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Encyclopedia > Brain drain

A brain drain or human capital flight is an emigration of trained and talented individuals ("human capital") to other nations or jurisdictions, due to conflicts, lack of opportunity, health hazards where they are living or other reasons. It parallels the term "capital flight" which refers to financial capital that is no longer invested in the country where its owner lived and earned it. Investment in higher education is lost when a trained individual leaves and does not return. Also, whatever social capital the individual has been a part of is reduced by his or her departure. Spokesmen for the Royal Society of London coined the expression “brain drain” to describe the outflow of scientists and technologists to Canada and the United States in the early 1950s. Its counterpart is brain gain in the areas to which talent migrates. Brain drain can occur either when individuals who study abroad and complete their education do not return to their home country, or when individuals educated in their home country emigrate for higher wages or better opportunities. The second form is arguably worse, because it drains more resources from the home country. This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Brain Drain is a 1989 album by the Ramones (see 1989 in music). ... Individual capital comprises inalienable or personal traits of persons, tied to their bodies and available only through their own free will, such as skill, creativity, enterprise, courage, capacity for moral example, non-communicable wisdom, invention or empathy, non-transferable personal trust and leadership. ... Human capital is a way of defining and categorizing the skills and abilities as used in employment and as they otherwise contribute to the economy. ... Seen in Asian markets in the 1990s capital flight is when assets and/or money rapidly flow out of a country. ... In brief, financial capital is money used by entreprenuers and businesses to buy what they need to make their products (or provide their services). ... The University of Cambridge is an institute of higher learning. ... Social capital is a core concept in business, economics, organizational behaviour, political science, and sociology, defined as the advantage created by a persons location in a structure of relationships. ... For other uses, see Royal Society (disambiguation). ...


This phenomenon is perhaps most problematic for developing nations, where it is widespread. In these countries, higher education and professional certification are often viewed as the surest path to escape from a troubled economy or difficult political situation.

Contents

European overview

Europe has been losing talented people who are being lured to immigration countries like the United States, Canada, Australia and New Zealand. Many of Europe's best young scientists now live in the United States[1]. A survey released by the European Commission found that only 13% of European science professionals working abroad intend to return home [2].


Europeans have been emigrating continuously over the last 400 years. However for most of this time European emigration wasn't a serious economic problem because Europe was producing so many people.[citation needed] Over the last few decades European birth rates have plummeted and they are no longer able to produce enough young workers to replace those who will be retiring[3].Europe can no longer afford to lose skilled workers.[citation needed]


Annual emigration of skilled Europeans

Country Annual European migration 2006
United States 164,285 [4]
Australia 40,455 [5]
Canada 37,946 [6]
New Zealand 30,262 [7]
Total 272,948

European Governments have been trying to correct the brain-dearth by importing talent from developing countries, but this has not been very successful. Figures recently released by the European Commission show that 85% of unskilled migrants from developing countries went to the European Union and only 5 percent to the United States, whereas 55 percent of skilled workers went to the United States and only 5 percent to Europe.

Figure 1. 2007 Election campaign poster by the Swiss People's Party, who successfully won votes by appealing to public anger with immigrants. The black sheep is being kicked off the Swiss flag. The caption reads: "Bringing safety".
Figure 1. 2007 Election campaign poster by the Swiss People's Party, who successfully won votes by appealing to public anger with immigrants. The black sheep is being kicked off the Swiss flag. The caption reads: "Bringing safety".

Flow of immigrants from developing countries [8] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ...

Skilled workers Unskilled workers
European Union 5% 85%
United States 55% 5%

Unskilled workers tend to be a net drain on the economy. They don't pay much tax, have high unemployment, have high social costs, are difficult to educate and are predisposed to crime. These problems are causing the European voters to become very angry with immigration (Figure 1).


The immigration problem is even worse when one considers highly skilled workers. Statistics show that high-skilled foreign workers accounted for 0.9 percent of all workers in the European Union, compared with 9.9 percent in Australia, 7.3 percent in Canada and 3.5 percent in the United States.

Highly skilled foreign workers[9]
European Union 0.9%
United States 3.5%
Canada 7.3%
Australia 9.9%

“To maintain and improve economic growth in the EU., it is essential for Europe to become a magnet for the highly skilled,”. “Qualified and highly qualified migrants prefer the U.S.A., Canada and Australia”(Franco Frattini, the EU’s justice and home affairs commissioner).[10]


The overall picture is bleak. Europe's birth rate is much too low. They have brain drain to the immigration countries without the benefit of brain gain from the developing countries. To make matters even worse the unskilled immigrants that do come are a drain on the economy and are upsetting the public. If things don't improve, it will become difficult to convince voters that immigration is in their interests.

Flow digram of net migration patterns
Flow digram of net migration patterns

Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ...

Former Soviet Union

The former Soviet Union countries and today's Russia continue to experience a brain drain in science, business, and culture, as many of their citizens leave for the United States, Israel, Europe, Japan, China and Latin America because of dramatic political and economic changes. The leaders of the initial post-Soviet governments of Russia destroyed many Soviet technological and research institutions because of these institutions' long-standing anti-Communist and anti-Socialist stances, a policy of economic “shock therapy”, and privatisation of scientific and research activities. For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... Latin America consists of the countries of South America and some of North America (including Central America and some the islands of the Caribbean) whose inhabitants mostly speak Romance languages, although Native American languages are also spoken. ...


Eastern Europe

Eastern European countries have expressed concerns about brain drain to Ireland and the United Kingdom. Lithuania, for example, has lost about 100,000 citizens since 2003, many of them young and well-educated, to emigration to Ireland in particular. (Ireland itself used to suffer serious brain drain to America, Britain and Canada before the Celtic Tiger economic programs.) The same phenomenon occurred in Poland after its entry into the European Union. At least 1 million Polish people, usually young and educated (90% of them under the age of 35), have emigrated to Western European countries since 1991, mostly to the UK and Ireland. Post-secondary education in the Soviet and Eastern European countries was, and still is, almost completely subsidized by the government, so that the loss of these people is immediately noted and regretted. Cartoon of the Celtic Tiger. ...


Western Europe

There is a brain drain occurring in the last 5 years in Germany, with 144,814 people leaving their country in 2005 due to economic problems, the highest rate of emigration from Germany since the end of World War II. Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000...

  1. ^ Jornal de Notícias
  2. ^ Horvat, Vedran: "Brain Drain. Threat to Successful Transition in South East Europe?"PDF (58.6 KiB) In: Southeast European Politics, Volume V, Number 1, May 2004
  3. ^ Brain drain in africa
  4. ^ More Ethiopia doctors in chicago than Ethiopia
  5. ^ Harrison, Frances. "Huge cost of Iranian brain drain", BBC News, 2007-01-08. Retrieved on 2007-01-08. 
  6. ^ BBC: http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/middle_east/6240287.stm
  7. ^ Moving Here, Staying Here: The Canadian Immigrant Experience - "Immigration," Annual Report of the Minister of the Province of Canada for the Year 1865, pages 10-15.
  8. ^ Herb Emery, "The Tax-Cutters"PDF (48.4 KiB) Institute for Research on Public Policy, "Policy Options", September, 1999.
  9. ^ Jeff Colgan, The Promise And Peril Of International Trade, (2005) pp 141ff.
  10. ^ Migration of the Young, Single, and College EducatedPDF (210 KiB), U.S. Census
  11. ^ Labour Participation by immigration class, Statistics Canada, URL accessed 2 July 2006
  12. ^ Immigration and the Welfare State in Canada: Growing Conflicts, Constructive SolutionsPDF (315 KiB), Public Policy Source, Fraser Institute, Number 84, September 2005, URL accessed 22 August 2006
  13. ^ http://www.hindustantimes.com/news/181_1654992,0002.htm

The European leader, in terms of brain drain, is Portugal, which is currently losing 19.5% of its qualified population and is having some difficulties in absorbing more than what it is ‘bleeding’ to other developed countries such as Australia, Canada, Switzerland, Germany and Austria.[1] “PDF” redirects here. ... A kibibyte (a contraction of kilo binary byte) is a unit of information or computer storage, commonly abbreviated KiB (never kiB). 1 kibibyte = 210 bytes = 1,024 bytes The kibibyte is closely related to the kilobyte, which can be used either as a synonym for kibibyte or to refer to... BBC News is the department within the BBC responsible for the corporations news-gathering and production of news programmes on BBC television, radio and online. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 8th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 8th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... “PDF” redirects here. ... A kibibyte (a contraction of kilo binary byte) is a unit of information or computer storage, commonly abbreviated KiB (never kiB). 1 kibibyte = 210 bytes = 1,024 bytes The kibibyte is closely related to the kilobyte, which can be used either as a synonym for kibibyte or to refer to... The Institute for Research on Public Policy (IRPP) is Canadas oldest non-partisan public policy think tank. ... “PDF” redirects here. ... A kibibyte (a contraction of kilo binary byte) is a unit of information or computer storage, commonly abbreviated KiB (never kiB). 1 kibibyte = 210 bytes = 1,024 bytes The kibibyte is closely related to the kilobyte, which can be used either as a synonym for kibibyte or to refer to... Statistics Canada (French: Statistique Canada) is the Canadian federal government department commissioned with producing statistics to help better understand Canada, its population, resources, economy, society, and culture. ... “PDF” redirects here. ... A kibibyte (a contraction of kilo binary byte) is a unit of information or computer storage, commonly abbreviated KiB (never kiB). 1 kibibyte = 210 bytes = 1,024 bytes The kibibyte is closely related to the kilobyte, which can be used either as a synonym for kibibyte or to refer to... The Fraser Institute is a libertarian think tank based in Canada. ...

South Eastern Europe (today EU periphery)

The phenomenon of brain drain in South Eastern Europe was first problematized in the 1960s. During the next wave since the 1990s, around 40,000 highly educated people emigrated from Yugoslavia alone, which makes about 10 percent of all Yugoslav emigrants. The general number of migrants from Yugoslavia, Romania and Bulgaria during this time is estimated to be almost a million. However, scholars begin to argue that brain drain may even have beneficial effects to the "sending" regions if appropriate policies are created "that can turn the loss of talent into an exchange of knowledge." [2] Among the most notable Yugoslav talent losses is Rada Ivekovic. The Balkans is the historic and geographic name used to describe southeastern Europe (see the Definitions and boundaries section below). ... Yugoslavia (Jugoslavija in the Latin alphabet, Југославија in Cyrillic; English: South Slavia, or literary The Land of South Slavs) describes three political entities that existed one at a time on the Balkan Peninsula in Europe, during most of the 20th century. ... Rada Ivekovic, born in 1945, professor, philosopher, Indologist, writer. ...


Brain drain & African poverty

Even though little has been discussed about the effects of brain drain in Africa, it is believed to be one of the biggest issues to the developing nations. Conservatively speaking, "Brain drain has cost the African continent over $4 billion in the employment of 150,000 expatriate professionals annually."[3] According to UNDP, "Ethiopia lost 75 per cent of its skilled workforce between 1980 and 1991," which harms the ability of such nations to get out of poverty. Nigeria, Kenya and Ethiopia are believed to be the most affected. In the case of Ethiopia, the country produces many excellent doctors, but there are more Ethiopian doctors in Chicago than there are in Ethiopia.[4]. In South Africa, the effects of post-apartheid affirmative action favoring non-whites in the workforce have led huge numbers of skilled and educated citizens to emigrate to Europe, Australia and the United States. This is a huge problem for a country working especially hard to succeed economically in its new democracy. As South African President Thabo Mbeki said in his 1998 'African Renaissance' speech: A segregated beach in South Africa, 1982. ... This box:      Affirmative actionrefers to policies intended to promote access to education or employment aimed at a historically socio-politically non-dominant group (typically, minorities or women). ... Thabo Mvuyelwa Mbeki (born June 18, 1942) is the current President of the Republic of South Africa. ... The African Renaissance is a concept popularized by South African President Thabo Mbeki in which the African people and nations are called upon to solve the many problems troubling the African continent. ...

"In our world in which the generation of new knowledge and its application to change the human condition is the engine which moves human society further away from barbarism, do we not have need to recall Africa's hundreds of thousands of intellectuals back from their places of emigration in Western Europe and North America, to rejoin those who remain still within our shores! I dream of the day when these, the African mathematicians and computer specialists in Washington and New York, the African physicists, engineers, doctors, business managers and economists, will return from London and Manchester and Paris and Brussels to add to the African pool of brain power, to enquire into and find solutions to Africa's problems and challenges, to open the African door to the world of knowledge, to elevate Africa's place within the universe of research the information of new knowledge, education and information." For other uses, see World (disambiguation). ... The term recall has a number of meanings: Product recall A recall election Recall to employment after a layoff Recall from memory. ... A current understanding of Western Europe. ... North America North America is a continent[1] in the Earths northern hemisphere and (chiefly) western hemisphere. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... This article is about the machine. ... For the capital city of the United States, see Washington, D.C.. For other uses, see Washington (disambiguation). ... This article is about the state. ...

The Middle East highest ranked in brain drain

Iraq is said by some to be presently undergoing a brain drain due to its political instability.[citation needed]


In 2006, the International Monetary Fund ranked Iran highest in brain drain among 90 measured countries.[5] The estimated exodus of 150,000 people per year is thought to be due to a poor job market, and tense domestic social conditions.[6] (See Iran's Brain Drain problem) IMF redirects here. ... University of Tehran College of Humanities Iran has a large network of private, public, and state affiliated universities offering degrees in higher education. ...


New Zealand brain drain

New Zealand is experiencing somewhat of an economic brain drain for a variety of reasons. Historically a large proportion of New Zealand youth have always traveled overseas on OE (Overseas Experiences). A long-standing New Zealand rite of passage for young middle-class people was a two-year working holiday in London, including bar work and road trips through Europe. However, the vast majority would return home to start careers and families in New Zealand. In recent times however, the number of émigrés choosing to remain expatriate (mostly graduates of higher education) has steadily increased, with Australia being the main beneficiary.


The New Zealand government has expressed concerns with this changing demographic, and several studies have been commissioned to find the reasons behind it. The studies have shown that the factors are varied and interlinked.


As New Zealand (NZ)has striven to move itself from a largely agricultural economy to a knowledge-based economy, it has increased both the number of tertiary qualified individuals and the proportion of the fees payable by the students themselves. Since 1992, a loan system has been available to enable students to borrow for their education based on the financial returns expected by higher qualifications.


The problems with this system occurs after graduation, when large numbers of newly qualified individuals are launched into a small economy with limited or low-paying entry positions. The prospect of higher wages and better career opportunities overseas is often reinforced by the need to repay large student debts.


A Statistics New Zealand survey has found a strong correlation between the size of a person's student loan debt and the chance of that individual working overseas within a year of graduation.


Though many young New Zealanders travel, the desire to return to their home setting is strong; over 85% of those surveyed in a recent poll suggested that they would prefer to raise children in a similar environment to which they had been brought up in. There has been some anecdotal evidence that New Zealand expatriates in Australia (sometimes known as 'Kwassies'-Kiwi Australians-in local slang) are now coming back sooner than expected for lifestyle reasons. Reasons for coming home include having to put up with higher temperatures in Australia, better education opportunities in NZ for their children and less hectic lifestyles.


Many New Zealand graduates are lured to neighbouring Australia as a final destination, where wages are generally higher and economic opportunity more diverse, yet still providing the outdoor, natural lifestyle they are accustomed to, and within short travel time to family. The Trans-Tasman Travel Arrangement makes such exchanges easy, although heavily one-sided. The Trans-Tasman Travel Arrangement is an informal agreement between Australia and New Zealand to allow for the free movement of citizens of one nation to the other. ...


This is a major problem for a small country like New Zealand, as traditional 2 year working holidays are fast turning into 5-10+ year expatriations. This is an even bigger problem when considering the age group 25-35 are the most productive tax years. It is this expatriate age group that provides more net inflows into an economy (taxes) than it removes (health, education, pensions).


The flip side to this, due to New Zealand's immigration policy of giving preference to professionals and the high inflow of immigrants into New Zealand, is that New Zealand is in the 'Brain Exchange' a net 'Brain Gainer', with relatively high numbers of immigrant professionals from Iran, Middle East, Philippines and Malaysia.


Philippine brain drain

Among the countries in Asia and the Pacific, the country with the largest amount of brain drain is the Philippines, with 730,000 migrants. Of these, the great majority have a tertiary education.[citation needed]Three decades ago, seeking sources of hard currency and an outlet for a fast-growing population, then-President Ferdinand Marcos encouraged Filipinos to find jobs in other countries. Over time, the overseas worker has become a pillar of the economy. Nine million Filipinos, more than one out of every 10, are working abroad. Every day, more than 3,100 leave the country.[citation needed]Philippine workers sent home more than $10.7 billion last year, equal to about 12% of the gross domestic product. [11]There are two very different types of international Filipinos — balikbayans and overseas contract workers (OCWs). The Marcos regime coined the term balikbayan in the mid-70s, from the Tagalog terms balik(to return) and bayan(town and nation). It was a clever marketing pitch to lure Filipino emigrants, most living in the states, back home as free-spending tourists. Balikbayans continue to send money regularly, and periodically return on vacations.[citation needed]Another type is the overseas contract worker (OCW). During the mid-'80s, major changes in the global economy generated demand for semi-skilled and skilled Filipino workers in the Middle East, Asia, and Western Europe. The Philippines sent some of its citizens to fill jobs.[citation needed]Overseas Filipinos tend to be educated, literate English speakers. The world's cargo ships have a significant representation of able-bodied Filipino seamen. The mid-management ranks of multinationals around Southeast Asia are manned by Filipino business graduates. Some OCWs are professionals (doctors, nurses, engineers, and such). The majority work as construction workers, domestics, drivers, dancers, or "entertainers" of one sort or another. [12]

Canada Brain Drain

Colonial administrators in Canada observed the trend of human capital flight to the United States as early as the 1860s, when it was already clear that a majority of immigrants arriving at Québec were en route to destinations in the United States. Alexander C. Buchanan, government agent at Québec, argued that prospective emigrants should be offered free land to remain in Canada. The problem of attracting and keeping the right immigrants is a constant in Canadian immigration history.[7] Emigration is the action and the phenomenon of leaving ones native country to settle abroad. ...


In Canada today, the brain drain to the United States is occasionally a domestic political issue. At times, brain drain is used as a justification for income tax cuts, although this causal relationship has been questioned. For example, Canadian conservatives often claim there is a drain from Canada to the United States, especially in the financial, software, aerospace, health care and entertainment industries, due to perceived higher wages and lower income taxes in the U.S., despite some statistical evidence to the contrary.[8] The evidence shows that Canada is indeed losing its homegrown talent to the US, but it is gaining skilled migrants from abroad. However, recent anecdotal evidence shows that stringent US security measures after September 11th, 2001 have helped to end the brain drain debate in Canada.[9] The September 11, 2001 attacks were a series of coordinated terrorist attacks carried out in the United States on September 11, 2001. ...


Other brain drains

In many Latin American nations where enrollment at local medical schools is very high, there is a chronic shortage of doctors with the exception of Cuba.


The San Francisco Chronicle, The Washington Post, and NPR have all reported on Cuban doctors defecting to other countries. [13], [14], [15] According to the San Francisco Chronicle, one of the reasons that Cuban doctors defect is because their salary in Cuba is only $15 per month. [16] Todays San Francisco Chronicle was founded in 1865 as The Daily Dramatic Chronicle by teenage brothers Charles de Young and Michael H. de Young. ... ... NPR logo For other meanings of NPR see NPR (disambiguation) National Public Radio (NPR) is a private, not-for-profit corporation that sells programming to member radio stations; together they are a loosely organized public radio network in the United States. ... Todays San Francisco Chronicle was founded in 1865 as The Daily Dramatic Chronicle by teenage brothers Charles de Young and Michael H. de Young. ...


A 2006 article on Venezuela states, "Venezuela's once-thriving middle class is packing its bags and fleeing the country, afraid for the future as the socialist president, Hugo Chávez, calls on the slum-dwelling masses to rise up and seize wealth from those better off than themselves. Growing numbers of professionals, business owners and shopkeepers are fed up with the climate of hostility that the Left-wing president has encouraged in his effort to boost his populist credentials." The article then goes on to cite several examples. [17]


In Malaysia the government is trying to lure back these people. Most of the people opt to migrate to Singapore, Australia and New Zealand believing that they will have a better life than if they stay in Malaysia.


After the independence of Suriname in 1975 from the Netherlands, many Surinamese people mainly emigrated to the Netherlands. These were mostly highly-educated people. Still there are more than 300 000 Surinamers living in the Netherlands, mostly living in the big cities as Amsterdam, Rotterdam and the Hague. That is almost as high as the number of people in Suriname itself.


Studies

For example, as of 2005, eighty percent of Haitians and Jamaicans with college degrees live outside their country. And more than fifty percent of the university educated professionals from many countries in Central America and the Caribbean also live abroad. 2005 is a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Central America (disambiguation). ... West Indies redirects here. ...


They're just two of the findings of a new World Bank publication, entitled International Migration, Remittances and the Brain Drain. The volume is a product of the International Migration and Development Research Program of the Development Research Group, the Bank's research department. The World Bank logo The World Bank (the Bank) is a part of the World Bank Group (WBG), is a bank that makes loans to developing countries for development programs with the stated goal of reducing poverty. ...

"The report reveals the brain drain is massive in small and poor developing countries," says World Bank economist, Maurice Schiff, a co-editor of the volume.
"While over 50 percent of college graduates leave countries in Central America and the Caribbean, in some of them, the figure is as high as 80 percent."

L. Alan Winters, the director of the Bank's Development Research Group, says while the mobility of highly skilled workers can offer many benefits, the consequences of the brain drain could be serious for many developing countries.


And he says understanding the so-called brain drain remains one of the highest priorities for development research in the future.


The report's findings are based on the most comprehensive and rigorous database on the brain drain to date, created by researchers Frédéric Docquier and Abdeslam Marfouk, and presented in chapter five of the volume.


Larger countries have less brain drain

Schiff says the report shows the extent of the drain brain problem in larger countries is much less.


"On average for countries with more than 30 million people, the brain drain is less than five percent of all college educated people. The reason is that they have a large population of skilled people, so that even with a large share of skilled people in the migrant population, their share in the skilled population is nevertheless small," he says.


Countries such as China and India only have about three to five percent of their graduates living abroad. And it's a similar situation in Brazil, Indonesia and the former Soviet Union.


By contrast in Sub-Saharan Africa, skilled workers only make up four percent of the total workforce. But these workers comprise more than 40 percent of people leaving the country.

"Most of these college educated professionals from developing countries go to the United States, as well as the European Union, Australia and Canada. In fact Canada and Australia have the largest share of educated migrants out of the total number of migrants to those countries,"

A home benefit

Regardless of the type of migrant - educated or not - the report clearly shows the money the migrants send back home does help alleviate poverty in their former home.


Close to 200 million people are living outside of their home countries, with remittances estimated to reach about US$225 billion in 2005, according to a forthcoming Bank publication, Global Economic Prospects 2006.


The World Bank's Chief Economist and Senior Vice President for Development Economics, François Bourguignon, says the household survey evidence presented in the volume demonstrates a direct link between migration and poverty reduction.


A survey of Filipino households shows the remittances they receive mean less child labor, greater child schooling, more hours worked in self employment and a higher rate of people starting capital intensive enterprises.


In the Guatemala case study, remittances reduced the level and severity of poverty. The biggest impact was on the severity of poverty, with remittances making up more than half the income of the poorest ten percent of families.


The report shows the money migrants sent back to Guatemala was spent more in investments - such as education, health and housing, rather than on food and other goods.


An exception in rural Mexico

While the report shows the money migrants sent back home generally meant a greater investment in education, one exception noted in the report is the case of rural Mexico.


Studies in the report find that children aged 16 to 18 years in households from which someone had migrated had lower levels of schooling compared to households where no-one migrated overseas.


It's a finding that's been put down to the special situation of Mexico's rural migrants in the US labor market - the fact that their low level of education only gets them unskilled jobs in the US, whether or not they spend an additional year in school. So people from rural Mexico planning to migrate to the US have little incentive to invest in education.


Measuring brain drain

Brain drain is a social index that is difficult to measure. One statistically rigorous source is a US Census report called "Migration of the Young, Single, and College Educated: 1995 to 2000"[10], which used responses from the 2000 census long form, received by one in six households. The study discusses intra-national brain drains and gains within the US.


Brain gain

An opposite situation, in which many trained and talented individuals seek entrance into a country, is called a brain gain; this may create a brain drain in the nations that the individuals are leaving. A Canadian symposium in 2000 gave circulation to the new term, at a time when many highly skilled Canadians were moving to the United States, while simultaneously many qualified immigrants were coming to Canada from a number of different nations. This is sometimes referred to as a 'brain exchange'. It should be noted, however, that the unemployment rate of skilled worker landed immigrants in Canada is 34%,[11] at a significant cost to governments[12], bringing into question the existence of any net 'gain' to Canada (see related article, Economic impact of immigration to Canada). The economic impact of immigration to Canada is a much-debated topic in Canada. ...


In 2000, the US Congress announced it was raising the annual cap on the number of temporary work visas granted to highly skilled professionals under its H1B visa program, from 115,000 to 195,000 per year, effective through 2003. That suggests a ballpark figure for the influx of talent into the United States at that time. A significant portion of this program was initiated by lobbyists from the computer industry, including Bill Gates.[13] In the same year the British government, in cooperation with the Wolfson Foundation, a research charity, launched a £20 million, five-year research award scheme aimed at drawing the return of the UK’s leading expatriate scientists and sparking the migration of top young researchers to the United Kingdom. Year 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full 2000 Gregorian calendar). ... The H-1B visa program allows American companies and universities to employ foreign scientists, engineers and programmers in the United States. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... For other persons named Bill Gates, see Bill Gates (disambiguation). ...


See also

Human capital is a way of defining and categorizing the skills and abilities as used in employment and as they otherwise contribute to the economy. ... Instructional capital is a term used in educational administration, to reflect capital resulting from investment in producing learning materials. ... The Edict of Fontainebleau (October 1685) was an edict issued by Louis XIV of France, best known as the Revocation of the Edict of Nantes of 1598, which had granted to the Huguenots the right to worship their religion without persecution from the state. ... In economics and political science, free riders are actors who consume more than their fair share of a resource, or shoulder less than a fair share of the costs of its production. ... The term Canadians of convenience became prominent in 2006 in conjunction with the evacuation of Canadian citizens from Lebanon during the 2006 Israel-Lebanon conflict. ... Progress of America, 1875, by Domenico Tojetti American exceptionalism (cf. ... The Forty-Eighters were Germans who traveled to the United States and Australia after the Revolutions of 1848. ... The states in blue had the ten largest net gains of African-Americans during the Great Migration, while the states in red had the ten largest net losses[1]. The Great Migration was the movement of over 1 million[1] African Americans out of the rural Southern United States from... Manifestations Slavery Racial profiling Lynching Hate speech Hate crime Genocide (examples) Ethnocide Ethnic cleansing Pogrom Race war Religious persecution Gay bashing Blood libel Paternalism Police brutality Movements Policies Discriminatory Race / Religion / Sex segregation Apartheid Redlining Internment Anti-discriminatory Emancipation Civil rights Desegregation Integration Equal opportunity Counter-discriminatory Affirmative action Racial...

Footnotes

  1. ^ Jornal de Notícias
  2. ^ Horvat, Vedran: "Brain Drain. Threat to Successful Transition in South East Europe?"PDF (58.6 KiB) In: Southeast European Politics, Volume V, Number 1, May 2004
  3. ^ Brain drain in africa
  4. ^ More Ethiopia doctors in chicago than Ethiopia
  5. ^ Harrison, Frances. "Huge cost of Iranian brain drain", BBC News, 2007-01-08. Retrieved on 2007-01-08. 
  6. ^ BBC: http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/middle_east/6240287.stm
  7. ^ Moving Here, Staying Here: The Canadian Immigrant Experience - "Immigration," Annual Report of the Minister of the Province of Canada for the Year 1865, pages 10-15.
  8. ^ Herb Emery, "The Tax-Cutters"PDF (48.4 KiB) Institute for Research on Public Policy, "Policy Options", September, 1999.
  9. ^ Jeff Colgan, The Promise And Peril Of International Trade, (2005) pp 141ff.
  10. ^ Migration of the Young, Single, and College EducatedPDF (210 KiB), U.S. Census
  11. ^ Labour Participation by immigration class, Statistics Canada, URL accessed 2 July 2006
  12. ^ Immigration and the Welfare State in Canada: Growing Conflicts, Constructive SolutionsPDF (315 KiB), Public Policy Source, Fraser Institute, Number 84, September 2005, URL accessed 22 August 2006
  13. ^ http://www.hindustantimes.com/news/181_1654992,0002.htm

References

  • Lincoln C. Chen, M.D., and Jo Ivey Boufford, M.D. "Fatal Flows Doctors on the Move" New England Journal of Medicine, Volume 353:1850-1852 October 27, 2005 Number 17 online version, editorial
  • Cheng, L., & Yang, P. Q. "Global interaction, global inequality, and migration of the highly trained to the United States. International Migration Review, (1998). 32, 626-94.
  • Jeff Colgan, The Promise and Peril ff International Trade, (2005) ch 9.
  • David Heenan.Flight Capital: The Alarming Exodus of America's Best and Brightest (2005), brain drain in reverse as immigrants return home
  • Devesh Kapur and John McHale. Give Us Your Best and Brightest: The Global Hunt for Talent and Its Impact on the Developing World (2005) [18]
  • Kemp, Paul. Goodbye Canada? (2003), from Canada to U.S.
  • Khadria, Binod. The Migration of Knowledge Workers: Second-Generation Effects of India's Brain Drain, (2000)
  • Kuznetsov, Yevgeny. Diaspora Networks and the International Migration of Skills: How Countries Can Draw on Their Talent Abroad (2006)
  • D. W. Livingstone; The Education-Jobs Gap: Underemployment or Economic Democracy (1998), focus on Canada online edition
  • Douglas S. Massey and J. Edward Taylor; International Migration: Prospects and Policies in a Global Market, (2003) online edition
  • Mullan, Fitzhugh. "The Metrics of the Physician Brain Drain." New England Journal of Medicine, Volume 353:1810-1818 October 27, 2005 Number 17 online version
  • Caglar Ozden and Maurice Schiff. International Migration, Remittances, and Brain Drain. (2005)
  • Ransford W. Palmer; In Search of a Better Life: Perspectives on Migration from the Caribbean Praeger Publishers, 1990 online edition
  • Ronald Skeldon and Wang Gungwu; Reluctant Exiles? Migration from Hong Kong and the New Overseas Chinese 1994 online edition
  • Michael Peter Smith and Adrian Favell. The Human Face of Global Mobility: International Highly Skilled Migration in Europe, North America and the Asia-Pacific, (2006)
  • David Zweig, Chen Changgui, and Stanley Rosen; China's Brain Drain to the United States: Views of Overseas Chinese Students and Scholars in the 1990s Institute of East Asian Studies, 1995 online edition

Online references

External links

Also See


  Results from FactBites:
 
Brain drain - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1948 words)
Brain drain can occur either when individuals who study abroad and complete their education do not return to their home country, or when individuals educated in their home country emigrate for higher wages or better opportunities.
In Canada, brain drain to the United States, although an unproven phenomenon, is occasionally a domestic political issue.
Brain drain is a social index that is difficult to measure.
ParaPundit: Immigration Brain Drain Archives (3835 words)
While medical brain draining of Africa is a tragedy that gets a lot of continuing press what is less remarked upon is the brain draining of Eastern Europe.
I've been watching "Brain Drain" stories in the world press daily for months now using Google News (just click on the previous link to get a sense of it) and there is on big recurring theme: fear of the loss of the most talented members of a society.
There are even fears of brain wars in Europe as richer countries buy up the talent of poorer countries and raise the specter that the gap between the countries in living standards could become permanent.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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