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Encyclopedia > Brachiopod
Brachiopoda
Fossil range: Cambrian - Recent

Living brachiopods
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Brachiopoda
Duméril, 1806
Diversity
About 4000 genera
Subphyla and classes

See Classification For other uses, see Cambrian (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links Usgs_boulder_brachiopods. ... For other uses, see Scientific classification (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Animal (disambiguation). ... Constant Duméril. ... Genera About 4000, see text This is an (as of yet incomplete) list of brachiopod genera. ... In biology, a genus (plural genera) is a grouping in the classification of living organisms having one or more related and morphologically similar species. ... In biology, a subphylum is a taxonomic rank intermediate between phylum and superclass. ... A class is the rank in the scientific classification of organisms in biology below Phylum and above Order. ... Diversity About 4000 genera Subphyla and classes See Classification Brachiopods (from Latin bracchium, arm + New Latin -poda, foot) are a nearly extinct, small phylum of benthic invertebrates. ...

Brachiopods (from Latin bracchium, arm + New Latin -poda, foot) are a nearly extinct, small phylum of benthic invertebrates. Also known as lamp shells (or lampshells), "brachs" or Brachiopoda, they are sessile, two-shelled, marine animals with an external morphology superficially resembling pelecypods (for instance, clams) of phylum Mollusca to which they are not closely related. It is estimated by paleobiologists that 99 percent of all documented lamp-shell species are both fossils and extinct.[1] For other uses, see Latin (disambiguation). ... In biology and ecology, extinction is the ceasing of existence of a species or group of species. ... Phylum (plural: phyla) is a taxon used in the classification of animals, adopted from the Greek phylai the clan-based voting groups in Greek city-states. ... In marine geology and biology, benthos are the organisms and habitats of the sea floor; in freshwater biology they are the organisms and habitats of the bottoms of lakes, rivers, and creeks. ... Invertebrate is an English word that describes any animal without a spinal column. ... Look up sessile in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Various seashells The hard, rigid outer covering of certain animals is called a shell. ... Marine is an umbrella term for things relating to the ocean, as with marine biology, marine geology, and as a term for a navy, etc. ... For other uses, see Animal (disambiguation). ... The term morphology in biology refers to the outward appearance (shape, structure, colour, pattern) of an organism or taxon and its component parts. ... Subclasses Anomalosdesmata Cryptodonta Heterodonta Paleoheterodonta Palaeotaxodonta Pteriomorphia and see text Mussels in the intertidal zone in Cornwall, England. ... For other uses, see Clam (disambiguation). ... Classes Caudofoveata Aplacophora Polyplacophora Monoplacophora Bivalvia Scaphopoda Gastropoda Cephalopoda † Rostroconchia † Helcionelloida † ?Bellerophontidae The molluscs (British spelling) or mollusks (American spelling) are members of the large and diverse phylum Mollusca, which includes a variety of familiar animals well-known for their decorative shells or as seafood. ... Paleobiology (sometimes spelled palaeobiology) is a growing and comparatively new discipline which combines the methods and findings of the natural science biology with the methods and findings of the earth science paleontology. ... For other uses, see Fossil (disambiguation). ... In biology and ecology, extinction is the ceasing of existence of a species or group of species. ...


Despite superficial similarities, bivalves and brachiopods differ markedly: Bivalves usually have a plane of symmetry between the shells, whereas most brachiopods have a plane of bilateral symmetry through the shells and perpendicular to the hinge. Both brachiopod shells are symmetrical as individual shells, but the shells differ in shape from one another. Whereas bivalves use adductor muscles to hold their two shells closed, and open them by means of an external or internal ligament once the adductor muscles are relaxed, brachiopods use muscle power (by internal diductor and adjustor muscles) to pull their two shells apart, and to close the two (by adductor muscles). Orders Subclass Protobranchia Solemyoida Nuculoida Subclass Pteriomorphia - oysters Arcoida Mytiloida Pterioida Subclass Paleoheterodonta - mussels Trigoinoida Unionoida Subclass Heterodonta - clams, zebra mussels Veneroida Myoida Subclass Anomalosdesmata Pholadomyoida Animals of the Class Bivalvia are known as bivalves because they typically have two-part shells, with both parts being more or less symmetrical. ... The elaborate patterns on the wings of butterflies are one example of biological symmetry. ... A hinge is a type of bearing that connects two solid objects, typically allowing only a limited angle of rotation between them. ... ... A ligament is a short band of tough fibrous connective tissue composed mainly of long, stringy collagen fibres. ...


A second major difference is that most brachiopods are attached to the substrate by means of a fleshy "stalk" or pedicle. In contrast, although some bivalves (pelecypods such as oysters, mussels and the extinct rudists) are fixed to the substrate, most are free-moving, usually by means of a muscular "foot". Look up substrate in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... In anatomy, the pedicle (also spelled pedicel) is the segment between the transverse process and the vertebral body. ... Orders Subclass Protobranchia Solemyoida Nuculoida Subclass Pteriomorphia - oysters, mussels Arcoida Mytiloida Pterioida Subclass Paleoheterodonta Trigoinoida Unionoida - freshwater mussels Subclass Heterodonta - clams, zebra mussels Veneroida Myoida Subclass Anomalosdesmata Pholadomyoida Bivalves are molluscs belonging to the class Bivalvia. ... For other uses, see Oyster (disambiguation). ... Subclasses Pteriomorpha (marine mussels) Palaeoheterodonta (freshwater mussels) Heterodonta (zebra mussels) The term mussel is used for several families of bivalve molluscs inhabiting lakes, rivers, and creeks, as well as intertidal areas along coastlines worldwide. ... Rudists are a group of bivalves that peaked in abundance and diversity during the late Mesozoic era, particularly in the Cretaceous period, at the end of which they became extinct. ...


Furthermore, brachiopod shells may be either phosphatic or -- much more commonly -- calcitic, as mollusks generally are. Only rarely do brachiopods may produce aragonitic shells, which are composed of a less-permanent form of calcium carbonate. Lastly, in contrast to most bivalves, some extinct lamp-shells exhibit elaborate flanges and spines. General Name, symbol, number phosphorus, P, 15 Chemical series nonmetals Group, period, block 15, 3, p Appearance waxy white/ red/ black/ colorless Standard atomic weight 30. ... Doubly refracting Calcite from Iceberg claim, Dixon, New Mexico. ... Aragonite Aragonite is a polymorph of the mineral calcite, both having the chemical composition CaCO3. ... Calcium carbonate is a chemical compound, with the chemical formula CaCO3. ... For the vacuum component, see Vacuum flange. ... Look up spine on Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


On July 16, 1986, the Kentucky State Legislature designated the brachiopod to be the Kentucky state fossil. is the 197th day of the year (198th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1986 (MCMLXXXVI) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link displays 1986 Gregorian calendar). ... Official language(s) English[1] Capital Frankfort Largest city Louisville Area  Ranked 37th  - Total 40,444 sq mi (104,749 km²)  - Width 140 miles (225 km)  - Length 379 miles (610 km)  - % water 1. ... It has been suggested that List of U.S. state dinosaurs be merged into this article or section. ...

Contents

General description

Lingula anatina
Lingula anatina

Brachiopods may be divided into two types: inarticulate brachiopods are held together entirely by musculature, whereas articulate brachiopods have a hinge-like articulation between the shells. All brachiopods are marine and are found either attached to substrates by a structure called a pedicle or resting on muddy bottoms. Brachiopods are suspension feeders with a distinctive feeding organ called a lophophore, which is found in two other animal phyla (Bryozoa and Phoronida). Modern brachiopods generally live in areas of cold water, either near the poles or in deep parts of the ocean. Image File history File linksMetadata Lingula_anatina_2. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Lingula_anatina_2. ... In anatomy, the pedicle (also spelled pedicel) is the segment between the transverse process and the vertebral body. ... Freshwater bryozoan with lophophore extended The lophophore is a characteristic feeding organ possessed by three major groups of animals: the Brachiopoda, Bryozoa, and Phoronida. ... Classes Stenolaemata Gymnolaemata Phylactolaemata Bryozoans are tiny colonial animals that generally build stony skeletons of calcium carbonate, superficially similar to coral. ... Genera Phoronis Phoronopsis Phoronids (Phoronida) are a relatively small animal phylum: twelve species are known, in two genera, Phoronis and Phoronopsis. ...


Modern brachiopods range in shell size from less than 5 mm (¼ in) to just over 8 cm (3 in). Fossil brachiopods generally fall within this size range, but some adult species have a shell of less than 1 mm across, and a few gigantic forms have been found measuring up to 38½ cm (15 in) in width. A millimetre (American spelling: millimeter, symbol mm) is an SI unit of length that is equal to one thousandth of a metre. ... An inch (plural: inches; symbol or abbreviation: in or, sometimes, ″ - a double prime) is the name of a unit of length in a number of different systems, including English units, Imperial units, and United States customary units. ...


Evolutionary history

Brachiopod fossils are often found in dense assemblages, such as these specimens of the Ordovician species Onniella meeki.
Brachiopod fossils are often found in dense assemblages, such as these specimens of the Ordovician species Onniella meeki.
Brachiopod morphology
Brachiopod morphology

The earliest unequivocal brachiopods in the fossil record occur in the early Cambrian, with the hingeless, inarticulate forms appearing first, followed soon thereafter by the hinged, articulate forms. Possible brachiopods have also been found in much older upper Neoproterozoic strata, although their assignment remains uncertain. Brachiopods are extremely common fossils throughout the Paleozoic. The major shift came with the Permian extinction. Before this extinction event, brachiopods were more numerous and diverse than bivalve mollusks. Afterwards, in the Mesozoic, their diversity and numbers were drastically reduced, and they were largely replaced by bivalve mollusks. Mollusks continue to dominate today, and the remaining orders of brachiopods survive largely in fringe environments of more extreme cold and depth. Photograph of fossil brachiopods Onniella meeki from the Ordovician of Franklin County, Indiana, USA, taken by dlloyd. ... Photograph of fossil brachiopods Onniella meeki from the Ordovician of Franklin County, Indiana, USA, taken by dlloyd. ... Artist impression of the Ordovician Sea. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1651x1079, 148 KB) Please see the file description page for further information. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1651x1079, 148 KB) Please see the file description page for further information. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Fossil. ... For other uses, see Cambrian (disambiguation). ... The Neoproterozoic Era is the unit of geologic time from 1,000 to 542 +/- 0. ... The Paleozoic Era (from the Greek palaio, old and zoion, animals, meaning ancient life) is the earliest of three geologic eras of the Phanerozoic eon. ... The Permian-Triassic (P-T or PT) extinction event, sometimes informally called the Great Dying, was an extinction event that occurred approximately 251 million years ago (mya), forming the boundary between the Permian and Triassic geologic periods. ... An extinction event (also known as: mass extinction; extinction-level event, ELE) occurs when there is a sharp decrease in the number of species in a relatively short period of time. ... The Mesozoic Era is one of three geologic eras of the Phanerozoic eon. ...


The most abundant modern brachiopods are the Class Terebratulida. The perceived resemblance of terebratulid shells to ancient oil lamps gave the brachiopods their common name "lamp shell". The phylum most closely related to Brachiopoda is probably the small phylum Phoronida (known as "horseshoe worms"). Along with the Bryozoa and possibly the Entoprocta, these phyla constitute the informal superphylum Lophophorata. Terebratulids are one of the only two living orders of articulate brachiopods, the other being the Rhynchonellida. ... Genera Phoronis Phoronopsis Phoronids (Phoronida) are a relatively small animal phylum: twelve species are known, in two genera, Phoronis and Phoronopsis. ... Classes Stenolaemata Gymnolaemata Phylactolaemata Bryozoans are tiny colonial animals that generally build stony skeletons of calcium carbonate, superficially similar to coral. ... Orders Barentsiidae (Urnatellidae) Loxokalypodidae Loxosomatidae Pedicellinidae Entoprocta (Gr. ... The lophophorates are animals united by a presence of a lophophore, a fan of cilia surrounding the mouth. ...


The inarticulate brachiopod genus Lingula is the oldest, relatively evolutionarily unchanged animal known. The oldest Lingula fossils are found in Lower Cambrian rocks dating to roughly 550 million years ago. The origin of brachiopods is unknown. A possible ancestor is a sort of ancient "armored slug" known as Halkieria that was recently been found to have had small brachiopod-like shields on its head and tail. This article is about evolution in biology. ... Halkieria evangelista from the Lower Cambrian Sirius Passet, North Greenland Halkieria is a fossil organism from the Lower to Middle Cambrian. ...

A Carboniferous brachiopod Neospirifer condor, from Bolivia. The specimen is 7 cm across.
A Carboniferous brachiopod Neospirifer condor, from Bolivia. The specimen is 7 cm across.
A Devonian spiriferid brachiopod from Ohio which served as a host substrate for a colony of hederellids. The specimen is 5 cm wide.
Syringothyris sp.; a spiriferid brachiopod from the Logan Formation (Lower Carboniferous) of Wooster, Ohio (internal molds).

During the Ordovician and Silurian periods, brachiopods became adapted to life in most marine environments and became particularly numerous in shallow water habitats, in some cases forming whole banks in much the same way as bivalves (such as mussels) do today. In some places, large sections of limestone strata and reef deposits are composed largely of their shells. A photograph of the Carboniferous brachiopod Neospirifer condor taken by Dlloyd. ... A photograph of the Carboniferous brachiopod Neospirifer condor taken by Dlloyd. ... The Carboniferous is a major division of the geologic timescale that extends from the end of the Devonian period, about 359. ... Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... For the Celtic language, see Southwestern Brythonic language; for the residents of the English county, see Devon. ... Hederellids are extinct colonial animals with calcitic tubular branching exoskeletons. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 565 pixelsFull resolution (1695 × 1197 pixel, file size: 615 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Photograph taken by Mark A. Wilson (Department of Geology, The College of Wooster). ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 565 pixelsFull resolution (1695 × 1197 pixel, file size: 615 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Photograph taken by Mark A. Wilson (Department of Geology, The College of Wooster). ... The Carboniferous is a major division of the geologic timescale that extends from the end of the Devonian period, about 359. ... Wayne County courthouse in downtown Wooster Wooster (IPA ) first syllable pronounced puss--like the cat--with a w is a city in Wayne County, Ohio, United States. ... Artist impression of the Ordovician Sea. ... The Silurian is a major division of the geologic timescale that extends from the end of the Ordovician period, about 443. ... Subclasses Pteriomorpha (marine mussels) Palaeoheterodonta (freshwater mussels) Heterodonta (zebra mussels) The term mussel is used for several families of bivalve molluscs inhabiting lakes, rivers, and creeks, as well as intertidal areas along coastlines worldwide. ... For other uses, see Limestone (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see strata (novel) and strata title. ...


Throughout their long geological history, the brachiopods have gone through several major proliferations and diversifications, and have also suffered from major extinctions as well. For other uses, see Extinction (disambiguation). ...


It has been suggested that the slow decline of the brachiopods over the last 100 million years or so is a direct result of (1) the rise in diversity of filter feeding bivalves, which have ousted the brachiopods from their former habitats; (2) the increasing disturbance of sediments by roving deposit feeders (including many burrowing bivalves); and/or (3) the increased intensity and variety of shell-crushing predation. However, it should be noted that the greatest successes for the bivalves have been in habitats which have never been adopted by the brachiopods, such as burrowing.


The abundance, diversity, and rapid evolution of brachiopods during the Paleozoic make them useful as index fossils when correlating strata across large areas. Index fossils (or zone fossils) are fossils used to define and identify geologic periods (or faunal stages). ...


Classification

In older classification schemes, Phylum Brachiopoda was divided into two classes: Articulata and Inarticulata. Since most orders of brachiopods have been extinct since the end of the Paleozoic Era, classifications have always relied extensively on the morphology (that is, the shape) of fossils. In the last 40 years further analysis of the fossil record and of living brachiopods, including genetic study, has led to changes in taxonomy. For other uses, see Fossil (disambiguation). ... This article is about the general scientific term. ... Look up taxonomy in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


The taxonomy is still unstable, however, so different authors have made different groupings. In their 2000 article as part of the Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology, Alwyn Williams, Sandra J. Carlson, and C. Howard C. Brunton present current ideas on brachiopod classification; their grouping is followed here. They subdivide Brachiopoda into three subphyla, eight classes, and 26 orders. These categories are believed to be approximately phylogenetic. Brachiopod diversity declined significantly at the end of the Paleozoic. Only five orders in three classes include forms which survive today, a total of between 300 and 500 extant species. Compare this to the mid-Silurian Period, when 16 orders of brachiopods coexisted.NOOOBS A Classification of Invertebrate Paleontology Kingdom Protoctista Phylum Protozoa Subphylum Sarcomastigophora Class Sarcodina Subclass Rhizopoda Order Foraminifera Suborder Allogromiina Suborder Textulariina Suborder Fusulinina Suborder Miliolina Suborder Rotaliina Subclass Actinopoda Order Radiolaria Kingdom Monera Division Schizomycophyta (bacteria) Division Cyanophyta (cyanobacteria) Kingdom Animalia Phylum Porifera (sponges) Phylum Coelenterata / Cnidaria Phylum Bryzoa Phylum... A phylogeny (or phylogenesis) is the origin and evolution of a set of organisms, usually of a species. ...

Brachiopod Taxonomy

Extant taxa in green, extinct taxa in grey
after Williams, Carlson, and Brunton, 2000 Year 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full 2000 Gregorian calendar). ...

Subphyla Classes Orders Extinct
Linguliformea Lingulata Linguilida no
Siphonotretida Ordovician
Acrotretida Devonian
Paterinata Paterinida Ordovician
Craniformea Craniforma Craniida no
Craniopsida Carboniferous
Trimerellida Silurian
Rhychonelliformea Chileata Chileida Cambrian
Dictyonellidina Permian
Obolellata Obolellida Cambrian
Kutorginata Kutorginida Cambrian
Strophomenata Orthotetidina Permian
Triplesiidina Silurian
Billingselloidea Ordovician
Clitambonitidina Ordovician
Strophomenida Carboniferous
Productida Permian
Rhynchonellata Protorthida Cambrian
Orthida Carboniferous
Pentamerida Devonian
Rhynchonellida no
Atrypida Devonian
Spiriferida Jurassic
Thecideida no
Athyridida Cretaceous
Terebratulida no

In biology, a subphylum is a taxonomic rank intermediate between phylum and superclass. ... A class is the rank in the scientific classification of organisms in biology below Phylum and above Order. ... In scientific classification used in biology, the order (Latin: ordo, plural ordines) is a rank between class and family (termed a taxon at that rank). ... Classes Lingulata Paterinata Linguliformea is a subphylum of inarticulate brachiopods. ... Orders Acrotretida (extinct) Linguilida Siphonotretida (extinct) Lingulata is a class of brachiopod, among the oldest of all brachiopods having existed since the Cambrian period (550 mya). ... Artist impression of the Ordovician Sea. ... For the Celtic language, see Southwestern Brythonic language; for the residents of the English county, see Devon. ... Orders Craniida †Craniopsida †Trimerellida Synonyms Craniata Williams, Carlson, Brunton, Holmer & Popov, 1996 (non Linnaeus 1758: preoccupied) Craniforma is a class of lamp shells and the only class of the subphylum Craniformea. ... Orders Craniida †Craniopsida †Trimerellida Craniforma is a class of lamp shells and the only class of the subphylum Craniformea. ... Genera 4 living and numerous fossil, including: †Ancistrocrania †Crania Craniscus †Danocrania †Isocrania Neoancistrocrania Novocrania Valdiviathyris Synonyms Craniacea (superfamily) Valdiviathyrididae (family) The Craniidae are a family of lamp shells. ... The Carboniferous is a major division of the geologic timescale that extends from the end of the Devonian period, about 359. ... The Silurian is a major division of the geologic timescale that extends from the end of the Ordovician period, about 443. ... For other uses, see Cambrian (disambiguation). ... The Permian is a geologic period that extends from about 299. ... Obolellida is a small, extinct order of inarticulate brachiopods that existed from the early to middle Cambrian period. ... Subdivisions Suborder Orthidina Suborder Dalmanellidina Orthida is an extinct order of Brachiopods which appeared during the Early Cambrian period and became very diverse by the Ordovician, living in shallow-shelf seas. ... Superfamilies Pugnacoidea Dimerelloidea Norelloidea Hemithiridoidea Ancistrorhynchoidea† Rhynchotrematoidea† Uncinuloidea† Camarotoechioidea† Rhynchotetradoidea† Lambdarinoidea† Wellerelloidea† Rhynchoporoidea† Stenoscismatoidea† See text for genera. ... families See text Spiriferida is an order of extinct articulate brachiopod, fossils of which are known for their long hinge-line, which is often the widest part of the shell. ... The Jurassic Period is a major unit of the geologic timescale that extends from about 199. ... // The Cretaceous Period is one of the major divisions of the geologic timescale, reaching from the end of the Jurassic Period (i. ... Terebratulids are one of the only two living orders of articulate brachiopods, the other being the Rhynchonellida. ...

See Also

  • List of brachiopod genera

Genera About 4000, see text This is an (as of yet incomplete) list of brachiopod genera. ...

Footnotes

  1. ^ See, for instance, data provided by paleontologist W. H. Easton (1960) in Invertebrate Paleontology (New York: Harper and Brothers).

A paleontologist carefully chips rock from a column of dinosaur vertebrae. ... A Classification of Invertebrate Paleontology Kingdom Protoctista Phylum Protozoa Subphylum Sarcomastigophora Class Sarcodina Subclass Rhizopoda Order Foraminifera Suborder Allogromiina Suborder Textulariina Suborder Fusulinina Suborder Miliolina Suborder Rotaliina Subclass Actinopoda Order Radiolaria Kingdom Monera Division Schizomycophyta (bacteria) Division Cyanophyta (cyanobacteria) Kingdom Animalia Phylum Porifera (sponges) Phylum Coelenterata / Cnidaria Phylum Bryzoa Phylum...

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Brachiopoda

Image File history File links Commons-logo. ...

References

  • Williams, A; Carlson, S.J., and Brunton, C.H.C. (2000). "Brachiopod classification", in Williams, A. et al.: Brachiopoda (revised).  Part H of in Kaesler, R.L.: Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology. Boulder, Colorado and Lawrence, Kansas: Geological Society of America and The University of Kansas. ISBN 0-8137-3108-9. 

  Results from FactBites:
 
Brachiopod showcase (0 words)
Brachiopods are marine animals living on the sea bottom.
Brachiopods have two valves which are different when seen from the side of the animal.
Brachiopods are attached to the substrate by the muscular pedicle.
Liberty Formation, Wooster Paleontological Study (Fall 2000) (2155 words)
Brachiopods have survived from the Early Cambrian to the present and live in exclusively marine to brackish waters, but due to the Permian extinction, strophomenids slowly declined until their extinction in the Triassic.
This is an articulate brachiopod that is distinguished by the irregular concentric wrinkles and by the sharp flexture in the shell near the anterior margin.
The lophophore is the brachiopod's organ for feeding.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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