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Encyclopedia > Bracket
For technical reasons, :) and some similar combinations starting with : redirect here. See emoticon.
v  d  e
Punctuation

apostrophe ( ', )
brackets ( ), [ ], { }, < >
colon ( : )
comma ( , )
dashes ( , , , )
ellipsis ( , ... )
exclamation mark ( ! )
full stop/period ( . )
guillemets ( « » )
hyphen ( -, )
question mark ( ? )
quotation marks ( ‘ ’, “ ” )
semicolon ( ; )
slash/stroke ( / )
solidus ( )
An emoticon (pronounced (IPA) ) is a small piece of specialized ASCII art (usually two to five characters, always on a single line) used in text messages as informal markup to indicate emotions and attitudes that would be conveyed by body language in face-to-face communications. ... The term punctuation has two different linguistic meanings: in general, the act and the effect of punctuating, i. ... For other uses, see Apostrophe (disambiguation). ... The colon (:) is a punctuation mark, visually consisting of two equally sized dots centered on the same vertical line. ... A comma ( , ) is a punctuation mark. ... Note: This article contains special characters. ... Distinguish from ellipse. ... an exclamation mark An exclamation mark, exclamation point or bang, !, is usually used after an interjection or exclamation to indicate strong feeling. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Also called angle quotes, guillemets (<< or >>) are line segments, pointed as if arrows. ... A hyphen ( -, or ‐ ) is a punctuation mark. ... The question mark (also known as an interrogation point, query,[1] or eroteme) is a punctuation mark that replaces the full stop at the end of an interrogative sentence. ... For the Wikipedia quotation template, see here. ... A semicolon (  ;  ) is a punctuation mark. ... The slash A slash or stroke, /, is a punctuation mark. ... A solidus, oblique or slash, /, is a punctuation mark. ...

Interword separation

spaces ( ) ( ) ( )
interpunct ( · )
This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... A space is a punctuation convention for providing interword separation in some scripts, including the Latin, Greek, Cyrillic, and Arabic. ... An interpunct is a small dot used for interword separation in ancient Latin script, being perhaps the first consistent visual representation of word boundaries in written language. ...

General typography

ampersand ( & )
asterisk ( * )
at ( @ )
backslash ( )
bullet ( )
caret ( ^ )
currency ( ¤ ) ¢, $, , £, ¥, ₩,
dagger ( ) ( )
degree ( ° )
emoticons
inverted exclamation point ( ¡ )
inverted question mark ( ¿ )
number sign ( # )
numero sign ( )
percent and related signs
( %, ‰, ‱ )
pilcrow ( )
prime ( )
section sign ( § )
tilde/swung dash ( ~ )
umlaut/diaeresis ( ¨ )
underscore/understrike ( _ )
vertical/pipe/broken bar ( |, ¦ )
This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... The roman ampersand at left is stylized, but the italic one at right reveals its origin in the Latin word An ampersand (&), also commonly called an and sign, is a logogram representing the conjunction and. ... This article refers to the typographical symbol. ... At sign in Arial font “@” redirects here. ... First introduced in 1960 by Bob Bemer, the backslash, , is a typographical mark (glyph) used chiefly in computing. ... In typography, a bullet is a typographical symbol or glyph used to introduce items in a list, like below, also known as the point of a bullet: This is the text of a list item. ... A caret in the Arial font Caret is the name for the symbol ^ in ASCII and some other character sets. ... A two cent euro coin A US penny In currency, the cent is a monetary unit that equals th of the basic unit of value. ... $ The dollar sign ($) is a symbol primarily used to indicate a unit of currency. ... The euro (&#8364;; ISO 4217 code EUR) is the currency of twelve of the twenty-five nations that form the European Union (and four outside it, as well as Montenegro and Kosovo), which form the Economic and Monetary Union (EMU). ... The Pound sign (£) is the symbol for Pound sterling, the currency of the United Kingdom, and some other currencies of the same name in other countries. ... ¥9 Chinese price sticker ¥ is a currency sign used for the following currencies: Chinese yuan (CNY) Japanese yen (JPY) The base unit of the two currencies above share the same Chinese character (圓/元/円), pronounced yuan in Mandarin Chinese and en in Standard Japanese. ... ₩ is a currency sign that is used for the following currencies: North Korean won South Korean won Woolong, a fictional currency in Cowboy Bebop Category: ... ₪ ₪ is a currency sign that is used for the Israeli new sheqel currency which replaced the Israeli sheqel in 1985. ... A dagger (†, &dagger;, U+2020) is a typographical symbol or glyph. ... Common degree symbol This article describes the typographical or mathematical symbol. ... An emoticon (pronounced (IPA) ) is a small piece of specialized ASCII art (usually two to five characters, always on a single line) used in text messages as informal markup to indicate emotions and attitudes that would be conveyed by body language in face-to-face communications. ... The inverted question mark and inverted exclamation point in Spanish, Galician and Catalan are used to begin interrogative and exclamatory sentences, respectively. ... The inverted question mark and inverted exclamation point in Spanish, Galician and Catalan are used to begin interrogative and exclamatory sentences, respectively. ... Number sign in Arial font Number sign is one name for the symbol #, and is the preferred Unicode name for the codepoint represented by that glyph. ... The Numero sign (U+2116) or Number sign is used in many languages to indicate ordinal numbering, especially in names and titles, rather than the US-derived number sign, #. For example, instead of Number 4 Privet Drive or #4 Privet Drive, one could write № 4 Privet Drive. The symbol is... The percent sign (%) is the symbol used to indicate a percentage (that the preceding number is divided by one hundred). ... A pilcrow from the font Gentium, designed by J. Victor Gaultney, 2002. ... This article is not about the symbol for the set of prime numbers, ℙ. The prime (′, Unicode U+2032, &prime;) is a symbol with many mathematical uses: A complement in set theory: A′ is the complement of the set A A point related to another (e. ... The section sign The section sign (§; Unicode U+00A7, HTML entity &sect;) is a typographical character used mainly to refer to a particular section of a document, such as a legal code. ... A tilde. ... The umlaut mark (or simply umlaut) and the trema or diaeresis mark (or simply diaeresis) are two diacritics consisting of a pair of dots placed over a letter. ... The underscore _ is the character with ASCII value 95. ... Vertical bar, verti-bar, vertical line, divider line, or pipe is the name of the character (|). Broken bar (¦) is a separate character. ...

Uncommon typography

asterism ( )
therefore sign ( )
lozenge ( )
interrobang ( )
irony mark ( ؟ )
reference mark ( )
sarcasm mark
This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... In typography, an asterism is a rare symbol consisting of three asterisks placed in a triangle, used to call attention to a passage or to separate sub-chapters in a book. ...   In a mathematical proof, the therefore sign is a symbol that is sometimes placed before a logical consequence, such as the conclusion of a syllogism. ... A lozenge (â—Š) is a form of rhombus. ... The interrobang (//) () is a rarely used, nonstandard English-language punctuation mark intended to combine the functions of a question mark and an exclamation mark. ... Examples of irony marks. ... This page lists Japanese typographic symbols which are not included in kana or kanji. ... A sarcasm mark, which is represented in the Ethiopic languages, also called a sarcasm point, like a non-standard androgynous pronoun, is an often desired, but non-standardized form of American English punctuation. ...

Brackets are punctuation marks used in pairs to set apart or interject text within other text. With respect to computer science, the term is sometimes said to only strictly apply to the square or box type.[1] The term punctuation has two different linguistic meanings: in general, the act and the effect of punctuating, i. ... Computer scaence, or computing science, is the study of the theoretical foundations of information and computation and their implementation and application in computer systems. ...


There are four main types of brackets:

  • parentheses or round brackets:  ( )
  • box brackets or square brackets:  [ ]
  • curly brackets or braces:  { }
  • angle brackets or chevrons: < >

All these forms may be used according to typographical conventions that may vary from publication to publication and may vary even more from language to language. Some typical uses in English texts follow. This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ...

Contents

Usage

In addition to referring to the class of all types of brackets, the unqualified word bracket is most commonly used to refer to a specific type of bracket. In modern American usage this is usually the square bracket, whereas in modern British usage it is usually the parenthesis (round bracket).


In American usage, parentheses are usually considered separately from other brackets, and calling them "brackets" at all is unusual, even though they serve a similar function. In more formal usage, "parenthesis" may refer to the entire bracketed text, not just to the punctuation marks used {so all the text in this curly bracket may be said to be a parenthesis}.


Commas conventionally go outside of the parentheses, unlike quotation marks. For the Wikipedia quotation template, see here. ...


Types of brackets

Parentheses ( )

Parentheses (singular parenthesis)—sometimes called round brackets, curved brackets, oval brackets, or just brackets; or, colloquially, parens, or fingernails—are used to contain parenthetical (or optional, additional) material in a sentence that could be removed without destroying the meaning of the main text. In rhetoric, a parenthesis (plural: parentheses; from the Greek word παρενθεσις, which comes in turn from words meaning alongside of and to place) is An explanatory or qualifying word, clause, or sentence inserted into a passage with which it has not necessarily any grammatical connexion, and from which it is usually...


In formal writing, parentheses may be used to add supplementary information, such as "Sen. Edward Kennedy (D., Massachusetts) spoke at length." They can also indicate shorthand for "either singular or plural" for nouns—e.g., "the claim(s)".


In literature and informal writing, parenthetical phrases have been used extensively in stream of consciousness literature. Of particular note is the southern American author William Faulkner (see Absalom, Absalom! and the Quentin section of The Sound and the Fury). In most writing, overuse of parentheses is usually a sign of a badly structured text. A milder effect may be obtained by using a pair of commas as the delimiter. If the sentence contains commas for other purposes, visual confusion may result. William Cuthbert Faulkner (September 25, 1897 – July 6, 1962) was an American novelist and poet whose works feature his native state of Mississippi. ... Absalom, Absalom! is a Southern Gothic novel by William Faulkner, published in 1936. ... The Sound and the Fury is a Southern Gothic novel written by American author William Faulkner, which makes use of the stream of consciousness narrative technique pioneered by European authors such as James Joyce and Virginia Woolf. ... Delimiters are marks which are used to seperate subfields of data. ...


Historically, parentheses have been used where the slash is currently used—that is, in order to depict alternatives, such as "parenthesis)(parentheses". Examples of this usage can be seen in editions of Fowler’s. The slash A slash or stroke, /, is a punctuation mark. ... A Dictionary of Modern English Usage, often referred to simply as Fowlers Modern English Usage, or Fowler, is a style guide to British English usage, authored by Henry W. Fowler. ...


Parentheses may also be nested (with one set (such as this) inside another set). This is not commonly used in formal writing (though sometimes other brackets [especially square brackets] will be used for one or more inner set of parentheses [in other words, secondary {or even tertiary} phrases can be found within the main sentence]).


Any punctuation inside parentheses or other brackets is independent from the rest of the text: "Mrs. Pennyfarthing (What? Yes, that was her name!) was my landlady". In this usage, the explanatory text in the parentheses is a parenthesis. (It is most common for the parenthesized text to be within a single sentence, but not uncommon for an entire sentence, or even several sentences, of supplemental material to be in parenthesis. In this case, even the final full stop would be within the parentheses. Again, the parenthesis implies that the meaning and flow of the text as a whole would be unchanged were the parenthesized sentences removed.) In rhetoric, a parenthesis (plural: parentheses; from the Greek word παρενθεσις, which comes in turn from words meaning alongside of and to place) is An explanatory or qualifying word, clause, or sentence inserted into a passage with which it has not necessarily any grammatical connexion, and from which it is usually... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


In mathematics, parentheses are used to signify a different precedence of operators. For example, 2 + 3 × 4 would be 14, since the multiplication is done before the addition. On the other hand, (2 + 3) × 4 is 20, because the parentheses override normal precedence, causing the addition to be done first. They are also used to set apart the arguments in mathematical functions. For example, f(x) is the function f applied to the variable x. In the coordinate system, parentheses are used to denote a set of coordinates. For example, (4,7) may represent the point located at 4 on the x-axis and 7 on the y-axis. Parentheses may also represent intervals. For example, (0,5) is the interval between 0 and 5, not including 0 or 5. Parentheses can also represent multiplication, as in the instance of 2 (3) = 6. Please note that in mathematic equations, if parentheses are used twice around each other, the inner pair are parentheses and the outer pair are square brackets. Ex: [5-(7+3)]+4=x. Parentheses may also be used to represent a binomial coefficient. Euclid, Greek mathematician, 3rd century BC, as imagined by by Raphael in this detail from The School of Athens. ... The factual accuracy of this article is disputed. ... Graph of example function, The mathematical concept of a function expresses the intuitive idea of deterministic dependence between two quantities, one of which is viewed as primary (the independent variable, argument of the function, or its input) and the other as secondary (the value of the function, or output). A... In computer science and mathematics, a variable (IPA pronunciation: ) (sometimes called a pronumeral) is a symbolic representation denoting a quantity or expression. ... In mathematics as applied to geometry, physics or engineering, a coordinate system is a system for assigning a tuple of numbers to each point in an n-dimensional space. ... In mathematics, interval is a concept relating to the sequence and set-membership of one or more numbers. ... In mathematics, particularly in combinatorics, the binomial coefficient of the natural number n and the integer k is the number of combinations that exist. ...

Various brackets in Arial
Various brackets in Arial

Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Arial, sometimes marketed as Arial MT, is a typeface and a computer font packaged with Microsoft Windows, other Microsoft software applications, and many PostScript computer printers. ...

Box brackets or square brackets [ ]

Square brackets are used to enclose explanatory or missing […] material, especially in quoted text. For example, "I appreciate it [the honor], but I must refuse". Or, "the future of psionics [See definition] is in doubt". Psionics is the practice of using a variety of psychic abilities. ...


The bracketed expression [sic] (Latin for "thus") is used to indicate errors that are "thus in the original"; a bracketed ellipsis [...] is often used to indicate deleted material; bracketed comments are used to indicate when original text has been modified for clarity: "I'd like to thank [several unimportant people] and my parentals [sic] for their love, tolerance [...] and assistance [italics added]". Distinguish from ellipse. ...


In mathematics, square brackets are used in a variety of notations, including standard notations for intervals, commutators, the Lie bracket, and the Iverson bracket. Euclid, Greek mathematician, 3rd century BC, as imagined by by Raphael in this detail from The School of Athens. ... In mathematics, interval is a concept relating to the sequence and set-membership of one or more numbers. ... In mathematics, the commutator gives an indication of the extent to which a certain binary operation fails to be commutative. ... A lie bracket can refer to: Lie algebra Lie derivative This is a disambiguation page &#8212; a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... In mathematics, the Iverson bracket, named after Kenneth E. Iverson, is defined as follows where P is a proposition. ...


Square brackets are also sometimes used as parentheses within parentheses (secondary parentheses [as mentioned earlier]).


With the International Phonetic Alphabet, square brackets are used to indicate a phonetic transcription (as opposed to a phonemic one). Articles with similar titles include the NATO phonetic alphabet, which has also informally been called the “International Phonetic Alphabet”. For information on how to read IPA transcriptions of English words, see IPA chart for English. ... Phonetics (from the Greek word φωνή, phone meaning sound, voice) is the study of the sounds of human speech. ... In human language, a phoneme is the theoretical representation of a sound. ...


In chemistry, square brackets can also be used to represent the concentration of a chemical substance, or to denote a complex ion. It has been suggested that the central science be merged into this article or section. ... In chemistry, concentration is the measure of how much of a given substance there is mixed with another substance. ... Water and steam are two different forms of the same chemical substance A chemical substance is any material with a definite chemical composition, no matter where it comes from. ... Synthesis of copper(II)-tetraphenylporphine, a metal complex, from tetraphenylporphine and copper(II) acetate monohydrate. ...


In architecture, square brackets can be used to emphasize cool words, such as [metaliving] or [cityscape]. It can also be used to make the layout generally look more cool and modern.[citation needed] Architecture (from Latin, architectura and ultimately from Greek, a master builder, from αρχι- chiefs, leader , builder, carpenter)[1] is the art and science of designing buildings and structures. ... Look up cool in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


In proofreading, square brackets (called move-left symbols or move right symbols) are added to the sides of text to indicate changes in indentation: Proofreading means reading a proof copy of a text in order to detect and correct any errors. ...

Move left
[To Fate I sue, of other means bereft, the only refuge for the wretched left.
Center
]Paradise Lost[
Move up

Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ...

Curly brackets or braces { }

Curly brackets (so-called in British English; North American English prefers braces) are sometimes used in prose to indicate a series of equal choices: "Select your animal {goat, sheep, cow, horse} and follow me". They are used in specialized ways in poetry and music (to mark repeats or joined lines). The musical terms for this mark joining staves are "accolade" and "brace." In mathematics they are used to delimit sets. Euclid, Greek mathematician, 3rd century BC, as imagined by by Raphael in this detail from The School of Athens. ... In mathematics, a set can be thought of as any collection of distinct objects considered as a whole. ...


Presumably due to the similarity of the words brace and bracket (although they do not share an etymology), many people casually treat brace as a synonym for bracket. Therefore, when it is necessary to avoid any possibility of confusion, such as in computer programming, it may be best to use the term curly bracket rather than brace. However, general usage in North American English favours the latter form. The term curly braces is redundant since no other type of brace exists. Indian programmers often use the name "flower bracket". Not to be confused with Entomology, the study of insects. ... Synonyms can be nouns, adverbs or adjectives, as long as both members of the pair are the same part of speech. ...


Curly brackets are often used in internet communities and through instant messaging to indicate hugging.[citation needed]


Angle brackets or chevrons < >

Angle brackets (< >) are often used to enclose highlighted material. Some dictionaries use angle brackets to enclose short excerpts illustrating the usage of words. True angle brackets are not available on a typical computer keyboard, so the "less than" and "greater than" symbols are used instead (<, >). These are often loosely referred to as angle brackets when used in this way. For example, the symbols < and > are often used to set apart URLs in text, such as "I found it on Example.com <http://www.example.com/>". It may also often be found to indicate an e-mail address, such as "This photo is copyrighted by John Smith <john@smith.com>", and is the computer-readable form for such in message headers as specified by RFC 2822. A Uniform Resource Locator, URL (spelled out as an acronym, not pronounced as earl), or Web address, is a standardized address name layout for resources (such as documents or images) on the Internet (or elsewhere). ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ...


Angle brackets are used in physical sciences to denote an average over time or another continuous parameter. For example,

leftlangle V(t)^2 rightrangle = lim_{Ttoinfty} frac{1}{T}int_{-T/2}^{T/2} V(t)^2{rm{d}}t

Angle brackets are infrequently used to denote dialogue that is thought instead of spoken, such as:

<What a nice looking girl!>

In linguistics, angle brackets are used to indicate orthography, as in "The English word /kæt/ is spelled cat." Linguistics is the scientific study of language, which can be theoretical or applied. ... The orthography of a language specifies the correct way of writing in that language. ...


In textual criticism, and hence in many editions of poorly transmitted works, angle brackets denote sections of the text which are illegible or otherwise lost; the editor will often insert his own reconstruction where possible within them. Carmina Cantabrigiensia, Manuscript C, folio 436v, 11th century Textual criticism or lower criticism is a branch of philology or bibliography that is concerned with the identification and removal of errors from texts and manuscripts. ...


Single and double angle brackets (⟪, ⟫) or pairs of the appropriate comparison operators (<<, >>) are sometimes used instead of guillemets («, ») (used as quotation marks in many languages) when the proper glyphs are not available. Also called angle quotes, guillemets (<< or >>) are line segments, pointed as if arrows. ... For the Wikipedia quotation template, see here. ... variant glyphs representing the character a (allographs of a) in the Zapfino typeface. ...


The mathematical or logical symbols for greater-than (>) and less-than (<) are inequality operators, and when used as such, are not punctuation marks. For the use of the < and > signs in punctuation, see Bracket. ...


Chevrons are part of standard Chinese, Japanese, and Korean punctuation, where they generally enclose the titles of books: ︿ and or and for traditional vertical printing, and and or and for horizontal printing. For technical reasons, :) and some similar combinations starting with : redirect here. ... Nihongo (meaning Japanese language), written vertically in kanji Yokogaki (横書き, horizontal writing, also known as yokogumi, 横組み) and tategaki (縦書き, vertical writing, also known as tategumi, 縦組み) are two forms of Japanese writing. ... Nihongo (meaning Japanese language), written vertically in kanji Yokogaki (横書き, horizontal writing, also known as yokogumi, 横組み) and tategaki (縦書き, vertical writing, also known as tategumi, 縦組み) are two forms of Japanese writing. ...


In comic books, angle brackets are often used to mark dialogue that has notionally been translated from another language. A comic book is a magazine or book containing the art form of comics. ...


Angle brackets can also be used to indicate an action or status (eg. <Waves> or <Offline>), particularly in online, real-time text-based discussions (instant messaging, bulletin boards, etc). (Here, asterisks can also be used to signify an action.)


In computing

  • Opening and closing parentheses correspond to ASCII and Unicode characters 40 and 41, or 0x0028 and 0x0029, respectively.
  • For square brackets corresponding values are 91 and 93, or 0x005B and 0x005D.
  • For braces, 123 and 125, or 0x007B and 0x007D.
  • True angle brackets are available in Unicode at code points 0x27e8 and 0x27e9 (for mathematical use), or 0x9001 and 0x9002 (for East Asian languages), or 0x2329 and 0x232A (for "technical" use, canonically equivalent to the CJL code points 0x900x). The less than and greater than symbols can be found in both Unicode and ASCII at code points 60 and 62, or 0x003C and 0x003E.

Also, in many computer languages: There are 95 printable ASCII characters, numbered 32 to 126. ... Unicode is an industry standard designed to allow text and symbols from all of the writing systems of the world to be consistently represented and manipulated by computers. ... In mathematics and computer science, hexadecimal, base-16, or simply hex, is a numeral system with a radix, or base, of 16, usually written using the symbols 0–9 and A–F, or a–f. ... The term computer language is a more expansive and alternate term for the more commonly-used term programming language. ...

  • "(" and ")"
    • are often used to define the syntactic structure of expressions, overriding operator precedence: a*(b+c) has subexpressions a and b+c, whereas a*b+c has subexpressions a*b and c.
    • are used to contain the arguments to functions: substring($val,10,1). On the other hand, in Lisp they open and close s-expressions and therefore function applications: (cons a b). In Fortran-family languages, they are also used for array references.
  • "[" and "]"
    • are used to refer to array or associative array elements, and sometimes to define the number of elements in an array: queue[3].
    • in most regular expression syntaxes square brackets are used to denote a character class: a series of possible characters to choose from.
    • are often used in functional languages (such as Standard ML) for list literals.
  • "{" and "}"
    • are used in some languages to define the beginning and ending of blocks of code. Languages which use this convention are said to belong to the curly brace family of programming languages.
    • denote array constants.
    • in the Pascal programming language, they define the beginning and ending of comments.
    • in most regular expression syntaxes, they are used as quantifiers, matching n repetitions of the previous group.
    • in the Perl programming language, they create anonymous associative arrays and refer to associative array elements.
  • "<" and ">" are used in SGML (and its applications and variants such as HTML and XML), to enclose code tags: <div>, and in the languages Java, C++ and C# to delimit generic arguments and preprocessor directives. They are also used as operators for redirection in Unix' and other operating systems' shells. In this context, they are often referred to as hoinkies (singular hoinky) in order to "avoid confusion with other bracket-type operators" (Bryant and O'Hallaron 2003).

This article is about the concept of operator precedence. ... Lisp is a family of computer programming languages with a long history and a distinctive fully-parenthesized syntax. ... An S-expression (S stands for symbolic) is a convention for representing data structures in a text form. ... Fortran (previously FORTRAN[1]) is a general-purpose[2], procedural,[3] imperative programming language that is especially suited to numeric computation and scientific computing. ... An associative array (also map, hash, dictionary, finite map, lookup table, and in query-processing an index or index file) is an abstract data type composed of a collection of keys and a collection of values, where each key is associated with one value. ... In computing, a regular expression is a string that is used to describe or match a set of strings, according to certain syntax rules. ... Standard ML (SML) is a general-purpose, modular, functional programming language with compile-time type checking and type inference. ... In computer programming, a statement block is a section of code which is grouped together, much like a paragraph; such blocks consist of one, or more, statements. ... Curly brace or bracket programming languages are those which use balanced brackets ({ and }, also known as brace brackets or simply braces) to make blocks in their syntax or formal grammar, mainly due to being C-influenced. ... In mathematics and the mathematical sciences, a constant is a fixed, but possibly unspecified, value. ... Pascal is an imperative computer programming language, developed in 1970 by Niklaus Wirth as a language particularly suitable for structured programming. ... In computing, a regular expression is a string that is used to describe or match a set of strings, according to certain syntax rules. ... Perl is a dynamic programming language created by Larry Wall and first released in 1987. ... An associative array (also map, hash, dictionary, finite map, lookup table, and in query-processing an index or index file) is an abstract data type composed of a collection of keys and a collection of values, where each key is associated with one value. ... The Standard Generalized Markup Language (SGML) is a metalanguage in which one can define markup languages for documents. ... HTML, short for Hypertext Markup Language, is the predominant markup language for the creation of web pages. ... The Extensible Markup Language (XML) is a general-purpose markup language. ... Java is an object-oriented applications programming language developed by Sun Microsystems in the early 1990s. ... The title given to this article is incorrect due to technical limitations. ... Generic programming is a style of computer programming where algorithms are written in an extended grammar and are made adaptable by specifying variable parts that are then somehow instantiated later by the compiler with respect to the base grammar. ... In computer science, a preprocessor is a program that processes its input data to produce output that is used as input to another program. ... Redirection is a function common to most Unix shells which allow standard streams to be redirected to user-specified locations. ...

Layout styles

In normal text an opening bracket is not put at the end of a line, and a closing bracket not at the beginning. However, in computer code this is often done to aid readability. For example, a bracketed list of items separated by semicolons may be written with the brackets on separate lines, and the items, followed by the semicolon, each on one line.


For example, the CSS code In computing, Cascading Style Sheets (CSS), sometimes pronounced kiss, is a stylesheet language used to describe the presentation of a document written in a markup language. ...

 h1 { font-weight: bold; font-size: 12pt; line-height: 14pt } 

may also be written

 h1 { font-weight: bold; font-size: 12pt; line-height: 14pt } 

See Indent style. In computer programming, an indent style is a convention governing the indentation of blocks of code to convey the programs structure. ...


In mathematics

Main article: Bracket (mathematics)

In addition to the use of parentheses to specify the order of operations, both parentheses and square brackets can also be used to denote an interval. The notation [a, c) is used to indicate an interval from a to c that is inclusive of a but exclusive of c. That is, [5, 12) would be the set of all real numbers between 5 and 12, including 5 but not 12. The numbers may come as close as they like to 12, including 11.999 and so forth (with any finite number of 9s), but 12.0 is not included. In Europe, the notation [5,12[ is also used for this. In mathematics, various typographical of brackets are a frequent form of mathematical notation such as parentheses ( ), square brackets [ ], curly brackets { }, and angle brackets < >. Generally such brackets denote some form of grouping. ... For technical reasons, :) and some similar combinations starting with : redirect here. ... In arithmetic and algebra, when a number or expression is both preceded and followed by a binary operation, a rule is required for which operation should be applied first. ... In mathematics, interval is a concept relating to the sequence and set-membership of one or more numbers. ... In mathematics, a set is called finite if there is a bijection between the set and some set of the form {1, 2, ..., n} where is a natural number. ...


The endpoint adjoining the square bracket is known as closed, while the endpoint adjoining the parenthesis is known as open. If both types of brackets are the same, the entire interval may be referred to as closed or open as appropriate. Whenever infinity or negative infinity is used as an endpoint, it is always considered open and adjoined to a parenthesis. The infinity symbol ∞ in several typefaces. ...


This is used in mathematical notation, and appears in some computer programming languages. See the article Interval (mathematics) for a more complete treatment of the subject. Mathematical notation is used in mathematics, and throughout the physical sciences, engineering, and economics. ... In mathematics, interval is a concept relating to the sequence and set-membership of one or more numbers. ...


In quantum mechanics, angle brackets are also used as part of Dirac's formalism, bra-ket notation, to note vectors from the dual spaces of the Bra <A| and the Ket |B>. Mathematicians will also commonly write <a,b> for the inner product of two vectors. In statistical mechanics, angle brackets denote ensemble or time average. Angle brackets are used in group theory to write group presentations, and to denote the subgroup generated by a collection of elements. Paul Adrien Maurice Dirac, OM, FRS (IPA: [dɪræk]) (August 8, 1902 – October 20, 1984) was a British theoretical physicist and a founder of the field of quantum physics. ... Bra-ket notation is the standard notation for describing quantum states in the theory of quantum mechanics. ... In mathematics, the existence of a dual vector space reflects in an abstract way the relationship between row vectors (1×n) and column vectors (n×1). ... In mathematics, an inner product space is a vector space with additional structure, an inner product (also called a scalar product), which allows us to introduce geometrical notions such as angles and lengths of vectors. ... Group theory is that branch of mathematics concerned with the study of groups. ... In mathematics, one method of defining a group is by a presentation. ... In abstract algebra, a generating set of a group is a subset S such that every element of G can be expressed as the product of finitely many elements of S and their inverses. ...


In group theory and ring theory, square brackets are used to denote the commutator. In group theory, the commutator [g,h] is commonly defined as g−1h−1gh. In ring theory, the commutator [a,b] is defined as abba. Furthermore, in ring theory, braces are used to denote the anticommutator where {a,b} is defined as ab + ba. The square bracket is also used to denote the Lie derivative, or more generally the Lie bracket in any Lie algebra. Group theory is that branch of mathematics concerned with the study of groups. ... In mathematics, ring theory is the study of rings, algebraic structures in which addition and multiplication are defined and have similar properties to those familiar from the integers. ... In mathematics, the commutator gives an indication of the extent to which a certain binary operation fails to be commutative. ... In mathematics, the commutator gives an indication of the extent to which a certain binary operation fails to be commutative. ... In mathematics, a Lie derivative, named after Sophus Lie, is a derivation on the algebra of tensor fields over a manifold M. The vector space of all Lie derivatives on M forms an infinite dimensional Lie algebra with respect to the Lie bracket defined by The Lie derivatives are represented... In mathematics, a Lie algebra is an algebraic structure whose main use is in studying geometric objects such as Lie groups and differentiable manifolds. ...


Various notations, like the vinculum have a similar effect to brackets in specifying order of operations, or otherwise grouping several characters together for a common purpose. A vinculum is a horizontal line placed over a mathematical expression, used to indicate that it is to be considered a group. ...


In the Z formal specification language, curly braces define a set and angle brackets define a sequence. A formal specification is a mathematical description of software or hardware that may be used to develop an implementation. ...


In accounting

Traditionally in accounting, negative amounts are placed in parentheses.[2] Accountancy (profession) or accounting (methodology) is the measurement, disclosure or provision of assurance about financial information primarily used by managers, investors, tax authorities and other decision makers to make resource allocation decisions within companies, organizations, and public agencies. ...


In law

Brackets are used in the citation of law reports to identify whether the report series is sorted by volume number - in which case round brackets are used - or by year - in which case square brackets are used. For example: (1983) 158 CLR 1 or [1998] 2 All ER 153. Law reports (Commonwealth English) or reporters (American English) are series of books which contain judicial opinions from a selection of cases that have been decided by the courts. ...


In sports

Tournament brackets, the diagrammatic representation of the series of games played during a tournament usually leading to a single winner, are so named for their resemblance to square brackets. In tournaments, bracket is commonly used to refer to the diagrammatic representation of the series of games played during the tournament. ...


History

The angle bracket was the earliest type to appear in English. Desiderius Erasmus coined the term lunula to refer to the rounded parentheses (), recalling the round shape of the moon. [3] Desiderius Erasmus in 1523 Desiderius Erasmus Roterodamus (sometimes known as Desiderius Erasmus of Rotterdam) (October 27, probably 1466 – July 12, 1536) was a Dutch humanist and theologian. ... For other moons in the solar system see natural satellite. ...


References

  1. ^ Free Online Dictionary of Computing
  2. ^ IBM Information Management Software for z/OS Solutions Information Center
  3. ^ Truss, Lynne. Eats, Shoots & Leaves, 2003. p. 161. ISBN 1-592-40087-6.

Bibliography

  • Bryant, Randal E.; David O'Hallaron (2003). Computer Systems: A Programmer's Perspective. Pearson Education, Inc., 794. ISBN 0-13-034074-X. 
  • Lennard, John, But I Digress: The Exploitation of Parentheses in English Printed Verse (1991) ISBN 0-19-811247-5
  • Turnbull et al., The Graphics of Communication, Holt, New York: 1964 states that what are depicted as square brackets above are called braces and curly brackets are called brackets. This was the terminology in US printing prior to computers.

There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ...

See also


  Results from FactBites:
 
Bracket - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1870 words)
With the International Phonetic Alphabet, square brackets are used to indicate a phonetic transcription (as opposed to a phonemic one).
In chemistry, square brackets can also be used to represent the concentration of a chemical substance, or to denote a complex ion.
In textual criticism, and hence in many editions of poorly transmitted works, angle brackets denote sections of the text which are illegible or otherwise lost; the editor will often insert their own reconstruction where possible within the brackets.
Bottom bracket - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1000 words)
The bottom bracket on a bicycle contains an axle to which the crankset is attached and the bearings that allow the axle and cranks to rotate.
The bottom bracket is offset in the plug, so by rotating the plug, the location of the bottom bracket (and hence the chain tension) may be adjusted.
In a fixed-gear bicycle, the bottom bracket should be high enough to prevent the pedals from coming in contact with the ground while cornering.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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