FACTOID # 4: Just 1% of the houses in Nevada were built before 1939.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
RELATED ARTICLES
People who viewed "Boyar" also viewed:
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Boyar

A boyar (also spelled bojar, Romanian: boier) was a member of the highest rank of the feudal Bulgarian, Romanian, and Russian aristocracy, second only to the ruling princes, from the 10th century through the 17th century. The "rank" has lived on as a surname in Russia and in Finland, where it is spelled "Pajari".[1] Roland pledges his fealty to Charlemagne; from a manuscript of a chanson de geste. ... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      The term aristocracy refers to a form of government where power is held by a small number of individuals from an elite or from noble families. ... The term prince, from the Latin root princeps, is used for a member of the highest ranks of the aristocracy or the nobility. ... As a means of recording the passage of time, the 10th century was that century which lasted from 901 to 1000. ... (16th century - 17th century - 18th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 17th century was that century which lasted from 1601-1700. ...

Contents

Etymology

According to some the word is of Turkic origin and it is composed of the roots boy ("tribe") and ar ("shame/embarrassment") or ari (pure/clean).[2] Other sources claim it comes from Russian boyarin (member of Boyar, the tribe), from Old Russian boljarin. Each nomadic Turkic tribe had the name boy in the name, such as the Turkic tribe that settled into Anatolia were from Kayi Boyu (one of the 24 Oghuz Boys that migrated from central asia), old Turkic word kayi, strong, Kayi Tribe, the strong tribe. Another strong hypothesis — the term boljarin could actually derive from the Bulgar word boila, noble (see below Boyars in Bulgaria). The Turkic languages constitute a language family of some thirty languages, spoken across a vast area from Eastern Europe and the Mediterranean to Siberia and Western China, and are traditionally considered to be part of the proposed Altaic language family. ... Bolgar (also BolÄŸar), also Proto-Bulgarian is the language of the Bulgars, now extinct, whose classification is unclear. ...


Boyars in India

Boyars migrated from Indo-Iran around 5th century BCE to Indian sub-continent and later 9th century to Turkey and Romania. Having Dravidian roots came from indus valley invaded south region . (6th century BC - 5th century BC - 4th century BC - other centuries) (2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC - 1st millennium AD) Events Demotic becomes the dominant script of ancient Egypt Persians invade Greece twice (Persian Wars) Battle of Marathon (490) Battle of Salamis (480) Athenian empire formed and falls Peloponnesian War... Dravidian may refer to: Dravidian languages, including the Tamil, Telugu, Malayalam, and Kannada languages spoken especially in southern India and Sri Lanka. ... The Indus (सिन्‍धु नदी) (known as Sindhu in ancient times) is the principal river of Pakistan. ...


Boyars are mainly found in South India as Hindu Telugu speaking community and non-pure kshatriyas. Boyars arrived to Andhra - Orissa region during Indo-Aryan migration around 5th century BCE.


Boyar warriors served as military regiment between 10th century to 15th century in Chalukya, Chola, Vijayanagar and Hoysala empires.


The Musunuri Nayaks were Boyars and Kamma warrior chieftains in the Kakatiya army, who regained Andhra in 1326 from the Delhi Sultanate in the aftermath of the Kakatiya defeat.


King Pratapa Rudra’s Kakatiya kingdom was ably served by seventy five chieftains called Nayaks. The Nayaks who belonged to various agrarian castes such as Boyar, Velama, Kamma, Reddy, Telaga, Balija, etc. were divided by mutual jealousy and rivalry but they are valiant cousins.


Later in 17th century distinguished themselves as smiths, sculptors, nobles, leaders, priests, landlords, temple sculptors, arm traders, and sea farers .


Boya is considered as oldest caste and origin among many castes in India . Boyars are non-pure Kshatriyas they are called as ' Boya ' in Andhra Pradesh ' Boyar ' in Tamil nadu and in Karnataka as ' Bhovi '.


Boya, Boyar, Boyi, Bhovi are the hereditary and clan title. Boyar caste consists many gotras.


Today the estimated population of Boyar community is 15 million spread throughout India and other countries . Comprising State leaders, Administrative officers, Politicians, Entrepreneurs, Industrialists, Financiers, Doctors , Accountants, Lawyers, Professionals, Engineers, Academicians, Businessmen and Traders.


Boyars in Bulgaria

The oldest Slavic form of boyar — bolyarin, pl. bolyari (Bulgarian: болярин, pl. боляри) — dates from the 10th century and it is found in Bulgaria, where it might have stemmed from the old Bulgar title boila, which denoted a high aristocratic status among the Bulgars. It was probably transformed through boilar or bilyar to bolyar and bolyarin. In support of this hypothesis is the 10th century diplomatic protocol of the Byzantine Emperor Constantine VII where the bulgarian nobles are called boliades,[3] while the 9th century Bulgarian sources call them boila.[4]  Countries where a West Slavic language is the national language  Countries where an East Slavic language is the national language  Countries where a South Slavic language is the national language The Slavic languages (also called Slavonic languages), a group of closely related languages of the Slavic peoples and a subgroup... Bulgar warriors slaughter Byzantines, from the Menology of Basil II, 10th century. ... Constantine and his mother Zoë. Constantine VII Porphyrogennetos or Porphyrogenitus, the Purple-born (Greek: Κωνσταντίνος Ζ΄ Πορφυρογέννητος, Kōnstantinos VII PorphyrogennÄ“tos), (Constantinople, September 905 – November 9, 959 in Constantinople) was the son of the Byzantine emperor Leo VI and his fourth wife Zoe Karbonopsina. ... As a means of recording the passage of time the 9th century was the century that lasted from 801 to 900. ...


A member of the nobility during the First Bulgarian Empire was called a boila, while in the Second Bulgarian Empire the corresponding title became bolyar or bolyarin. Bolyar, as well as its predecessor, boila, was a hereditary title. The First Bulgarian Empire was founded in 681 AD in the lands near the Danube delta and disintegrated in 1018 AD by annexion to the Byzantine Empire. ... The Second Bulgarian Empire was a medieval Bulgarian state which existed between 1185 and 1396 (or 1422). ...


The bolyars were divided into veliki (great) and Mali (small). In Bulgaria at present the word bolyari is used as a nickname for the inhabitants of Veliko Tarnovo — the former capital of the Second Bulgarian Empire. Veliko Tarnovo (Bulgarian: Велико Търново; also transliterated as Veliko Turnovo) is a city in central northern Bulgaria and the administrative centre of Veliko Tarnovo Province. ... The Second Bulgarian Empire was a medieval Bulgarian state which existed between 1185 and 1396 (or 1422). ...


Boyars in the lands of East Slavs

A Muscovite boyar visiting his family minster (1912), painting by Ivan Goryushkin-Sorokopudov. The domestic life of Muscovite boyars was regulated by a special codex, known as Domostroy.

In the Russian language, the singular is boyarin (боярин, IPA: [bʌ'jærʲɪn]), the plural is boyare and the feminine form is boyarinya. Image File history File links Boyars_visit_to_a_minster_1912. ... Image File history File links Boyars_visit_to_a_minster_1912. ... Russian merchant family at the Domostroy times Domostroy (Russian: Домострой), loosely translated as The Household Management, is a 16th-century Muscovite set of household rules, instructions and advices pertaining to various religious, social, domestic, and family matters. ... Russian ( , transliteration: , ) is the most geographically widespread language of Eurasia and the most widely spoken of the Slavic languages. ... Articles with similar titles include the NATO phonetic alphabet, which has also informally been called the “International Phonetic Alphabet”. For information on how to read IPA transcriptions of English words, see IPA chart for English. ...


Boyars wielded considerable power through their military support of the Kievan princes. Power and prestige of many of them, however, soon came to depend almost completely on service to the state, family history of service and to a lesser extent, landownership. Trydent of Yaroslav I Map of the Kievan Rus′, 11th century Capital Kiev Religion Orthodox Christianity Government Monarchy Historical era Middle Ages  - Established 9th century  - Disestablished 12th century Currency Hryvnia Kievan Rus′ was the early, predominantly East Slavic[1] medieval state of Rurikid dynasty dominated by the city of Kiev...


The boyars occupied the highest state offices and through a council (Duma) advised the prince. They received extensive grants of land and, as members of the Boyars' Duma, were the major legislators of Kievan Rus'. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with State Duma. ... Trydent of Yaroslav I Map of the Kievan Rus′, 11th century Capital Kiev Religion Orthodox Christianity Government Monarchy Historical era Middle Ages  - Established 9th century  - Disestablished 12th century Currency Hryvnia Kievan Rus′ was the early, predominantly East Slavic[1] medieval state of Rurikid dynasty dominated by the city of Kiev...


After the Mongol invasion in the 13th century, the boyars from central and southern provinces of Rus' (modern Belarus and Ukraine) were partially incorporated into Lithuanian and Polish nobility. In the 14–15th centuries many of those boyars who failed to get the status of a nobleman actively participated in the formation of Cossack military organizations on the southern borders of the Polish-Lithuanian state. Also, some boyars who could not adapt themselves to the historical and social changes moved to Moscow and received high positions among the local aristocracy. Reply of the Zaporozhian Cossacks to Sultan Mehmed IV of Ottoman Empire. ...


In Moscow in the 14th and 15th centuries, the boyars retained their influence. However, as the Grand Dukes of Muscovy consolidated their power, the influence of the boyars was gradually eroded, particularly under Ivan III and Ivan IV. Moscow (Moskva) (Russian: , romanised: Moskva, IPA: see also other names) is the capital of Russia and the countrys economic, financial, educational, and transportation centre. ... The title of Grand Duke (Latin, Magnus Dux; German, Großherzog, Russian, Великий князь) used in Slavic, Baltic, and Germanic countries, is ranked in honour below King but higher than a sovereign Duke (Herzog) or Prince (Fürst). ... Muscovy (Moscow principality (княжество Московское) to Grand Duchy of Moscow (Великое Княжество Московское) to Russian Tsardom (Царство Русское)) is a traditional Western name for the Russian state that existed from the 14th century to the late 17th century. ... Albus rex Ivan III Ivan III Vasilevich (Иван III Васильевич) (January 22, 1440 - October 27, 1505), also known as Ivan the Great, was a grand duke of Muscovy who first adopted a more pretentious title of the grand... Ivan IV (August 25, 1530–March 18, 1584) was the first ruler of Russia to assume the title of tsar. ...


Tsar Ivan IV "Ivan the Terrible" severely restricted the Knyaz powers during the 16th century. Their ancient right to leave the service of one prince for another was curtailed, as was their right to hold land without giving obligatory service to the tsar. Tsar (Bulgarian, Serbian and Macedonian цар, Russian  , in scientific transliteration respectively car and car ), occasionally spelled Czar or Tzar and sometimes Csar or Zar in English, is a Slavonic term designating certain monarchs. ... Tsar Ivan the Terrible, by Viktor Vasnetsov Ivan IV Vasilyevich (Russian: ) (August 25, 1530, Moscow â€“ March 18, 1584, Moscow) was the Grand Prince of Moscow from 1533 to 1547 and Czar of Russia from 1547 until his death. ... Kniaz’ or knyaz is a word found in some Slavic languages, denoting a nobility rank. ... Tsar (Bulgarian, Serbian and Macedonian цар, Russian  , in scientific transliteration respectively car and car ), occasionally spelled Czar or Tzar and sometimes Csar or Zar in English, is a Slavonic term designating certain monarchs. ...


The Boyar Duma expanded from around 30 people to around 100 in the 17th century and was finally abolished by Tsar Peter the Great in 1711 in his extensive reforms of government and administration. A Duma (Ду́ма in Russian) is any of various representative assemblies in modern Russia and Russian history. ... Peter the Great or Pyotr Alexeyevich Romanov (Russian: Пётр I Алексеевич Pyotr I Alekséyevich) (9 June 1672–8 February 1725 [30 May 1672–28 January 1725 O.S.][1]) ruled Russia from 7 May (27 April O.S.) 1682 until his death, jointly ruling before 1696 with his weak and sickly...


Boyars in Wallachia and Moldavia

In the Carpathian regions inhabited by Romanians, the boyar (Romanian:boier) class emerged from the chiefs (named cneaz or jude in the areas north of the Danube and celnic south of the river) of rural communities in the early Middle Ages, initially elected, who later made their judicial and administrative attributions hereditary and gradually expanded them upon other communities. After the appearance of more advanced political structures in the area their privileged status had to be confirmed by the central power, which used this prerogative to include in the boyar class individuals that distinguished themselves in the military or civilian functions they performed (by allocating them lands from the princely domains). Kniaz’ or knyaz is a word found in some Slavic languages. ... The Danube (ancient Danuvius, Iranian *dānu, meaning river or stream, ancient Greek Istros) is the longest river in the European Union and Europes second longest river. ... Justinians wife Theodora and her retinue, in a 6th century mosaic from the Basilica of San Vitale in Ravenna. ...


The boyars progressively differentiated themselves into ‘great’ boyars (who owned numerous, large domains and held important functions in the central administration) and ‘small’ boyars (who owned small estates and held less important functions). Starting with the first half of the 15th century they became the most important political force in Wallachia and Moldavia. In Transylvania they were either assimilated by the Hungarian nobility or lost their status, becoming simple peasants. Map of Romania with Wallachia in yellow. ... For other uses of Moldavia or Moldova, see Moldova (disambiguation). ... Map of Romania with Transylvania in yellow Transylvania (Romanian: or ; Hungarian: ; German: ; Bulgarian: ; Serbian: / or / ) is a historical region in central and western Romania. ...


A number of Historical Romanian ranks and titles were reserved for Boiers, notably Medelnicer, Postelnic and (Mare) Stolnic. This is a glossary of historical Romanian ranks and titles used in principalities of Moldavia, Wallachia and Transylvania, and later in Romania. ... Postelnic (plural: postelnici; IPA: ; from the Slavic postel, bed; cf. ... Stolnic was a boier (Romanian nobility) rank and the position at the court in the history of Romania: in Moldavia and Wallachia. ...


Although over the centuries their influence alternated with periods of centralism the boyars of Wallachia and Moldavia increased their privileges (they had absolute control over the inhabitants of their domains, full tax exemptions and only boyars could hold offices). Divided into numerous factions they frequently attempted to remove or replace the princes of those two countries, a process usually accompanied by crimes and atrocities from both sides. Since the 16th century members of the great boyar families replaced the traditional princes from the Basarab and Muşat dynasties on the thrones of Wallachia and Moldavia. Map of Romania with Wallachia in yellow. ... For other uses of Moldavia or Moldova, see Moldova (disambiguation). ... The Basarab dynasty was an early Romanian dynasty which had an important role in the establishing of the Wallachian Principality. ... The Moldavian coat-of-arms, introduced by the Bogdanids, carved on the walls of Cetăţuia Monastery in IaÅŸi. ...


In the 17th and 18th centuries the Romanian boyars became increasingly influenced by Greek culture, adopting its institutions and way of life; during this time rich people of common origin became boyars by simply buying the rank from the prince, in order to have access to important public functions. However, in the early 1800s many boyars (especially the foreign-educated ones) became advocates of change and modernization, being very active in the process of Romanian national awakening that culminated with the union of Wallachia and Moldavia in 1859. In the newly-created state the boyars remained a very important factor (even though their privileges had been gradually abolished since the 1830s) as they owned most of the land, thus controlling agriculture, the country’s most important activity. The boyars also had strong political representation, especially in the Conservative Party. Map of Romania with Wallachia in yellow. ... For other uses of Moldavia or Moldova, see Moldova (disambiguation). ... Year 1859 (MDCCCLIX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ...


In the rapidly-changing economy of contemporary Romania, the boyars' medieval domains were practically converted into colonial plantations. This situation led to large peasant uprisings and was generally disapproved, but only in the dramatic circumstances of the post-WWI period did the Romanian government agree to carry out a significant land ownership reform. Between 1918 and 1921, 60,000 square kilometres of land were transferred to 1.4 million peasants, effectively ending the economic prominence of the boyars. 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... Year 1921 (MCMXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar). ... Square kilometre (US spelling: Square kilometer), symbol km², is an SI unit of surface area. ...


References

  1. ^ Behind the names: Pajari
  2. ^ Vasmer's Etymological Dictionary
  3. ^ CONSTANTINE PORPHYROGENITUS, DE CERIMONIIS AULAE BYZANTINAE, II, 46-7
  4. ^ 9th century stone inscription from Bulgaria mentioning boyars (boila)

Related article


  Results from FactBites:
 
Boyar - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (950 words)
A boyar (also spelled bojar) was a member of the highest rank of the feudal Russian, Romanian and Bulgarian aristocracy, second only to the ruling princes, from the 10th through the 17th century.
The Boyar Duma expanded from around 30 people to around 100 in the 17th century and was finally abolished by Tsar Peter the Great in 1711 in his extensive reforms of government and administration.
The boyars progressively differentiated themselves into ‘great’ boyars (who owned numerous, large domains and held important functions in the central administration) and ‘small’ boyars (who owned small estates and held less important functions).Starting with the first half of the 15th century they became the most important political force in Wallachia and Moldavia.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m