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Encyclopedia > Brahmanism

Brahmanism, also Brahminism, is the name given to Hinduism by some authors in the 19th century CE.[1] The term is considered derogatory by many Hindus.[2] Today's practice in most scholarly works is to use the term Hinduism. Some anti-Hindu groups use the term to denigrate Hinduism by making it refer to a rigid adherence to caste and untouchability. {{Hinduism small} Hinduism (Sanskrit/Devanagari: , , also known as , ) is a religion that originated on the Indian subcontinent. ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Common Era (CE), sometimes known as the Current Era or as the Christian Era, is the period of measured time beginning with the year 1 on the Gregorian calendar. ... This article discusses the adherents of Hinduism. ... Anti-Hindu propaganda launched by Fundamentalist sects of Christianity Anti-Hindu prejudice is a negative perception against Hinduism, Hindus and Indian or Hindu culture. ... {{Hinduism small} Hinduism (Sanskrit/Devanagari: , , also known as , ) is a religion that originated on the Indian subcontinent. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... In South Asias caste system, an untouchable, dalit, or achuta is a person outside of the four castes, and considered below them. ...

Contents

History

In India and Nepal, Brahmins, being members of the highest caste, historically enjoyed high social status as being traditionally learned and many for their religious knowledge. Young Indian brahmachari Brahmin A Brahmin (less often Brahman) is a member of the Hindu priestly caste. ... Social status is the standing, the honour or prestige attached to ones position in society. ...


The Vaishya were artisans and craftsmen and later connected with trade, the cultivation of the land and the breeding of cattle; while those of a Kshatriya consist in ruling and defending the people, administering justice, and the duties, of the military profession generally. Both share with the Brahman the privilege of reading the Veda, but only so far as it is taught and explained to them by their spiritual preceptor. To the Brahman belongs the right of teaching and expounding the sacred texts, and also that of interpreting and determining the law and the rules of caste. Shudras were farmers and agricultural workers, and performed traditionally the agriculture related work. In the Hindu varna system, a Vaishya (Sanskrit वैश्य vaiśya) is a member of the third of the four only [[varnas] of the varna system of traditional Indian society. ... A fruit stand at a market. ... Farming, ploughing rice paddy, in Indonesia Agriculture is the process of producing food, feed, fiber and other desired products by cultivation of certain plants and the raising of domesticated animals (livestock). ... Binomial name Bos taurus Linnaeus, 1758 Cattle (often called cows in vernacular and contemporary usage, or kye as the Scots plural of cou) are domesticated ungulates, a member of the subfamily Bovinae of the family Bovidae. ... Kshatriya (Hindi: , from Sanskrit: , ) is the title of the princely military order in the Vedic society. ... J.L. Urban, statue of Lady Justice at court building in Olomouc, Czech Republic Justice is the ideal, morally correct state of things and persons. ...


At the top of the social pyramid, Brahmans (Brahmins) vied for the ancient Indian society's spiritual conscience with two other groups of 'wise men' - the Shramanas or ascetics, mostly of the Buddhist, Jain and similar denominations (see Sramanism) - and the mystics or saints like Namdev, Kabir & Surdas - mostly devotees of Gods outside the Brahmin pale (with roots in the Shudra/OBC social segments) such as the Shiva, the Krishna and Rama. Sramanism is one of the three main families of ancient Indian philosophy. ...


On a philosophical level, Brahmans and Brahmanism, in its original, essential form, one of the best examples of the 'instrumentalist' school - which believes the universe (Macrocosm) can be manipulated by suitably altering a smaller model (Microcosm) of it. The Brahmans, as such, specialized in providing such services, consisting of elaborate ceremonies meant to mimic the world called 'Havana' or 'Yagnja', to those who could afford to pay for such (usually expensive) services - mainly the ruling sections and the traders.


Kings of lore, for example, hired Brahmans to carry out what are essentially magical works to cause damage to their enemies before setting out on wars, or to make sure they did not get killed or to have children. Other Brahman ceremonies included those to bring down rain, ensure a healthy harvest etc..


The philosophical/theoretical aspects of true Brahmanism is well reflected in the Indian school of thought known as 'Mimamsa'.


At the time of the Vedic period, and even during the common Indo-Persian period, the sacrificial ceremonial had already become sufficiently complex to call for the creation of a certain number of distinct priestly functions with special duties attached to them. While this shows clearly that the position and occupation of the priest were those of a profession, the fact that the terms brahmatza and brahmaputra, both denoting the son of a Brahmin, are used in certain hymns as synonyms of Brahmin, seems to justify the assumption that the profession was hereditary at the time when these hymns were composed. Indo-Iranian can refer to: The Indo-Iranian languages The prehistoric Indo-Iranian people, see Aryan This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ...


Etymology

The word Brahmanism is derived from the word Brāhmaṇ (anglicized as Brahmin). The religion practised by the members of the Brahmin caste was called as Brahmanism by some authors. Some extended this term to the whole of Hinduism. However this is questioned by some as Hinduism consists of many more aspects and denominations other than Brahmanism.[3] A Brahmin (anglicised from the Sanskrit word IAST ; Devanagari ), also known as Vipra, Dvija, Dvijottama (best of the Dvijas), (god on Earth) is a member of an upper caste within Hindu society. ...


Notes

  1. ^ Brahmanism and Hinduism, (an anti-Hindu article)
  2. ^ Decolonizing the Hindu Mind. Dr Koenraad Elst. Rupa &Co. 2005. ISBN 81-291-0746-5. Page 90
  3. ^ Hindu Sects

References

  • H. H. Wilson, Essays on the Religion of the Hindus
  • J. Miur, Original Sanskrit Texts
  • M. Muller, History of Ancient Sanskrit Literature
  • C. Lassen, Indische Alterthumskunde
  • Elphinstone, History of India, ed. by E. B. Cowell.

  Results from FactBites:
 
Brahman - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2225 words)
Brahman (ब्रह्मन् in devanagari script) in the Vedantic (and subsequently Yogic) schools of Hinduism, is the signifying name given to the concept of the unchanging, infinite, immanent and transcendent reality that is the Divine Ground of all being in this universe.
Brahman is also not restricted to the usual dimensional perspectives of being, and thus enlightenment, moksha, yoga, samadhi, nirvana, etc. do not merely mean to know Brahman, but to realise one's 'brahman-hood', to actually realise that one is and always was of Brahman nature.
Brahman is considered the all pervading consciousness which is the basis of all the animate and inanimate entities and material.
Brahman - definition of Brahman in Encyclopedia (901 words)
Brahman is also not restricted to the usual dimensional perspectives of being, and thus enlightenment, moksha, yoga, samadhi, nirvana, etc. in the Hindu perspective is not merely coming to know brahman, but to realize one's 'brahman-hood', to actually realize that one is and always was brahman.
In the Hindu pantheon, Brahman should not be confused with the first of the Hindu trinity of Brahma (the Creator), Vishnu (the Preserver) and Shiva (the Destroyer).
Hindus also regard Brahman as the all pervading consciousness which is believed to be the basis of all the animate and inanimate entities and material.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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