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Encyclopedia > Boxing
Boxing

A rendered boxing bout featuring Ricardo Domínguez (left, throwing a left uppercut) versus Rafael Ortiz.
Also known as English Boxing, American Boxing, Western Boxing
Focus Striking
Country of origin Ancient Greece (antiquity), United Kingdom (modern)
Creator Unknown
Parenthood Possibly Pankration
Famous practitioners Muhammad Ali, Larry Holmes, Jack Dempsey, James J. Braddock, Sugar Ray Robinson, Jake LaMotta, Joe Louis, Rocky Marciano, Gabriel Elorde, Mike Tyson, Evander Holyfield, Lennox Lewis, George Foreman, Joe Frazier, Sugar Ray Leonard, Marvelous Marvin Hagler, Thomas Hearns, Roberto Duran, Julio César Chávez, Roy Jones, Jr., Bernard Hopkins, Sugar Shane Mosley, Oscar de la Hoya, Joe Calzaghe, Floyd Mayweather, Jr., Kostya Tszyu, Tito Trinidad, Ricky Hatton, Manny Pacquiao, Arturo Gatti, Micky Ward, Ricardo Mayorga, Fernando Vargas, Jack Johnson, and Wladimir Klitschko.
Olympic Sport Since 688 B.C.

Boxing (sometimes known as pugilism, Anglais boxing, Fistfighting, or English boxing) is a combat sport in which two participants (generally) of similar weight fight each other with their fists. Boxing today is conducted in a regulated way, typically in a series of one to three-minute intervals called rounds. Victory is achieved if the opponent is knocked down and unable to get up before the referee counts to ten seconds (a Knockout, or KO) or if the opponent is deemed too injured to continue (a Technical Knockout, or TKO). If there is no stoppage of the fight before an agreed number of rounds, a winner is determined either by the referee's decision or by judges' scorecards. Boxing may refer to: The sport of Boxing Boxing in computer science This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Look up boxer in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1797x1110, 309 KB) Photoshopped image based on Image:Boxing080905. ... Lead hand uppercut The uppercut (sometimes also referred to as the upper), is a punch used in boxing that usually aims at the opponents chin. ... Striking is a technique for vegetatively (asexually) propagating plants in which a piece of the source plant containing at least one stem cell is placed in a suitable medium such as moist soil, potting mix, coir or rock wool. ... The term ancient Greece refers to the periods of Greek history in Classical Antiquity, lasting ca. ... Pankration was an ancient sport introduced in the Greek Olympic games in 648 BC. Many historians believe that, although Pankration was not one of the first Olympic sports, it was likely the most popular. ... For other persons named Muhammad Ali, see Muhammad Ali (disambiguation). ... For the politician and activist, see Larry Holmes (Marxist). ... For other uses, including another boxing champion, see Jack Dempsey (disambiguation). ... (September , 1991) was an American heavyweight boxing champion. ... Sugar Ray Robinson (born Walker Smith Jr. ... Giacobbe La Motta (born July 10, 1921), better known as Jake LaMotta, nicknamed The Bronx Bull and The Raging Bull, is a former boxer who was world middleweight champion and whose life has been as controversial outside the ring as it was inside it. ... For other uses, see Joe Louis (disambiguation). ... Rocky Marciano (September 1, 1923 – August 31, 1969), born Rocco Francis Marchegiano, was the heavyweight champion of the world from 1952 to 1956. ... Gabriel Flash Elorde (March 25, 1935 – January 2, 1985) is widely considered as one of the greatest Filipino boxers of all time along with featherweight slugger Manny Pacquiao and flyweight champion in the 1920s Pancho Villa . ... For the former baseball player, see Mike Tyson (baseball). ... Evander The Real Deal Holyfield (born October 19, 1962 in Atmore, Alabama) is a professional boxer from the United States and a multiple world champion in both the cruiserweight and heavyweight divisions. ... Lennox Claudius Lewis CM, CBE (born September 2, 1965) is a retired British/Canadian professional boxer. ... George Edward Foreman (born January 10, 1949) is an American two-time World Heavyweight Boxing Champion. ... For the Major League Baseball player and manager, see Joe Frazier (baseball) Joseph William Smokin Joe Frazier (born January 12, 1944 in Beaufort, South Carolina) is a former world heavyweight boxing champion, active mostly in the 1960s and 1970s. ... Ray Charles Leonard (born May 17, 1956 in Wilmington, North Carolina) is a retired professional boxer. ... Marvelous Marvin Hagler (born Marvin Nathaniel Hagler in Newark, New Jersey, May 23, 1954), is an American former boxer. ... Thomas Hearns (born October 18, 1958, in Memphis, Tennessee), is an American 7-time world champion professional boxer. ... Roberto Duran (b. ... For this mans son, also a boxer, see Julio César Chávez, Jr. ... Roy Jones Jr. ... // Bernard Hopkins was born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, growing up in the Raymond Rosen housing projects and later in Germantown, where he became involved in crime and gang activity at a young age. ... Sugar Shane Mosley (born September 7, 1971) is a boxer form Pomona, California. ... Oscar De La Hoya (pronounced [1]) (born February 4, 1973) — nicknamed the Golden Boy — is a Mexican American boxer who won a gold medal for the United States Boxing Team at the Barcelona Olympic Games. ... Joe Calzaghe MBE (born 23 March 1972 in Hammersmith, London) is a Welsh boxer currently living in Newbridge, Newport, and is pound for pound one of the top 10 boxers in the world. ... Floyd Joy Mayweather, Jr. ... Konstantin Kostya the Goit Tszyu (Russian: Константин (Костя) Цзю, pronounced in Australian English) (born September 19, 1969) is a Russian- born boxer of mixed Russian, Korean and Mongol descent. ... Félix Tito Trinidad, Jr. ... Richard Ricky Hatton MBE (born October 6, 1978, in Stockport, Greater Manchester, England), is an English boxer. ... Emmanuel Dapidran Pacquiao, (born December 17, 1978 in Kibawe, Bukidnon, Mindanao, Philippines), simply known as Manny Pacquiao or Pac-Man, is a Filipino professional boxer. ... Arturo Thunder Gatti (born April 15, 1972) is a former Canadian professional boxer. ... Irish Micky Ward (born October 4, 1965) is a junior welterweight professional boxer from Lowell, Massachusetts USA. Ward won three New England Golden Gloves titles as an amateur before turning pro in 1985. ... Ricardo Mayorga (born October 3, 1973 in Managua, Nicaragua), He is the former WBA/WBC Welterweight champion and the former WBC Junior Middleweight champion. ... Fernando Vargas (born December 7, 1977) is a former American boxer and two-time world champion, who won a bronze medal as an amateur at the 1995 Pan American Games in Mar del Plata. ... John Arthur Johnson (March 31, 1878 – June 10, 1946), better known as Jack Johnson and nicknamed the Galveston Giant, was an American boxer and arguably the best heavyweight of his generation. ... Wladimir Klitschko (Ukrainian: ; born March 25, 1976) is a Ukrainian heavyweight boxer. ... A combat sport is a competitive sport involving the use of punch, kick, throw, joint locks, and/or a weapon for attack and defence. ... 2 (two) is the natural number following 1 and preceding 3. ... Look up participation in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Several equivalence relations in mathematics are called similarity. ... Weight, in the context of human body weight measurements in the medical sciences and in sports is a measurement of mass, and is thus expressed in units of mass, such as kilograms (kg), or units of force such as pounds (lb). ... A fight is an act to establish dominance over an opposition by causing harm by physical or mental damage. ... Fist can refer to the following: A hand that has the fingers curled into the palm and the thumb retracted. ... The Hamdriverin the sport of boxing is the individual charged with enforcing the rules of the ring during a boxing match. ... Seconds can refer to any of the following: Seconds, a film thriller directed by John Frankenheimer. ... A boxer is knocked down and receives the 10-count. ... Injury is damage or harm caused to the structure or function of the body caused by an outside agent or force, which may be physical or chemical. ... Abbreviation: TKO A victory in boxing, with immediate termination of the match, awarded by the referee when it appears that one fighter is too badly injured or unable to continue. ...


Although fighting with fists comes naturally to people, the ancient Greeks were the first to make a sport of it, by giving rules and staging tournaments with professionals. The birth hour of boxing as a sport may mark its allowance as an Olympic game as early as 688 BC. Modern boxing evolved in Europe, particularly Great Britain. Ancient Greece is the term used to describe the Greek_speaking world in ancient times. ... Ruins of the training grounds at Olympia The Ancient Olympic Games, originally referred to as simply the Olympic Games (Greek: ; Olympiakoi Agones) were a series of athletic competitions held between various city-states of Ancient Greece. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ...


In some countries with their own fighting sports, the sport is referred to as "English Boxing" (e.g. in France to contrast with French boxing). There are numerous different forms of boxing practiced across the world. Savate (pronounced ), also known as boxe française, French boxing, French Kickboxing or French Footfighting, is a French martial art which uses both the hands and feet as weapons and combines elements of western boxing with graceful kicking techniques. ...

Early history

Minoan youths boxing, Knossos fresco. Earliest documented use of 'gloves'.
Minoan youths boxing, Knossos fresco. Earliest documented use of 'gloves'.

Fist fighting is depicted in Sumerian relief carvings in the 3rd millennium BC,[1] Both depictions show bare-fisted contests.[1].In 1927 Dr E. A. Speiser an Archaeologist discovered a stone tablet in Baghdad Iraq depicting two men getting ready for a prize fight, the tablet is believed to be 7,000 years old. [2]. Fist fighting or Boxing is also described in several ancient Indian texts such as the Vedas, the ramayana, and the mahabarata. As well as excavations done in Mohenjadaro and Harappa.[3]. The earliest evidence for fist fighting with a kind of gloves can be found on Minoan Crete (c. 1500 BC).[1] Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1224x2055, 563 KB) Summary Fresque des enfants boxeurs. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1224x2055, 563 KB) Summary Fresque des enfants boxeurs. ... The Minoan civilization was a bronze age civilization which arose on the island of Crete. ... A portion of Arthur Evans reconstruction of the Minoan palace at Knossos. ... Sumer (or Shumer, Sumeria, Shinar, native ki-en-gir) formed the southern part of Mesopotamia from the time of settlement by the Sumerians until the time of Babylonia. ... The 3rd millennium BC spans the Early to Middle Bronze Age. ... Ephraim Avigdor Speiser (January 24, 1902–June 15, 1965) was University Professor and Chairman of the Department of Oriental Studies at the University of Pennsylvania. ... Baghdad (Arabic: ) is the capital of Iraq and of Baghdad Governorate. ... Veda redirects here. ... For the television series by Ramanand Sagar, see Ramayan (TV series). ... The Mahabharata (Devanagari: महाभारत, phonetically Mahābhārata - see note), sometimes just called Bharata, is the great religious, philosophical and mythological epic of India. ... Mohenjo-daro (literally, mound of the dead), like Harappa, was a city of the Indus Valley civilization. ... Location of Harappa in the Indus Valley. ... Minoan may refer to the following: The Minoan civilization The (undeciphered) Eteocretan language The (undeciphered) Minoan language The script known as Linear A An old name for the Mycenean language before it was deciphered and discovered to be a form of Greek. ... For other uses, see Crete (disambiguation). ...


Ancient Greek boxing

Boxer of Quirinal resting after contest (Bronze sculpture, 3rd century BC)
Boxer of Quirinal resting after contest (Bronze sculpture, 3rd century BC)
Detail of leather straps
Detail of leather straps
The right boxer signals giving up by raising his finger high (ca. 500 BC)
The right boxer signals giving up by raising his finger high (ca. 500 BC)
Main article: Ancient Greek Boxing

The ancient Greeks, and later the Romans, called boxing pugilism (a term now often used for boxing). The Greeks were the first to give rules to the sport: while clinching was strictly forbidden, there were, unlike modern boxing, no weight classes. Fights were not separated into rounds and had no time limit, ending at a knockout, or at a fighter abandoning the fight, or sometimes at the death of one of the fighters.[1] Although gloves were used in practice,[1] in competition fighters wrapped their hands in strips of hardened leather which protected the fist and caused unpleasant injuries for the opponent.[1] The boxer of Quirinal (Museo delle Terme, Rome) The bronze Boxer of Quirinal is a Hellenistic Greek sculpture from the first century B.C. It shows a sitting boxer with cesti. ... // There is archeological and artistic evidence of ancient Greek boxing (pyx or pygme in ancient Greek) as early as the Minoan and Mycenaean periods. ... Ancient Greece is the term used to describe the Greek_speaking world in ancient times. ... History - Ancient history - Ancient Rome This is a List of Ancient Rome-related topics, that aims to include aspects of both the Ancient Roman Republic and Roman Empire. ...


Homer's Iliad (ca. 675 BC) contains the first detailed account of a box fight (Book XXIII).[4] According to the Iliad, Mycenaean warriors included boxing among their competitions honoring the fallen, though it is possible that the Homeric epics reflect later Greek culture. Another Greek legend holds that the heroic ruler Theseus, said to have lived around the 9th century BC, invented a form of boxing in which two men sat face to face and beat each other with their fists until one of them was killed. In time, the boxers began to fight while standing and wearing gloves (with spikes) and wrappings on their arms below the elbows, although otherwise they competed naked. This article is about the Greek poet Homer and the works attributed to him. ... title page of the Rihel edition of ca. ... Mycenaean may refer to: Mycenae, coming from or belonging to this ancient town in Peloponnese in Greece Mycenaean Greece, the Greek-speaking regions of the Aegean Sea as of the Late Bronze Age, named (somewhat anachronistically) after the Mycenae of the Trojan War epics Mycenaean language, an ancient form of... Theseus (Greek ) was a legendary king of Athens, son of Aethra, and fathered by Aegeus and Poseidon, with whom Aethra lay in one night (By some accounts, this was presented as a rape). ...


Boxing was first accepted as an Olympic sport in 688 BC, being called Pygme or Pygmachia. Participants trained on punching bags (called a korykos). Fighters wore leather straps (called himantes) over their hands, wrists, and sometimes breast, to protect them from injury. The straps left their fingers free. Legend had it that the Spartans were the first to box as a way to prepare for sword and shield fighting.[citation needed] Ruins of the training grounds at Olympia The Ancient Olympic Games, originally referred to as simply the Olympic Games (Greek: ; Olympiakoi Agones) were a series of athletic competitions held between various city-states of Ancient Greece. ... Categories: Stub | Exercise equipment | Boxing ...


Ancient Roman boxing

In ancient Rome, there were two forms of boxing. The athletic form of boxing was adopted from the Greeks and remained popular throughout the Roman world. The other form of boxing was gladiatorial. Fighters were usually criminals and slaves who hoped to become champions and gain their freedom; however, free men also fought. Eventually, fist fighting became so popular that even aristocrats started fighting, but the practice was eventually banned by Caesar Augustus. A fight between the agile Dares and the towering Entellus is described at length in the Roman national epic Aeneid (1st century BC).[5] Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew from a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula circa the 9th century BC to a massive empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea. ... Aristocracy is a form of government in which rulership is in the hands of an upper class known as aristocrats. ... For other persons named Octavian, see Octavian (disambiguation). ... Aeneas flees burning Troy, Federico Barocci, 1598 Galleria Borghese, Rome The Aeneid (IPA English pronunciation: ; in Latin Aeneis, pronounced — the title is Greek in form: genitive case Aeneidos) is a Latin epic written by Virgil in the 1st century BC (between 29 and 19 BC) that tells the legendary story...


In 393 A.D., the Olympics were banned by the Christian emperor Theodosius, and in 500 A.D., boxing was banned altogether by Theodoric the Great as being an insult to God because it disfigures the face, the image of God. However, this edict had little effect outside the major cities of the Eastern Empire.[6] By this time Western Europe was no longer part of the Roman Empire. Boxing remained popular in Europe throughout the Middle Ages and beyond. It should be noted that wrestling, fencing and racing (both chariot and foot) were never banned by the late Romans, as they did not cause disfigurement. An engraving depicting what Theodosius may have looked like, ca. ... Theodoric the Great (454 - August 30, 526), known to the Romans as Flavius Theodoricus, was king of the Ostrogoths (488-526), ruler of Italy (493-526), and regent of the Visigoths (511-526). ...


Modern boxing

London Prize Ring rules (1743)

The beginnings of the modern right cross demonstrated in Edmund Price's The Science of Self Defense: A Treatise on Sparring and Wrestling, 1867
The beginnings of the modern right cross demonstrated in Edmund Price's The Science of Self Defense: A Treatise on Sparring and Wrestling, 1867

Records of Classical boxing activity disappeared after the fall of the Roman Empire. However, there are detailed records of various fist-fighting sports that were maintained in different cities and provinces of Italy between the 12th and 17th centuries. The sport would later resurface in England during the early 18th century in the form of bare-knuckle boxing sometimes referred to as prizefighting. The first documented account of a bare-knuckle fight in England appeared in 1681 in the London Protestant Mercury, and the first English bare-knuckle champion was James Figg in 1719.[7] This is also the time when the word "boxing" first came to be used. The London Prize Ring rules was a list of 29 rules drafted by Britains Jack Broughton in 1743, governing the conduct of prizefighting/boxing for over 100 years. ... Image File history File links Blow2. ... Image File history File links Blow2. ... For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... See also bare-knuckle for other uses. ... James Figg (c. ...


Early fighting had no written rules. There were no weight divisions or round limits, and no referee. In general, it was very chaotic. The first boxing rules, called the London Prize Ring rules, were introduced by heavyweight champion Jack Broughton in 1743 to protect fighters in the ring where deaths sometimes occurred.[8] Under these rules, if a man went down and could not continue after a count of 30 seconds, the fight was over. Hitting a downed fighter and grasping below the waist were prohibited. Broughton also invented and encouraged the use of "mufflers", a form of padded gloves, which were used in training and exhibitions. The first 'boxing paper' was published in the late 18th century by successful Birmingham boxer 'William Futrell' who remained undefeated until his one hour and seventeen minute fight at Smitham Bottom, Croydon, on July 9, 1788 against a much younger "Gentleman" John Jackson which was attended by the Prince of Wales. The London Prize Ring rules was a list of 29 rules drafted by Britains Jack Broughton in 1743, governing the conduct of prizefighting/boxing for over 100 years. ... A drawing of Jack Broughton by George Townshend, 1st Marquess Townshend. ... This article is about the British city. ... This article is about the title Prince of Wales. ...


Although bare-knuckle fighting was in almost every aspect far more brutal than modern boxing, it did allow the fighters a single advantage not enjoyed by today's boxers: The London Prize Rules permitted the fighter to drop to one knee to begin a 30-second count at any time. Thus a fighter realizing he was in trouble had an opportunity to recover. Intentionally going down in modern boxing will cause the recovering fighter to lose points in the scoring system.


In 1838, the London Prize Ring rules were expanded in detail. Later revised in 1853, they stipulated the following:[9] // 1781 - the Toxophilite Society is founded in Leicester Square, London. ...

  • Fights occurred in a 24-foot-square ring surrounded by ropes.
  • If a fighter was knocked down, he had to rise within 30 seconds under his own power to be allowed to continue.
  • Biting, headbutting and hitting below the belt were declared fouls.

Through the late nineteenth century, boxing or prizefighting was primarily a sport of dubious legitimacy. Outlawed in England and much of the United States, prizefights were often held at gambling venues and broken up by police. Brawling and wrestling tactics continued, and riots at prizefights were common occurrences. Still, throughout this period, there arose some notable bare knuckle champions who developed fairly sophisticated fighting tactics.


Marquess of Queensberry rules (1867)

In 1867, the Marquess of Queensberry rules were drafted by John Chambers for amateur championships held at Lillie Bridge in London for Lightweights, Middleweights and Heavyweights. The rules were published under the patronage of the Marquess of Queensberry, whose name has always been associated with them. The Marquis of Queensbury rules are a code of popularly accepted rules in the sport of boxing. ... John Graham Chambers codified the Marquess of Queensberry rules upon which modern-day boxing is based. ... The Lillie Bridge Grounds was a sports ground in London near to present day Stamford Bridge, opened around 1867. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... For other uses, see Lightweight (disambiguation). ... Middleweight is a division, or weight class, in boxing. ... For the mixed martial arts division of the same name, see Heavyweight (MMA). ... John Sholto Douglas (1844-1900) was an eccentric Scottish nobleman, the 9th Marquess of Queensberry and Viscount Drumlanrig. ...


There were twelve rules in all, and they specified that fights should be "a fair stand-up boxing match" in a 24-foot-square ring. Rounds were three minutes long with one minute rest intervals between rounds. Each fighter was given a ten-second count if he was knocked down and wrestling was banned.


The introduction of gloves of "fair-size" also changed the nature of the bouts. An average pair of boxing gloves resembles a bloated pair of mittens and are laced up around the wrists. Gloves protected fighters from both facial and hand injuries, their considerable size and weight making knock-out victories more difficult to achieve.[10] The gloves could also be used to block an opponent's blows. As a result of their introduction, bouts became longer and more strategic with greater importance attached to defensive maneuvers such as slipping, bobbing, countering and angling. Because less defensive emphasis was placed on the use of the forearms and more on the gloves, the classical forearms outwards, torso leaning back stance of the bare knuckle boxer was modified to more modern stance in which the torso is tilted forward and the hands are held closer to the face.


The English case of R v. Coney in 1882 found that a bare-knuckle fight was an assault occasioning actual bodily harm, despite the consent of the participants. This marked the end of widespread public bare-knuckle contests in England. R v. ... See also bare-knuckle for other uses. ... Actual Bodily Harm (often abbreviated to ABH) is a type of criminal assault defined under English law. ... It has been suggested that Victimless crime be merged into this article or section. ...


The first world heavyweight champion under the Queensberry Rules was "Gentleman Jim" Corbett, who defeated John L. Sullivan in 1892 at the Pelican Athletic Club in New Orleans.[11] James John Corbett, born September 1, 1866 in San Francisco, California, United States – died February 18, 1933 in Bayside, New York, was a heavyweight boxing champion. ... For the U.S. Secretary of the Navy, see John L. Sullivan (U.S. Navy). ... NOLA redirects here. ...


Throughout the early twentieth century, boxing struggled to achieve legitimacy, through the influence of promoters like Tex Rickard and the popularity of great champions from John L. Sullivan to Jack Dempsey. Shortly after this era, boxing commissions and other sanctioning bodies were established to regulate the sport and establish universally recognized champions. George Lewis Tex Rickard (1870-1929 ?) was an American boxing promoter, and founder of the New York Rangers NHL franchise. ... For other uses, including another boxing champion, see Jack Dempsey (disambiguation). ...

Further information: Professional boxing

Professional boxing, or prizefighting, emerged in the early twentieth century as boxing gradually attained legitimacy and became a regulated, sanctioned sport. ...

Rules

The Marquess of Queensbury rules have been the general rules governing modern boxing since their publication in 1867. The Marquess of Queensberry rules are a code of popularly accepted rules in the sport of boxing. ...


A boxing match typically consists of a predetermined number of three-minute rounds, a total of up to 25 rounds. A minute is typically spent between each round with the fighters in their assigned corners receiving advice and attention from their coach and staff. The fight is controlled by a referee who works within the ring to judge and control the conduct of the fighters, rule on their ability to fight safely, count knocked-down fighters, and rule on fouls. Up to three judges are typically present at ringside to score the bout and assign points to the boxers, based on punches that connect, defense and knockdowns. Each fighter has an assigned corner of the ring, where his or her coach, as well as one or more "seconds" may administer to the fighter at the beginning of the fight and between rounds. Each boxer enters into the ring from their assigned corners at the beginning of each round and must cease fighting and return to their corner at the signaled end of each round.


A bout in which the predetermined number of rounds passes is decided by the judges, and is said to "go the distance". The fighter with the higher score at the end of the fight is ruled the winner. With three judges, unanimous and split decisions are possible, as are draws. A boxer may win the bout before a decision is reached through a knockout; such bouts are said to have ended "inside the distance". If a fighter is knocked down during the fight, determined by whether the boxer touches the canvas floor of the ring with any part of their body other than the feet, the referee begins counting until the fighter returns to his or her feet and can continue. Should the referee count to ten, then the knocked-down boxer is ruled "knocked out" (whether he or she is unconscious or not) and the other boxer is ruled the winner by knockout (KO). A "technical knockout" (TKO) is possible as well, and is ruled by the referee, fight doctor, or a fighter's corner if a fighter is unable to safely continue to fight, based upon injuries or being judged unable to effectively defend themselves. Many jurisdictions and sanctioning agencies also have a "three-knockdown rule", in which three knockdowns result in a TKO. A TKO is considered a knockout in a fighter's record. A "standing eight" count rule may also be in effect, in which the referee counts no higher than eight to a boxer who regains his or her footing after a knockdown, allowing the referee time to assess if the boxer is able to continue.


In general, boxers are prohibited from hitting below the belt, holding, tripping, pushing, biting, spitting or wrestling. The boxer's shorts are raised so the opponent is not allowed to hit to the groin area. They also are prohibited from kicking, head-butting, or hitting with any part of the arm other than the knuckles of a closed fist (including hitting with the elbow, shoulder or forearm, as well as with open gloves, the wrist, the inside, back or side of the hand). They are prohibited as well from hitting the back, back of the neck or head (called a "rabbit-punch") or the kidneys. They are prohibited from holding the ropes for support when punching, holding an opponent while punching, or ducking below the belt of their opponent. If a "clinch," a defensive move in which a boxer wraps his or her opponents arms and holds on to create a pause, is broken by the referee, each fighter must take a full step back before punching again (alternatively, the referee may direct the fighters to "punch out" of the clinch). When a boxer is knocked-down, the other boxer must immediately cease fighting and move to the nearest neutral corner of the ring until the referee has either ruled a knockout or called for the fight to continue.


Violations of these rules may be ruled "fouls" by the referee, who may issue warnings, deduct points, or disqualify an offending boxer, causing an automatic loss, depending on the seriousness and intentionality of the foul. An intentional foul that causes injury that prevents a fight from continuing usually causes the boxer who committed it to be disqualified. A fighter who suffers an accidental low-blow may be given up to five minutes to recover, after which they may be ruled knocked out if they are unable to continue. Accidental fouls that cause injury ending a bout may lead to a "no decision" result, or else cause the fight to go to a decision if enough rounds (typically four or more, or at least three in a four-round fight) have passed.


Professional vs. amateur boxing

Throughout the 17th through 19th centuries, boxing bouts were motivated by money, as the fighters competed for prizes, promoters controlled the gate, and spectators bet on the result. The modern Olympic movement revived interest in amateur sports, and amateur boxing became an Olympic sport in 1908. In their current form, Olympic and other amateur bouts are typically limited to three or four rounds, scoring is computed by points based on the number of clean blows landed, regardless of impact, and fighters wear protective headgear, reducing the number of injuries, knockdowns, and knockouts. Professional boxing remains by far the most popular form of the sport globally, though amateur boxing is dominant in Cuba and some former Soviet republics. For most fighters, an amateur career, especially at the Olympics, serves to develop skills and gain experience in preparation for a professional career.


Amateur boxing

Headgear is mandatory in amateur boxing
Headgear is mandatory in amateur boxing
Main article: Amateur boxing

Amateur boxing may be found at the collegiate level, at the Olympic Games and Commonwealth Games, and in many other venues sanctioned by amateur boxing associations. Amateur boxing has a point scoring system that measures the number of clean blows landed rather than physical damage. Bouts consist of four rounds of two minutes in the Olympic and Commonwealth Games, and three rounds of two minutes in a national ABA (Amateur Boxing Association) bout, each with a one-minute interval between rounds. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2048x3072, 679 KB) Summary Boxing. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2048x3072, 679 KB) Summary Boxing. ... The fighters in this Amateur boxing bout are wearing headgear. ... Olympic boxing or Amateur boxing is found at the Olympic Games and Commonwealth Games. ... The five Olympic rings were designed in 1913, adopted in 1914 and debuted at the Games at Antwerp, 1920. ... Current flag of the Commonwealth Games Federation Locations of the games, and participating countries Commonwealth Games Federation seal, adopted in 2001 The Commonwealth Games is a multinational, multi-sport event. ...


Competitors wear protective headgear and gloves with a white strip across the knuckle. A punch is considered a scoring punch only when the boxers connect with the white portion of the gloves. Each punch that lands on the head or torso is awarded a point. A referee monitors the fight to ensure that competitors use only legal blows (a belt worn over the torso represents the lower limit of punches - any boxer repeatedly landing "low blows" (below the belt) is disqualified). Referees also ensure that the boxers don't use holding tactics to prevent the opponent from swinging (if this occurs, the referee separates the opponents and orders them to continue boxing. Repeated holding can result in a boxer being penalized, or ultimately, disqualified). Referees will stop the bout if a boxer is seriously injured, if one boxer is significantly dominating the other or if the score is severely imbalanced.[12] Amateur bouts which end this way may be noted as "RSC" (referee stopped contest) with notations for an outclassed opponent (RSCO), outscored opponent (RSCOS), injury (RSCI) or head injury (RSCH). Below the belt is a term used in boxing to describe the genital area where punches are forbidden to be struck. ...


Professional boxing

Main article: Professional boxing

Professional bouts are usually much longer than amateur bouts, typically ranging from ten to twelve rounds, though four round fights are common for less experienced fighters or club fighters, there are some two[13] and three rounds professional bouts[14], especially in Australia. Through the early twentieth century, it was common for fights to have unlimited rounds, ending only when one fighter quit, benefiting high-energy fighters like Jack Dempsey. Fifteen rounds remained the internationally recognized limit for championship fights for most of the twentieth century, until the late 1980s, when championship bouts were shortened to twelve rounds to improve safety. Professional boxing, or prizefighting, emerged in the early twentieth century as boxing gradually attained legitimacy and became a regulated, sanctioned sport. ... For other uses, including another boxing champion, see Jack Dempsey (disambiguation). ...


Headgear is not permitted in professional bouts, and boxers are generally allowed to take much more punishment before a fight is halted. At any time, however, the referee may stop the contest if he believes that one participant cannot defend himself due to injury. In that case, the other participant is awarded a technical knockout win. A technical knockout would also be awarded if a fighter lands a punch that opens a cut on the opponent, and the opponent is later deemed not fit to continue by a doctor because of the cut. For this reason, fighters often employ cutmen, whose job is to treat cuts between rounds so that the boxer is able to continue despite the cut. If a boxer simply quits fighting, or if his corner stops the fight, then the winning boxer is also awarded a technical knockout victory. In contrast with amateur boxing, professional male boxers have to be bare chested.[15] Cutman Dave Tenny working on Cathy Wildcat Collins during a boxing bout. ...


Boxing style terminology

In boxing, no two fighters' styles are identical. A boxer's style is evolved as he applies what he has been taught or picked up in practice, and performs it in such a way as to suit himself. Nonetheless, many terms are used which broadly describe a boxer's style. Note that a boxer is not necessarily limited to being described by one of these terms. A fighter may be at both in-fighting and out-fighting, a good example of this being Bernard Hopkins. // Bernard Hopkins was born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, growing up in the Raymond Rosen housing projects and later in Germantown, where he became involved in crime and gang activity at a young age. ...


Boxer/Out-fighter

A classic "boxer" (also known as an "out-fighter") seeks to maintain distance between himself and his opponent, fighting with faster, longer range punches, most notably the jab, gradually wearing his opponent down. Due to this reliance on weaker punches, out-fighters tend to win by point decisions rather than by knockout, though some out-fighters (such as Lennox Lewis) have notable knockout records. They are often regarded as the best boxing strategists due to their ability to control the pace of the fight and lead their opponent, methodically wearing him down and exhibiting more skill and finesse than a brawler. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (3000x3765, 468 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Muhammad Ali ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (3000x3765, 468 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Muhammad Ali ... For other persons named Muhammad Ali, see Muhammad Ali (disambiguation). ... Lennox Claudius Lewis CM, CBE (born September 2, 1965) is a retired British/Canadian professional boxer. ...


Notable boxers include Gentleman Jim Corbett, Jim Driscoll, Benny Leonard, Gene Tunney, Tommy Loughran, Maxie Rosenbloom, Billy Conn, Willie Pep, Muhammad Ali, Nicolino Locche, Eusebio Pedroza, Pernell Whitaker, Ivan Calderon, Joe Calzaghe, and Floyd Mayweather, Jr.. James John Corbett, born September 1, 1866 in San Francisco, California, United States – died February 18, 1933 in Bayside, New York, was a heavyweight boxing champion. ... Driscoll was another Welshman to fight himself out of poverty, learning his trade in the boxing booths. ... Benny Leonard (April 17, 1896—April 18, 1947), born Benjamin Leiner, was an American boxer and one of the greatest lightweight fighters of all time and was named as number 8 on Ring Magazines list of the 80 Best Fighters of the Last 80 Years. ... James Joseph Gene Tunney (May 25, 1897 – November 7, 1978) was the heavyweight boxing champion from 1926-28 who defeated Jack Dempsey in 1926 and 1927 in what became known as The Long Count Fight and retired undefeated after winning against Tom Heeney in 1928. ... Tommy Loughran (November 29, 1902 - July 7, 1982) was a light-heavyweight boxing champion and elected to the International Boxing Hall of Fame. ... Maxie Rosenbloom, born September 6, 1903 in Harlem, New York City, United States – died March 6, 1976 in South Pasadena, California, was a boxing champion and film actor. ... Billy Conn - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article may require cleanup. ... For other persons named Muhammad Ali, see Muhammad Ali (disambiguation). ... This article needs to be wikified. ... Eusebio Pedroza (born 1953) is a native of Panama who holds two records in boxing: His 19 defenses as world Featherweight champion are a record for that division, and his seven years as world champion non stop are a division record too. ... Pernell Whitaker (born January 2, 1964), nicknamed Sweet Pea, is a retired professional boxer, among the greatest of all-time. ... Ivan Calderón can refer to: Ivan Calderón (boxer) Ivan Calderón (baseball player) This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Joe Calzaghe MBE (born 23 March 1972 in Hammersmith, London) is a Welsh boxer currently living in Newbridge, Newport, and is pound for pound one of the top 10 boxers in the world. ... Floyd Joy Mayweather, Jr. ...


Boxer/Puncher

A boxer-puncher is an out-fighter who is known for having very powerful punches, often with the ability to knock opponents out with a single shot. Their movement and tactics are similar to that of an out-fighter, but instead of winning by decision, they tend to wear their opponents down using combinations and then moving in to score the knockout. For a boxer to be effective using this style, he must be well rounded.


Notable punchers include Sam Langford, Harry Wills, Jack Dempsey, Max Baer, Joe Louis, Rocky Marciano, Sugar Ray Robinson and Mike Tyson. For the baseball player, see Sam Langford (baseball). ... Harry The Black Panther Wills (b. ... For other uses, including another boxing champion, see Jack Dempsey (disambiguation). ... Maximilian Adalbert Madcap Maxie Baer (February 11, 1909 – November 21, 1959) was a famous American boxer of the 1930s, onetime Heavyweight Champion of the World, and actor. ... For other uses, see Joe Louis (disambiguation). ... Rocky Marciano (September 1, 1923 – August 31, 1969), born Rocco Francis Marchegiano, was the heavyweight champion of the world from 1952 to 1956. ... Sugar Ray Robinson (born Walker Smith Jr. ... For the former baseball player, see Mike Tyson (baseball). ...


Brawler/Slugger

A brawler is a fighter who generally lacks finesse and footwork in the ring, but makes up for it through sheer punching power. Many brawlers tend to lack mobility, preferring a less mobile, more stable platform and so have difficulty pursuing fighters who are fast on their feet. They may also have a tendency to ignore combination punching in favour of throwing slower, more powerful single punches (such as hooks and uppercuts). Their slowness and predictable punching pattern (single punches with obvious leads) often leaves them open to counter punches, so successful brawlers must be able to absorb substantial amounts of punishment.


Notable brawlers include John L. Sullivan, Jim Jeffries, Terry McGovern, Stanley Ketchel, Jimmy Wilde, Max Baer, Rocky Graziano, Sonny Liston, George Foreman, Ruben Olivares, Wilfredo Gomez, Nigel Benn, and Manny Pacquiao. For the U.S. Secretary of the Navy, see John L. Sullivan (U.S. Navy). ... James Jackson Jeffries (born April 15, 1875 in Carroll, Ohio, United States – died March 3, 1953 in Burbank, California) was a world heavyweight boxing champion. ... Terrible Terry McGovern (March 9, 1880–February 22, 1918), born John Terrence McGovern in Johnstown, Pennsylvania, was a hard punching aggressive boxer who held the world bantamweight and featherweight titles. ... Stanislaus Kiecal, (September 14, 1886–October 15, 1910), better known in the boxing world as Stanley Ketchel was an American boxer who became world middleweight champion. ... Jimmy Wilde (May 12, 1892 in Tylorstown – March 10, 1969 in Cardiff) was a former boxer of Welsh origin. ... Maximilian Adalbert Madcap Maxie Baer (February 11, 1909 – November 21, 1959) was a famous American boxer of the 1930s, onetime Heavyweight Champion of the World, and actor. ... Rocky Graziano, born Thomas Rocco Barbella in New York City (January 1, 1922–May 22, 1990), was an American boxer. ... Charles L. Sonny Liston (May 8, 1932?–December 30, 1970?) was a formidable boxer who became world heavyweight champion in 1962 by knocking out Floyd Patterson in the first round. ... George Edward Foreman (born January 10, 1949) is an American two-time World Heavyweight Boxing Champion. ... Rubén Olivares (born January 14, 1947) is a former boxer of Mexican nationality. ... Wilfredo Gómez (born October 29, 1956) is a former boxer and three time world champion. ... Nigel Benn (born January 22, 1964) is an English former boxer who held world titles at both Middleweight and Super Middleweight. ... Emmanuel Dapidran Pacquiao, (born December 17, 1978 in Kibawe, Bukidnon, Mindanao, Philippines), simply known as Manny Pacquiao or Pac-Man, is a Filipino professional boxer. ...


In-fighter (swarmers)

In-fighters or swarmers attempt to stay close to an opponent, throwing intense flurries and combinations of hooks and uppercuts. A successful in-fighter often needs a good "chin" because this usually involves being hit with many jabs before they can maneuver inside where they are more effective. A fighter who operates best at close range is generally shorter and has less reach than his opponents and thus is most effective at a distance where the longer arms of his opponents make punching awkward. However, several fighters tall for their division have been relatively adept at in-fighting as well as out-fighting. Flurries due to a sheer lack of skill and technique occur when a fighter allows the bout to become emotional. When a fighter is angry, he will often make mistakes and commit to wildly thrown punches in order to end the fight quickly. Many short in-fighters utilize their stature to their advantage, employing a bob-and-weave defense by bending at the waist to slip underneath or to the sides of incoming punches. Unlike blocking, causing an opponent to miss a punch disrupts his balance, permits forward movement past the opponent's extended arm and keeps the hands free to counter. Some in-fighters have been known for being notoriously hard to hit, with examples including Mike Tyson, Joe Frazier, Sonny Liston, and Rocky Marciano. A hook is a punch in boxing. ... In boxing, a chin refers to a boxers ability to tolerate punishment in the face without being knocked out. ... A jab A jab is one of the four main punches used in boxing, the three others being the uppercut, the hook and the cross. ... For the former baseball player, see Mike Tyson (baseball). ... For the Major League Baseball player and manager, see Joe Frazier (baseball) Joseph William Smokin Joe Frazier (born January 12, 1944 in Beaufort, South Carolina) is a former world heavyweight boxing champion, active mostly in the 1960s and 1970s. ... Charles L. Sonny Liston (May 8, 1932?–December 30, 1970?) was a formidable boxer who became world heavyweight champion in 1962 by knocking out Floyd Patterson in the first round. ... Rocky Marciano (September 1, 1923 – August 31, 1969), born Rocco Francis Marchegiano, was the heavyweight champion of the world from 1952 to 1956. ...


Style matchups

There is a generally accepted rule of thumb about the success each of these boxing styles has against the others. In general, an in-fighter has an advantage over a boxer, a boxer has an advantage over a puncher, and a puncher has an advantage over an in-fighter. Naturally, many other factors, such as the skill level and training of the combatants, determine the outcome of a fight, but the widely held belief in this relationship among the styles is embodied in the cliché amongst boxing fans and writers that "styles make fights."


Punchers tend to overcome swarmers or in-fighters because, in trying to get close to the slugger, the in-fighter will invariably have to walk straight into the guns of the much harder-hitting puncher, so, unless the former has a very good chin and the latter's stamina is poor, the brawler's superior power will carry the day. A famous example of this type of match-up advantage would be George Foreman's knockout victory over Joe Frazier.


Although in-fighters struggle against heavy punchers, they typically enjoy more success against out-fighters or boxers. Out-fighters prefer a slower fight, with some distance between themselves and the opponent. The in-fighter tries to close that gap and unleash furious flurries. On the inside, the out-fighter loses a lot of his combat effectiveness, because he cannot throw the hard punches. The in-fighter is generally successful in this case, due to his intensity in advancing on his opponent and his good agility, which makes him difficult to evade. For example, the swarming Joe Frazier, though easily dominated by the slugger George Foreman, was able to create many more problems for the boxer Muhammad Ali in their three fights than Foreman could. Joe Louis, after retirement, admitted that he hated being crowded, and that a swarmer like Rocky Marciano would have caused him style problems even in his prime. Joe Louis, Rocky Marciano, Jack Dempsey, Gene Tunney and Ali are considered to be in the same group as the greatest heavyweight fighters ever.


The boxer or out-fighter tends to be most successful against a brawler, whose slow speed (both hand and foot) and poor technique makes him an easy target to hit for the faster out-fighter. The out-fighter's main concern is to stay alert, as the brawler only needs to land one good punch to finish the fight. If the out-fighter can avoid those power punches, he can often wear the brawler down with fast jabs, tiring him out. If he is successful enough, he may even apply extra pressure in the later rounds in an attempt to achieve a knockout. Most classic boxers, such as Muhammad Ali and Lennox Lewis, enjoyed their best successes against sluggers.


Equipment

Since boxing involves forceful, repetitive punching, precautions must be taken to prevent damage to bones in the hand. Most trainers do not allow boxers to train and spar without hand/wrist wraps and boxing gloves. Hand wraps are used to secure the bones in the hand, and the gloves are used to protect the hands from blunt injury, allowing boxers to throw punches with more force than if they did not utilize them. Gloves have been required in competition since the late nineteenth century, though modern boxing gloves are much heavier than those worn by early twentieth-century fighters. Prior to a bout, both boxers agree upon the weight of gloves to be used in the bout, with the understanding that lighter gloves allow heavy punchers to inflict more damage. The brand of gloves can also affect the impact of punches, so this too is usually stipulated before a bout. A person donning hand and wrist wraps Hand and wrist wraps are equipment used in boxing and martial arts. ... Headgear and boxing gloves are mandatory in Olympic boxing and amateur boxing. ...


Boxers practice their skills on two basic types of punching bags. A small, tear-drop-shaped "speed bag" is used to hone reflexes and repetitive punching skills, while a large cylindrical "heavy bag", filled with sand or a synthetic substitute, is used to practice power punching and body blows. In addition to these distinctive pieces of equipment, boxers also utilize more general use training equipment to build strength, speed, and agility. Common training equipment includes free weights, rowing machines, jump rope, and medicine balls. An 1800 depiction of jumping rope A jump rope, skipping rope or skip rope is the primary tool used in the game of skipping played by children and many young adults, where one or more participants jump over a spinning rope so that it passes under their feet and over...


Headgear, required in amateur boxing and used by professionals when sparring, protects against cuts, scrapes, and swelling.


Technique

Stance

The modern boxing stance differs substantially from the typical boxing stances of the 19th and early 20th centuries. The modern stance has a more upright vertical armed guard, as opposed to more horizontally held, knuckles facing the guard as seen among early 20th century hookers such as Jack Johnson. Hooker may be: A prostitute A position in rugby union or rugby league - see Rugby union positions and Rugby League positions. ... John Arthur Johnson (March 31, 1878 – June 10, 1946), better known as Jack Johnson and nicknamed the Galveston Giant, was an American boxer and arguably the best heavyweight of his generation. ...

In a fully upright stance, the boxer stands with the legs shoulder-width apart with the rear foot a half-step behind the lead foot. Right-handed or orthodox boxers lead with the left foot and fist. Both feet are pointed slightly inward, and the right heel is off the ground. The lead (left) fist is held vertically about six inches in front of the face at eye level. The rear (right) fist is held beside the chin and the elbow tucked against the ribcage to protect the body. The chin is tucked into the chest to avoid punches to the jaw which commonly cause knock-outs. Some boxers fight from a crouch, leaning forward and keeping their feet closer together.


Left-handed or southpaw fighters use a mirror image of the orthodox stance, which can create problems for orthodox fighters unaccustomed to receiving jabs, hooks, or crosses from the opposite side. The southpaw stance, conversely, is vulnerable to a straight right hand.


North American fighters tend to favor a more balanced stance, facing the opponent almost squarely, while many European fighters stand with their torso turned more to the side. The positioning of the hands may also vary, as some fighters prefer to have both hands raised in front of the face, risking exposure to body shots.


Modern boxers can sometimes be seen tapping their cheeks or foreheads with their fists in order to remind themselves to keep their hands up (which becomes difficult during long bouts). Boxers are taught to push off with their feet in order to move effectively. Forward motion involves lifting the lead leg and pushing with the rear leg. Rearward motion involves lifting the rear leg and pushing with the lead leg. During lateral motion the leg in the direction of the movement moves first while the opposite leg provides the force needed to move the body.


Punches

There are four basic punches in boxing: the jab, cross, hook and uppercut. If a boxer is right-handed (orthodox), his left hand is the lead hand and his right hand is the rear hand. For a left-handed boxer or southpaw, the hand positions are reversed. For clarity, the following discussion will assume a right-handed boxer.

  • Jab - A quick, straight punch thrown with the lead hand from the guard position. The jab is accompanied by a small, clockwise rotation of the torso and hips, while the fist rotates 90 degrees, becoming horizontal upon impact. As the punch reaches full extension, the lead shoulder can be brought up to guard the chin. The rear hand remains next to the face to guard the jaw. After making contact with the target, the lead hand is retracted quickly to resume a guard position in front of the face. The jab is recognised as the most important punch in a boxer's arsenal because it provides a fair amount of its own cover and it leaves the least amount of space for a counter punch from the opponent. It has the longest reach of any punch and does not require commitment or large weight transfers. Due to its relatively weak power, the jab is often used as a tool to gauge distances, probe an opponent's defenses, harass an opponent, and set up heavier, more powerful punches. A half-step may be added, moving the entire body into the punch, for additional power. Some notable boxers who have been able to develop relative power in their jabs and use it to punish or 'wear down' their opponents to some effect include Larry Holmes and Wladimir Klitschko.
  • Cross - A powerful, straight punch thrown with the rear hand. From the guard position, the rear hand is thrown from the chin, crossing the body and traveling towards the target in a straight line. The rear shoulder is thrust forward and finishes just touching the outside of the chin. At the same time, the lead hand is retracted and tucked against the face to protect the inside of the chin. For additional power, the torso and hips are rotated counter-clockwise as the cross is thrown. Weight is also transferred from the rear foot to the lead foot, resulting in the rear heel turning outwards as it acts as a fulcrum for the transfer of weight. Body rotation and the sudden weight transfer is what gives the cross its power. Like the jab, a half-step forward may be added. After the cross is thrown, the hand is retracted quickly and the guard position resumed. It can be used to counter punch a jab, aiming for the opponent's head (or a counter to a cross aimed at the body) or to set up a hook. The cross can also follow a jab, creating the classic "one-two" combination. The cross is also called a "straight" or "right."
  • Hook - A semi-circular punch thrown with the lead hand to the side of the opponent's head. From the guard position, the elbow is drawn back with a horizontal fist (knuckles pointing forward) and the elbow bent. The rear hand is tucked firmly against the jaw to protect the chin. The torso and hips are rotated clockwise, propelling the fist through a tight, clockwise arc across the front of the body and connecting with the target. At the same time, the lead foot pivots clockwise, turning the left heel outwards. Upon contact, the hook's circular path ends abruptly and the lead hand is pulled quickly back into the guard position. A hook may also target the lower body and this technique is sometimes called the "rip" to distinguish it from the conventional hook to the head. The hook may also be thrown with the rear hand.
  • Uppercut - A vertical, rising punch thrown with the rear hand. From the guard position, the torso shifts slightly to the right, the rear hand drops below the level of the opponent's chest and the knees are bent slightly. From this position, the rear hand is thrust upwards in a rising arc towards the opponent's chin or torso. At the same time, the knees push upwards quickly and the torso and hips rotate anti-clockwise and the rear heel turns outward, mimicking the body movement of the cross. The strategic utility of the uppercut depends on its ability to "lift" the opponent's body, setting it off-balance for successive attacks. The right uppercut followed by a left hook is a deadly combination.

These different punching types can be thrown in rapid succession to form combinations or "combos". The most common is the jab and cross combination, nicknamed the "one-two combo". This is usually an effective combination, because the jab blocks the opponent's view of the cross, making it easier to land cleanly and forcefully. A jab A jab is one of the four main punches used in boxing, the three others being the uppercut, the hook and the cross. ... For the politician and activist, see Larry Holmes (Marxist). ... Wladimir Klitschko (Ukrainian: ; born March 25, 1976) is a Ukrainian heavyweight boxer. ... In boxing, a cross is a counter-punch. ... A hook is a punch in boxing. ... Lead hand uppercut The uppercut (sometimes also referred to as the upper), is a punch used in boxing that usually aims at the opponents chin. ...


A large, swinging circular punch starting from a cocked-back position with the arm at a longer extension than the hook and all of the fighter's weight behind it is sometimes referred to as a "roundhouse" or "haymaker" punch. Relying on body weight and centripital force within a wide arc, the roundhouse can be a powerful blow, but it is often a wild and uncontrolled punch that leaves the fighter delivering it off balance and with an open guard. Wide, looping punches have the further disadvantage of taking more time to deliver, giving the opponent ample warning to react and counter. For this reason, the haymaker or roundhouse is not a conventional punch, and is regarded by trainers as a mark of poor technique or desperation. Sometimes it has been used, because of its immense potential power, to finish off an already staggering opponent who seems unable or unlikely to take advantage of the poor position it leaves the puncher in.


Another unconventional punch is the rarely used "bolo punch", in which the opponent swings an arm out several times in a wide arc, usually as a distraction, before delivering with either that or the other arm. A bolo punch is a punch used in boxing. ...


Defense

There are several basic maneuvers a boxer can use in order to evade or block punches, depicted and discussed below.

  • Slip - Slipping rotates the body slightly so that an incoming punch passes harmlessly next to the head. As the opponent's punch arrives, the boxer sharply rotates the hips and shoulders. This turns the chin sideways and allows the punch to "slip" past. Muhammad Ali was famous for extremely fast and close slips, as was an early Mike Tyson.
  • Sway or Fade - To anticipate a punch and move the upper body or head back so that it misses or has its force appreciably lessened.
  • Duck or Break - To drop down with the back straight so that a punch aimed at the head glances or misses entirely.
  • Bob and Weave - Bobbing moves the head laterally and beneath an incoming punch. As the opponent's punch arrives, the boxer bends the legs quickly and simultaneously shifts the body either slightly right or left. Once the punch has been evaded, the boxer "weaves" back to an upright position, emerging on either the outside or inside of the opponent's still-extended arm. To move outside the opponent's extended arm is called "bobbing to the outside". To move inside the opponent's extended arm is called "bobbing to the inside". Joe Frazier, Jack Dempsey, and Rocky Marciano were masters of bobbing and weaving.
  • Parry/Block - Parrying or blocking uses the boxer's shoulder, hands or arms as defensive tools to protect against incoming attacks. A block generally receives a punch while a parry tends to deflect it. A "palm" or "cuff" is a block which intentionally takes the incoming punch on that portion of the defender's glove.
  • The Cover-Up - Covering up is the last opportunity to avoid an incoming strike to an unprotected face or body. Generally speaking, the hands are held high to protect the head and chin and the forearms are tucked against the torso to impede body shots. When protecting the body, the boxer rotates the hips and lets incoming punches "roll" off the guard. To protect the head, the boxer presses both fists against the front of the face with the forearms parallel and facing outwards. This type of guard is weak against attacks from below.
  • The Clinch - Clinching is a rough form of grappling and occurs when the distance between both fighters has closed and straight punches cannot be employed. In this situation, the boxer attempts to hold or "tie up" the opponent's hands so he is unable to throw hooks or uppercuts. To perform a clinch, the boxer loops both hands around the outside of the opponent's shoulders, scooping back under the forearms to grasp the opponent's arms tightly against his own body. In this position, the opponent's arms are pinned and cannot be used to attack. Clinching is a temporary match state and is quickly dissipated by the referee.

One of the four basic strategies of defensive boxing, along with blocking, holding, and clinching. ... For other persons named Muhammad Ali, see Muhammad Ali (disambiguation). ... For the former baseball player, see Mike Tyson (baseball). ... Bobbing can refer to multiple things: Docking, the process of shortening or removing an animals tail or ears, is also called bobbing Hair bobbing is a style in which hair is shortened and lifted This is a disambiguation page, a list of pages that otherwise might share the same... In fencing, the parry is a defensive manoeuvre intended to deflect or block an attempted hit. ... Look up blocking, block in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Mathematical meanings of the term covering include A covering map in topology. ... A grappling position refers the relative positioning and holds of two combatants engaged in grappling. ... For other uses, see Grapple. ... Two wrestlers clinching. ... Lead hand uppercut The uppercut (sometimes also referred to as the upper), is a punch used in boxing that usually aims at the opponents chin. ... A clinch (also called a stand-up grappling position)is a general martial arts and combat sports term for a grappling position where both combatants are standing, with atleast one combatant grappling the other. ...

Guards

There are several defensive positions (guards or styles) used in boxing. Within each style, there is considerable variation among fighters, as some fighters may have their guard higher for more head protection while others have their guard lower to provide better protection against body punches. Many fighters vary their defensive style throughout a bout in order to adapt to the situation of the moment, choosing the position best suited to protect them.


Boxers who use an upright stance protect their chin with the rear hand in either the low or mixed guard styles depicted below. Crouch fighters tend to use the "peek-a-boo" style, discussed below.

  • Peek-a-boo - Sometimes known as the "earmuffs," the hands are placed next to each other in front of the face (like mentioned before fighters tend to vary the exact positioning in which they use it) and elbows are brought in tight to the body(this position can be achieved by bringing the elbows as close together while not straining yourself to do so). This defensive style is what a boxer is taught to do when he begins to box, after they gain experience he can decide to change or vary their guard. This style is middle-of-the-road style in terms of counterpunching and damage reduction. A boxer can counter punch from this stance, but it is difficult. However, there have been boxers who can do this very well. This defense covers up a fighter well, but there are holes. Hooks do damage by going around the hands and by hitting just behind the elbows. Winky Wright uses this style very well from a damage reduction stand point. Another famous example being Mike Tyson in his earlier career who used the Peek-a-Boo with great success. Rocky Marciano also used the Peek-a-Boo style famously.
  • Cross-armed - The forearms are placed on top of each other horizontally in front of the face with the glove of one arm being on the top of the elbow of the other arm. This style is greatly varied when the back hand rises vertically. This style is the most effective for reducing head damage. The only head punch that a fighter is susceptible to is a jab to the top of the head. The body is open, but most fighters who use this style bend and lean to protect the body, but while upright and unaltered the body is there to be hit. This position is very difficult to counterpunch from, but virtually eliminates all head damage.
  • Philly Shell or Crab - The lead arm is placed across the torso usually somewhere in between the belly button and chest and the lead hand rests on the opposite side of the fighter's torso. The back hand is placed on the side of the face. The lead shoulder is brought in tight against the side of the face. This style is used by fighters who like to counterpunch. To execute this guard a fighter must be very athletic and experienced. This style is so effective for counterpunching because it allows fighters to slip punches by rotating and dipping their upper body and causing blows to glance off the fighter. After the punch glances off, the fighter's back hand is in perfect position to hit his out-of-positioned opponent. The shoulder lean is used in this stance. To execute the shoulder lean a fighter rotates and ducks when his opponent's punch is coming towards him and then rotates back towards his opponent while his opponent is bringing his hand back. The fighter will throw a punch with his back hand as he is rotating towards his undefended opponent. Vic Darchinyan executes the shoulder lean perfectly according to technique. The weakness to this style is that when a fighter is stationary and not rotating he is open to be hit, so a fighter must be athletic and well conditioned to effectively execute this style. To beat this style fighters like to jab their opponent's shoulder causing the shoulder and arm to be in pain and to demobilize that arm.

Boxers generally attempt to land short, fast combinations and then quickly shift position to avoid a possible response by their opponent. Strategically, the ring's centre is generally the desired position since a boxer is able to conserve movement by forcing the opponent to circle around them. When in the centre, the boxer is also less likely to be knocked backwards against the ropes surrounding the ring and cornered. Depending on the boxer's style, the centre is the desired location as cornering opponents is always a good strategy. Most fighters, though, will not move around the boxer in the center because doing so makes them vulnerable to shots thrown at good angles. Movement is the most important tool in the ring and allows the fighter to avoid punches that were not telegraphed. If a boxer is standing still, his opponent has a better chance of hitting him. A fighter anticipating a shot while stationary is less likely to be able to evade the shot than a fighter already in motion. Peek-a-Boo is a boxing style where the hands are placed in front of the boxers face. ...


Less common strategies

The "rope-a-dope" strategy Rope-a-dope is a boxing fighting style used most famously by Muhammad Ali (who coined the term) in the Rumble in the Jungle against George Foreman. ...

  • Used by Muhammad Ali in his 1974 "Rumble in the Jungle" bout against George Foreman, the rope-a-dope method involves laying back on the ropes, covering up defensively as much as possible and allowing the opponent to land punches. Weathering the blows, the boxer lures the opponent into expending energy whilst conserving his/her own. If successful, the attacking opponent will eventually tire, creating defensive flaws which the boxer can exploit. In modern boxing, the rope-a-dope is generally discouraged since most opponents are not fooled by it and few boxers possess the physical toughness to withstand a prolonged, unanswered assault.

Bolo punch The Rumble in The Jungle was a historic boxing event that took place on October 30, 1974, in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, then known as Zaire. ... A bolo punch is a punch used in boxing. ...

  • Occasionally seen in Olympic boxing, the bolo is an arm punch which owes its power to the shortening of a circular arc rather than to transference of body weight; it tends to have more of an effect due to the surprise of the odd angle it lands at rather than the actual power of the punch. This is more of a gimmick than a technical maneuver; this punch is not taught, being on the same plane in boxing technicality as is the Ali shuffle. Nevertheless, a few professional boxers have used the bolo-punch to great effect, including former welterweight champions Sugar Ray Leonard and Kid Gavilan.

Overhand Right

  • The overhand right is a punch not found in every boxer's arsenal. Unlike the right cross, which has a trajectory parallel to the ground, the overhand right has a looping circular arc as it is thrown over-the-shoulder with the palm facing away from the boxer. It is especially popular with smaller stature boxers trying to reach taller opponents. Boxers who have used this punch consistently and effectively include former Heavyweight champions Rocky Marciano and Tim Witherspoon. The overhand right has become a popular weapon in other tournaments that involve fist striking. Mighty Mo employed it to score a dramatic 2nd Round KO over 7 ft 2 in tall Hong-Man Choi in the K-1 Yokohama Grand Prix Tournament and the overhand right has become a signature move for former UFC Light Heavy Weight champion Chuck Liddell.

Check Hook Rocky Marciano (September 1, 1923 – August 31, 1969), born Rocco Francis Marchegiano, was the heavyweight champion of the world from 1952 to 1956. ... Terrible Tim Witherspoon (1957-present) is an American prizefighter who twice was recognized as Heavyweight Champion of the World by a professional boxing sanctioning organization. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... This article or section is incomplete and may require expansion and/or cleanup. ... Charles David Chuck Liddell (born December 17, 1969), also known as The Iceman is an American mixed martial artist who fights for the Ultimate Fighting Championship. ...

  • A check hook is employed to prevent aggressive boxers from lunging in. There are two parts to the check hook. The first part consists of a regular hook. The second, trickier part involves the footwork. As the opponent lunges in, the boxer should throw the hook and pivot on his left foot and swing his right foot 180 degrees around. If executed correctly, the aggressive boxer will lunge in and sail harmlessly past his opponent like a bull missing a matador. This is rarely seen in professional boxing as it requires a great disparity in skill level to execute. Floyd Mayweather, Jr. demonstrated a picture perfect example of this punch against Ricky Hatton in their 2007 encounter. Hatton was caught with the check hook as he was lunging in; Hatton continued forward as he was knocked off balance and proceeded to ram his head into the ring post as Mayweather stepped out of harm's way. When interviewed, Mayweather stated that he was taught the check hook in the Michigan amateurs.

Floyd Joy Mayweather, Jr. ... Richard Ricky Hatton MBE (born October 6, 1978, in Stockport, Greater Manchester, England), is an English boxer. ...

The Corner

In boxing, each fighter is given a corner of the ring where he rests in between rounds and where his trainers stand. Typically, three men stand in the corner besides the boxer himself; these are the trainer, the assistant trainer and the cutman. The trainer and assistant typically give advice to the boxer on what he is doing wrong as well as encouraging him if he is losing. The cutman is a cutneous doctor responsible for keeping the boxer's face and eyes free of cuts and blood. This is of particular importance because of the fact that many fights are stopped because of cuts becoming threatening to a boxer's eyes.


In addition, the corner is responsible for stopping the fight if they feel their fighter is in grave danger of permanent injury. The corner will occasionally literely throw in a white towel to signify a boxer's surrender. This can be seen in the fight between Diego Corrales and Floyd Mayweather. In that fight, Corrales' corner surrendered despite Corrales' steadfast refusal. Diego Chico Corrales (August 25, 1977 – May 7, 2007) was a former super featherweight and lightweight world boxing champion. ... Floyd Mayweather is the name of two persons, father and son: Floyd Mayweather Sr. ...


Medical concerns

Knocking a person unconscious or even causing concussion may cause permanent brain damage.[16] Furthermore, there is no clear division between the force required to knock a person out and the force likely to kill a person. In addition, since 1980, more than 200 amateur and professional boxers and Toughman fighters have died as the result of ring or training injuries.[17] Thus, in 1983, the Journal of the American Medical Association called for a ban on boxing. The editor, Dr. George Lundberg, called boxing an "obscenity" that "should not be sanctioned by any civilized society."[18] Since then, the British[19], Canadian[20], and Australian[21] Medical Associations have also called for bans on boxing. Cerebral Concussion redirects here. ... For other uses, see Brain damage (disambiguation). ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article may require cleanup. ... The American Medical Association (AMA) is the largest association of medical doctors in the United States. ...


Supporters of the ban state that boxing is the only sport where hurting the other athlete is the goal. Dr. Bill O'Neill, boxing spokesman for the British Medical Association, has supported the BMA's proposed ban on boxing: "It is the only sport where the intention is to inflict serious injury on your opponent, and we feel that we must have a total ban on boxing."[22] In 2007, one study of amateur boxers showed that protective headgear did not prevent brain damage,[23] and another found that amateur boxers faced a high risk of brain damage.[24] // The British Medical Association (BMA) is the professional association and registered trade union for doctors in the United Kingdom. ...


In 1997, the American Association of Professional Ringside Physicians was established to create medical protocols through research and education to prevent injuries in boxing.[25]


Professional boxing is forbidden in Norway, Iceland, Cuba, Iran and the Democratic People's Republic of Korea.[citation needed]. It was banned in Sweden until recently when the ban was lifted but strict restrictions, including four three-minute rounds for fights, were imposed. North Korea, known officially as the Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea (DPRK; Korean: Chosŏn Minjujuŭi Inmin Konghwaguk; Chosongul: 조선민주주의인민공화국; Hanja: 朝鮮民主主義人民共和國), is a country in eastern Asia, covering the northern half of the peninsula of Korea. ...


Fatalities versus brain injury

From the 1950s to the 1980s, anti-boxing activist Manuel Velazquez compiled extensive data on deaths in boxing.[26] Manuel Velazquez (December 6, 1904 - January 1994) was a 20th-century anti-boxing activist who kept meticulous files on boxing-related deaths. ...


In 1984, R.J. McCunney and P.K. Russo published a study entitled Brain Injuries in Boxing. The study argued that boxing is relatively safe compared to other sports by citing the following figures on U.S. sports fatalities:


Fatality rates per 100,000 participants

  1. Horse racing: 128
  2. Sky diving: 123
  3. Hang gliding: 56
  4. Mountaineering: 51
  5. Scuba diving: 11
  6. Motorcycle racing: 7
  7. College American football: 3
  8. Professional boxing: 1.3

Dr. Lundberg replied: "It's not the deaths but the chronic brain damage that is so frequent." The AMA reports brain deterioration in three out of four boxers who have twenty or more professional fights.


To date, there has been little research regarding the long-term effects of amateur boxing.


Boxing Hall of Fame

The sport of boxing has two internationally recognized boxing halls of fame; the International Boxing Hall of Fame (IBHOF) and the World Boxing Hall of Fame (WBHF), with the IBHOF being the more widely recognized boxing hall of fame. The modern International Boxing Hall of Fame (IBHOF) is located in Canastota, New York, United States, within driving distance from the Baseball Hall of Fame and Museum in Cooperstown and the National Soccer Hall of Fame in Oneonta. ... The modern World Boxing Hall of Fame (WBHF) is located in Riverside, California, United States, in Southern California. ...


The WBHF was founded by Everett L. Sanders in 1980. Since its inception the WBHOF has never had a permanent location or museum, which has allowed the more recent IBHOF to garner more publicity and prestige.


Boxing's International Hall of Fame was inspired by a tribute an American town held for two local heroes in 1982. The town, Canastota, New York, (which is about 15 miles (24 km) east of Syracuse, via the New York State Thruway), honored former world welterweight/middleweight champion Carmen Basilio and his nephew, former world welterweight champion Billy Backus. The people of Canastota raised money for the tribute which inspired the idea of creating an official, annual hall of fame for notable boxers. Canastota is a village located inside the Town of Lenox in Madison County, New York, USA. The population was 4,425 at the 2000 census. ... This article is about the state. ... Carmine Basilio (born April 2, 1927) in Canastota, New York, better known in the boxing world as Carmen Basilio, is a former boxer of Italian-American origin. ... Billy Backus (born March 5, 1943) is a former world boxing champion whose coronation was considered by some to be as surprising as Team USAs ice hockey gold medal coronation at the 1980 Winter Olympic Games or James Buster Douglass knockout victory over Mike Tyson. ...


The International Boxing Hall of Fame opened in Canastota in 1989. The first inductees in 1990 included Jack Johnson, Benny Leonard, Jack Dempsey, Henry Armstrong, Sugar Ray Robinson, Archie Moore, and Muhammad Ali. Other world-class figures include Roberto "Manos de Piedra" Duran, Ismael Laguna, Eusebio Pedroza, Carlos Monzon, Azumah Nelson, Rocky Marciano, Pipino Cuevas, and Ken Buchanan. The Hall of Fame's induction ceremony is held every June as part of a four-day event The modern International Boxing Hall of Fame (IBHOF) is located in Canastota, New York, United States, within driving distance from the Baseball Hall of Fame and Museum in Cooperstown and the National Soccer Hall of Fame in Oneonta. ... Benny Leonard (April 17, 1896—April 18, 1947), born Benjamin Leiner, was an American boxer and one of the greatest lightweight fighters of all time and was named as number 8 on Ring Magazines list of the 80 Best Fighters of the Last 80 Years. ... Sugar Ray Robinson (born Walker Smith Jr. ... For the baseball player, see Archie Moore (baseball). ...


The fans who come to Canastota for the Induction Weekend are treated to a number of events, including scheduled autograph sessions, boxing exhibitions, a parade featuring past and present inductees, and the induction ceremony itself.


Governing and sanctioning bodies

Champions since 1920 of heavyweight boxing of 5 most important Associations
Champions since 1920 of heavyweight boxing of 5 most important Associations
Governing Body Website
British Boxing Board of Control (BBBofC) http://www.bbbofc.com/
Nevada State Athletic Commission http://boxing.nv.gov/
American Association of Professional Ringside Physicians (AAPRP) http://www.aaprp.org/
Sanctioning Body Website
World Boxing Association (W.B.A.) http://www.wbaonline.com/
World Boxing Council (W.B.C.) http://www.wbcboxing.com/
International Boxing Federation (I.B.F.) http://www.ibf-usba-boxing.com/
World Boxing Organization (W.B.O.) http://www.wbo-int.com/

Image File history File links Size of this preview: 270 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1024 × 2273 pixel, file size: 831 KB, MIME type: image/png) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 270 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1024 × 2273 pixel, file size: 831 KB, MIME type: image/png) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... The British Boxing Board of Control is the governing body of professional boxing in the United Kingdom. ... The Nevada Athletic Commission is made up of five part-time members, each of whom is appointed by the Governor for a three year term. ... World Boxing Association (WBA) is a boxing organization that sanctions official matches, and awards the WBA world championship title, at the professional level. ... WBC logo mark The World Boxing Council was initially created by 11 countries: the United States, Argentina, United Kingdom, France, Mexico, Philippines, Panama, Chile, Peru, Venezuela, and Brazil plus Puerto Rico, met in Mexico City on February 14, 1963, upon invitation of the then President of Mexico, Adolfo López... IBF redirects here. ... The World Boxing Organization (WBO) is a sanctioning organization currently recognizing professional boxing world champions. ...

See also

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:

Boxing has been contested at every Summer Olympic Games since its introduction to the programme at the 1904 Summer Olympics except 1912. ... This is a list of notable male boxers. ... This is a list of notable female boxers. ... Womens boxing first appeared in the Olympic Games at a demonstration bout in 1904. ... // This is a list of current boxing world champions who are certified by the four major boxing sanctioning bodies[1] and The Ring magazine. ... // In Boxing a Triple Champion is that fighter that win titles or belts in at least 3 different weights or divisions. ...

References

  1. ^ a b c d e f Encyclopaedia Britannica entry for Boxing
  2. ^ Boxing Ancient History & Cartoon Fun from Brownielocks
  3. ^ INDIAN MIRROR - History of games & sports in India
  4. ^ Homer, Iliad, 23.655-696
  5. ^ Virgil, Aeneid, 5.421
  6. ^ BBC. The origins of Boxing, BBC History [1]
  7. ^ James B. Roberts and Alexander G. Skutt (1999). James Figg, IBOHF [2]
  8. ^ John Rennie (2006) East London Prize Ring Rules 1743[3]
  9. ^ Clay Moyle and Arly Allen (2006), 1838 Prize Rules[4]
  10. ^ Encyclopedia Britannica (2006). Queensbury Rules, Britannica[5]
  11. ^ Tracy Callis (2006). James Corbett, Cyberboxingzone.com [6]
  12. ^ Andrew Eisele (2005). Olympic Boxing Rules, About.com [7]
  13. ^ http://www.boxrec.com/show_display.php?show_id=329616
  14. ^ http://www.boxrec.com/show_display.php?show_id=521719
  15. ^ Bert Randolph Sugar (2001). "Boxing," World Book Online Americas Edition [8]
  16. ^ BBC. Boxing Brain Damage, BBC News[9]
  17. ^ Svinth, Joseph R. "Death Under the Spotlight," Electronic Journals of Martial Arts and Sciences, downloaded November 25, 2007, http://ejmas.com/jcs/jcsart_svinth_a_0700.htm
  18. ^ Lundberg, George D. "Boxing should be banned in civilized countries." Journal of the American Medical Association. 1983, pp. 249-250.
  19. ^ http://www.bma.org.uk/ap.nsf/Content/BoxingPU
  20. ^ http://www.cma.ca/index.cfm/ci_id/3385/la_id/1.htm
  21. ^ http://www.ama.com.au/web.nsf/doc/SHED-5F7FUG
  22. ^ BBC, News on Boxing Ban, BBC Online[10]
  23. ^ "Amateur boxers suffer brain damage too" (08 May 2007). New Scientist (2602): 4. 
  24. ^ "Does Amateur Boxing Cause Brain Damage?", American Academy of Neurology, 2007-05-02. 
  25. ^ Hauser, Thomas. "Medical Issues and the AAPRP," SecondsOut.com, downloaded November 25, 2007, http://www.secondsout.com/usa/colhauser.cfm?ccs=208&cs=15463
  26. ^ Svinth, Joseph R.(2000-2007). Death under the Spotlight, Journal of Combative Sport[11]

General references This article is about the Greek poet Homer and the works attributed to him. ... For other uses, see Virgil (disambiguation). ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 122nd day of the year (123rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

  • Accidents Take Lives of Young Alumni (July/August 2005). Illinois Alumni, 18(1), 47.
  • Beating the heck outta their instruments
  • Death Under the Spotlight: The Manuel Velazquez Boxing Fatality Collection
  • Fleischer, Nat, Sam Andre, Nigel Collins, Dan Rafael (2002). An Illustrated History of Boxing. Citadel Press. ISBN 0-8065-2201-1
  • Fox, James A. (2001). Boxing. Stewart, Tabori and Chang. ISBN 1-58479-133-0
  • Godfrey, John "Boxing" from Treatise Upon the Useful Science of Defense, 1747
  • Gunn M, Ormerod D. The legality of boxing. Legal Studies. 1995;15:181.
  • Halbert, Christy (2003). The Ultimate Boxer: Understanding the Sport and Skills of Boxing. Impact Seminars, Inc. ISBN 0-9630968-5-0
  • Hatmaker, Mark (2004). Boxing Mastery : Advanced Technique, Tactics, and Strategies from the Sweet Science. Tracks Publishing. ISBN 1-884654-21-5
  • McIlvanney, Hugh (2001). The Hardest Game : McIlvanney on Boxing. McGraw-Hill. ISBN 0-658-02154-0
  • Myler, Patrick (1997). A Century of Boxing Greats: Inside the Ring with the Hundred Best Boxers. Robson Books (UK) / Parkwest Publications (US). ISBN 1-86105-258-8.
  • Price, Edmund The Science of Self Defense: A Treatise on Sparring and Wrestling, 1867
  • Robert Anasi (2003). The Gloves: A Boxing Chronicle. North Point Press. ISBN 0-86547-652-7
  • Schulberg, Budd (2007). Ringside: A Treasury of Boxing Reportage. Ivan R. Dee. ISBN 1-56663-749-X
  • Silverman, Jeff (2004). The Greatest Boxing Stories Ever Told : Thirty-Six Incredible Tales from the Ring. The Lyons Press. ISBN 1-59228-479-5
  • Scully, John Learn to Box with the Iceman
  • U.S. Amateur Boxing Inc. (1994). Coaching Olympic Style Boxing. Cooper Pub Group. 1-884-12525-5
  • A Pictoral History Of Boxing, Sam Andre and Nat Fleischer, Hamlyn, 1988, ISBN 0-600-50288-0

The University of Illinois is a system of public universities in Illinois. ... A Century of Boxing Greats:Inside the Ring with the Hundred Best Boxers is a book about boxing, written by Patrick Myler and published in England in 1997 by Robson Books. ... Robert Anasi, born in Providence, Rhode Island in 1966, is an American writer and journalist. ...

External links

Boxing associations

Hawaiian State Grappling Championships. ... BāguàzhÇŽng is one of the major internal (a. ... Bājíquán (Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ; literally eight extremes fist; Japanese: , Hakkyokuken) is a Chinese martial art that features explosive, short range power and is famous for its elbow strikes. ... Angkorian warriors as depicted on bas reliefs at Angkor Wat Bokator/Boxkator, or more formally, Labok Katao(which means wielding a wooden stick to fight lions) (ល្បុក្កតោ), is an ancient Khmer martial art said to be the predecessor of all Southeast Asian kickboxing styles. ... Capoeira (IPA: ,Tupi-Guarani word for - clear area) is a Brazilian blend of martial art, game, and dance originated in Brazil during the 16th century Capoeira was created and developed by native Indians in Brazil and the slaves brought from Africa. ... This article is about the Fujian style of White Crane. ... For other uses, see Karate (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see kempo (disambiguation). ... Kicking to left side Kickboxing refers to sport-fighting using kicks and punches and sometimes throws and bows representing a certain martial art or can be practiced for general fitness, or as a full-contact sport. ... BAMA LETHWEI Lethwei or Lethawae (Read as Let-whae, but quickly) ; also known as Burmese Boxing and Myanmar Traditional Boxing, is a form of kickboxing which originated in Myanmar (Burma). ... For the drink with a similar-sounding name, see Mai Tai. ... Pradal Serey (; English: Khmer Boxing) is the name of the centuries old kickboxing martial arts of Cambodia. ... Savate (pronounced ), also known as boxe française, French boxing, French Kickboxing or French Footfighting, is a French martial art which uses both the hands and feet as weapons and combines elements of western boxing with graceful kicking techniques. ... SIKARAN is a form of Philippine Martial Arts whose history dates back to the early 1500s before the Spaniards came, It is the art of foot-fighting where the farmers use their strong legs to drive the partners outside the designated line (pitak). ... This article is about a martial art forms practiced throughout the Malay Archipelago. ... Subak, (or Subakhi, Subak-chigi) is a Korean traditional martial art. ... Ever since 1669, when Huang Zongxi first described Chinese martial arts in terms of a Shaolin or external school versus a Wudang or internal school,[1] Shaolin has been used as a synonym for external Chinese martial arts regardless of whether or not the particular style in question has any... Taekyon, or Taekkyon is a traditional Korean martial art, probably stemming from Subak. ... Taekwondo (태권도; IPA: ) is a Korean martial art and Chinese combat sport. ... Taido ( 躰道 / taidō ) is a Japanese martial arts or budo created in 1965 by Seiken Shukumine (1925 - 2001). ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... For the 1994 Hong Kong film, see Wing Chun (film). ... WingTsunâ„¢, often shortened to WT, is a particular school of the Wing Chun style of Kung Fu developed by a student of Grandmaster Yip Man named Leung Ting. ... Like other southern Chinese martial arts, Choy Lei Fut features Five Animal techniques based on the tiger, dragon, crane, leopard, and snake but is distinguished from other southern styles by long, swinging, circular movements and twisting body motions more indicative of northern styles. ... For other uses, see Grapple. ... Aikido ) is a Japanese martial art developed by Morihei Ueshiba as a synthesis of his martial studies, philosophy, and religious beliefs. ... Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu (BJJ) is a martial art and combat sport that focuses on grappling and especially ground fighting with the goal of gaining a dominant position and using joint-locks and chokeholds to force an opponent to submit. ... Catch wrestling is a popular style of wrestling. ... This article needs to be wikified. ... This article is about the martial art and sport. ... Jujutsu )  , literally meaning the art of softness, is a Japanese martial art consisting primarily of grappling techniques. ... Kinomichi, calligraphy by Masamichi Noro Kinomichi 氣之道 is a Martial art (budo 武道 in Japanese ), founded by Masamichi Noro 野呂昌道 in Paris, France, in 1979. ... Kurash is the native ancient type of upright jacket wrestling practiced in Uzbekistan. ... Mallayuddha (literally wrestling combat)[1] is the martial art of classical Indian wrestling. ... Mongolian wrestling is a traditional Mongolian sport that has existed in Mongolia for centuries. ... Varzesh-e Pahlavani (Persian varzeÅ¡-e pahlavānÄ« ورزش پهلوانی) meaning the Sport of the Heroes, also known as Varzesh-e Bastani (Persian varzeÅ¡-e bāstnÄ« ورزش باستانی), meaning the Sport of the Ancients, is a traditional discipline of gymnastics and wrestling of Iran, which was originally an academy of physical training for... Pehlwani Modern wrestling, or Pehlwani , is a synthesis of an indigenous Aryan form of wrestling that dates back at least to the 5th century BC [1] and a Persian form of wrestling brought into South Asia by the Mughals. ... Sambo (Russian: ) -- (also called Sombo in the US and sometimes written in all-caps) is a modern martial art, combat sport and self-defense system developed in the former Soviet Union, and recognized as an official sport by the USSR All-Union Sports Committee in 1938, presented by Anatoly Kharlampiev. ... Shuai jiao (Chinese: 摔跤 or 摔角; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Shuai-chiao) is the modern Chinese term for Chinese and Mongolian wrestling. ... Image:Ssireum-1. ... For other uses, see Sumo (disambiguation). ... Ancient Greek wrestlers (Pankratiasts) Wrestling is the act of physical engagement between two unarmed persons, in which each wrestler strives to get an advantage over or control of their opponent. ... YaÄŸlı GüreÅŸ (IPA:) is the Turkish national sport. ... For other uses, see Weapon (disambiguation). ... Battōjutsu ) is a Japanese term meaning techniques for drawing a sword. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This does not cite its references or sources. ... This article is about the sport, which is distinguished from stage fencing and academic fencing (mensur). ... Gatka (Punjabi: , ) is a traditional Sikh martial art. ... Haidong Gumdo, also spelled Haedong Kumdo, is a name coined around 1982 and used for several Korean martial art organizations that use swords. ... Hojōjutsu (捕縄術) or Nawajutsu, (縄術) is the traditional Japanese martial skill of restraining a person using cord or rope. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Iaido (居合道 iaidō), also sometimes called iaijutsu (居合術 iaijutsu) or battojutsu (抜刀術 battōjutsu) is the art of drawing the katana, cutting down the opponent, flipping blood from the blade, and then re-sheathing the katana in one fluid movement. ... Jōdō ), meaning the way of the jō, or jōjutsu ) is a Japanese martial art using short staves called jō. The art is similar to bōjutsu, and is strongly focused upon defense against the Japanese sword. ... Jogo do Pau. ... JÅ«kendō ) is the Japanese martial art of bayonet fighting. ... Juttejutsu is the Japanese martial art of using a jitte or jutte. ... Kendo ), or way of the sword, is the martial art of Japanese fencing. ... Kenjutsu ) is the Japanese martial art specializing in the use of the Japanese sword (katana). ... This article contains a trivia section. ... KyÅ«jutsu ) is the traditional Japanese martial art of wielding a bow. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Naginatajutsu (なぎなた術, 長刀術 or 薙刀術) is the Japanese Martial art of wielding the naginata, a weapon resembling the medieval European glaive. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Shurikenjutsu ) is a general term describing the traditional Japanese martial arts of throwing shuriken, which are small, hand-held weapons such as metal spikes (bo shuriken), circular plates of metal known as hira shuriken, and knives (tantō). Shuriken-jutsu was usually taught among the sogo-bugei, or comprehensive martial arts... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Sōjutsu (槍術, sometimes incorrectly read as yarijutsu) is the art of fighting with the Japanese spear, yari (槍). Sōjutsu is typically only a single component of curriculum in comprehensive Japanese koryu schools; for example Tenshin Shoden Katori Shinto-ryu includes spear fighting techniques. ... For the fighting styles that combine different arts, see hybrid martial arts. ... Hybrid martial arts (also known as hybrid fighting systems) refer to martial arts or fighting systems that incorporate techniques and theories from several particular martial arts. ... the Tiger Defense Bando or animal system is the ancient art of self-defense from Burma. ... Bartitsu is an eclectic martial art and self defence method originally developed in England during the late 19th and early 20th centuries. ... The Bujinkan (武神館) is a martial arts organization practicing the art commonly referred to as Bujinkan Budō Taijutsu (武神館武道体術). The art is widely considered to be the last legitimate ninpo, or ninja, martial art, particularly because of the influence of Togakure ryu. ... Daido Juku also known as Daidojuku and Kudo is a martial arts organization founded in 1981 by Azuma Takashi. ... Freestyle Fighting is a kind of martial art that incorporates various styles and forms of martial arts. ... This article is about Martial art. ... Hung Gar, also known as Hung Kuen or Hung Ga, is a southern Chinese martial art associated with the Chinese folk hero Wong Fei Hung, who was a master of Hung Gar. ... Hwa Rang Do is a Korean martial art that was created in its modern form by Joo Bang Lee and his brother, Joo Sang Lee. ... Jeet Kune Do (Chinese: 截拳道 Cantonese: Jitkyùndou Pinyin: Jiéquándào, lit. ... Kajukenbo is a hybrid martial art that combines karate, judo, jujutsu, kenpo, and kung fu. ... Kalarippayattu (IPA: [kaÉ­aɾipːajatɨ̆], Malayalam: കളരിപയറ്റ്) is a Dravidian martial art practised in Kerala and contiguous parts of neighboring Tamil Nadu of Southern India. ... Krav Maga (Hebrew קרב מגע: contact combat) is a martial art, at first developed in Czechoslovakia in the 1930s. ... Kuk Sool Won is a Korean martial arts system founded by In Hyuk Suh in 1958. ... MCMAP logo The Marine Corps Martial Arts Program (MCMAP) is a combat system developed by the United States Marine Corps to combine existing and new hand-to-hand and close combat techniques with morale and team-building functions and instruction in what the Marine Corps calls the Warrior Ethos.[1... Northern Praying Mantis (Chinese: ; pinyin: tánglángquán; literally praying mantis fist) is a style of Chinese martial arts, sometimes called Shandong Praying Mantis after its province of origin. ... This article is about a Japanese martial art. ... Pankration was an ancient sport introduced in the Greek Olympic games in 648 BC. Many historians believe that, although Pankration was not one of the first Olympic sports, it was likely the most popular. ... This article is about martial art forms practiced in Indonesia. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Shidokan karate is sometimes described as the triathlon of Martial Arts, as it encompasses knockdown (otherwise known as bare knuckle) karate, Thai kick-boxing, and grappling. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... ISFA logo Shootfighting is a combat sport and martial art, with competitions governed by the International Shootfighting Association (ISFA). ... Shorinji Kempo (少林寺拳法 Shōrinji Kenpō -- note that the World Shorinji Kempo Organization prefers the Romanization kempo to kenpo) is a martial art form of Kempo that was invented by Doshin So (å®— 道臣, 1911-1980) in 1947, who incorporated Japanese Zen Buddhism into the fighting style. ... For other uses, see Systema (disambiguation). ... Tai chi chuan (traditional Chinese: ; simplified Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: tai4 chi2 chüan2) is an internal Chinese martial art. ... Vajra Mushti (or Vajra Mukti)/Diamond Fist is one of the oldest martial arts of India . ... Vovinam is a type of Vietnamese martial arts. ...

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Boxing News and Views (0 words)
In rounds 1-4, the southpaw Mckart, 36, showing that he still has much of his boxing skills intact despite his age, landed right hooks and straight left hands, often catching Ornelas as he was moving in for an attack.
I was born a fighter, I was born a champion.
International Boxing Hall of Fame promoter Don “Only in America” King will be in Las Vegas on Friday to accept a Sam Lacy Pioneer Award from the Sports Task Force of the National Association of Black Journalists at their 32nd Annual Convention being held at Bally’s.
Urban Legends Reference Pages: Boxing Day Origins (1276 words)
Boxing Day might well be a statutory holiday in some of those lands, but it's not a well understood one.
The contents of this alms box originated with the ordinary folks in the parish who were under no direct obligation to provide anything at all and were certainly not tied to the recipients by a employer/employee relationship.
The box was not to be opened until the return of the vessel; and we can conceive that, in cases where the mariners had had a perilous time of it, this casket would be found to enclose a tolerable offering.
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