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Encyclopedia > Bradykinin
Spacefilling model of bradykinin
Spacefilling model of bradykinin

Bradykinin is a physiologically and pharmacologically active peptide of the kinin group of proteins, consisting of nine amino acids. Image File history File links Bradykinin. ... Image File history File links Bradykinin. ... This page meets Wikipedias criteria for speedy deletion. ... Peptides (from the Greek πεπτος, digestible), are the family of short molecules formed from the linking, in a defined order, of various α-amino acids. ... A kinin is any of various structurally related polypeptides, such as bradykinin and kallikrein, that act locally to induce vasodilation and contraction of smooth muscle. ... A representation of the 3D structure of myoglobin, showing coloured alpha helices. ... Phenylalanine is one of the standard amino acids. ...

Contents

Structure

The amino acid sequence of bradykinin is: arg - pro - pro - gly - phe - ser - pro - phe - arg. Its empirical formula is therefore C50H73N15O11. Phenylalanine is one of the standard amino acids. ... Arginine (symbol Arg or R) is an α-amino acid. ... L-Proline is one of the twenty proteinogenic units which are used in living organisms as the building blocks of proteins. ... L-Proline is one of the twenty proteinogenic units which are used in living organisms as the building blocks of proteins. ... Glycine (Gly, G) is a nonpolar amino acid. ... It has been suggested that DL-Phenylalanine be merged into this article or section. ... Serine is one of the 20 natural amino acids. ... L-Proline is one of the twenty proteinogenic units which are used in living organisms as the building blocks of proteins. ... It has been suggested that DL-Phenylalanine be merged into this article or section. ... Arginine (symbol Arg or R) is an α-amino acid. ...


Synthesis

The activity of the kinin-kallikrein system makes bradykinin by proteolytic cleavage of its kininogen precursor, high-molecular weight kininogen (HMWK), using the kininogenase enzyme. The kinin-kallikrein system or simply kinin system is a poorly delineated system of blood proteins that plays a role in inflammation, blood pressure control, coagulation and pain. ... Proteolysis is the directed degradation (digestion) of proteins by cellular enzymes called proteases or by intramolecular digestion. ... High-molecular weight kininogen (HMWK), also known as the Williams-Fitzgerald-Flaujeac factor or the Fitzgerald factor or the HMWK-kallikrein factor is a protein from the blood coagulation system as well as the kinin-kallikrein system. ... Ribbon diagram of the enzyme TIM, surrounded by the space-filling model of the protein. ...


Metabolism

In humans, bradykinin is broken down by three kininases: angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), aminopeptidase P (APP), and carboxypeptidase N (CPN), which cleave the 7-8, 1-2, and 8-9 positions, respectively [1][2]. Angiotensin converting enzyme Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme (ACE, EC 3. ...


Physiological role

Effects

Bradykinin is a potent endothelium-dependent vasodilator, causes contraction of non-vascular smooth muscle, increases vascular permeability and also is involved in the mechanism of pain. In some aspects, it has similar actions to that of histamine, and like histamine is released from venules rather than arterioles. The endothelium is the layer of thin, flat cells that lines the interior surface of blood vessels, forming an interface between circulating blood in the lumen and the rest of the vessel wall. ... The blood vessels are part of the circulatory system and function to transport blood throughout the body. ... Cultured Smooth muscle of the aorta. ... Permeability has several meanings: In electromagnetism, permeability is the degree of magnetisation of a material in response to a magnetic field. ... Look up Pain in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... A venule is a small blood vessel that allows deoxygenated blood to return from the capillary beds to the larger blood vessels called veins. ... An arteriole is a blood vessel that extends and branches out from an artery and leads to capillaries. ...


Bradykinin raises internal calcium levels in neocortical astrocytes causing them to release glutamate.[3] General Name, Symbol, Number calcium, Ca, 20 Chemical series alkaline earth metals Group, Period, Block 2, 4, s Appearance silvery white Atomic mass 40. ... The neocortex (Latin for new bark or new rind) is a part of the brain of mammals. ... Astrocytes, also known as astroglia, are characteristic star-shaped glial cells in the brain. ... Glutamic acid (Glu), also referred to as glutamate (the anion), is one of the 20 proteinogenic amino acids. ...


Bradykinin is also thought to be the cause of the dry cough in some patients on angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor drugs. This refractory cough is a common cause for stopping ACE-inhibitor therapy. Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme (ACE, EC 3. ...


Receptors

In mammals, two types of bradykinin receptors are known. The B1 receptor is only expressed as a result of tissue injury, and is presumed to play a role in chronic pain but also in inflammation. The B2 receptor is constitutively active and participates in bradykinin's vasodilatory role. I smoke weed im growing a blue penis dude#REDIRECT penises are cool ... Bradykinin, along with kallidin signals through the B2 receptor which is ubiquitously and constitutively expressed in healthy tissues. ...


History

Bradykinin was discovered by three Brazilian physiologists and pharmacologists working at the Instituto de Biologia de São Paulo, in São Paulo city, led by Dr. Maurício Rocha e Silva. Together with colleagues Wilson Teixeira Beraldo and Gastão Rosenfeld they discovered in 1948 its powerful hypotensive effects in animal preparations. Bradykinin was detected in the blood plasma of animals after the addition of venom of Bothrops jararaca (Brazilian lancehead snake), which was brought by Rosenfeld from the Butantan Institute. This discovery was part of a continuing study on circulatory shock and proteolytic enzymes related to the toxicology of snake bites, started by Rocha e Silva as early as 1939. Bradykinin was to prove a new autopharmacological principle, i.e., a substance that is released in the body by a metabolic modification from precursors, which are pharmacologically active. According to B.J. Hagwood, Rocha e Silva's biographer, "The discovery of bradykinin has led to a new understanding of many physiological and pathological phenomena including circulatory shock induced by venoms and toxins." Landmark buildings Edifício Italia (at left) and Copan (curved façade at center), in São Paulo Downtown. ... Maurício Oscar da Rocha e Silva (b. ... Wilson Teixeira Beraldo (b. ... Gastão Rosenfeld Gastão Rosenfeld (b. ... In physiology and medicine, hypotension refers to an abnormally low blood pressure. ... Animal model refers to a non-human animal with a disease that is similar to a human condition. ... Blood plasma is the liquid component of blood, in which the blood cells are suspended. ... It has been suggested that Snake poison be merged into this article or section. ... Binomial name Bothrops jararaca (Wied-Neuwied, 1824) Synonyms Cophias Jajaraca - Wied-Neuwied, 1824 Bothrops leucostigma - Wagler, 1824 Cophias Jararaca - Wied-Neuwied, 1824 [Cophias] Jararaca - Wied-Neuwied, 1825 C[ophias]. Jararakka - Wied-Neuwied, 1825 Cophias Jararaca - Wagler, 1830 T[rigonocephalus]. jararaca - Schlegel, 1837 Craspedocephalus brasiliensis - Günther, 1858 Crotalus Craspedocephalus Brasiliensis... This page is a candidate for speedy deletion. ... For other uses, see Snake (disambiguation). ... Instituto Butantan is a Brazilian biomedical research center affiliated to the São Paulo State Secretary of Health. ... Shock is a serious medical condition where the tissue perfusion is insufficient to meet the required supply of oxygen and nutrients. ... Proteolysis is the directed degradation (digestion) of proteins by cellular enzymes called proteases or by intramolecular digestion. ... Ribbon diagram of the enzyme TIM, surrounded by the space-filling model of the protein. ... Toxicology (from the Greek words toxicos and logos [1]) is the study of the adverse effects of chemicals on living organisms [2]. It is the study of symptoms, mechanisms, treatments and detection of poisoning, especially the poisoning of people. ...


Applications

The practical importance of the discovery of bradykinin became apparent when one of his collaborators at the Medical School of Ribeirão Preto at the University of São Paulo, Dr. Sérgio Henrique Ferreira, discovered a bradykinin potentiating factor (BPF) in the bothropic venom which increases powerfully both the duration and magnitude of its effects on vasodilation and the consequent fall in blood pressure. On the basis of this finding, Squibb scientists developed the first of a new generation of highly-effective anti-hypertensive drugs, the so-called ACE inhibitors, such as captopril (trademarked Capoten). Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto (Faculty of Medicine of Ribeirão Preto in Portuguese) is a medical school of the University of São Paulo located in the city of Ribeirão Preto, state of São Paulo, Brazil, founded 1952. ... Sérgio Henrique Ferreira (b. ... A sphygmomanometer, a device used for measuring blood pressure. ... Bristol-Myers Squibb (NYSE: BMY), colloquially referred to as BMS, is a pharmaceutical corporation, formed by a 1989 merger between pharmaceutical companies Bristol-Myers Company, founded in 1887 by William McLaren Bristol and John Ripley Myers in Clinton, NY (both were graduates of Hamilton College), and Squibb Corporation. ... Captopril, the first ACE inhibitor ACE inhibitors, or inhibitors of Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme, are a group of pharmaceuticals that are used primarily in treatment of hypertension and congestive heart failure, in most cases as the drugs of first choice. ... Captopril is an Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme inhibitor (ACE inhibitor) used for the treatment of hypertension and some types of chronic heart failure. ...


References

  1. ^ Dendorfer A, Wolfrum S, Wagemann M, Qadri F, Dominiak P. Pathways of bradykinin degradation in blood and plasma of normotensive and hypertensive rats. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 2001;280:H2182-8. Fulltext. PMID 11299220.
  2. ^ Kuoppala A, Lindstedt KA, Saarinen J, Kovanen PT, Kokkonen JO. Inactivation of bradykinin by angiotensin-converting enzyme and by carboxypeptidase N in human plasma. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 2000;278(4):H1069-74. Fulltext. PMID 10749699.
  3. ^ Parpura et al., Glutamate-mediated astrocyte−neuron signalling, Nature 1994 Article

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Migraine & Bradykinin (203 words)
Bradykinin is vasoactive, meaning it acts to alter the physiological state, especially the tone and calibre, of a vessel.
The enzyme facilitates the production of bradykinin, a nonapeptide, from the precursor prekallikrein, which is found the plasma in an inactive form of the precursor of kallikrein.
This whole process is often activated by a blood factor, the Hageman factor; factor XII of the clotting process, which is the main mechanism in the setting in of inflammation when there is exposure to negative surfaces such as those found on collagen and basement membrane that are often exposed in injury.
Bradykinin - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (516 words)
Bradykinin is a physiologically and pharmacologically active peptide of the kinin group of proteins, consisting of nine amino acids.
Bradykinin is a potent endothelium-dependent vasodilator, causes contraction of non-vascular smooth muscle, increases vascular permeability and also is involved in the mechanism of pain.
Bradykinin was to prove a new autopharmacological principle, i.e., a substance that is released in the body by a metabolic modification from precursors, which are pharmacologically active.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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