targets inside the body and to perform on them some action such as ablation (removal), biopsy...


Although there is no generally accepted therapeutic management for primary brain tumors, a surgical attempt at tumor removal or at least cytoreduction (that is, removal of as much tumor as possible, in order to reduce the number of tumor cells available for proliferation) is considered in most cases.[7] However, due to the infiltrative nature of these lesions, tumor recurrence, even following an apparently complete surgical removal, is not uncommon. Postoperative radiotherapy and chemotherapy are integral parts of the therapeutic standard for malignant tumors. Radiotherapy may also be administered in cases of "low-grade" gliomas, when a significant tumor burden reduction could not be achieved surgically.


Survival rates in primary brain tumors depend on the type of tumor, age, functional status of the patient, the extent of surgical tumor removal, to mention just a few factors.[8]


Patients with benign gliomas may survive for many years,[9][10] while survival in most cases of glioblastoma multiforme is limited to a few months after diagnosis if treatment is ignored. Image 1a. ...


The main treatment option for single metastatic tumors is surgical removal, followed by radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy. Multiple metastatic tumors are generally treated with radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Stereotactic radiosurgery, such as Gamma Knife radiosurgery, remains a viable option. However, the prognosis in such cases is determined by the primary tumor, and it is generally poor. Brain biopsy using a needle mounted on a stereotactic frame Stereotactic surgery or stereotaxy is a minimally-invasive form of surgical intervention which makes use of a three-dimensional coordinates system to locate small targets inside the body and to perform on them some action such as ablation (removal), biopsy... Radiosurgery is a medical procedure which allows non-invasive brain surgery, i. ... In medicine, Leksell Gamma Knife is a neurosurgical device used to treat brain tumors. ... Radiosurgery is a medical procedure which allows non-invasive brain surgery, i. ...


A shunt operation is used not as a cure but to relieve the symptoms.[1] The hydrocephalus caused by the blocking drainage of the cerebrospinal fluid can be removed with this operation. In medicine, a shunt is a device designed to drain excess cerebrospinal fluid from the brain and carry it to other parts of the body. ... Drainage is the natural or artificial removal of surface and sub-surface water from a given area. ... Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), Liquor cerebrospinalis, is a clear bodily fluid that occupies the subarachnoid space in the brain (the space between the skull and the cerebral cortex—more specifically, between the arachnoid and pia layers of the meninges). ...


Research to treatment with the Vesicular stomatitis virus

In 2008, Researchers of the Yale University, led by Dr. Anthony van den Pol, have discovered that the Vesicular stomatitis virus, or VSV, can infect and kill brain tumors, without affecting the other brain cells. The oncolytic properties of the virus, which normally applies to cancer cells, have shown to apply to brain tumors as well. Yale redirects here. ... Vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) is a virus in the family Rhabdoviridae, order Mononegavirales. ... An oncolytic virus is a virus used to treat cancer due to their ability to specifically infect cancer cells, while leaving normal cells unharmed. ... When normal cells are damaged or old they undergo apoptosis; cancer cells, however, avoid apoptosis. ...


In the research, a human brain tumor was implanted into mice brains. The VSV was injected via their tails and within 3 days all tumor cells were either killed or dying. On the 10,000 infected tumor cells, only one healthy brain cell was affected "on accident." This article is about the rodent. ...


Research on virus treatment like this has been conducted for some years, but no other viruses have been shown to be as efficient or specific as the VSV. Future research will focus on the risks of this treatment, before it can be applied to humans.[11]


See also

United States Senator Arlen Specter of Pennsylvania (right) is a long-term brain tumor survivor who continues to serve in public office. ...

References

  1. ^ a b Greenlee RT, Murray T, Bolden S, Wingo PA. Cancer statistics, 2000. CA Cancer J Clin 2000;50:7-33. PDF. PMID 10735013.
  2. ^ a b American Cancer Society. Accessed June 2000.
  3. ^ Chamberlain MC, Kormanik PA. Practical guidelines for the treatment of malignant gliomas. West J Med 1998;168:114-120. PMID 9499745.
  4. ^ Lopez MBS, Laws ER Jr. Neurosurgical Focus 12(2), Article 1, 2002.
  5. ^ See Table 11.2 Survival Rate
  6. ^ Infantile Brain Tumors by Brian Rood for The Childhood Brain Tumor Foundation (accessed July 2007)
  7. ^ Nakamura M, Konishi N, Tsunoda S, Nakase H, Tsuzuki T, Aoki H, Sakitani H, Inui T, Sakaki T. Analysis of prognostic and survival factors related to treatment of low-grade astrocytomas in adults. Oncology 2000;58:108-16. PMID 10705237.
  8. ^ Nicolato A, Gerosa MA, Fina P, Iuzzolino P, Giorgiutti F, Bricolo A. Prognostic factors in low-grade supratentorial astrocytomas: a uni-multivariate statistical analysis in 76 surgically treated adult patients. Surg Neurol 1995;44:208-21; discussion 221-3. PMID 8545771.
  9. ^ Janny P, Cure H, Mohr M, Heldt N, Kwiatkowski F, Lemaire JJ, Plagne R, Rozan R. (1994). Low grade supratentorial astrocytomas. Management and prognostic factors. Cancer, 73:1937-1945. PMID 8137221.
  10. ^ Piepmeier J, Christopher S, Spencer D, Byrne T, Kim J, Knisel JP, Lacy J, Tsukerman L, Makuch R. (1996). Variations in the natural history and survival of patients with supratentorial low-grade astrocytomas. Neurosurgery, 38:872-878; discussion 878-879. PMID 8727811.
  11. ^ Yale Lab Engineers Virus That Can Kill Deadly Brain Tumors; February 21, 2008.

is the 52nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

  • Brain and Spinal Tumors: Hope Through Research (National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke)
  • Brain tumor symptoms
  • Brain Lesion Locator Find Lesions and Differential Diagnosis of Brain Tumors
  • American Brain Tumor Association
  • AFIP HandoutRadiology and Pathology of Astrocytoma
  • Audio Podcast with Dr. Pierre Giglio The importance of a multidisciplinary approach for treating brain tumors: From the Medical University of South Carolina
  • BrainLife Brain Tumor Medical Database
  • [2]Children's Brain Tumor Foundation
Thyroid cancer is cancer of the thyroid gland. ... Thyroid cancer is cancer of the thyroid gland. ... Adrenocortical carcinoma is a carcinoma of the cortex (outer layer) of the adrenal gland. ... A phaeochromocytoma (pheochromocytoma in the US) is a neuroendocrine tumor of the medulla of the adrenal glands originating in the chromaffin cells, which secretes excessive amounts of catecholamines, usually adrenaline and noradrenaline (epinephrine and norepinephrine in the US). ... Pituitary adenomas are tumors that occur in the pituitary gland, and account for about 10% of intracranial neoplasms. ... A tumor suppressor gene is a gene that reduces the probability that a cell in a multicellular organism will turn into a tumor cell. ... An oncogene is a modified gene that increases the malignancy of a tumor cell. ... The stage of a cancer is a descriptor (usually numbers I to IV) of how much the cancer has spread. ... In pathology, Grading is a measure of the progress of tumors. ... Cancers are caused by a series of mutations. ... Look up carcinogen in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Cancer research is research into cancer in order to identify causes and develop strategies for prevention, diagnosis, treatments and cure. ... A paraneoplastic phenomenon is a disease or symptom that is the consequence of the presence of cancer in the body, but is not due to the local presence of cancer cells. ... This is a list of terms related to oncology. ... Nervous tissue is the fourth major class of vertebrate tissue. ... For malignant tumors specifically, see cancer. ... The International Classification of Diseases for Oncology (ICD-O) is a domain specific extension of the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems for tumor diseases. ... Craniopharyngioma is a type of tumor that comprises 9% of all pediatric brain tumors and usually occur in children between 5 and 10 years of age. ... Pinealoma is a tumor of the pineal gland. ... A glioma is a type of primary central nervous system (CNS) tumor that arises from glial cells. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Oligoastrocytomas are a subset of brain tumor that present with an appearance of mixed glial cell origin, astrocytoma and oligodendroglioma. ... Ependymoma are tumors arising from the inner lining of the cerebral ventricles (= intracranial) and the remnants of the central canal in the spinal cord. ... Astrocytomas are primary central nervous system tumors that arise primarily in and rarely spread away from the CNS parenchyma contained within the cranial vault. ... It occurs predominantly in children and involves the midline, basal and posterior fossa structures. ... Image 1a. ... Dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumour, commonly abbreviated DNT, is a type of brain tumour that arises from the oligodendrocyte, a type of brain cell. ... Oligodendrogliomas are a type of glioma that are believed to originate from the oligodendrocytes of the brain or from a glial precursor cell. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into brain tumor. ... X-Ray of a child with Ewings sarcoma of the tibia Ewings sarcoma is the common name for primitive neuroectodermal tumor. ... In zootomy, epithelium is a tissue composed of a layer of cells. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Neuroblastoma is the most common extracranial solid cancer in infancy and childhood. ... Retinoblastoma is a cancer of the retina. ... Meningiomas are the most common benign tumors of the brain (95% of benign tumors). ... A Nerve sheath tumor is a class of tumors of the nervous system which are primarily comprised of the myelin surrounding nerves. ... Neurofibromas are moderately firm, benign, encapsulated, slow-growing tumors of the nervous system arising from the supporting cells (Schwann cells) of peripheral nerves. ... Neurofibrosarcoma is a type of tumor combining characteristics of neurofibroma and fibrosarcoma. ... Neurofibromatosis is an autosomal dominant genetic disorder. ... Schwannomas, also referred to as Neurilomas, are slow-growing central nervous system tumours arising from the supporting cells of peripheral nerves, which include cranial and spinal nerve roots). ... Neurinoma is a tumor, usually benign but sometimes cancerous, which forms on the myelinous sheath of a nerve. ... Acoustic neuroma (or Vestibular Schwannoma) is a benign primary intracranial tumor of the myelin forming cells called Schwann cells (Schwannoma) of the 8th cranial nerve --- also known as the acoustic nerve, (or more properly the vestibulocochlear nerve). ... A neuroma is a tumor growth of nerve cells and fibres. ... A congenital disorder is a medical condition or defect that is present at or before birth (for example, congenital heart disease). ... The nervous system is a highly specialized network whose principal components are nerves called neurons. ... For other uses, see Brain (disambiguation). ... Anencephaly is a cephalic disorder that results from a neural tube defect that occurs when the cephalic (head) end of the neural tube fails to close, usually between the 23rd and 26th day of pregnancy, resulting in the absence of a major portion of the brain, skull, and scalp. ... For acephaly as a poetic device, see Acephalous line. ... Acrania is a cephalic disorder of a human fetus characterised by a partial or complete absence of the cranium. ... Cephalic disorders are congenital conditions that stem from damage to, or abnormal development of, the budding nervous system. ... Dandy-Walker syndrome (DWS), or Dandy-Walker complex, is a congenital brain malformation involving the cerebellum and the fluid filled spaces around it. ... Cephalic disorders are congenital conditions that stem from damage to, or abnormal development of, the budding nervous system. ... Cephalic disorders are congenital conditions that stem from damage to, or abnormal development of, the budding nervous system. ... Pachygyria (from the Greek pachy meaning thick or fat gyri) is a congenital malformation of the cerebral hemisphere. ... Hydranencephaly is a type of cephalic disorder. ... Septo-optic dysplasia (SOD) is a congenital malformation syndrome manifested by hypoplasia (underdevelopment) of the optic nerve, hypopituitarism, and absence of the septum pellucidum (a midline part of the brain). ... Megalencephaly is a type of cephalic disorder. ... Cephalic disorders are congenital conditions that stem from damage to, or abnormal development of, the budding nervous system. ... Cephalic disorders are congenital conditions that stem from damage to, or abnormal development of, the budding nervous system. ... The brain stem is the lower part of the brain, adjoining and structurally continuous with the spinal cord. ... Arnold-Chiari malformation, sometimes referred to as Chiari malformation or ACM, is a congenital malformation of the brain. ... The Spinal cord nested in the vertebral column. ... Currarino syndrome is a condition where the sacrum (the fused vertebrae forming the back of the pelvis) is not formed properly, there is a mass in the presacral space in front of sacrum, and there are malformations of the anus or rectum. ... Sacrococcygeal teratoma (SCT), a birth defect, is a tumor located at the base of the tailbone (coccyx). ... Diastematomyelia is a congenital condition in which a part of the spinal cord is split, usually at the level of the upper lumbar vertebra. ... An uncollapsed syrinx (before surgery). ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Brain Tumor Causes, Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment, and Prognosis Information on MedicineNet.com (862 words)
The brain is a soft, spongy mass of tissue.
Brain Stem - The brain stem connects the brain with the spinal cord.
Brain Tumor - Symptoms at Onset of Disease
Brain tumor - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1781 words)
Primary (true) brain tumors are commonly located in the posterior cranial fossa in children and in the anterior two-thirds of the cerebral hemispheres in adults, although they can affect any part of the brain.
medulloblastoma, medulloepithelioma, neuroblastoma, retinoblastoma, ependymoblastoma), tumors of the pineal parenchyma (e.g.
Large tumors or tumors with extensive perifocal swelling edema inevitably lead to elevated intracranial pressure (intracranial hypertension), which translates clinically into headaches, vomiting (sometimes without nausea), altered state of consciousness (somnolence, coma), dilatation of the pupil on the side of the lesion (anisocoria), papilledema (prominent optic disc at the funduscopic examination).
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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