Numeral systems | Hindu-Arabic system Abjad Armenian Attic (Greek) Babylonian **Brahmi** Chinese Cyrillic D'ni (fictitious) Egyptian Etruscan Greek Hebrew Ionian (Greek) Japanese Khmer Korean Mayan Roman Unary (1) Binary (2) Ternary (3) Quaternary (4) Quinary (5) Senary (6) Septenary (7) Octal (8) Nonary (9) Decimal (10) Undecimal (11) Duodecimal (12) Tridecimal (13) Hexadecimal (16) Vigesimal (20) Quadrovigesimal (24) Hexavigesimal (26) Septemvigesimal (27) Trigesimal (30) Duotrigesimal (32) Sexatrigesimal (36) Sexagesimal (60) Quadrosexagesimal (64) A numeral is a symbol or group of symbols that represents a number. ...
This article is about the Hindu-Arabic numeral system. ...
// Origins The Hindu-Arabic numeral system originated from the Hindu numeral system, which is a pure place value system, that requires a zero. ...
Hindu-Arabic numerals also known as Arabic Numerals, Hindu numerals, European numerals, and Western numerals are the most common set of symbols used to represent numbers around the world. ...
India has produced many numeral systems. ...
The Abjad numerals are a numeral system which was used in the Arabic-speaking world prior to the use of the Arabic numerals (which are actually of Indian origin). ...
Attic numerals were used by ancient Greeks, possibly from the 7th century BC. They were also known as Herodianic numerals because they were first described in a 2nd century manuscript by Herodianus. ...
Babylonian numerals were written in cuneiform, using a wedge-tipped reed stylus to make a mark on a soft clay tablet which would be exposed in the sun to harden to create a permanent record. ...
Cyrillic numerals was a numbering system derived from the Cyrillic alphabet, used by South and East Slavic peoples. ...
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The Etruscan numerals were used by the ancient Etruscans. ...
The system of Hebrew numerals is a quasi-decimal alphabetic numeral system using the letters of the Hebrew alphabet. ...
Ionian numerals were used by the ancient Greeks, possibly before the 7th century BC. They are also known by the names Milesian numerals or Alexandrian numerals. ...
Khmer numerals are the numerals used in the Khmer language of Cambodia. ...
The Pre-Columbian Maya civilization used a vigesimal (base-twenty) numeral system. ...
The system of Roman numerals is a numeral system originating in ancient Rome, and was adapted from Etruscan numerals. ...
The unary numeral system is the simplest numeral system to represent natural numbers: in order to represent a number N, an arbitrarily chosen symbol is repeated N times. ...
The binary numeral system represents numeric values using two symbols, typically 0 and 1. ...
Ternary is the base-3 numeral system. ...
Quaternary is the base four numeral system. ...
Quinary (base-five) is a numeral system with five as the base. ...
A senary numeral system is a base-six numeral system. ...
The septenary numeral system is the base seven number system, and uses the digits 0-6. ...
The octal numeral system is the base-8 number system, and uses the digits 0 to 7. ...
Nonary is a base 9 numeral system, typically using the digits 0-8, but not the digit 9. ...
It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with decimal representation. ...
The undecimal positional notation system is based on the number eleven, rather than ten as in decimal or eight in octal and so on. ...
A duodecimal multiplication table The duodecimal (also known as base-twelve or dozenal) system is a numeral system using twelve as its base. ...
Base 13 is a nonstandard positional numeral system. ...
In mathematics and computer science, hexadecimal, or simply hex, is a numeral system with a radix or base of 16 usually written using the symbols 0â€“9 and Aâ€“F or aâ€“f. ...
The vigesimal or base-twenty numeral system is based on twenty (in the same way in which the ordinary decimal numeral system is based on ten). ...
As there are 24 hours in a day a numbering system based upon 24, and as the base 12 is convenient here some examples of the base 24 (quadrovigesimal) system. ...
A Hexavigesimal numeral system has a base of twenty-six. ...
A Septemvigesimal numeral system has a base of twenty-seven. ...
Base 30 or trigesimal is a positional numeral system using 30 as the radix. ...
Base32 is a derivation of Base64 with the following additional properties: The resulting character set is all uppercase, which can often be beneficial when using a case-sensitive filesystem. ...
Base 36 refers to a positional numeral system using 36 as the radix. ...
The sexagesimal (base-sixty) is a numeral system with sixty as the base. ...
Base 64 literally means a positional numbering system using a base of 64. ...
| edit | The **Brahmi numerals** are an indigenous Indian numeral system attested from the 3^{rd} century BCE (somewhat later in the case of most of the tens). They are the direct graphic ancestors of the modern Indic and Hindu-Arabic numerals. However, they were conceptually distinct from these later systems, as they were not used as a positional system with a zero. Rather, there were separate numerals for each of the tens (10, 20, 30, etc.). There were also symbols for 100 and 1000 which were combined in ligatures with the units to signify 200, 300, 2000, 3000, etc. India has produced many numeral systems. ...
Hindu-Arabic numerals also known as Arabic Numerals, Hindu numerals, European numerals, and Western numerals are the most common set of symbols used to represent numbers around the world. ...
Zero can refer to several things. ...
The word ligature can mean more than one thing. ...
## Origins
The source of the first three numerals seems clear: they are collections of 1, 2, and 3 strokes, like the modern Chinese numerals. However, the other unit numerals appear to be arbitrary symbols in even the oldest inscriptions. It is sometimes supposed that they may also have come from collections of strokes, run together in cursive writing in a way similar to that attested in the development of Egyptian hieratic and demotic numerals, but this is unsupported by any direct evidence. Likewise, the units for the tens are not obviously related to each other or to the units, although 10, 20, 80, 90 appear to be based on a circle. Today, speakers of Chinese use three numeral systems: There is the ubiquitous system of Arabic digits and two ancient Chinese numeral systems. ...
Development of hieratic script from hieroglyphs; after Champollion. ...
Demotic (disambiguation) The term Demotic can refer to: The Demotic Greek dialect of the Greek language. ...
**Brahmi numerals** in the first century CE The sometimes rather striking graphic similarity they have with the hieratic and demotic Egyptian numerals is not good evidence of a historical connection, as many cultures have independently recorded numbers as collections of strokes — witness the Roman numerals, for example. With a similar writing instrument, the cursive forms of such groups of strokes could easily be broadly similar as well. Indian Numerals 100AD File links The following pages link to this file: Arabic numerals ...
The system of Roman numerals is a numeral system originating in ancient Rome, and was adapted from Etruscan numerals. ...
Another possibility is that the numerals were acrophonic, like the Attic numerals, and based on the Kharosthi alphabet. For instance, *chatur* 4 has a ¥ shape much like the Kharosthi letter *ch*; *panca* 5 looks remarkably like Kharosthi *p*; and so on through *shat* 6, *sapta* 7, and *nava* 9 (Kharosthi *sh, s, n*). In an acrophonic alphabet the initial (Greek: acro) sound (phonos) of a word gives the name to the whole. ...
Attic numerals were used by ancient Greeks, possibly from the 7th century BC. They were also known as Herodianic numerals because they were first described in a 2nd century manuscript by Herodianus. ...
The Kharoṣṭhī script, also known as the Gāndhārī script, is an ancient alphabetic script used by the Gandhara culture of historic northwest India to write the Gandhari and Sanskrit languages (the Gandhara kingdom was located along the present-day border between Afghanistan and Pakistan between the Indus River and the...
However, both suggestions are purely speculative at this point, with no evidence to decide between them. |