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  • Note that the word "Brahmin" is also known as "Brahman" in English due to some translation issues between the Upanishads (Hindu Holy Texts) and modern English*

Brahmin, in Hinduism, traditionally refers to the priestly caste or a member of this caste in the Hindu caste system. The Sanskrit word Brāhmaṇa denotes the scholar/teacher, priest, caste, class (varṇa), or tribe, that has been traditionally enjoined to live a life of learning, teaching and non-possessiveness .[1][2][3] The Sanskrit terms Brahman and Brāhman ("belonging to Brahman") are also used.[4] The English word brahmin is an anglicised form of Sanskrit word brāhmana, however they are not necessarily the same things. Whilst brahma loosely translated means knowledge and one with such knowledge a brahmin, historically and in the vedic sense the acquisition of this knowledge was not confined to one belonging to the brahmin caste. Anyone could acquire brahman. Perhaps over time the group in society entrusted to acquire and preserve this brahma calcified into a caste grouping not unlike other ancient societies which also developed a priestly class for the same reasons. Caste systems are traditional, hereditary systems of social classification, that evolved due to the enormous diversity in India (where all three primary races met, not by forced slavery but by immigration). ... The word Caste is derived from the Portuguese word casta, meaning lineage, breed or race. ... Sanskrit ( , for short ) is a classical language of India, a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, Sikhism, and Jainism, and one of the 23 official languages of India. ... The s (Devanagari ) are part of the Hindu Shruti; They are composed in Vedic Sanskrit, and the period of their composition is sometimes referred to as the Brahmanic period or age (approximately between 900 BC and 500 BC). ... Caste systems are traditional, hereditary systems of social classification, that evolved due to the enormous diversity in India (where all three primary races met, not by forced slavery but by immigration). ... http://www. ... Brahman (nominative ) is a concept of Hinduism. ...


Brahmins are also called Vipra "inspired",[5] or Dvija "twice-born".[6]


In 1931 (the last Indian census to record caste), Brahmins accounted for 4.32% of the total population. Brahmins even in Uttar Pradesh, where they were most numerous, constituted just 9% of the recorded population. In Tamil Nadu they formed less than 3% and in Andhra Pradesh, less than 2%.[7] In Kerala, Nambudiri Brahmins make up 0.7% of the population. Map showing the population density of each district in India Map showing the population growth over the past ten years of each district in India Map showing the literacy rate of each district in India Map showing the sex ratio of each district in India Chart showing the percentage of... , Uttar Pradesh (Hindi: , Urdu: , IPA:  , translation: Northern Province), [often referred to as U.P.], located in central-south Asia and northern India, is the most populous and fifth largest state in the Republic of India. ... Tamil Nadu (தமிழ் நாடு, Land of the Tamils) is a state at the southern tip of India. ... Andhra redirects here. ... -1... The Nambudiri Brahmins are a small, high-ranking caste in the state of Kerala, India. ...

Contents

History

Main article: History of Hinduism

The history of the Brahmin community in India begins with the Vedic religion of early Hinduism, also known as Sanatana Dharma, in ancient India. The Vedas are the primary source of knowledge for brahmin practices. All the sampradayas of Brahmins take inspiration from the Vedas. According to Brahmin tradition, it is believed that Vedas are apauruṣeya and anādi (beginning-less), but are revealed truths of eternal validity. The Vedas are considered Śruti (that which is heard, signifying their validity or relevance and hence the Vedas are considered Srutis that which have been heard and are the paramount source of Brahmin traditions and is believed to be divine. These Srutis include not only the four Vedas (the Rigveda, the Yajurveda, the Samaveda and the Atharvaveda), but also their respective Brahmanas. Brahman and Brahmin are not the same. Brahman refers to the Supreme Self or God of Hindus. Brahmin or Brahmana refers to the caste of an individual. The brahmins are scholars, teachers and priests. Additionally, the word Brahma refers to first of the gods and Brahman, the Supreme God. Hinduism, includes survivals of traditions of the Bronze Age Indus Valley Civilization and of Proto-Indo-Iranian traditions during the Iron Age Vedic religion and the historical Shramana traditions. ... This article discusses the historical religious practices in the Vedic time period; see Dharmic religions for details of contemporary religious practices. ... Hinduism is a religious tradition[1] that originated in the Indian subcontinent. ... This article is about the Hindu religion; for other meanings of the word, see Hindu (disambiguation). ... Veda redirects here. ... In Hinduism, a Sampradaya is a tradition of disciplic succession serving as a spiritual channel and encompassing a common philosophy embraced by many schools, groups, or guru lineages (called parampara). ... Åšruti (Sanskrit श्रुति, what is heard) is a canon of Hindu scriptures. ... Veda redirects here. ... Rig veda is the oldest text in the world. ... The Yajurveda (Sanskrit , a tatpurusha compound of sacrifice + knowledge) is one of the four Hindu Vedas. ... The Samaveda (Sanskrit: सामवेद, sāmaveda, a tatpurusha compound of ritual chant + knowledge ), is third in the usual order of enumeration of the four Vedas, the ancient core Hindu scriptures. ... The Atharvaveda (Sanskrit: अथर्ववेद, , a tatpurusha compound of , a type of priest, and meaning knowledge) is a sacred text of Hinduism, and one of the four Vedas, often called the fourth Veda. According to tradition, the Atharvaveda was mainly composed by two groups of rishis known as the Bhrigus and the... The Brahmanas (Brahmin Books) are part of the Hindu Shruti; these religious scriptures focus on sacrifice -- particularly that of horses and soma. ... Brahman (nominative ) is a concept of Hinduism. ...


Brahmin communities

See also: Brahmin communities

The Brahmin castes may be broadly divided into two regional groups: Pancha-Gauda Brahmins and Pancha-Dravida Brahmins as per the shloka,however this sloka is from Rajatarangini of Kalhana which is composed only in 11th CE and many communities find their traces from sages mentioned in, much older Vedas and puranas. Brahmin communities in India are traditionally divided into two regional groups: Pancha-Gauda Brahmins and Pancha-Dravida Brahmins according to the following shloka found in the Rajatarangini of Kalhana (12th century): The Karnatakas, Tailangas, Dravidas, Maharashtrakas and Gurjaras; these five (-types who- ) live south of Vindhya (- mountains) are (called-) Dravida... Pancha-Gauda and Pancha-Dravida are two chief divisions of Brahmins, as per the Å›loka from Rājatarangini of / Kalhana: कर्णाटकाश्च तैलंगा द्राविडा महाराष्ट्रकाः , गुर्जराश्चेति पञ्चैव द्राविडा विन्ध्यदक्षिणे || सारस्वताः कान्यकुब्जा गौडा उत्कलमैथिलाः, पञ्चगौडा इति ख्याता विन्ध्स्योत्तरवासिनः || Meaning :(The-) Karnātakas, Tailangas, Dravidas, Mahārāshtrakās and Gurjaras; these five(-types who-) live south of Vindhya (- mountains) are (called-) five Dravidas (- brahmins); (whereas-) Sārasvatas, K... A Sanskrit term shloka (श्लोक; also spelt sloka) specifically denotes a metered and often rhymed poetic verse or phrase. ... The Vedas are part of the Hindu Shruti; these religious scriptures form part of the core of the Brahminical and Vedic traditions within Hinduism and are the inspirational, metaphysical and mythological foundation for later Vedanta, Yoga, Tantra and even Bhakti forms of Hinduism. ... Purana (Sanskrit: ), meaning belonging to ancient or olden times, is the name of an ancient Indian genre (or a group of related genres) of Hindu or Jain literature (as distinct from oral tradition). ...


कर्णाटकाश्च तैलंगा द्राविडा महाराष्ट्रकाः,
गुर्जराश्चेति पञ्चैव द्राविडा विन्ध्यदक्षिणे ||
सारस्वताः कान्यकुब्जा गौडा उत्कलमैथिलाः,
पन्चगौडा इति ख्याता विन्ध्स्योत्तरवासि ||[8]


Translation: Karnataka, Telugu (Andhra), Dravida (Tamil and Kerala), Maharashtra and Gujarat are Five Southern (Panch Dravida). Saraswata, Kanyakubja, Gauda, Utkala, Maithili are Five Northern (Pancha Gauda). This classification occurs in Rajatarangini of Kalhana and is mentioned by Jogendra Nath Bhattacharya in "Hindu Castes and Sects." [9] Kanauj, or Kannauj, is an ancient city of Uttar Pradesh state of India (1991 pop. ... Rajtarangini (River of Kings), a book written in Sanskrit by Kalhana, contains an account of the life and history of Kashmir. ... Kalhana (c. ...


Pancha Gauda Brahmins

Panch Gaur (the five classes of Northern India): 1) Saraswat, 2) Kanyakubja, 3) Gauḍa brahmins, 4) Utkala Brahmin, and 5) Maithil Brahmin6)( Saryuparin Brahmin). In addition, for the purpose of giving an account of Northern Brahmins each of the provinces must be considered separately, such as, Kashmir, Nepal, Uttarakhand, Himachal, Kurukshetra, Rajputana, Uttar Pradesh, Ayodhya (Oudh), Gandhar, Punjab, North Western Provinces and Pakistan, Sindh, Central India, Trihoot, Bihar, Orissa, Bengal, Assam, etc. The originate from south of the (now-extinct) Saraswati River.[10] The Sarasvati River is a river that is mentioned in Hindu texts like the Rig Veda and the Mahabharata. ... The comprise one of the five sub-divisions of Panch-Gauda (, , i. ... Utkala Brahmins, also known as Oriyā or Orissā Brahmins, are a Jāti (caste) who live mainly in the Indian state of Orissa. ... Maithil Brahmins ( s is the correct Sanskrit term) form part of ancient Vedic Brahmins. ... Kashmir (or Cashmere) may refer to: Kashmir region, the northwestern region of the Indian subcontinent India, Kashmir conflict, the territorial dispute between India, Pakistan, and the China over the Kashmir region. ... , Uttarakhand (Hindi: उत्तराखण्ड or उत्तराखंड), is a state located in the northern part of India. ... Himachal Pradesh (Hindi: हिमाचल प्रदेश), formally the Punjab Hill States, is a mostly mountainous state in northwest India. ... Kurukshetra  (Hindi: कुरुक्षेत्र) is the name of a city in the present-day Indian state of Haryana हरियाणा. The name literally means Land of the Kaurava after the Kuru clan. ... Rajputana (or Raj(prut)tana), which means Land of the Rajputs rajput love old rotten cheese wanna see whitch cheese we like go to this web page http://home. ... , Uttar Pradesh (Hindi: , Urdu: , IPA:  , translation: Northern Province), [often referred to as U.P.], located in central-south Asia and northern India, is the most populous and fifth largest state in the Republic of India. ... Ayodhya   (Hindi: अयोध्या, Urdu: ایودھیا IAST Ayodhyā) is an ancient city of India, the old capital of Awadh, in the Faizabad district of Uttar Pradesh. ... Gandhar is a gotra or clan of Jats found in Uttar Pradesh in India. ... This article is about the geographical region. ... Sindh (SindhÄ«: سنڌ, UrdÅ«: سندھ) is one of the four provinces of Pakistan and historically is home to the Sindhis. ... The geography of India is extremely diverse, with landscape ranging from snow-capped mountain ranges to deserts, plains, hills and plateaus. ... For other uses, see Bihar (disambiguation). ... , Orissa   (Oriya: ଓଡ଼ିଶା), is a state situated on the east coast of India. ... For other uses, see Bengal (disambiguation). ... , Assam  ) (Assamese: অসম Ôxôm [É”xÉ”m]) is a northeastern state of India with its capital at Dispur, a suburb of the city Guwahati. ...


In Punjab, they are classified as Saraswat Brahmins. , This article is about the Indian state of Punjab. ... The Sarasvati River is a river that is mentioned in Hindu texts like the Rig Veda and the Mahabharata. ...


In Bihar, majority of Brahmins are Kanyakubja Brahmins and Maithil Brahmins with a significant population of Sakaldipi or Shakdweepiya Brahmins. The Bhumihars have regarded themselves as Brahmins. For other uses, see Bihar (disambiguation). ... Kanauj, or Kannauj, is an ancient city of Uttar Pradesh state of India (1991 pop. ... Young Indian brahmachari Brahmin A Brahmin (less often Brahman) is a member of the Hindu priestly caste. ... Maithil Brahmins ( s is the correct Sanskrit term) form part of ancient Vedic Brahmins. ... Bhumihar Brahmins also known as Bhumihars (भूमिहार) are an influential Hindu sub-caste who have traditionally resided in fertile regions of Indo-Gangetic plains of North India, in the states of Bihar, Uttar Pradesh and Jharkhand. ...


In Haryana, the brahmin classified in mainly Dadhich_Brahmin, Gaud brahmin, Khandelwal brahmin. For the town in Hoshiarpur district, see Hariana. ... Dadhich Brahmins (or Dadhichi Brahmins) are a specific sub-caste in Brahmins who claim lineage from the sage Dadhichi. ...


In Rajasthan, the Brahmins are classified in mainly Dadhich_Brahmin, Gaud Brahmin, Sri Gaud Brahmin, Khandelwal Brahmin, Gujar-Gaud Brahmins. , Rājasthān (DevanāgarÄ«: राजस्थान, IPA: )   is the largest state of the Republic of India in terms of area. ... Dadhich Brahmins (or Dadhichi Brahmins) are a specific sub-caste in Brahmins who claim lineage from the sage Dadhichi. ...


In Madhya Pradesh, the Brahmins are classified in mainly Shri Gaud, Sanadya, Gujar-Gaud Brahmins. Majority of Shri Gaud Brahmins are found in the Malwa region (Indore, Ujjain, Dewas). , Madhya Pradesh (abbreviated as MP)   (HindÄ«: मध्य प्रदेश, English: , IPA: ), often called the Heart of India, is a state in central India. ... Malwa (Malvi:माळवा) is a region in western India occupying a plateau of volcanic origin in the western part of Madhya Pradesh state and the south-eastern part of Rajasthan. ... , Indore (Hindi:इन्दौर ,Marathi:इंदूर)  , a large city in the Malwa region of Central India is the commercial capital of the central Indian state of Madhya Pradesh. ... , Mahakal Temple Ujjain Ujjain   (Hindi:उज्जैन) ([[map view : maxujjain dot com]) (also known as Ujain, Ujjayini, Avanti, Avantikapuri) is an ancient city of central India, in the Malwa region of the Indian state of Madhya Pradesh, on the eastern bank of the Kshipra River. ... Dewas is a city in western Madhya Pradesh state of central India. ...


In Nepal, the hill Brahmins are classified in mainly Upadhaya Brahmin, Jaisi Brahmin and Kumain Brahmins. Upadhaya Brahmins are supposed to have settled in Nepal long before the other two groups.Majority of hill Brahmins are supposed to be of Khasa origin.


In Sindh, the saraswat brahmins from nasarpur of sindh province are called Nasarpuri Sindh Saraswat Brahmin. During the India and Pakistan partition migrated to India from sindh province. Sindh (Sindhī: سنڌ, Urdū: سندھ) is one of the four provinces of Pakistan and historically is home to the Sindhis. ...


Pancha Dravida Brahmins

Panch Dravida (the five classes of Southern India): 1) Andhra, 2) Dravida (Tamil and Kerala), 3) Karnataka, 4) Maharashtra and Konkon, and 5) Gujarat. They originate from north of the (now-extinct) Saraswati River.[11]


In Andhra Pradesh, Brahmins are broadly classified into 2 groups: Vaidika (meaning educated in vedas and performing religious vocations) and Niyogi (performing only secular vocation). They are further divided into several sub-castes. However, majority of the Brahmins, both Vaidika and Niyogi, perform only secular professions. [12] Andhra redirects here. ... Arya Samaj (Aryan Society or Society of Nobles) is a Hindu reform movement in India that was founded by Swami Dayananda in 1875. ... Niyogis are a sect of Brahmins and are predominantly Telugu speakers. ...


In Kerala, Brahmins are classified into three groups: Namboothiris, Pottis and Pushpakas. (Pushpakas are commonly clubbed with Ampalavasi community). The major priestly activities are performed by Namboothiris while the other temple related activities known as Kazhakam are performed by Pushpaka Brahmins and other Ampalavasis. Sri Adi Shankara was born in Kalady, a village in Kerala, to a Namboothiri Brahmin couple, Shivaguru and Aryamba, and lived for thirty-two years. The Namboothiri Brahmins, Potti Brahmins and Pushpaka Brahmins in Kerala follow the Philosophies of Sri Adi Sankaracharya. The Brahmins who migrated to Kerala from Tamil Nadu are known as Pattar in Kerala. They possess almost same status of Potti Brahmins in Kerala.-1... Language(s) Malayalam, knowledge of Sanskrit Religion(s) Hinduism Related ethnic groups Panch-Dravida Brahmins, Pushpaka Brahmins, Nair, Iyer, Iyengar Namboothiri Brahmins (Malayalam :നമ്പൂതിരി) are the upper class Brahmins of Kerala, who are considered the most orthodox Brahmins in India. ... Pushpaka Brahmin ( Ampalavasi / Ambalavasi ) Pushpaka Brahmins, commonly known as Ambalavasis, are the lower class Brahmins of Kerala. ... The Namboothiris (Malayalam :നമ്പൂതിരി) are the Brahmins of Kerala, thought to be the most orthodox brahmins in India. ... Pushpaka Brahmins, commonly known as Ambalavasi Brahmins, is a caste of Semi-Brahmins in Kerala. ... Adi Shankara (Malayalam: ആദി ശങ്കരന്‍, DevanāgarÄ«: , , IPA: ); c. ... , Kalady (Malayalam: കാലടി) is a village located at 10. ... -1... Language(s) Malayalam, knowledge of Sanskrit Religion(s) Hinduism Related ethnic groups Panch-Dravida Brahmins, Pushpaka Brahmins, Nair, Iyer, Iyengar Namboothiri Brahmins (Malayalam :നമ്പൂതിരി) are the upper class Brahmins of Kerala, who are considered the most orthodox Brahmins in India. ... Adi Shankara (Åšaá¹…kara, Shri Shankaracharya, Adhi Shankaracharya, Ä€di Åšaá¹…karācārya; the first Shankara in his lineage), reverentially called Bhagavatpada Acharya (the teacher at the feet of Lord) (approximately 8th century, but see below) was the most famous advaita philosopher, who had a profound influence on the growth...


In Tamil Nadu, Brahmins belong to 2 major groups: Iyer and Iyengar. Iyers comprise of Smartha and Saivite Brahmins and are broadly classified into Vadama, Vathima, Brhatcharnam, Ashtasahasram, Sholiyar and Gurukkal. There are mostly followers of Adi Shankaracharya and form about three-fourths of Tamil Nadu's Brahmin population. Iyengars comprise of Vaishnavite Brahmins and are divided into two sects: Vadagalai and Thengalai. They are mostly followers of Ramanuja and make up the remaining one-fourth of the Tamil Brahmin population. Tamil Nadu (தமிழ் நாடு, Land of the Tamils) is a state at the southern tip of India. ... Iyers (Tamil : அய்யர் Malayalam:അയ്യര) also called Sastri[4], Sarma or Bhattar is the name given to Hindu Brahmins of Tamil or Telugu origin who are followers of the Advaita philosophy propounded by Adi Shankara[5]. They are found mostly in Tamil Nadu as they are generally native to the Tamil country. ... For the yoga style founded by B.K.S. Iyengar, see Iyengar Yoga. ... // Introduction The term Smartha refers to those who accept and profess the Advaitha or non-dualistic philosophy propounded by Sri Adi Shankaracharya. ... Saivite: of Saivism; belonging to Saivism, the Hindu denomination that worships God Siva as the Supreme God. ... Vadama (Northerners) is a sub group of the Iyers who are believed to have originated in the regions north of the Tamil Kingdoms. ... // Gurukkal or Sivacharya or Adisaiva Brahmins Orgins A sub-sect of Vadamas not recognized as one amongst them and whose duties are to worship at temples. ... Sri Adi Sankara Adi Shankaracharya or Adi Shankara (the first Shankara in his lineage), reverentially called Bhagavatpada Acharya (the teacher at the feet of Lord), Shankara (approximately 509- 477 BC (though some claim 788-820 CE)) was the most famous Advaita philosopher who had a profound influence on the growth... Vaishnavites are followers of Vaishnavism in which Vishnu or His avatars are worshipped as the supreme God. ... Ramanuja (Tamil: ,  [?]; traditionally 1017–1137), also known as Ramanujacharya, was a theologian, philosopher, and scriptural exegete. ...


In Karnataka, Brahmins belong to 3 major groups: Smarthas, the followers of Sri Adi Shankaracharya, Madhvas (or Vaishnavas) who are the followers of Sri Madhvacharya, and Sri-Vaishnavas (Iyengars), who are the followers of Sri Ramanujacharya and Srimathe Vedanta Desika. Smartha Brahmins of Karnataka include Hoysala Karnataka, Mysore Iyers, Babboor Kammi, Ulucha Kamme, Babboor Kamme, Sankethi, Badaganadu, Mulukanadu, Sthanika Brahmins, Kota and Havyaka Brahmins This article is about the Indian region. ... Sri Adi Sankara Adi Shankaracharya or Adi Shankara (the first Shankara in his lineage), reverentially called Bhagavatpada Acharya (the teacher at the feet of Lord), Shankara (approximately 509- 477 BC (though some claim 788-820 CE)) was the most famous Advaita philosopher who had a profound influence on the growth... For Madhavacharya the Advaita saint, see Madhava Vidyaranya. ... Sri Ramanuja Acharya (1017 - 1137 AD) was an Indian philosopher and is recognized as the most important saint of Sri Vaishnavism. ... Swamy Vedanta Desika, Sri Vaishnava Philosopher Vedanta Desika (1269 – 1370) is the second great name in Vaishnavism. ... // Introduction The term Smartha refers to those who accept and profess the Advaitha or non-dualistic philosophy propounded by Sri Adi Shankaracharya. ... Please wikify (format) this article or section as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... The Babburkamme (alternate spellings: Bobburukamme, Babboor Kamme) community is a caste of Smarta Brahmins whose members mainly resides in Karnataka and Tamil Nadu states in India. ... SankEti is the name of a community as well as their language. ... Literally, it means the northern land, probably originating from vadaga (north) and tenkana(south) etc. ... // Introduction The Mulukanadu community is a caste of Telugu speaking Vaidiki Smartha Brahmins. ... Sthānika Brāhmin or Sthānika Brāhmanas are Smārtha Brahmins, and come under the classification of Tuluva Brahmins; The belong to Pancha-Drāvida Brahmin Community. ... Kota can refer to: The Indonesian word for city. ... Havyaka Brahmins are a Brahmin subsect primarily from the Indian state of Karnataka and Northern Kerala. ...


In Maharashtra, Brahmins are classified into four groups: Chitpavan Konkanastha Brahmins, Deshastha Brahmin and Karhade Brahmin, Devrukhe. As the name indicates, Kokanastha Brahmin are from Konkan area. Deshastha Brahmin are from plains of Maharashtra, Karhade Brahmins are perhaps from Karhatak (an ancient region in India that included present day south Maharashtra and northern Karnataka) and Devrukhe brahmins are from Devrukh near Ratnagiri , Maharashtra (Marathi: महाराष्ट्र , IPA  , translation: Great Nation) is Indias third largest state in area and second largest in population after Uttar Pradesh. ... It has been suggested that Chitpavan be merged into this article or section. ... Deshastha Brahmins (Marathi: देशस्थ ब्राह्मण) are a Hindu Brahmin sub-caste belonging to the Indo-Aryan ethnic group primarily from the Indian state of Maharashtra . ... Karhade Brahmins (Karhádé Bráhmeņ) form the smallest of the four major sub-castes of Maharashtrian Brahmins, the other three being Deshastha Brahmins, Saraswat Brahmins and Konkanastha Brahmins. ... A small brahmin sub-caste from Maharashtra In India. ... , Ratnagiri (Marathi:रत्नागिरी) is a city in India, located in the southwestern part of Maharashtra State on the Arabian Sea coast, in the Ratnagiri district. ...


In Gujarat, Brahmins are classified into Eight groups: Anavil Brahmin, Awadhich Brahmins, Bardai Brahmins, Girinarayan Brahmins, Khedaval, Nagar Brahmins, Shrimali Brahmins and Sidhra-Rudhra Brahmins. This article is for the Indian state. ... A Sanskrit proverb says that A person who forsakes his roots, loses direction and the new roots he likes to create will not really exists. Hence, a justifiable concern for our origins provides a sense of stability and purpose to our struggles for our existence and survival. ... KHEDAVAL or KHEDAWAL Khedaval is a leading Brahmin community better known as Baj Khedaval Brahmin. ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... Shrimal a place in Indias Rajasthan State . ...


Gotras and pravaras

See also: Classification of Brahmins

In general, gotra denotes any person who traces descent in an unbroken male line from a common male ancestor. Panini defines gotra for grammatical purposes as ' apatyam pautraprabh*rti gotram' (IV. 1. 162), which means 'the word gotra denotes the progeny (of a sage) beginning with the son's son. When a person says ' I am Kashypasa-gotra' he means that he traces his descent from the ancient sage Kashyapa by unbroken male descent. According to the Baudhâyanas'rauta-sûtra Viśvāmitra, Jamadagni, Bharadvâja, Gautama, Atri, Vasishtha, Kashyapa and Agastya are 8 sages; the progeny of these eight sages is declared to be gotras. This enumeration of eight primary gotras seems to have been known to Pānini.Any way these gotras are not directly connected to Prajapathy or latter brama. The offspring (apatya) of these eight are gotras and others than these are called ' gotrâvayava '. [13] The first classification of Brahmins might have been called for during the Vedic age itself. ... A gotra is the lineage or clan assigned to a Hindu at birth. ... Brahmarshi Vishvamitra (Sanskrit all-friend) is one of the most venerated rishis or sages of since ancient times in India. ... In Hinduism, Jamadagni is the father of Parashurama, one of the avatars of Vishnu. ... Bharadwaja (भरद्वाज) was one of the great sages (rishis) whose accomplishments are detailed in the Puranas. ... Standing Buddha, ancient region of Gandhara, northern Pakistan, 1st century CE, Musée Guimet. ... In Hinduism, Atri (Sanskrit: अत्रि) is a legendary bard and scholar, and a son of Brahma. ... Vasishtha (Sanskrit: वसिष्ठ), in Hindu mythology was chief of the seven venerated sages (or Saptarishi) and the Rajaguru of the Suryavamsha or Solar Dynasty. ... This article is about the Hindu god Kasyapa. ... In Hinduism, Agastya (अगस्त्य in devanagari, pronounced /É™ gÉ™s tyÉ™/) is a legendary Vedic sage or rishi. ... (DevanāgarÄ«: ; a patronymic meaning descendant of ) was an ancient Indian grammarian from Gandhara (traditionally 520–460 BC, but estimates range from the 7th to 4th centuries BC[1]). He is most famous for his Sanskrit grammar, particularly for his formulation of the 3,959 rules of Sanskrit morphology in...


The gotras are arranged in groups, e. g. there are according to the Âsvalâyana-srautasûtra four subdivisions of the Vasishtha gana, viz. Upamanyu, Parāshara, Kundina and Vasishtha (other than the first three). Each of these four again has numerous sub-sections, each being called gotra. So the arrangement is first into ganas, then into pakshas, then into individual gotras. The first has survived in the Bhrigu and Āngirasa gana. According to Baud, the principal eight gotras were divided into pakshas. The pravara of Upamanyu is Vasishtha, Bharadvasu, Indrapramada; the pravara of the Parâshara gotra is Vasishtha, Shâktya, Pârâsharya; the pravara of the Kundina gotra is Vasishtha, Maitrâvaruna, Kaundinya and the pravara of Vasishthas other than these three is simply Vasishtha. It is therefore that some define pravara as the group of sages that distinguishes the founder (lit. the starter) of one gotra from another. Kundina is an ancient Indian city, named as part of Kanishkas territory in the Rabatak inscription. ... Vasishtha (Sanskrit: वसिष्ठ), in Hindu mythology was chief of the seven venerated sages (or Saptarishi) and the Rajaguru of the Suryavamsha or Solar Dynasty. ... Bhrigu, a sage in indian mythology, was said to have stepped on Brahma, Shiva and Vishnu to test who of the three gods was the greatest. ... Vasishtha (Sanskrit: वसिष्ठ), in Hindu mythology was chief of the seven venerated sages (or Saptarishi) and the Rajaguru of the Suryavamsha or Solar Dynasty. ... Vasishtha (Sanskrit: वसिष्ठ), in Hindu mythology was chief of the seven venerated sages (or Saptarishi) and the Rajaguru of the Suryavamsha or Solar Dynasty. ...


There are two kinds of pravaras, 1) sishya-prasishya-rishi-parampara, and 2) putrparampara. Gotrapravaras can be ekarsheya, dwarsheya, triarsheya, pancharsheya, saptarsheya, and up to 19 rishis. Kashyapasa gotra has at least two distinct pravaras in Andhra Pradesh: one with three sages (triarsheya pravara) and the other with seven sages (saptarsheya pravara). This pravara may be either sishya-prasishya-rishi-parampara or putraparampara. When it is sishya-prasishya-rishi-parampara marriage is not acceptable if half or more than half of the rishis are same in both bride and bridegroom gotras. If it is putraparampara, marriage is totally unacceptable even if one rishi matches.[14]


Sects and rishis

Due to the diversity in religious and cultural traditions and practices, and the Vedic schools which they belong to, Brahmins are further divided into various subcastes. During the sutra period, roughly between 1000 BCE to 200 BCE, Brahmins became divided into various Shakhas (branches), based on the adoption of different Vedas and different rescension Vedas. Sects for different denominations of the same branch of the Vedas were formed, under the leadership of distinguished teachers among Brahmins. Shakha (IAST ), literally branch or limb, is the Sanskrit term for a recension or version of Vedic texts according to a particular school. ... Veda redirects here. ...


There are several Brahmin law givers such as Angirasa, Apasthambha, Atri, Brihaspati, Boudhayana, Daksha, Gautam, Harita, Katyayana, Likhita, Manu,[15] Parasara, Samvarta, Shankha, Shatatapa, Ushanasa, Vashishta, Vishnu, Vyasa, Yajnavalkya and Yama. These twenty-one rishis were the propounders of Smritis. The oldest among these smritis are Apastamba, Baudhayana, Gautama, and Vasishta Sutras. [16] In Hinduism, Angirasa is one of the seven sages, the SaptaRishis. ... Apastamba (c. ... In Hinduism, Atri (Sanskrit: अत्रि) is a legendary bard and scholar, and a son of Brahma. ... In Hinduism, Brihaspati is the god of magic and prayer. ... In Hinduism, Daksha, the skilled one, is an ancient creator god, one of the Prajapatis, the Rishis and the Adityas, and a son of Aditi and Brahma. ... Maharishi GAUTAM, one of the seven sages “Sapt Rishi” was creator of “Nyaya Shsatra”. “Nyaya Shastra” is oldest known book on judicial system. ... Harit (Harita) Rishi was a sage of the lakulish cult and was a devotee of Lord Shiva (Shri Eklingji). ... Kātyāyana (c. ... Manu may refer to: In geography: Manu, a town in Sokoto State, Nigeria Manu, province in the Madre de Dios region of Peru Manu National Park Manu River In acting: Manu, member of the cast of a controversial film released in 2000 called Baise-moi Manu Intiraymi, American television and... Shanku is the divine Counch or sea shell, which is one of the insignia in the Hindu God Vishnus hands. ... Vashishta was a sage believed by people of the Hindu religion to have been created by Brahma (as a manasaputra). ... For other meanings, see Vishnu (disambiguation). ... Veda Vyasa(Contemporary painting) Vyāsa (Devanāgarī: व्यास) is a central and much revered figure in the majority of Hindu traditions. ... Sage Yajnavalkya (याज्ञवल्क्य) of Mithila advanced a 95-year cycle to synchronize the motions of the sun and the moon. ... This article is about the deity Yama in Hinduism. ... Smriti (Sanskrit स्मॄति, that which is remembered) refers to a specific canon of Hindu religious scripture. ... Sutras may refer too: Sutra, a concept regarding Hinduism Sutras (album), an album by 1960s rock musician Donovan ...


Descendants from rishis

Many Indians and non-Indians claim descent from the Vedic Rishis of both Brahmin and non-Brahmin descent. For example the Dash and Nagas are said to be the descendants of Kashyapa Muni, the Gotamas (including Lord Buddha apart from the Gautam Brahmins are said to descendants of Gautama Muni. It is also believed that Buddha was a descendant of the Vedic Angirasa Muni.[17] Visvakarmas are the descendants of Pancha Rishis or Brahmarshies. According to Yajurveda and brahmanda purana They are Sanagha ,Sanathana,Abhuvanasa,Prajnasa, Suparnasa. The Kani tribe of South India claim to descend from Agastya Muni. // Nagas In India there is an ancient belief in a subterranean race of divine serpent people who dwell in patalas or palaces in the underground city of Bhogavati. ... This article is about the Hindu god Kasyapa. ... Siddhartha and Gautama redirect here. ... Gautam (written in Devnagari script as गौतम) Brahmins comprise a sub-caste of Brahmins in India. ... In Hinduism, Angirasa is one of the seven sages, the SaptaRishis. ... The geographical south of India includes all Indian territory below the 20th parallel. ... Agastyar, also spelled Agathiar or Agasthiar, is considered as the first and foremost person of Siddha. ...


The Gondhali, Kanet, Bhot, Lohar, Dagi, and Hessis claim to be from Renuka Devi. In ancient Cylanese, Renuka was the name of a minor goddess of wanton death and destruction, although at certain times was also a symbol of creativity and vibrancy. ...


The Kasi Kapadi Sudras claim to originate from the Brahmin Sukradeva. Their duty was to transfer water to the sacred city of Kashi.[18]


Dadheech Brahmins/dayama brahmin trace their roots from Dadhichi Rishi. Many Jats clans claim to descend from Dadhichi Rishi while the Dudi Jats claim to be in the linear of Duda Rishi. The dadheech brahmins are the descendents of rishi Dadhichi who is said to have sacrificed his bones for making of the vajra, the mythological weapon created to kill the demon vritra /virtrasur. ... Rishi Dadhichi Dadhichi or Dadhicha was a Vedic king, Grandson of Atharvan,Son of sage dhayadhd:, who turned a great Rishi. ... Rishi Dadhichi Dadhichi or Dadhicha was a Vedic king, Grandson of Atharvan,Son of sage dhayadhd:, who turned a great Rishi. ... Dudi or Dudee or Duddy or Dhuddy is a gotra of Jats found in Rajasthan, Haryana, Uttar Pradesh and Madhya Pradesh in India. ...


Lord Buddha of course, was a descendant of Angirasa through Gautama. There too were Kshatiryas of other clans to whom members descend from Angirasa, to fulfill a childless king's wish.[19] In Hinduism, Angirasa is one of the seven sages, the SaptaRishis. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with saptarshi. ...


The backward-caste Matangs claim to descend from Matang Muni, who became a Brahmin by his karma. The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ...


The nomadic tribe of Kerala, the Kakkarissi according to one legend are derived from the mouth of Garuda, the vehicle of Vishnu, and came out Brahmin.[20] This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


The Sikhwal (also known as Sukhwal or Shringi) Brahmins of Rajasthan claim descent from Ṛṣyaśṛńga.[citation needed]


Brahmins taking up other duties

Brahmins have taken on many professions - from being priests, ascetics and scholars to warriors and businesspeople. Viswa Brahmins (goldsmiths, blacksmiths, carpenters, sculptors and brass workers) are Poursheya Brahmins.They are scattered all over India in various surnames such as Achary,Acharya, Panchal, Vishwakarman, and so on. In Andhra Pradesh (AP), goldsmiths, blacksmiths, carpenters, sculptors and brass workers formed the Viswa Brahmin Sangham for retrieving the vedic phylosophy of viswakarma brahmanism i.e., the creative work is the supreme way of worshiping the Almighty. Viswa-Brahmins comprise 35 percent of the population in Visakhapatnam-I Assembly constituency, the second largest segment after fishermen in the district. Viswa-Brahmins are nine per cent in AP's population.[21]


There are Viswajna Brahmins[Goldsmiths] in Goa, Kulala brahmin[potters] Nayee Brahmins (barbers) Muslim Brahmins, e.g., the group known as Hussaini Brahmin are the disciples of Imam Hussian, grandson of the Muslim prophet Muhammad. (see below for more on these Muslims). This article is about Husayn ibn Ali ibn Abi Talib (626 – 680). ... Muhammad in a new genre of Islamic calligraphy started in the 17th century by Hafiz Osman. ...


Brahmins with the qualities of Kshatriyas are known as 'Brahmakshatriyas'. An example is the avatara Parshurama who destroyed the entire Haiheyas 21 times. Not only did Sage Parashurama have warrior skills but he was so powerful that he could even fight without the use of any weapons and trained others to fight without weapons. The Pallavas were an example of Brahmakshatriyas as that is what they called themselves. King Lalitaditya Muktapida of Kashmir ruled all of India and even Central Asia according to many historians. Parshuram Parashurama Bhargava (Sanskrit: परशुराम भार्गव) or Parasurama (Axe-wielding Rama), the sixth avatar of Vishnu, belongs to the Treta yuga, and is the son of Jamadagni and Renuka. ... The Pallava kingdom (Tamil: பல்லவர்) was an ancient South Indian kingdom. ... Lalitaditya was emperor of Kashmir during 724-760. ... Kashmir (or Cashmere) may refer to: Kashmir region, the northwestern region of the Indian subcontinent India, Kashmir conflict, the territorial dispute between India, Pakistan, and the China over the Kashmir region. ...


Today there is a caste, Brahmakhatris, who are a clan of the Khatris, however this is suspicious since Khatris are a business caste/community of Punjab and belong to the Vaishya caste. Khatri has often been misinterpreted as a variation of the word Kshatriya, meaning warrior, however there are no records of any Khatri kingdoms or empires in Indian history and this claim to Kshatriya is recently made in the 20th century. A Khatri is not a Kshatriya and never was one. ...


Perhaps the word Brahma-kshatriya refers to a person belonging to the heritage of both castes.[22] However, among the Royal Rajput households, brahmins who became the personal teachers and protectors of the Royal princes rose to the status of Raj-Purohit and taught the princes everything including martial arts. They would also become the keepers of the Royal lineage and its history. They would also be the protectors of the throne in case the regent was orphaned and a minor.


Kshatriyan Brahmin is a term associated with people of both caste's components.[23]


The Suta caste are charioters descended from a Kshatriya father and Brahmin mother.[24] Suta is the name of a class of people mentioned in the epic Mahabharata. ...


King Rudravarma of Champa (Vietnam) of 657 A.D. was the son of a Brahmin father. [25] South East Asia circa 1100 C.E. Champa territory in green. ...


King Jayavarma I of Kambuja (Kampuchea) of 781 A.D. was a Brahma-kshatriya. [26] Jayavarman I was the first king of the Khmer empire. ...


Brahmins with the qualities of a Vaisya or merchant are known as 'Brahmvyasya'. An example of such persons are people of the Ambastha[27] caste, which exist in places like South India and Bengal. They perform medical work - they have from ancient times practiced the Ayurveda and have been Vaidyas (or doctors). Ayurveda (Devanagari: ) or Ayurvedic medicine is an ancient system of health care that is native to the Indian subcontinent. ...


Many Pallis of South India claim to be Brahmins (while others claim to be Agnikula Kshatriyas.)[28] Kulaman Pallis are nicknamed by outsiders as Kulaman Brahmans.[29] The Agnikula or Agnivanshi rajputs (Sanskrit: fire-born or fire-clan rajputs), are one of the three main lineages of the Rajput community. ...


Practices

Brahmins adhere to the principles of Brahmanism or Sanatana Dharma or Hinduism, such as acceptance of the Vedas with reverence, adherence to the position that the means or ways to salvation and realization of the ultimate truth are diverse, that God is one, but has innumerable names and forms to chant and worship due to our varied perceptions, cultures and languages. Brahmins believe in Sarvejanāssukhinobhavaṃtu — Let the entire society be happy and prosperous and Vasudhaika kuṭuṃbakaṃ — the whole world is one family. Many Brahmins are reformers. Most Brahmins today practice vegetarianism or lacto-vegetarianism. There are some Brahmins who are non-vegetarians, mainly the Brahmins of cold mountain areas like Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh and Nepal, and coastal areas like Bengal, who are fish eaters. However, even the meat eating Brahmins shun beef in India although some American and Western Brahmins eat beef. Brahmanism, also Brahminism, is the name given to Hinduism by some authors in the 19th century CE.[1] The term is considered derogatory by many Hindus. ... Hinduism is a religious tradition[1] that originated in the Indian subcontinent. ... Veda redirects here. ... This article is about the term God in the context of monotheism and henotheism. ... Vegetarianism is the practice of a diet that excludes all animal flesh, including poultry, game, fish, shellfish or crustacea, and slaughter by-products[1] [2]. The reasons for choosing vegetarianism may be related to morality, religion, culture, ethics, aesthetics, environment, society, economy, politics, taste, or health. ... A lacto vegetarian diet is a vegetarian diet that includes dairy products such as milk, cheese, yogurt, butter, cream, and kefir. ...


Traditional duties

The six duties of Brahmin are given as per the Sloka

adhyāpanam adhyāyānam
yajanam yajanam tathā
dānam pratigraham caiva
brahmanānāmakalpayāt[citation needed]

Teaching, study (svādhyāya), performing Yajna, make performing Yajna, accept Daana, and give Daana are the six duties of a Brahmin. In Hinduism, Svadhyaya is the incorporation of the message of the Bhagavad Gita in ones life. ... In Hinduism, Yajna (Devanagari यज्ञ IAST ; also anglicized as Yagna or Yagya) is a ritual of sacrifice (Monier-Williams gives the meanings worship, prayer, praise; offering, oblation, sacrifice) more commonly practised during Vedic times. ... Dana is a Sanskrit and Pali word meaning generosity or giving. ...

samodamastapah saucham
kshanthirārjavamevaca
jnanam vijnānamāstikyam
brahmakarma svabhavajam[citation needed]

The Brahmins are expected to have control of their emotions, control of senses, purity, truthfulness, tolerance, simplicity, renounce material wealth and have sustenance from other community, belief in God, and studying and teaching of sacred scriptures.


The daily routine[30] includes performing

The last two named Yajnas are performed in only a few households today. Brahmacharis perform Agnikaryam instead of Agnihotra or Aupasana. The other rituals followed include Amavasya tarpanam and Shraddha. Sandhyavandanam is a karma or rite performed thrice a day by Hindus. ... Japa, or Japam, is a spiritual discipline in which a devotee repeats a mantra or the name of the God. ... A puja as performed in Ujjain during the Monsoon on the banks of the overflowing river Shipra. ... Aupasana is a yajna performed on a daily basis by Hindus who have been initiated during marriage for this. ... Agnihotra (अग्निहोत्र) is a Vedic yajna (ritual or sacrifice), performed at dawn and dusk. ... In Hinduism, Yajna (यज्ञ IAST , also anglicized as Yagna or Yagya) is a Vedic ritual of sacrifice (Monier-Williams gives the meanings worship, prayer, praise; offering, oblation, sacrifice), performed to please the Devas, or sometimes to the Supreme Spirit Brahman. ... Brahmachari is a sacred word in India. ... Agnikaryam is the Yajna performed in a loukika agni (worldly fire) by brahmacharis (celibate bachelors). ... Agnihotra (अग्निहोत्र) is a Vedic yajna (ritual or sacrifice), performed at dawn and dusk. ... Aupasana is a yajna performed on a daily basis by Hindus who have been initiated during marriage for this. ... Amavasya - A Hindu Custom Amavasya is nothing but the no-moon day. ... Shraddha are the funeral rites and funeral offerings for the dead among the Hindus. ...


See also: Nitya karma and Kaamya karma Nitya karma refers to those karmas (or rituals) which have to be performed daily by Hindus. ... Kaamya karmas refer to those Karmas (or rituals) in Hinduism which are performed with a specific objective in view. ...


Samskaras

A young Shivalli Brahmin boy during his Upanayana
A young Shivalli Brahmin boy during his Upanayana
Main article: saṃskāra

Brahmins also perform sixteen major Samskaras (rites) during the course of their lifetime.[31] Upanayana is a Hindu samskara for children of the three highest castes. ... Samskaram (Sanskrit accomplishment, embellishment, consecration; Hindi Sanskar) is a word used in both Hinduism and Sikhism for special event in life. ...

  • In the pre-natal stage,
    • Garbhadharana (conception),
    • Pumsavana (rite for consecrating a male child in the womb) and
    • Simantonnayana (rite for parting the hair of a pregnant woman) are performed.
  • During infancy,
    • Jatakarma (birth ceremony),
    • Namakarana (naming ceremony),
    • Nishkarmana (first outing),
    • Annaprasana (first feeding solid food),
    • Choodakarana (first tonsure) and
    • Karnavedha (ear piercing) are performed.
  • During childhood and adolescence of the child,
    • Vidhyarambha (starting of education),
    • Upanayanam (thread ceremony- initiation),
    • Vedarambha (starting of the study of the Vedas),
    • Keshanta or Godana (first shaving of the beard) and
    • Samavartanam or Snaana (ending of studentship) are performed.
  • During adulthood,
    • Vivaha (marriage)
    • Nisheka (first sexual intercourse, 4 days after marriage) and
    • Antyesti (funeral rites) are the main ceremonies.

This is a ritual practiced by Brahmins. ... Choodakarma is a rite performed in Hinduism as part of the sixteen samskaras, wherein ears of the young Hindu children are pierced for the first time. ... It is a ritual practiced by Brahmins. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Upanayana, sometimes known outside India by the name, sacred thread ceremony, is commonly known for being a Hindu rite-of-passage ritual. ... Veda redirects here. ... Samavartanam refers to the ceremony performed after the completion of the brahmacharis stay in the Gurukul. ... The Hindu religion has a deep significance and meaning for the institution of marriage. ... Nishekam is the ritual associated with first sexual intercourse among Brahmins in India. ... Antyesti or Hindu funeral rites, is an important sacrament of Hindu society. ...

Sampradayas

The three sampradayas (traditions) of Brahmins, especially in South India are the Smarta sampradaya, the Srivaishnava sampradaya and the Madhva sampradaya. In Hinduism, a Sampradaya is a tradition of disciplic succession serving as a spiritual channel and encompassing a common philosophy embraced by many schools, groups, or guru lineages (called parampara). ... The geographical south of India includes all Indian territory below the 20th parallel. ... Smartism[1], (or Smarta Sampradaya, Smarta Tradition, as termed in Sanskrit), is a denomination of the Hindu religion. ... Sri Vaishnavism is a hindu sect,the members of which worship lord Maha Vishnu. ... For Madhavacharya the Advaita saint, see Madhava Vidyaranya. ...


Vaishnavism

Srivaishnava sampradaya and the Madhva sampradaya are the two major Vaishnavite sects. From these two were influenced several other Vaishnavite sects such as the Ramananda Sampraday, and Ramdassi Sampraday. The chief propounder of the Sri Vaishnava Sampradaya was Ramanuja while Madhava was the founder of the Madhav Sampraday. The Pushtimarg Sampraday, founded by Vallabh Acharya is yet another sect influenced by the other two major Vaishnavite sect. Sri Vaishnavism is a hindu sect,the members of which worship lord Maha Vishnu. ... For Madhavacharya the Advaita saint, see Madhava Vidyaranya. ... Ramananda was a vaishnava saint, a Ramayat - devotee of Lord Rama. ... Ramanuja (Tamil: ,  [?]; traditionally 1017–1137), also known as Ramanujacharya, was a theologian, philosopher, and scriptural exegete. ... The tone or style of this article or section may not be appropriate for Wikipedia. ...


Vaishnavism included many sect such as the Swaminarayan Sampraday.


There are many members of the Swaminarayan Sampraday founded by Bhagwan Swaminarayan, born as Ghanshyam Pande a Vaishnavite Brahmin of present-day Uttar Pradesh. He later settled in Gujarat, wherein the highest density of sampraday members live. This is a Vaishnavite sect. This sect was founded in the latter part of the 18th century. Swaminarayan Sampraday was the sect established by Bhagwan Swaminarayan (April 2, 1781 - 1830). ... Bhagwan Shree Swaminarayan Swãminãrãyan (April 2, 1781 - 1830) is the central figure of the Swaminarayan faith of Hinduism and is regarded as an incarnation of God. ...


There is also the Varkari Sampraday, which worships Sri Krishna as "Vithal". The word "Varkari" means travelers because members of this sect travel from their home towns on a pilgrimage to Pandharpur, almost always on foot! Important saints of this movement were the Brahmins Dnyaneshwar, Muktabai as well as several non-Brahmin icons. The Varkari tradition is a part of the bhakti spiritual tradition of Hinduism, particularly in the Indian states of Maharashtra And Northern Karnataka. ... This article is about the Hindu deity. ... ‹ The template below is being considered for deletion. ... Vithoba of Pandharpur Pandharpur is a town in district Solapur in state of Maharashtra in Western India. ... Sant Dnyāneshwar / Sant Jñāneshwar (1275-1296) (ज्ञानेश्वर in Marathi) (also known as Jñanadeva - ज्ञानदेव ) was a 13th century saint-poet born in Ahmednagar district of Maharashtra state, west India. ...


There is also the Mahanubhava sampraday founded by King Cakradhara, known popularly to members as Sri Chakradhar Swami, in the 12th century. The members of this sect worship Lord Vishnu in His five forms; Lord Krishna, Lord Sri Dattatreya, Lord Sri Chakrapani, Lord Sri Govindaprabhu, and Lord Cakradhara (the founder Himself). The Mahaanubhaav sect was started by Chakradhar swaami who propagated a religious movement in which all were accepted irrespective of their castes and the traditional ritualistic religion was rejected. ...


Shaivism

The Shaiva Brahmins have important icons such as, Basava Swami of Karnataka, Kungiliya Kalaya Nayanar or Tamil Nadu, and Lakulisa of Gujarat. Basava (also known as Basaveshwara (Kannada:ಬಸವೇಶ್ವರ) or Basavanna(ಬಸವಣ್ಣ) 1134–1196) was a philosopher and a social reformer. ...


Other sects

There are additional sampradayas as well which are not as widely followed as the rest.


The Mahima Dharma or "Satya Mahima Alekha Dharma" was founded by the Brahmin Mukanda Das of present-day Orissa, popularly know by followers as Mahima Swami according to the Bhima Bhoi text.[32] He was born in the last part of 18th century in Baudh ex-state as a son of Ananta Mishra. He was Brahmin by caste as mentioned in Mahima Vinod of Bhima Bhoi in Vol.11. This sampradaya is similar to Vaishnavism. Although the members of this sect do not worship Lord Vishnu as their Ishta-Deva, they believe that the Srimad Bhagavatam is sacred. The founder of this sect was a Vaishnavite before founding the new order.[33] This sampradaya was founded in the latter part of the 18th century.[34] There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... Satya Mahima Dharma (the “dharma of the divine glory�?) is a religious tradition of Orissa which goes back to a historic person called Mahima Svama (or Mahima Gosain). ... For other meanings, see Vishnu (disambiguation). ... Ishta-Deva, or Ishta Devata is a term from Hinduism that means chosen Deity or revered aspect of God by a devotee and is a widely held concept in Smartism. ... The Bhagavata Purana (sometimes rendered as Bhagavatha Purana), also known as the Srimad Bhagavatam, written c. ...


There is also the Avadhoot Panth, wherein Lord Dattertaya and his forms such as Narasimha Saraswati and Sai Baba of Shirdi are worshiped. Lord Dattatreya is worshiped by many as the Hindu trinity - Brahma, Vishnu and Shiva in one divine entity. Many even worship Dattatreya as an avatar of Vishnu or of Shiva. Avadhuta (अवधूत is a term from the Dharmic Religions of India referring to a somewhat eccentric type of mystic or saint who has risen above bodily-consciousness, duality, and worldly concerns and acts without consideration for standard social etiquette. ... In the Natha tradition, Dattatreya is recognized as an Avatar or incarnation of the Lord Shiva and as the Adi-Guru (First Teacher) of the Adi-Nath sampradaya of the Nathas. ... Shri Narasimha Saraswati (Nrusimha Saraswati) is considered the second avatar of Shri Dattatreya. ... Sai Baba of Shirdi (d. ... This article is about the Hindu god of creation. ... For other meanings, see Vishnu (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Shiva (disambiguation). ... This article is about the concept in Hindu philosophy. ... For other uses, see Shiva (disambiguation). ...


Brahmins in Buddhism

Brahmins feature extensively in Buddhist canonical texts i.e. the Tripitaka, and are found among the chief disciples of the Buddha. The Brahmana Varga (section on Brahmins) contained in the Dhammapada lists down the Buddha's views on Brahmins[35] The Tripiṭaka (Sanskrit त्रिपिटक, lit. ... The Dhammapada (Pali, translates as Path of the Dharma. ...


Brahmin bhikshus

  • Abhaya Raja (built Mahabouddha temple with his descendants in Patan, Nepal in year 1604)[36]
  • Asvaghosa (wrote the 'Buddhacharita' and is considered along with Nagarjuna to have founded the Mahayana). His philosophy was favored in the court of King Kanishka.
  • Atapa
  • Bakula[37]
  • Bhitka (Buddha's fifth successor)
  • Cuda Panthaka[38]
  • Dignaga
  • Gopaka[39]
  • Guhyashila[40]
  • Harita[41] (wrote the "Harita Dharmasutra")
  • Humkara[42]
  • Jnanadharma[43]
  • Kacanna[44]
  • Kamashila (Kashmiri Pandit)
  • Kalika[45]
  • Kumarajiva (was imprisoned in China for spreading Buddhism)
  • Kanaka (Yamantaka Tantra)
  • Kukuraja[46]
  • Manjushri (The mentor of Asoka)[47]
  • Padma (woman)
  • Palden Dekyong[48]
  • Pingala-Koccha (preached to the Buddha the Cūlasāropama Sutta, after which he became a dedicated student of the Buddha)
  • Radhasvami (another mentor of Asoka)[49]
  • Majnushrimitra[50]
  • Nagasena[51]
  • Narpola (student of Tipola)
  • Sahara (master of Tipola)
  • Sariputra
  • Shantideva
  • Shantarakshita (Kashmiri Pandit)
  • Subha
  • Subhadra
  • Subrahman (coming father of Bodhisattva Maitreya)
  • Tipola (Mahasiddha, from modern-day Bangladesh)
  • Vakkali
  • Vanavasi[52]

Aśvaghoṣa (?80-?150 CE) (Devanagari: अश्वघोष) was an Indian philosopher-poet, born in Saketa in Central India. ... For other uses, see Nagarjuna (disambiguation). ... Relief image of the bodhisattva Kuan Yin from Mt. ... Dignāga (5th century AD), was an Indian scholar and one of the Buddhist founders of Indian philosophical logic. ... Harit (Harita) Rishi was a sage of the lakulish cult and was a devotee of Lord Shiva (Shri Eklingji). ... Kumārajīva (Chinese: 鳩摩羅什; Jiumoluoshi; also Kiu-kiu-lo, Kiu-mo-lo-che, Kiu-mo-to-tche-po, Tang-cheu) was a Kuchean Buddhist monk and scholar whose father was originally from an Indian noble family, and whose mother was a princess. ... This article is about Ashoka, the emperor. ... Nāgasena was a Buddhist sage who lived about 150 BCE. His answers to questions about Buddhism posed by Menander I (Pali: Milinda), the Indo-Greek king of northwertern India, are recorded in the Milinda Pañha. ... Śāriputra (Sanskrit) or Sāriputta (Pāli); Chinese: 舍利弗 Shelifu was one of two principal disciples of the Buddha. ... Shantideva (sometimes Śantideva, Zh: 寂天) was an 8th-century Indian Buddhist scholar at Nalanda University and an adherent of the Prasangika Madhyamaka philosophy. ... Shantarakshita was an Indian sage, abbot of Nalanda University, a great center of Buddhist scholarship. ... Vanavasi is a panchayat town in Salem district in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu. ...

Brahmin Bodhisattvas

Aryadeva (successor of Nagarjuna) Asangha (from Hinayana sect and Peshwar city founded the Yogacarya and established the Classical age of Buddhism)

  • Nagasena (the famous teacher of the milindapanha)
  • Bodhidharma (royalty of Pallava, from Kanchi) that went to China
  • Brahmadatta
  • Nagarjuna (founded the Shunyata concept and considered along with Asvaghosa to have founded the Mahayana)
  • Vasubandhu (Brother of Asanga and one of founders of the yogacara school - only historical Buddhist to be called the 'second Buddha')
  • Dignaga (5th century Buddhist logician from Kanchipuram)
  • Dharmakirti (7th century Buddhist logician from Andhra)
  • Buddhaghosa (5th century Pali scholar who led the revival of the Theravaada)
  • Kusanda Buddha
  • Konagamana Buddha
  • Kasyapsa Buddha
  • Kshitagarbha
  • Maitreya (Bodhisattva to come)
  • Padmasambhava (founder of Vajrayana Buddhism)

Nāgasena was a Buddhist sage who lived about 150 BCE. His answers to questions about Buddhism posed by Menander I (Pali: Milinda), the Indo-Greek king of northwertern India, are recorded in the Milinda Pañha. ... Bodhidharma (or Tat Moh)(fl. ... For other uses, see Nagarjuna (disambiguation). ... Vasubandhu (Sanskrit. ... Dignāga (5th century AD), was an Indian scholar and one of the Buddhist founders of Indian philosophical logic. ... Dharmakirti (circa 7th century), was an Indian scholar and one of the Buddhist founders of Indian philosophical logic. ... Bhadantācariya Buddhaghosa was a 5th century Indian Theravadin Buddhist commentator and scholar. ... This article is about the Buddhist bodhisattva Maitreya. ... Guru Rinpoche - Padmasambhava statue - near Kullu, India Guru Rinpoche, the patron saint of Sikkim. ...

Scriptures dedicated to Brahmin bhikkus

Because of the aim of the Brahmins, and the Buddha following on their path, several Buddhist texts have been dedicated to them.[53]

  • Annatara Brahmana Sutta: To a Brahmin
  • Aññatra Sutta: To a certain Brahman (SN XII.46)
  • Brahmana Sutta 1: To Unnabha the Brahman
  • Cankii Sutta: To the Brahmin Cankii
  • Esukaari Sutta: To the Brahmin Esukari
  • Janussoni Brahmana Sutta: To the Brahmin Janussoni
  • Ganakamoggallaanasuttam B: To the Brahmin Ganakamoggallaana
  • Paccha-bhumika Sutta: To Brahmins of the Western Land (SN XLII.6)
  • Saleyyaka Sutta A: The Brahmins of Sela
  • Saleyyaka Sutta B: The Brahmans of Salahar"

In kingdoms

There have been Brahmin Buddhists too in Buddhist kingdoms.

  • In Cambodia (Sanskrit Kambhoja) there is an edict saying that King Jayavarman and his son Rudravarman build a monument in dedication of Lord Buddha and appointed a Brahmin to protect it.[54]
  • In Sri Lanka, Maha Adigar was the first Buddhist emperor of Sri Lanka, converting many to Buddhism.[55]
  • In 120 BC, the Indo-Greek King Milinda converted to Buddhism under sage Nagasena.
  • The Shunga Dynasty is thought by neo-Buddhists as an anti-Buddhist dynasty but the Shungas themselves built a stupa dedicated to the Buddha at Baharut.

Nāgasena was a Buddhist sage who lived about 150 BCE. His answers to questions about Buddhism posed by Menander I (Pali: Milinda), the Indo-Greek king of northwertern India, are recorded in the Milinda Pañha. ...

Brahmins in Jainism

  • The first convert of Mahavira, the 24th Tirthankara of Jainism was Indrabhuti (aka Gautamswami) the Brahmin, who headed a group of other Brahmins and converted them to Jainism. He was from the village Gobbar (also called Govarya) near Rajgriha. It is said that at the sight of Gautama, the tapsas who were competing with him to reach the top of a hill once, by seeing the winner Gautama at the top, achieved moksha.[56]
  • Sajjambhava was another born from Rajgriha and was elected the head of the Jain temple. He is famous for his composition of the "Dasavaikalika Sutra."
  • Acharya Vidyanand is a Brahmin of the Dhigambar Jain sect and compiled in the Sanskrit language, "Ashta Shahastri" with eight thousand verses.
  • Acharya Shushil Kumar, known better to Jains as "Guruji", was born a Vaidik in the Shakarpur village of the Haryana province. At the age of 15, he took Diksha (became a sanyassin) into the Sthanakvasi, a Swhetambara sub-sect.
  • There is also a story about a wealthy Brahmin named Dhangiri in the town of Tumbhivan, who, when heard the sermons of the Jain Acharya Sinhgiri, while he regularly listened to but later lost his interest in wealth and decided to take the Diksha.
  • Umasvati was a composer who was so loved by Jains that he is considered by the Dhigambar sect to be a Dhigambar member and the Svetambara sect to be a Svetambara member.

Idol of Lord Mahavira at Shri Mahaveerji (the holy town in Rajasthan named after Mahavira. ... In Jainism, a Tirthankara (Fordmaker) is a human who achieved enlightenment, became a Jiva, and whose religious teachings have formed the canon of Jainism; although not Gods, statues of Tirthankaras are found in temples. ... Jain and Jaina redirect here. ... Jain and Jaina redirect here. ... Rajgir is a city and a notified area in Nalanda district in the Indian state of Bihar. ...

In kingdoms

  • The Jain Acharya Bhadrabahu of Pundravardhana is said to be the preceptor of Chandragupta Maurya of the Mauryan dynasty, grandfather of Ashoka the Buddhist ruler.
  • A copperplate grant from the Gupta period found in the vincity of Somapura mentioned a Brahmin donating land to a Jain vihara at Vatagohali.
  • A Brahmin general by the name of Vasudeva in the army of Kamadeva in the Vijayaditya dynasty had built a temple to Lord Parshvanath.
  • The Kadamba kings of Palasika were Jain Brahmins who supported Jainism and gave land grants and erected many temples and hence, patronised Jainism. This supports the view that Jainism entered South India through the West and perhaps from Ujjayini itself.
  • King Mrigesavarman of the Kadamba dynasty of palasika further went on to give grants to Yapaniyas, Nigranthas and Kurchakas.
  • The Brahmin Haribhadra was a pupil of Jinabhadra (or Jinabhata) and Jinadatta and later received the title of "Suri" (an honorable epithet of learning Jain monks.)

This article is about the historical territory. ... Allegiance: Maurya Dynasty Rank: Emperor Succeeded by: Bindusara Maurya Reign: 322 BC-298 BC Place of birth: Indian subcontinent Chandragupta Maurya (Sanskrit: चन्द्रगुप्त मौर्य; Romanized Greek: Sandrakottos), whilst often referred to as Sandrakottos outside India, is also known simply as Chandragupta (born c. ... The Mauryan empire (321 to 185 BCE), at its largest extent around 230 BCE. The Mauryan empire was Indias first great unified empire. ... Allegiance: Magadhan Empire Rank: Emperor Succeeded by: Dasaratha Maurya Reign: 273 BC-232 BC Place of birth: Pataliputra, India Battles/Wars Kalinga War Emperor Ashoka the Great (Devanagari: अशोक(:); IAST transliteration: , pronunciation: ) (304 BC–232 BC) (Imperial Title:Devanampiya Piyadassi ie He who is the beloved of the Gods who, in... The Gupta Empire under Chandragupta II (ruled 375-415) The Gupta Empire was one of the largest political and military empires in the world. ...

Contributions to modern India

Brahmins have immensely contributed to the making of modern India and to the world in fields such as literature, science and technology, politics, culture, and religion.


Brahmins traditionally played an extraordinary role in the spread of knowledge, sustaining the culture and revitalizing the Indian society for millennia. Recently, in the freedom movement and national reformation movements they proved their mettle by playing their traditional role as usual. Brahmins' contribution in fighting against the British imperialism was immense.


Their role and participation was great in various legislative bodies. During the Indian independence movement, many Brahmins, including Nana Sahib, Rani Laxmibai of Jhansi, Tatya Tope, Chandrashekar Azad, Womesh Chandra Bonnerjee, Balgangadhar Tilak, Gopal Krishna Gokhale, Rajguru, Ramprasad Bismil, Vinayak Damodar Savarkar, C. Rajagopalachari, Gobind Ballabh Pant, Kamalapati Tripathi, Ravishankar Shukla, Kailashnath Katju, Sir Tej Bahadur Sapru, Motilal Nehru, DP Misra, Shyama Prasad Mukherjee, to name just a few, were at the forefront of the struggle for freedom and later Indian politics. Jawaharlal Nehru, the first Prime Minister of India and Sarvapalli Radhakrishnan, the first Vice President of India, were also Brahmins. Even veteran Communist leaders like Manabendra Nath Roy, E.M.S. Namboodiripad, Hiren Mukherjee, S.M. Dange and many others were Brahmins. The term Indian independence movement is diffused, incorporating various national and regional campaigns, agitations and efforts of both Nonviolent and Militant philosophy and involved a wide spectrum of Indian political organizations, philosophies, and movements which had the common aim of ending the British Colonial Authority as well as other colonial... For Peshwa Balaji Bajirao of Pune, see Nanasaheb Peshwa. ... Lakshmibai, The Rani of Jhansi (c. ... Tatya Tope also known as Ram Chandra Pandurang was born in 1814 at village Gola in Maharashtra. ... ... Womesh Chandra Bonnerjee (December 29, 1844 - 1906) was the first president of Indian National Congress. ... Lokmanya Tilak Introduction Bal Gangadhar Tilak (July 2, 1856_August 1, 1920) was a political activist for Indian independence who was imprisoned for his activities. ... Gopal Krishna Gokhale (गोपाल कृष्‍ण गोखले) born May 9, 1866, in Kolhat, Maharashtra, India was one of the founding social and political leaders during the Indian Independence Movement against the British Empire in India. ... Categories: Possible copyright violations ... RAMPRASAD BISMIL. Ramprasad Bismil was a revolutionary in the Indian Independence Movement. ... Vinayak Damodar Savarkar Vināyak Dāmodar Sāvarkar (Marathi: विनायक दामोदर सावरकर) (May 28, 1883 – February 26, 1966) was an Indian politician and activist, who is credited with developing the Hindu nationalist political ideology Hindutva. ... Chakravarthi Rajagopalachari (Tamil: சக்ரவர்தி ராஜகோபாலாச்சாரி) (b. ... Kamalapati Tripathi was a veteran Congress leader from Varanasi. ... Tej Bahadur Sapru (1875–1949) was a eminent lawyer and leader during Indias struggle against British rule. ... The family of Motilal Nehru, who is seated in the centre. ... Redirect to Syama Prasad Mookerjee Categories: 1901 births | 1952 deaths ... Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru (Hindi: , IPA: (November 14, 1889 – May 27, 1964) was a major political leader of the Congress Party, a pivotal figure in the Indian independence movement and the first Prime Minister of independent India. ... The Prime Minister of India is, in practice, the most powerful person in the Government of India. ... Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan (September 5, 1888 - April 17, 1975) is best known as the man who introduced the thinking of western idealist philosophers into Indian thought. ... Manabendra Nath Roy (March 21, 1887 – January 25, 1954) was an Bengali Indian revolutionary, philosoper, political theorist and activist as well as the exponent of the philosophy of Radical Humanism. ... Elankulam Manakkal Sankaran Namboodiripad (1909–1998), popularly known as EMS, was one of the architects of unified Kerala. ...


Other Brahmins who became prime ministers of India are Indira Gandhi, Morarji Desai, P.V. Narasimha Rao and Atal Behari Vajpayee. A young Indira Nehru and Mahatma Gandhi, during one of the latters fasts Indira Priyadarshini Gandhi (Hindi: ) (19 November 1917 - October 31, 1984) She was the Prime Minister of India for three consecutive terms from 1966 to 1977 and for a fourth term from 1980 until her assassination in... Morarji Ranchhodji Desai (Hindi: ) (February 29, 1896 – April 10, 1995) was an Indian freedom fighter and the first Prime Minister that did not belong to the Indian Congress Party. ... Pamulaparthi Venkata Narasimha Rao (June 28, 1921 - December 23, 2004) was the ninth Prime Minister of the Republic of India. ... Atal Bihari Vajpayee (often wrongly spelt Behari; अटल बिहारी वाजपेयी in Devnagari) (born December 25, 1924) was the Prime Minister of India in 1996 and again from 1998 until May 19, 2004. ...


Among the great Brahmin scholars and writers are Panini, Patanjali,Kalidas, Chanakya,Banabhatta,Goswami Tulsidas, Sur Das, Saint Dnyaneshwar, Eknath, Samarth Ramdas.Nobel laureates Rabindranath Tagore and and others like Jiddu Krishnamurthy, Hazariprasad Dwivedi,Sumitranandan Pant,Subramanya Bharathy, Tarashankar Bandopadhyay, Suryakant Tripathi Nirala, Sarat Chandra Chattopadhyay, Bankim Chandra Chatterjee, Srilal Shukla and Manohar Shyam Joshi. Other great Brahmin scholars include Pandurang Vaman Kane, Ram Sharan Sharma,(Bhumihar) and Debiprasad Chattopadhyaya, Panini can refer to: Pāṇini, the 5th century BC Sanskrit grammarian Panini (sandwich), a type of Italian sandwich Panini (stickers), a brand of collectible stickers Giovanni Paolo Panini, an Italian artist This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Patañjali, is the compiler of the Yoga Sutra, a major work containing aphorisms on the practical and philosophical wisdom regarding practice of Raja yoga. ... Kalidas (कालिदास) is considered one of Indias greatest Sanskrit poets and dramatists. ... Chanakya- The Great Politics and Education Guru (Master) of India The court of Chandragupta Maurya, especially Chanakya, played an important part in the foundation and governance of the Maurya dynasty. ... Banabhatta, also known as Bana, was a Sanskrit scholar of 7th century India. ... GosvāmÄ« TulsÄ«dās (1532-1623; DevanāgarÄ«: तुलसीदास) was an Awadhi poet and philosopher. ... Surdas was a Hindu poet, saint and musician of India. ... Dnyaneshwar (1275-1296) was a Hindu saint and poet who lived in Alandi Maharashtra, India at the end of the thirteenth century. ... Sant Eknath (1533 - 1599) was one of the remarkable saints of Maharashtra, India. ... Samarth Ramdas Samarth Ramdas (Marathi: समर्थ रामदास) (1608-1681) is considered one of the greatest Hindu saints of Indian history. ... Look up Nobel in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... (Bengali: , IPA: ) (7 May 1861 – 7 August 1941), also known by the sobriquet Gurudev, was a Bengali poet, Brahmo Samaj philosopher, visual artist, playwright, novelist, and composer whose works reshaped Bengali literature and music in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. ... Acharya Hazariprasad Dwivedi (हजारी प्रसाद द्विवेदी) (1907 – 1979) was a Hindi novelist, literary historian, essayist, critic and scholar. ... Sumitranandan Pant (सुमित्रानन्‍दन पंत) (1900 - December 28, 1977) was one of the most famous modern Hindi poets. ... Mahakavi Bharathi 1882-1921 Subramanya Bharathi (December 11, 1882 - September 11, 1921) better known as Mahakavi Bharathiar (Maha Kavi meaning Great Poet) in Tamil, is deemed one of the greatest poets of twentieth-century India. ... Tarasankar Bandopadhya (23 July 1887 -14 September 1971) at Lavpur, Birbhum in the state of West Bengal. ... Suryakant Tripathi Nirala (1896-October 15, 1961) was one of the most famous figures of the modern Hindi literature. ... Sarat Chandra Chattopadhyay, also known as Sarat Chandra Chatterjee (15 September 1876 - 16 January 1938) was a popular Bengali novelist of early 20th century India. ... Bankim Chandra Chatterjee (Chattopadhyay in the original Bengali; Chatterjee as spelt by the British) was an Indian poet and author, most famous as the composer of Vande Mataram. ... Manohar Shyam Joshi born August 9, 1933 at Ajmer in Rajasthan,(died March 30, 2006) was a Hindi writer and is often called the Father of Indian Soap Operas. His popular creations Hum Log and Buniyad have influenced an entire generation of Indians. ... Dr. Pandurang Vaman Kane (1880-1972) was a famous Indologist and Sanskrit scholar. ... Debiprasad Chattopadhyaya is an eminent Indian Marxist philosopher who has given extensive contribution towards exploring the materialist current in ancient Indian Philosophy. ...


Great Brahmin scientists include Aryabhatta, Varahamihira, Brahmagupta, Nobel Laureates Sir C.V.Raman and his nephew Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar, the agricultural scientist M. S. Swaminathan, the ethno-sociologist MN Srinivas and the modern genius of mathematics Srinivasa Ramanujan, Shakuntala Devi and C. P. Ramanujam. Raja Ramanna, who was instrumental in making India a nuclear weapons state, was also a Brahmin. Aryabhata (आर्यभट) (Āryabhaṭa) is the first of the great astronomers of the classical age of India. ... Varahamihira (505 – 587) was an Indian astronomer, mathematician, and astrologer born in Ujjain. ... Brahmagupta (ब्रह्मगुप्त) ( ) (589–668) was an Indian mathematician and astronomer. ... Winners of the Nobel prize are scientists, writers and peacemakers who have been awarded in their field of endeavour, and who are known collectively as either Nobel laureates or Nobel Prize winners. ... Chandrasekhara Venkata Raman Sir Chandrasekhara Venkata Raman, CBE (Tamil: சந்திரசேகர வெங்கடராமன்) (November 7, 1888-November 21, 1970) was an Indian physicist, who was awarded the 1930 Nobel Prize in Physics for his work on the scattering of light and for the discovery of the Raman effect, which is named after him. ... Chandrasekhar redirects here. ... Monkombu Sambasivan Swaminathan (Tamil: ) is an Indian agriculture scientist, born August 7, 1925, in Kumbakonam, Tamilnadu, The second of four sons of a surgeon. ... Ramanujan redirects here. ... Shakuntala Devi is a calculating prodigy who was born on November 4, 1939 in Bangalore, India. ... Chidambaram Padmanabhan Ramanujam (9 January 1938 in Madras, India – 27 October 1974 in Bangalore, India) was an Indian mathematician who worked on number theory and algebraic geometry. ... Raja Ramanna (1925 - September 23, 2004), was an Indian nuclear scientist and was associated with the countrys first nuclear test in 1974. ...


In the field of sports there's a long list of names in cricket - Sachin Tendulkar, Sunil Gavaskar, Ravi Shastri, Saurav Ganguly, Rahul Dravid, VVS Laxman, Anil Kumble, Ishant Sharma, Krishnamachari Srikkanth and many more; the world chess champion Vishwanathan Anand. Tendulkar redirects here. ... Sunil Manohar Gavaskar   (Marathi:सुनिल मनोहर गावसकर) (born July 10, 1949 at Bombay, Maharashtra), nicknamed Sunny, was a cricket player during the 1970s and 1980s for Bombay and India. ... Ravishankar (Ravi) Jayadritha Shastri   (born 27 May 1962 in Mumbai (Bombay), India) is a former Indian cricketer. ... Saurav Chandidas Ganguly (first name also spelt Sourav) (born 8 July 1972, in Calcutta, West Bengal) was the captain of Indian cricket team from 2000-2005. ... Rahul Sharad Dravid (Kannada:ರಾಹುಲ್ ಶರದ್ ದ್ರಾವಿಡ,Marathi:राहुल शरद द्रविड )   (b. ... Vangipurappu Venkata Sai Laxman (born November 1, 1974, in Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh), better known as V. V. S. Laxman, is a member of the Indian national cricket team. ... Anil Radhakrishna Kumble (Kannada:ಅನಿಲ್‌ ರಾಧಾಕೃಷ್ಣ ಕುಂಬ್ಳೆ)   (born 17 October 1970 in Bangalore, Karnataka) is an Indian cricketer and currently the highest wicket-taker for India in both One-day International and Test matches. ... Ishant Sharma (born September 2, 1988, in Delhi, India), is an Indian cricketer, more specifically a right arm fast bowler at pace around 145 km/h (90 mph). ... Krishnamachari Kris Srikkanth (born 21 December 1959 in Chennai, India) is a former Indian cricket player. ... Viswanathan Anand (born December 11, 1969) is an Indian chess grandmaster. ...


In entertainment, there's the legendary Lata Mangeshkar, Hrishikesh Mukherji, Basu Chatterji,Ashok Kumar, Kishore Kumar, Abhijeet, Alka Yagnik, Madhuri Dixit and many more. Tansen, the immortal musician of Akbar's court was born a Brahmin. Anupam Kher, Mausumi Chatterji, Chunki Pande, Hema Malini are also Brahmins. Lata Mangeshkar (Marathi/Hindi:लता मंगेशकर) (born September 28, 1929) is an Indian singer. ... Sanjay Ashok Kumar (Hindi: अशोक कुमार, Urdu: اَشوک کُمار) (October 13, 1911 – December 10, 2001) was an Indian Bollywood actor. ... Kishore Kumar (August 4, 1929 – October 13, 1987) was an Indian film playback singer and comic actor. ... For Indian Idol winner, see Abhijeet Sawant. ... Alka Yagnik (born March 20, 1966[1] in Calcutta, West Bengal, India) is an Indian singer. ... Madhuri Dixit (Marathi: माधुरी दीक्षित) (born Madhuri Shankar Dixit on May 15, 1967) is an award-winning Indian Bollywood actress. ... Tansen (possibly imaginary likeness created much later) Miyan Tansen (1493 or 1506 – 1586 or 1589) is considered among the greatest composer musicians in Hindustani classical music. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ...


In classical music, there's the legendary Bhimsen Joshi. Pandit Bhimsen Gururaj Joshi (Born February 04, 1922) is a renowned vocalist in India, . A descendant of the Kirana Gharana (stream) of Hindustani classical music tradition, he is particularly renowned for Khayal form singing. ...


See also

To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Brahmin communities in India are traditionally divided into two regional groups: Pancha-Gauda Brahmins and Pancha-Dravida Brahmins according to the following shloka found in the Rajatarangini of Kalhana (12th century): The Karnatakas, Tailangas, Dravidas, Maharashtrakas and Gurjaras; these five (-types who- ) live south of Vindhya (- mountains) are (called-) Dravida... Bhumihar Brahmins also known as Bhumihars (भूमिहार) are an influential Hindu sub-caste who have traditionally resided in fertile regions of Indo-Gangetic plains of North India, in the states of Bihar, Uttar Pradesh and Jharkhand. ... Maithil Brahmins ( s is the correct Sanskrit term) form part of ancient Vedic Brahmins. ... Brahmanism, also Brahminism, is the name given to Hinduism by some authors in the 19th century CE.[1] The term is considered derogatory by many Hindus. ... Forward castes or Upper castes are terminology used in India to denote people from any religion who do not qualify currently for quota benefits of Government of India for Backward castes, scheduled castes and tribes [10] The Government of India does not publish a separate list of forward castes. ... The Social Cycle Theory, also known as the Law of Social Cycle is a theory of social motivity propounded by the Indian philosopher and religious leader P.R. Sarkar. ...

Notes

  1. ^ For definition of the noun ब्राह्मणः brāhmaṇaḥ as "1. A man belonging to the first of the four classes (varṇas instead of castes in Apte's Skt-Hindi dictionary) of the Hindus, a Brāhmaṇa(priest) (born from the mouth of the Purusha)"; and the adjective ब्राह्मण brāhmaṇa as "a. 1. Belonging to a Brāhmaṇa", and other meanings, see: Apte 1965, p. 707 ,Apte 1966, p. 724-25 ; on p.901 of the latter, Apte gave one of the meanings of varṇa as caste but qualified it with a statement :"mainly people of four varṇas of brāhmaṇa (scholars,priests), kṣatriya (warriors), vaiśya (merchants), śudra (artisans)", and did not permit use of the term varṇa for any caste other than these four.
  2. ^ For definition of ब्राह्मण brāhmaṇa, with last syllable showing a Vedic accent, used as a noun as "m. (having to do with Brahman or divine knowledge), one learned in the Veda, theologian, priest, Brāhman, man of the first four castes"; and definition of ब्राह्मण brāhmaṇa, with only first syllable showing a Vedic accent, used as an adjective as "a. (i) belonging to a Brāhman, Brāhmanic", see: Macdonell 1924, p. 199.
  3. ^ For definition of brāhmaṇa, with last syllable showing Vedic accents, as a noun, "m., one who has divine knowledge, a Brāhman. a man belonging to the 1st of the 3 twice-born classes and of the 4 original divisions of the Hindū body", and the adjective brāhmaṇa, with first syllable showing a Vedic accent, as "relating to or given by a Brāhman, befitting or becoming a Br., Brāhmanical", see: Monier-Williams, p. 741, middle column. Cf. Rgveda, Pune Edition, vol-5 (index), p.408 in which all occurrences of brāhmaṇa as first person singular show anudātta (absence of accent) on first two syllables.
  4. ^ For definition of the neuter noun brahman (with Vedic accent on first syllable) as "n. the class of men who are the repositories and communicators of sacred knowledge, the Bramānical caste as a body (rarely an individual Brāhman)"; and the masuline noun brahman (with Vedic accent on final syllable) as "one who prays, a devout or religious man, a Brāhman who is a knower of Vedic texts or spells, one versed in sacred knowledge", see: MW, pp. 737-738.
  5. ^ Monier-Williams : inspired, inwardly stirred, wise, learned, etc.
  6. ^ 'Dvija was used more frequently for Brahmins, but it also included Kṣatriyas and Vaiśyas who were "reborn through investiture with the sacred thread" - Monier-Williams.
  7. ^ A detailed article on Brahmins at Vepachedu Educational Foundation[1]
  8. ^ Brāhmanotpatti Martanda, cf. Dorilal Sharma, p.41-42
  9. ^ A detailed article on various castes and groups of Brahmins at www.vedah.net[2]
  10. ^ P. 849 Gujarat State Gazetteers By Gujarat (India), 1984
  11. ^ P. 849 Gujarat State Gazetteers By Gujarat (India), 1984
  12. ^ A detailed article on Brahmins of Andhra Pradesh at Vepachedu Educational Foundation[3]
  13. ^ A detailed article on Gotras of Brahmins at Vepachedu Educational Foundation[4]
  14. ^ A detailed article on Gotras and pravaras of Brahmins at Vepachedu Educational Foundation [5]
  15. ^ Manu Smriti on learning of the Vedas
  16. ^ A detailed article on various sects and rishis of Brahmins at Vepachedu Educational Foundation [6]
  17. ^ The Life of Buddha as Legend and History, by Edward Joseph Thomas
  18. ^ (Bhanu, B. V., P. 948, People of India)
  19. ^ P. 17 Classical Dictionary of Hindu Mythology and Religion, Geography, History and Literature By John Dowson
  20. ^ (P. 227 History of Indian Theatre By Manohar Laxman Varadpande)
  21. ^ [7] and [8]
  22. ^ P. 201, Professor A.L. Basham, My Guruji and Problems and Perspectives of Ancient ...By Sachindra Kumar Maity
  23. ^ P. 29 Cultural History from the Matsyapurāṇa By Sureshachandra Govindlal Kantawala
  24. ^ P. 587 Agni Purāṇam By Manmatha Nath Dutt
  25. ^ P. 201, Professor A.L. Basham, My Guruji and Problems and Perspectives of Ancient ...By Sachindra Kumar Maity
  26. ^ P. 201, Professor A.L. Basham, My Guruji and Problems and Perspectives of Ancient ...By Sachindra Kumar Maity
  27. ^ P. 37 Asian Medical Systems: A Comparative Study By Charles Leslie
  28. ^ P. 13 Castes And Tribes Of Southern India By Edgar Thurston, K. Rangachari
  29. ^ P. 13 Castes And Tribes Of Southern India By Edgar Thurston, K. Rangachari
  30. ^ A day in the life of a Brahmin
  31. ^ The Forty Samskaras
  32. ^ "Mahima Dharma, Bhima Bhoi and Biswanathbaba"
  33. ^ "Mahima Dharma, Bhima Bhoi and Biswanathbaba"
  34. ^ "Mahima Dharma, Bhima Bhoi and Biswanathbaba"
  35. ^ Brahmanavagga - The Holy Man
  36. ^ http://www.catmando.com/casinosnepal/july/buddhist.htm Mahabouddha temple
  37. ^ http://www.luxlapis.co.za/arahats.htm Arhants
  38. ^ arahats
  39. ^ arahats
  40. ^ Contents
  41. ^ From the Caves and Jungles of Hindustan Chapter III
  42. ^ Glossary from The Great Image - RangjungYesheWiki
  43. ^ Manjushri
  44. ^ Babad Gumi
  45. ^ arahats
  46. ^ Dog
  47. ^ A Record of Buddhistic Kingdoms, by Fa-hsien (chapter27)
  48. ^ shambhala.com
  49. ^ A Record of Buddhistic Kingdoms, by Fa-hsien (chapter27)
  50. ^ Keith Dowman / Dzogchen Masters
  51. ^ Nagasena presented in Non Famous section
  52. ^ arahats
  53. ^ Web Page Under Construction
  54. ^ http://www.deccanherald.com/deccanherald/Mar272005/ac2.asp
  55. ^ Peoples of Art
  56. ^ P.21 Jaina-rūpa-maṇḍana =: Jaina Iconography By Umakant Premanand Shah

Photo of Monier Monier-Williams by Lewis Carroll Sir Monier Monier-Williams (1819-1899) studied, documented and taught Asian languages in England, and compiled one of the most widely-used Sanskrit-English dictionaries. ... Photo of Monier Monier-Williams by Lewis Carroll Sir Monier Monier-Williams (1819-1899) studied, documented and taught Asian languages in England, and compiled one of the most widely-used Sanskrit-English dictionaries. ...

References

  • Apte, Vaman Shivram (1965), The Practical Sanskrit-English Dictionary (Fourth Revised and Enlarged ed.), New Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 81-208-0567-4 .
  • Apte, Vaman Shivram (1966), Sanskrit-Hindi Koṣa (Reprint 1997 ed.), New Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass .
  • Macdonell, Arthur Anthony (1924), A Practical Sanskrit Dictionary (1966 ed.), New Delhi: Manoharlal Publishers Pvt. Ltd., ISBN 81-215-0715-4 .
  • Monier-Williams, Monier (1899), A Sanskrit-English Dictionary, Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass, <http://www.ibiblio.org/sripedia/ebooks/mw/> .
  • Sontakke, N. S., ed. (1972), Rgveda-Samhitā: Śrimat-Sāyanāchārya virachita-bhāṣya-sametā (First ed.), Pune: Vaidika Samśodhana Maṇḍala . The Editorial Board for the First Edition included N. S. Sontakke (Managing Editor), V. K. Rājvade, M. M. Vāsudevaśāstri, and T. S. Varadarājaśarmā. This work is entirely in Sanskrit.
  • A History of Brahmin Clans (Brāhmaṇa Vaṃshõ kā Itihāsa) in Hindi, by Dorilāl Śarmā,published by Rāśtriya Brāhamana Mahāsabhā, Vimal Building, Jamirābād, Mitranagar, Masūdābād,Aligarh-1, 2nd ed-1998. (This Hindi book contains the most exhaustive list of Brahmana gotras and pravaras together their real and mythological histories).
  • Mayne's "Treatise on Hindu Law and Usage.
  • Kane, Pandurang Vaman, "History of dharmasastra" (ancient and mediæval religious and civil law in India)
  • Hindu Castes and Sects Jogendranath Bhattacharya.
  • Andhra Viprula Gotramulu, Indla Perlu, Sakhalu by Emmesroy Sastri.
  • History and Culture of Andhra Pradesh Rao PR.
  • History of India Herman Kulke and Dietmar Rothermund.
  • Acharalu sastriyata Narayanareddi Patil.
  • Hindu Manners, Customs, and Ceremonies Abbe J. A. Dubois
  • (Manusmriti) :Translation by G. Bühler (1886). Sacred Books of the East: The Laws of Manu (Vol. XXV). Oxford.  Available online as The Laws of Manu

Photo of Monier Monier-Williams by Lewis Carroll Sir Monier Monier-Williams (1819–1899) studied, documented and taught Asian languages in England, and compiled one of the most widely-used Sanskrit-English dictionaries. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
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In India, a Brahmin is "a member of the highest or priestly caste among the Hindus," according to the Oxford English Dictionary.
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