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Encyclopedia > Boxer Rebellion
This article contains Chinese text.
Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Chinese characters.
The Boxer Rebellion

Boxer forces.
Date November 2, 1899 - September 7, 1901
Location China
Result Alliance victory
Combatants
Eight-Nation Alliance (ordered by contribution):

Flag of Japan Empire of Japan
Flag of Russia Russian Empire
Flag of the United Kingdom British Empire
Flag of France French Third Republic
Flag of the United States United States
Flag of German Empire German Empire
Flag of Italy Kingdom of Italy
Austro-Hungarian Empire Image File history File links Zhongwen. ... Japanese name Kanji: Hiragana: Korean name Hangul: Hanja: Vietnamese name Quốc ngữ: Hán tá»±: A Chinese character or Han character (simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ) is a logogram used in writing Chinese, Japanese, sometimes Korean, and formerly Vietnamese. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... is the 306th day of the year (307th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1899 (MDCCCXCIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday [1] of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... is the 250th day of the year (251st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1901 (MCMI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday [1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Military of the Powers during the Boxer Rebellion, with their naval flags, from left to right: Italy, United States, France, Austria-Hungary, Japan, Germany, United Kingdom, Russia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Japan. ... Anthem Kimi ga Yo Imperial Reign Capital Tokyo Government Constitutional monarchy Emperor  - 1868–1912 Emperor Meiji  - 1912–1926 Emperor Taishō  - 1926–1989 Emperor Shōwa Prime Minister  - 1885-1888, 1892-1896, 1898, 1900-1901 Itō Hirobumi  - 1888-1889 Kuroda Kiyotaka  - 1889-1891 Yamagata Aritomo  - 1906-1908, 1911-1912 Saionji Kinmochi... Image File history File links Flag_of_Russia. ... The subject of this article was previously also known as Russia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ... The British Empire in 1897, marked in pink, the traditional colour for Imperial British dominions on maps. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... The French Third Republic, (in French, La Troisième République, sometimes written as La IIIe République) (1870/75-10 July 1940) was the governing body of France between the Second French Empire and the Vichy Regime. ... Image File history File links US_flag_45_stars. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_German_Empire. ... For German colonial territories, see German Colonial Empire. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Italy_(1861-1946)_crowned. ... Anthem Marcia Reale dOrdinanza (Royal March of Ordinance)¹ The Kingdom of Italy at the height of its power in 1940. ... Image File history File links Austria-Hungary_flag_1869-1918. ... Official languages Latin, German, Hungarian Established church Roman Catholic Capital & Largest City Vienna pop. ...

Righteous Harmony Society
Flag of Qing Dynasty Qing Dynasty (China)
Commanders
Flag of the United Kingdom Edward Seymour
Flag of German Empire Alfred Graf von Waldersee
Flag of Qing Dynasty Ci Xi
Strength
20,000 initially 49,000 total 50,000-100,000 Boxers
70,000 Imperial Troops
Casualties
2.500 Soldiers,
526 foreigner/Chinese christians
all Boxers,
 ? Imperial Troops
Civilians = 18,952+

The Boxer Movement . (traditional Chinese: 義和團運動; simplified Chinese: 义和团运动; pinyin: Yìhétuán Yùndòng; literally "The Righteous and Harmonious Society Movement") or Boxer Rebellion (義和團之亂 or 義和團匪亂) was a Chinese rebellion from November 1899 to September 7, 1901, against foreign influence in areas such as trade, politics, religion and technology that occurred in China during the final years of the Manchu rule (Qing Dynasty). The Boxers began as an anti-foreign, anti-imperialist peasant-based movement in northern China. They attacked foreigners, who were building railroads and violating Feng shui, as well as Christians, who were held responsible for the foreign domination of China. In June 1900, the Boxers invaded Beijing and killed 230 non-Chinese. Tens of thousands of Chinese Christians, Catholic and Protestant alike, were killed mostly in Shandong and Shanxi Provinces as part of the uprising. The government of Empress Dowager Cixi was helpless as diplomats, foreign civilians, soldiers and some Chinese Christians retreated to the legation quarter and held out for fifty-five days as a multinational coalition rushed 20,000 troops to their rescue. The Chinese government was forced to indemnify the victims and make many additional concessions. Subsequent reforms implemented after the crisis of 1900 laid the foundation for the end of the Qing Dynasty and the establishment of the modern Chinese Republic. The Righteous Harmony Society (Traditional: 義和團; Simplified: 义和团; Hanyu Pinyin: ); was a society in China that executed the unsuccessful Boxer Rebellion in the closing years of the 19th century. ... Image File history File links China_Qing_Dynasty_Flag_1889. ... Flag (1890-1912) Anthem Gong Jinou (1911) Qing China at its greatest extent. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ... Sir Edward Hobart Seymour (April 30, 1840 - March 2, 1929) was a British Admiral of the Fleet. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_German_Empire. ... Warning: this article is based primarily on information from the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica and does not reflect modern scholarship. ... Image File history File links China_Qing_Dynasty_Flag_1889. ... Empress Dowager Cixi Empress Dowager Cixi (Chinese: 慈禧太后; Wade-Giles: Tzu-hsi) (November 29, 1835–November 15, 1908), popularly known in China as the Western Empress Dowager (西太后), and officially known posthumously as Empress Xiaoqin Xian (孝欽顯皇后), was a... Combatants Allies China Commanders Admiral Edward Seymour  ? Strength 904  ? Casualties British 1 killed 9 wounded Russian 33 killed 60 wounded  ? The Battle of Taku Forts was a battle during the Boxer Rebellion between Chinese forces and Admiral Edward Seymours Relief Expedition. ... This is about the battle of Beijing during the Qing Dynasty. ... Traditional Chinese characters refers to one of two standard sets of printed Chinese characters. ... Simplified Chinese character (Simplified Chinese: or ; traditional Chinese: or ; pinyin: or ) is one of two standard sets of Chinese characters of the contemporary Chinese written language. ... Pinyin, more formally called Hanyu Pinyin (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ), is the most common variant of Standard Mandarin romanization system in use. ... Look up rebellion in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... is the 250th day of the year (251st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1901 (MCMI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday [1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Flag (1890-1912) Anthem Gong Jinou (1911) Qing China at its greatest extent. ... The Righteous Harmony Society (Traditional: 義和團; Simplified: 义和团; Hanyu Pinyin: ); was a society in China that executed the unsuccessful Boxer Rebellion in the closing years of the 19th century. ... Imperialism is the policy of extending the control or authority over foreign entities as a means of acquisition and/or maintenance of empires, either through direct territorial or through indirect methods of exerting control on the politics and/or economy of other countries. ... Fēng Shuǐ (風水 – literally, wind and water pronounced fung shuway), which may be more than 3000 years old, is the ancient practice of placement to achieve harmony with the environment. ... For other uses, see Christian (disambiguation). ... Peking redirects here. ...   (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Shan-tung) is a coastal province of eastern Peoples Republic of China. ... Shanxi (Chinese: 山西; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Shan-hsi; Postal System Pinyin: Shansi) is a province in the northern part of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Empress Dowager Cixi (Chinese: ; Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Tzu-Hsi Tai-hou) (November 29, 1835 – November 15, 1908), popularly known in China as the West Empress Dowager (Chinese: 西太后), was from the Manchu Yehe Nara Clan. ... Flag (1890-1912) Anthem Gong Jinou (1911) Qing China at its greatest extent. ... National motto: None Official language Mandarin Chinese Capital Taipei¹ Largest city Taipei President Chen Shui-bian Premier Frank Hsieh Area  - Total  - % water Ranked 134th 32,260 km² 10. ...

Contents

Perspective

In traditional Western histories, the Boxers were condemned as a product of uncivilized, irrational and anti-foreignist among the common people. In Eastern histories, controversy still exists about the significance of the movement. Even today, the Boxers are praised by the government of the PRC as patriotic and anti-imperialists. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Government of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Patriotism is a feeling of love and devotion to ones own homeland (patria, the land of ones fathers). ...


The Uprising

A Boxer rebel. His banner says "欽令 義和團糧臺", "By Imperial Order - Boxer Supply Commissariat".
A Boxer rebel. His banner says "欽令 義和團糧臺", "By Imperial Order - Boxer Supply Commissariat".

The Boxer activity began in Shandong province in March 1898, in response to German occupation of the Jiao Zhou region, the British seizing of Weihai city, and the failure of the Imperial court's Self-Strengthening Movement. One of the first signs of unrest appeared in a small village in Shandong province, where there had been a long dispute over the property rights of a temple between locals and the Roman Catholic authorities. The Catholics claimed that the temple was originally a church abandoned for decades after the Kangxi Emperor banned Christianity in China. The local court ruled in favor of the church, and angered villagers who claimed the temple for rituals. After the local authorities turned over the temple to the Catholics, the villagers attacked the church, led by the Boxers. Image File history File links National Archives and Records Administration. ... Image File history File links National Archives and Records Administration. ...   (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Shan-tung) is a coastal province of eastern Peoples Republic of China. ... Tsingtao redirects here. ... Weihai (威海; pinyin: wēihǎi, also Weihaiwei) is a seaport city on the Bohai Gulf in north-east Shandong province, China. ... Self-Strengthening Movement (Traditional Chinese: ; c 1861–1894) was a period of institutional reforms initiated during the late Qing Dynasty following a series of military defeats and concessions to foreign powers. ... The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... For other uses, see Kangxi (disambiguation) The Kangxi Emperor (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Kang-hsi; May 4, 1654 – December 20, 1722) was an Emperor of the Manchu Qing dynasty,[1] and the second Qing emperor to rule over China proper, from 1661 to 1722. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is...


The exemption from many Chinese laws of missionaries further alienated some Chinese. Marshall Broomhall pointed to the policy pursued by the Catholic Church. In 1899, with the help of the French Minister in Peking, they obtained an edict from the Chinese Government granting official rank to each order in the Roman hierarchy. The Catholics, by means of this official status, were able to more powerfully support their people and oppose Mandarins.[1] Marshall B. Broomhall (July 17, 1866 – October 24, 1937), Christian missionary to China, and author of many books about the China Inland Mission (renamed as Overseas Missionary Fellowship, OMF International [1] in 1964 and based in Singapore). ... A Mandarin was a bureaucrat in imperial China. ...


The early months of the movement's growth coincided with the Hundred Days' Reform (June 11–September 21, 1898), during which the Guangxu Emperor of China sought to improve the central administration, though the process was reversed by several court reactionaries. After the Boxers were mauled by loyal Imperial troops in October 1898, they dropped their anti-government slogans and turned their attention to foreign missionaries (such as those of the China Inland Mission) and their converts, whom they saw as agents of foreign imperialist influence. The Hundred Days Reform (Chinese: 戊戌变法, wùxÅ« biànfÇŽ, or 百日維新, bÇŽirì wéixÄ«n) was a 103-day reform from 11 June to 21 September 1898. ... The Guangxu Emperor (August 14, 1871–November 14, 1908), born Zaitian(載湉), was the tenth emperor of the Manchu Qing dynasty, and the ninth Qing emperor to rule over China, from 1875 to 1908. ... A missionary is a propagator of religion, often an evangelist or other representative of a religious community who works among those outside of that community. ... The China Inland Mission was a missionary society, set up by English missionary Hudson Taylor on 25 June 1865 in Brighton during a home leave. ...

Veteran missionary Griffith John noted afterward:
It is the height of folly to look at the present movement as anti-missionary. It is anti-missionary as it is anti-everything that is foreign. ..The movement is at first and last an anti-foreign movement, and has for its aim the casting out of every foreigner and all his belongings.[2]
A pamphlet promoting the Boxers circa 1899
A pamphlet promoting the Boxers circa 1899

The Imperial Court, now under the firm control of several conservative reactionaries, forced the Empress to issue edicts in defense of the Boxers, drawing heated complaints from foreign diplomats in January, 1900. In June 1900 the Boxers, now joined by elements of the Imperial army, attacked foreign compounds in the cities of Tianjin and Peking. The legations of the United Kingdom, France, Belgium, the Netherlands, the United States, Russia and Japan were all located on the Legation Quarter close to the Forbidden City. The legations were hurriedly linked into a fortified compound, that became a refuge for foreign citizens in Peking. The Spanish and Belgian legations were a few streets away, and their staff were able to arrive safely at the compound. The German legation on the other side of the city was stormed before the staff could escape. When the Envoy for the German Empire, Klemens Freiherr von Ketteler, was murdered on June 20 by a Manchu banner man, the foreign powers demanded redress. Cixi declared war on June 21 against all Western powers, but regional governors refused to go along. Shanghai's Chinese elites supported the provincial governors of southeastern China in resisting the imperial declaration of war.[3] Griffith John (December 14, 1831 – July 25, 1912) was a Welsh Christian Congregationalist missionary to China and a pioneer evangelist with the London Missionary Society. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (744x1002, 654 KB) A pamphlet that promotes the Boxers during the Boxer Rebellion in China, circa 1899. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (744x1002, 654 KB) A pamphlet that promotes the Boxers during the Boxer Rebellion in China, circa 1899. ...   (Chinese: ; Pinyin: ; Postal map spelling: Tientsin) is one of the four municipalities of China. ... Beijing (Chinese: 北京; pinyin: Běijīng; Wade-Giles: Pei-ching; Postal System Pinyin: Peking), is the capital city of the Peoples Republic of China. ... A legation was the term used in diplomacy to denote a diplomatic representative office lower than an embassy. ... The Beijing Legation Quarter was the area in Beijing where a number of foreign legations were located between 1861 and 1959. ... For other uses, see Forbidden City (disambiguation). ... Klemens August Freiherr von Ketteler 22 November 1853-20 June 1900) was a German career diplomat. ... is the 171st day of the year (172nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Empress Dowager Cixi Empress Dowager Cixi (Chinese: 慈禧太后; Wade-Giles: Tzu-hsi) (November 29, 1835–November 15, 1908), popularly known in China as the Western Empress Dowager (西太后), and officially known posthumously as Empress Xiaoqin Xian (孝欽顯皇后), was a...


The fortified legation compound remained under siege from Boxer forces from June 20 to August 14. Under the command of the British minister to China, Claude Maxwell MacDonald, the legation staff and security personnel defended the compound with one old muzzle-loaded cannon. It was nicknamed the "International Gun" because the barrel was British, the carriage was Italian, the shells were Russian, and the crew was American. is the 171st day of the year (172nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 226th day of the year (227th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Sir Claude Maxwell MacDonald, KBE, PC (1852-1915) was a British diplomat. ...


Foreign media described the fighting going on in Peking as well as alleged torture and murder of captured foreigners. Tens of thousands of Chinese Christians were massacred in north China. Many horrible stories that appeared in world newspapers were based on a deliberate fraud[4]. Nonetheless a wave of anti-Chinese sentiment arose in Europe, America, and Japan. [5]


The poorly armed Boxer rebels were unable to break into the compound, which was relieved by the international army of the Eight-Nation Alliance in July. Military of the Powers during the Boxer Rebellion, with their naval flags, from left to right: Italy, United States, France, Austria-Hungary, Japan, Germany, United Kingdom, Russia. ...


Eight-Nation Alliance

Military of the Powers during the Boxer Rebellion, with their naval flags, from left to right: Italy, United States, France, Austria-Hungary, Japan, Germany, United Kingdom, Russia. Japanese print, 1900.
Military of the Powers during the Boxer Rebellion, with their naval flags, from left to right: Italy, United States, France, Austria-Hungary, Japan, Germany, United Kingdom, Russia. Japanese print, 1900.
Main article: Eight-Nation Alliance

ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (1160x795, 255 KB) Summary Western and Japanese Navy troops during the Boxer Rebellion. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (1160x795, 255 KB) Summary Western and Japanese Navy troops during the Boxer Rebellion. ... Austria-Hungary, also known as the Dual monarchy (or: the k. ... Military of the Powers during the Boxer Rebellion, with their naval flags, from left to right: Italy, United States, France, Austria-Hungary, Japan, Germany, United Kingdom, Russia. ...

Reinforcements

Foreign navies started building up their presence along the northern China coast from the end of April 1900. On May 31, before the sieges had started and upon the request of foreign embassies in Beijing, 435 Navy troops from eight countries were dispatched by train from Takou to the capital (75 French, 75 Russian, 75 British, 60 American, 50 German, 40 Italian, 30 Japanese, 30 Austrian). These troops joined the legations and were able to contribute to their defense. is the 151st day of the year (152nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Taku Forts (or Dagu Fort; Chinese: 大沽船坞; pinyin: dagu paotai) are forts located by the Hai He (Peiho River) estuary, in Tanggu District, Tianjin municipality, in northeastern China. ...


First intervention (Seymour column)

Contingent of Japanese marines who served under the British commander Seymour.

As the situation worsened, a second International force of 2,000 marines under the command of the British Vice Admiral Edward Seymour, the largest contingent being British, was dispatched from Takou to Beijing on June 10. The troops were transported by train from Takou to Tianjin (Tien-Tsin) with the agreement of the Chinese government, but the railway between Tianjin and Beijing had been severed. Seymour however resolved to move forward and repair the railway, or progress on foot as necessary, keeping in mind that the distance between Tianjin and Beijing was only 120 kilometers. Image File history File linksMetadata BoxerJapaneseMarines. ... Image File history File linksMetadata BoxerJapaneseMarines. ... Sir Edward Hobart Seymour (April 30, 1840 - March 2, 1929) was a British Admiral of the Fleet. ... Sir Edward Hobart Seymour (April 30, 1840 - March 2, 1929) was a British Admiral of the Fleet. ... The Taku Forts (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; literally Taku batteries), also called the Peiho Forts (Chinese:白河碉堡; pinyin: Báihé DiāobÇŽo) are forts located by the Hai River (Peiho River) estuary, in Tanggu District, Tianjin municipality, in northeastern China. ...   (Chinese: ; Pinyin: ; Postal map spelling: Tientsin) is one of the four municipalities of China. ...

Admiral Seymour returning to Tianjin with his wounded men, on June 26.
Admiral Seymour returning to Tianjin with his wounded men, on June 26.

After Tianjin however, the convoy was surrounded, the railway behind and in front of them was destroyed, and they were attacked from all parts by Chinese irregulars and even Chinese governmental troops. News arrived on June 18 regarding attacks on foreign legations. Seymour decided to continue advancing, this time along the Pei-Ho river, towards Tong-Tcheou, 25 kilometers from Beijing. They had to abandon on the 19th due to stiff resistance, and started to retreat southward along the river. The wounded were so numerous that they had to be carried in junks along the river, pulled along with ropes by healthy combatants on the banks. The column managed to take-over the Chinese camps of Hsi-Kou, in which they were surrounded until June 25 when finally a regiment composed essentially of Russian troops from Port-Arthur arrived. They completed their retreat back to Tianjin on June 26, with the loss of 350 men.[6] Image File history File links SeymourTianjin. ... Image File history File links SeymourTianjin. ... Categories: China geography stubs | Chinese rivers ... // Tongzhou District (Simplified Chinese: 通州区; Traditional Chinese: 通州區; Hanyu Pinyin: Tōngzhōu Qū), located in southeast Beijing, is considered as the capitals eastern gate. ... A junk is a Chinese sailing vessel. ... British regiment A regiment is a military unit, consisting of a variable number of battalions - commanded by a colonel. ... Location within China Lüshun city or Lüshunkou or (literally) Lüshun Port (Simplified Chinese: 旅顺口; Traditional Chinese: 旅順口; Pinyin: , formerly in historic references both Port Arthur and Ryojun, is a town in the southernmost administrative district of Dalian of the Peoples Republic of China. ... is the 177th day of the year (178th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Second intervention

Forces of the Eight-Nation Alliance
(1900 Boxer Rebellion)
Countries Warships
(units)
Marines
(men)
Army
(men)
Japan 18 540 20,300
Russia 10 750 12,400
United Kingdom 8 2,020 10,000
France 5 390 3,130
United States 2 295 3,125
Germany 5 600 300
Italy 2 80
Austria 1 75
Total 51 4,750 49,255

With a difficult military situation in Tianjin, and a total breakdown of communications between Tianjin and Beijing, the allied nations took steps to reinforce their military presence dramatically. On June 17, they took the Taku Forts commanding the approaches to Tianjin, and from there brought more and more troops on shore. Military of the Powers during the Boxer Rebellion, with their naval flags, from left to right: Italy, United States, France, Austria-Hungary, Japan, Germany, United Kingdom, Russia. ... The Taku Forts (or Dagu Fort; Chinese: 大沽船坞; pinyin: dagu paotai) are forts located by the Hai He (Peiho River) estuary, in Tanggu District, Tianjin municipality, in northeastern China. ...


The international force, with British Lieutenant-General Alfred Gaselee acting as the commanding officer, called the Eight-Nation Alliance, eventually numbered 54,000, with the main contingent being composed of Japanese soldiers: Japanese (20,840), Russian (13,150), British (12,020), French (3,520), American (3,420), German (900), Italian (80), Austro-Hungarian (75), and anti-Boxer Chinese troops.[7]. The international force finally captured Tianjin on July 14 under the command of the Japanese colonel Kuriya, after one day of fighting. Lieutenant General is a military rank used in many countries. ... Sir Alfred Gaselee was born on 3 June 1844 at Little Yeldham, Essex, the eldest son of the Revd John Gaselee, rector of Little Yeldham, and his wife, Sarah Anne Mant. ... Military of the Powers during the Boxer Rebellion, with their naval flags, from left to right: Italy, United States, France, Austria-Hungary, Japan, Germany, United Kingdom, Russia. ... Austria-Hungary, also known as the Dual monarchy (or: the k. ... is the 195th day of the year (196th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

The capture of the southern gate of Tianjin. British troops were positioned on the left, Japanese troops at the centre, French troops on the right.
The capture of the southern gate of Tianjin. British troops were positioned on the left, Japanese troops at the centre, French troops on the right.

Notable exploits during the campaign were the seizure of the Taku Forts commanding the approaches to Tianjin, and the boarding and capture of four Chinese destroyers by Roger Keyes. The march from Tianjin to Beijing of about 120 km consisted of about 20,000 allied troops. On August 4 there were approximately 70,000 Imperial troops with anywhere from 50,000 to 100,000 Boxers along the way. They only encountered minor resistance and the battle was engaged in Yangcun, about 30 km outside Tianjin, where the 14th Infantry Regiment of the U.S. and British troops led the assault. However, the weather was a major obstacle, extremely humid with temperatures sometimes reaching 110 °F (43Celsius). Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (821x446, 342 KB) [edit] Summary The capture of the southern gate of Tianjin. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (821x446, 342 KB) [edit] Summary The capture of the southern gate of Tianjin. ... The Taku Forts (or Dagu Fort; Chinese: 大沽船坞; pinyin: dagu paotai) are forts located by the Hai He (Peiho River) estuary, in Tanggu District, Tianjin municipality, in northeastern China. ... Admiral of the Fleet Sir Roger John Brownlow Keyes, 1st Baron Keyes, GCB KCVO CMG DSO, (1872–1945) was a noted British admiral and hero, with a life of adventure stretching from 19th-century African anti-slavery patrols to Allied landings in Leyte in World War II. // Early days The... is the 216th day of the year (217th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The 14th Infantry Regiment is a US Army Light Infantry Regiment, known as the Golden Dragons. ... For other uses, see Fahrenheit (disambiguation). ... The degree Celsius (°C) is a unit of temperature named after the Swedish astronomer Anders Celsius (1701–1744), who first proposed a similar system in 1742. ...

Battle scene between Chinese forces and the Eight-Nation Alliance (front: British and Japanese troops).
Battle scene between Chinese forces and the Eight-Nation Alliance (front: British and Japanese troops).

The International force reached and occupied Beijing on August 14. The United States was able to play a secondary, but significant role in suppressing the Boxer Rebellion largely due to the presence of American ships and troops deployed in the Philippines since the U.S conquest of the Spanish American and Philippine-American War. In the United States military, the suppression of the Boxer Rebellion was known as the China Relief Expedition. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (806x476, 481 KB) scan from 《社会历史博物馆》 ISBN 7-5347-1397-8 义和团和八国联军的交战场面 File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Boxer Rebellion ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (806x476, 481 KB) scan from 《社会历史博物馆》 ISBN 7-5347-1397-8 义和团和八国联军的交战场面 File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Boxer Rebellion ... is the 226th day of the year (227th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Spanish-American War took place in 1898, and resulted in the United States of America gaining control over the former colonies of Spain in the Caribbean and Pacific. ... Combatants United States Philippines several groups post-1902 Commanders William McKinley Theodore Roosevelt Wesley Merritt Elwell Stephen Otis J. Franklin Bell Henry Ware Lawton† John J. Pershing Joseph Wheeler Emilio Aguinaldo Miguel Malvar Pio del Pilar Manuel Tinio Gregorio del Pilar† Licerio Geronimo Vicente Lukban Juan Cailles Maximino Hizon Antonio... The armed forces of the United States of America consist of the United States Army United States Navy United States Air Force United States Marine Corps United States Coast Guard Note: The United States Coast Guard has both military and law enforcement functions. ... The China Relief Expedition was the United States military term for the rescue of diplomatic personnel, and other U.S. citizens, in the wake of the Boxer Rebellion. ...


The end of rebellion

Parade of the foreign armies in Beijing.
Parade of the foreign armies in Beijing.

A large international expeditionary force under the command of German general Alfred Graf von Waldersee arrived too late to take part in the main fighting, but undertook several punitive expeditions against the Boxers. Troops from most nations engaged in plunder, looting and rape. German troops in particular were criticized for their enthusiasm in carrying out Kaiser Wilhelm II of Germany's July 27 order: Image File history File links Foreign_armies_in_Beijing_during_Boxer_Rebellion. ... Image File history File links Foreign_armies_in_Beijing_during_Boxer_Rebellion. ... Warning: this article is based primarily on information from the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica and does not reflect modern scholarship. ... Looting (which derives via the Hindi lut from Sanskrit lunt, to rob) is the indiscriminate taking of goods by force as part of a military or political victory, or during a catastrophy or riot, such as during war [1], natural disaster [2], rioting [3], or terrorist attack [4]. The term... Looting (which derives via the Hindi lut from Sanskrit lung, to rob), sacking, plundering, or pillaging is the indiscriminate taking of goods by force as part of a military or political victory, or during a catastrophe or riot, such as during war,[1] natural disaster,[2] or rioting. ... German Emperor Wilhelm (born Friedrich Wilhelm Viktor Albrecht, Prince of Prussia 27 January 1859–4 June 1941), was the last German Emperor and King of Prussia (de: Deutscher Kaiser und König von Preußen), ruling from 15 June 1888 to 9 November 1918. ... is the 208th day of the year (209th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Make the name German remembered in China for a thousand years so that no Chinaman will ever again dare to even squint at a German.[8]

The speech, in which Wilhelm invoked the memory of the 5th century Huns, gave rise to the British derogatory name "Hun" for their German enemy during World War I and World War II. For other uses, see Hun (disambiguation). ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000...


Reparations

Russian troops in Beijing during the Boxer rebellion.
Russian troops in Beijing during the Boxer rebellion.

On September 7, 1901, the Qing court was compelled to sign the "Boxer Protocol" also known as Peace Agreement between the Eight-Nation Alliance and China. The protocol ordered the execution of ten high-ranking officials linked to the outbreak, and other officials who were found guilty for the slaughter of Westerners in China. Image File history File linksMetadata BoxerRussianTroops. ... Image File history File linksMetadata BoxerRussianTroops. ... is the 250th day of the year (251st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1901 (MCMI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday [1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... The Treaty of 1901, known as the Xinchou Treaty (辛丑条约) in China, and more commonly known as Boxer Protocol or Peace Agreement between the Great Powers and China, was a peace treaty signed on September 7, 1901 between the Qing Empire of China and the Eight-Nation Alliance: the United Kingdom... Military of the Powers during the Boxer Rebellion, with their naval flags, from left to right: Italy, United States, France, Austria-Hungary, Japan, Germany, United Kingdom, Russia. ...


China was fined war reparations of 450,000,000 tael of fine silver (around 67.5 million pounds/333 million US dollars) for the loss that it caused. The reparation would be paid within 39 years, and would be 982,238,150 taels with interests (4% per year) included. To help meet the payment, it was agreed to increase the existing tariff from an actual 3.18% to 5%, and to tax hitherto duty-free merchandise. The sum of reparation was estimated by the Chinese population (roughly 450 million in 1900), to let each Chinese pay one tael. Chinese custom income and salt tax were enlisted as guarantee of the reparation. Russia got 30% of the reparation, Germany 20%, France 15.75%, Britain 11.25%, Japan 7.7% and the US share was 7%[9]. War reparations refer to the monetary compensation provided to a triumphant nation or coalition from a defeated nation or coalition. ... The tael (兩), PY: Liang, was part of the Chinese system of weights and currency. ... The pound, a unit of currency, originated (at least in Britain) as the value of a pound mass of silver. ... The United States dollar is the official currency of the United States. ...


China paid 668,661,220 taels of silver from 1901 to 1939. Some of the reparation was later earmarked by both Britain and the U.S. for the education of Chinese students at overseas institutions, subsequently forming the basis of Tsinghua University. The British signatory of the Protocol was Sir Ernest Satow. Tsinghua University (THU; Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ), is a university in Beijing, China. ... Sir Ernest Mason Satow, G.C.M.G., P.C. (1843-1929), a British scholar-diplomat born to an ethnically German father (Hans David Christoph Satow, born in Swedish-occupied Wismar, naturalised British in 1846) and an English mother (Margaret, nee Mason) in Clapton, North London, and educated at Mill...


The China Inland Mission lost more members than any other missionary agency: 58 adults and 21 children were killed. However, in 1901, when the allied nations were demanding compensation from the Chinese government, Hudson Taylor refused to accept payment for loss of property or life in order to demonstrate the meekness of Christ to the Chinese.[10] The China Inland Mission was a missionary society, set up by English missionary Hudson Taylor on 25 June 1865 in Brighton during a home leave. ... Hudson & Maria Taylor in 1865 James Hudson Taylor 戴德生 (May 21, 1832 – June 3, 1905), was a British Protestant Christian missionary to China, and founder of the China Inland Mission (CIM) (now OMF International) who served there for 51 years, bringing over 800 missionaries to the country and directly resulting in...


Aftermath

American troops in China during the Boxer Rebellion.
American troops in China during the Boxer Rebellion.

The imperial government's humiliating failure to defend China against the foreign powers contributed to the growth of nationalist resentment against the "foreigner" Qing dynasty (who were descendants of the Manchu conquerors of China) and an increasing feeling for modernization, which was to culminate a decade later in the dynasty's overthrow and the establishment of the Republic of China. The foreign privileges which had angered Chinese people were largely cancelled in the 1930s and 1940s. Image File history File linksMetadata BoxerAmericanTroops. ... Image File history File linksMetadata BoxerAmericanTroops. ... For the Chinese civilization, see China. ... Japanese name Kanji: Kana: Korean name Hangul: Hanja: Unequal Treaties, is a term used in reference to the type of treaties signed by several East Asian states, including Qing Dynasty China, late Tokugawa Japan, and late Joseon Korea, with Western powers and Imperial Japan, during the nineteenth and early twentieth...


In October 1900, Russia was busy occupying much of the northeastern province of Manchuria, a move which threatened Anglo-American hopes of maintaining what remained of China's territorial integrity and an openness to commerce under the Open Door Policy. This behavior led ultimately to the Russo-Japanese War, where Russia was defeated at the hands of an increasingly confident Japan. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Anglo-American relations are used to describe the relations of the United Kingdom and the United States of America. ... – Spheres of influence in China prior to the Open Door Policy. ... Combatants Russian Empire Principality of Montenegro [1] Empire of Japan Commanders Emperor Nicholas II Aleksey Kuropatkin Stepan Makarov â€  Emperor Meiji Oyama Iwao Heihachiro Togo The Russo–Japanese War (Japanese: Nichi-Ro Sensō, Russian: Russko-Yaponskaya Voyna, Chinese: RìézhànzhÄ“ng, February 10, 1904–September 5, 1905) was a conflict...


Results

Murdered China Inland Mission missionaries Duncan, Caroline and Jennie Kay.
Murdered China Inland Mission missionaries Duncan, Caroline and Jennie Kay.

During the incident, 48 Catholic missionaries and 18,000 Chinese Catholics were murdered. 222 Chinese Eastern Orthodox Christians were also murdered, along with 182 Protestant missionaries and 500 Chinese Protestants known as the China Martyrs of 1900. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1917x3000, 645 KB) From Martyred Missionaries of The China Inland Mission by Marshall Broomhall 1901 ; London ; Morgan & Scott This image is in the public domain in the United States. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1917x3000, 645 KB) From Martyred Missionaries of The China Inland Mission by Marshall Broomhall 1901 ; London ; Morgan & Scott This image is in the public domain in the United States. ... Eastern Orthodoxy (also called Greek Orthodoxy and Russian Orthodoxy) is a Christian tradition which represents the majority of Eastern Christianity. ... Protestantism is a general grouping of denominations within Christianity. ... A few of the martyrs of the C.I.M. in 1900. ...


The effect on China was a weakening of the dynasty as well as a weakened national defense. The structure was temporarily sustained by the Europeans who were under the impression that the Boxer Rebellion was anti-Qing. Besides the compensation, Empress Dowager Cixi realized that in order to survive, China had to reform despite her previous view of European opposition. Among the Imperial powers, Japan gained prestige due to its military aid in suppressing the Boxer Rebellion and was first seen as a power. Its clash with Russia over the Liaodong and other provinces in eastern Manchuria, long considered by the Japanese as part of their sphere of influence, led to the Russo-Japanese War when two years of negotiations broke down in February 1904. Germany, as mentioned above, earned itself the nickname "Hun" and occupied Qingdao bay, consequently fortifying it to serve as Germany's primary naval base in East Asia. The Russian Lease of the Liaodong (1898) was confirmed. The American U.S. 9th Infantry Regiment earned the nickname "Manchus" for its actions during this campaign. Current members of the regiment (stationed in Camp Casey, South Korea) still do a commemorative 25 mile (40 km) foot march every quarter in remembrance of the brutal fighting. Soldiers who complete this march are authorized to wear a special belt buckle that features a Chinese imperial dragon on their uniforms. Likewise both the U.S. 14th Infantry Regiment, which calls itself "The Golden Dragons"; the 15th Infantry Regiment (United States); the U.S. 6th Cavalry Regiment; the US 3rd Artillery also have a Golden Dragon on their coat of Arms respectfully. Other US Units were involved in the rebellion was the first formation of "2d Regiment" of USMC detachments. Empress Dowager Cixi (Chinese: ; Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Tzu-Hsi Tai-hou) (November 29, 1835 – November 15, 1908), popularly known in China as the West Empress Dowager (Chinese: 西太后), was from the Manchu Yehe Nara Clan. ... In the context of international relations and diplomacy, power (sometimes clarified as international power, national power, or state power) is the ability of one state to influence or control other states. ... The Liaodong Peninsula (sim. ... For the astrodynamics term, see sphere of influence (astrodynamics). ... Combatants Russian Empire Principality of Montenegro [1] Empire of Japan Commanders Emperor Nicholas II Aleksey Kuropatkin Stepan Makarov â€  Emperor Meiji Oyama Iwao Heihachiro Togo The Russo–Japanese War (Japanese: Nichi-Ro Sensō, Russian: Russko-Yaponskaya Voyna, Chinese: RìézhànzhÄ“ng, February 10, 1904–September 5, 1905) was a conflict... Tsingtao redirects here. ... The United States army dispatched the 9th Infantry Regiment (the archaic designation of a Battalion size element) to assist the Chinese government during the Boxer Rebellion and China Relief expedition. ... Camp Casey, Korea Located in Dongducheon (also Tongduchon), Republic of Korea, Camp Casey (named in 1952 after Major Hugh B. Casey) is one of several US Army bases in South Korea near the Korean Demilitarized Zone (DMZ). ... The 14th Infantry Regiment is a U.S. Army light infantry regiment, known as the Golden Dragons. ... The 15th Infantry Regiment is currently a parent regiment in the United States Army. ... The 6th Cavalry was organized in August, 1861, where it took to the fields as part of the Army of the Potomac. the regiment took part in sixteen campaigns, among them Antietam, Gettysburg, the Wilderness Campaign and Appomattox. ... A modern coat of arms is derived from the medi val practice of painting designs onto the shield and outer clothing of knights to enable them to be identified in battle, and later in tournaments. ... United States Marine Corps Emblem The United States Marine Corps (USMC) is the second smallest of the five branches of the United States armed forces, with 170,000 active and 40,000 reserve Marines as of 2002. ...


The impact on China was immense. Soon after the rebellion the Imperial examination system for government service was eliminated. As a result, the classical system of education was replaced with a Westernized system that led to a university degree. Eventually the spirit of revolution sparked a new nationalist revolution, led by a baptized Christian Sun Yat-sen, which overthrew the Manchu (Qing) Dynasty. The Imperial examinations (Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ) in Imperial China determined who among the population would be permitted to enter the states bureaucracy. ... The Kuomintang of China (abbreviation KMT) [1], also often translated as the Chinese Nationalist Party, is a political party in the Republic of China (ROC), now on Taiwan, and is currently the largest political party in terms of seats in the Legislative Yuan, and the oldest political party in the... Dr. Sun Yat-sen Traditional Chinese: 孫中山; Pinyin: Sūn Zhōngshān; or Sun Yixian (Pinyin: Sūn Yìxiān) (November 12, 1866 – March 12, 1925) was a Chinese revolutionary and political leader often referred to as the father of modern China. Sun played an instrumental role in the...


Controversy in modern China

Signature page of the Boxer Protocol.
Signature page of the Boxer Protocol.

Cohen (1997) considers the ways in which the Boxer Rebellion has been mythologized within modern memories, pointing out not only the foundations for the myths but also those occasions when the myth had to be modified so as to fit in with changing intellectual, political, and cultural currents. He looks at mythologizing in the New Culture Movement from 1915 to 1925, which showed the Boxers as irrational and backward; in the anti-imperialist struggles of the 1920's, which depicted the Boxers as true patriots; and in the Cultural Revolution of the 1960s, which insisted on a monolithic interpretation of the Boxers, not only stressing the Boxers' patriotic character but also drawing attention to the numbers of women associated with them. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (761x956, 598 KB) Signature page of the Boxer rebellion settlement Protocol in 1901 Historic document. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (761x956, 598 KB) Signature page of the Boxer rebellion settlement Protocol in 1901 Historic document. ... The Treaty of 1901, known as the Xinchou Treaty (辛丑条约) in China, and more commonly known as Boxer Protocol or Peace Agreement between the Great Powers and China, was a peace treaty signed on September 7, 1901 between the Qing Empire of China and the Eight-Nation Alliance: the United Kingdom... This article is about the Peoples Republic of China. ...


Though the reaction of the Boxers against foreign imperialism in China is regarded by some as patriotic, the violence that they caused in committing acts of murder, robbery, vandalism and arson cannot be considered much different from the events of other rebellions in China, if not worse. Some people in China considered this movement as a rebellion (亂; disorder; Mandarin Pinyin: luàn), a negative term in Chinese language, when described by commentators during the years of the Qing dynasty and Republic of China. However, the Chinese Communists have shifted the perception of the rebellion by referring to it as an uprising (起義; being upright; qǐyì), a more positive term in the Chinese language. It is frequently referred to as a "patriotic movement" in the People's Republic of China by Communist politicians. Look up rebellion in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Chinese (written) language (pinyin: zhōngw n) written in Chinese characters The Chinese language (汉语/漢語, 华语/華語, or 中文; Pinyin: H nyǔ, Hu yǔ, or Zhōngw n) is a member of the Sino-Tibetan family of languages. ... The Qing Dynasty (Manchu: daicing gurun; Chinese: 清朝; pinyin: qīng cháo; Wade-Giles: ching chao), sometimes known as the Manchu Dynasty, was founded by the Manchu clan Aisin Gioro, in what is today northeast China expanded into China proper and the surrounding territories of... For the Chinese civilization, see China. ... The Communist Party of China (CPC) (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ), also known as the Chinese Communist Party (CCP), is the ruling political party of the Peoples Republic of China, a position guaranteed by the countrys constitution. ... Uprising is another word for rebellion. ...


In January 2006, Freezing Point, a weekly supplement to the China Youth Daily newspaper, was closed partly due to its running of an essay by Yuan Weishi, a history professor at Zhongshan University, who claimed modern Chinese history textbooks were glossing over the atrocities committed by the Boxer rebels.[11][12][13] Freezing point can refer to several things: For the chemistry term, see Melting point. ... The China Youth Daily (中國青年報) is one of the most important daily official newspapers and is the first independently operated central government news media portal in the Peoples Republic of China. ... Sun Yet-sen University or Zhongshan University (中山大学, pinyin: Zhōngshān Dàxué) is a prominent university in Guangdong, China. ...


In fiction

Lobby Card for 55 Days at Peking
  • The 1963 film 55 Days at Peking was a dramatization of the Boxer rebellion. Shot in Spain, it needed thousands of extras, and the company sent scouts throughout Spain to hire as many as they could find. [14]
  • In 1975, Hong Kong's Shaw Brothers studio produced the film Boxer Rebellion(八國聯軍, Pa kuo lien chun) under director Chang Cheh with one of the highest budget to tell a sweeping story of disillusionment and revenge[15]. It depicted followers of the Boxer clan being duped into believing they were impervious to attacks by firearms. The film starred Alexander Fu Sheng, Chi Kuan Chun and Wang Lung-Wei.
  • The popular film series Once Upon a Time in China, starred Jet Li as the legendary martial artist/Chinese doctor Wong Fei Hung. The film conveyed the ambiance and tumult of the time period with many historic events woven into the plotlines, though it is mostly an entertainment, non-historical piece.
  • The novel, Moment In Peking by Lin Yutang, opens during the Boxer Rebellion, and provides a child's-eye view of the turmoil through the eyes of the protagonist.
  • The novel, The Palace of Heavenly Pleasure, by Adam Williams, describes the experiences of a small group of western missionaries, traders and railway engineers in a fictional town in Northern China shortly before and during the Boxer Rebellion.
  • Parts I and II of C. Y. Lee's China Saga (1987) involve events leading up to and during the Boxer Rebellion, revolving around a character named Fong Tai.
  • Neal Stephenson, in his award-winning sci-fi novel The Diamond Age, refers to Boxers' Rebellion in many ways, including "Fists of Righteous Harmony" as the name of uprising Chinese xenophobic faction.
  • The novel for teenagers Tulku, by Peter Dickinson begins with a missionary from the United States being killed in the destruction of a village in China.
  • The science fiction novel, For More Than Glory, by William C. Dietz, was inspired by and loosely based on the Boxer Rebellion.
  • The adventure/romance novel Monraker's Bride, by Madeleine Brent includes a spirited defence of a mission station towards the end of the Boxer Rebellion.
  • The horror play La Dernière torture (The Ultimate Torture), written by André de Lorde and Eugène Morel in 1904 for the Grand Guignol theater (just four years following the events depicted), is set during the Boxer Rebellion, in the French area of the fortified legation compound, specifically on July 22, 1900, the thirty-second day of the Boxers' siege of the compound.

Scanned Lobby card from my collection, thanks to Lucille Soong who was in the film File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Scanned Lobby card from my collection, thanks to Lucille Soong who was in the film File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... 55 Days at Peking is a 1963 historical epic film made by Samuel Bronston Productions and released by Allied Artists. ... The Shaw Studio (邵氏片場), owned by Shaw Brothers (HK) Ltd. ... Chang Cheh (張徹; pinyin:Zhāng Chè) (February 10, 1923 – June 22, 2002) was Shaw Brothers Studios best known and most prolific film director, with such films as the Five Venoms, the Brave Archer (based on the works of Jin Yong), the One-Armed Swordsman, and other classics of wuxia... Alexander Fu Sheng (傅聲 December 20, 1954-July 7, 1983) was a major Hong Kong martial arts film star in the 1970s. ... Once Upon a Time in China Region 4 DVD cover Once Upon a Time in China (武狀元黃飛鴻) is Hong Kong auteur Tsui Hark (徐克)s series of six movies about the famous kung fu master and Chinese hero Wong Fei Hung or (Huang Fei Hong) (黃飛鴻) (played by Jet Li (李連杰) in parts 1... Jet Li (born April 26, 1963) is a Chinese martial artist, actor, Wushu champion, and international film star. ... This is a Chinese name; the family name is Wong. ... Shanghai Knights is an American action-comedy movie released on February 3, 2003. ... Queen Victoria redirects here. ... For other uses, see Forbidden City (disambiguation). ... The British monarch or Sovereign is the monarch and head of state of the United Kingdom and its overseas territories, and is the source of all executive, judicial and (as the Queen-in-Parliament) legislative power. ... For the volcano in Indonesia, see Emperor of China (volcano). ... A Moment in Peking (Traditional Chinese: 京華煙雲, Simplified Chinese: 京华烟云, Hanyu Pinyin: jÄ«ng huá yān yún) is a historical novel originally written in English by the Chinese American author Lin Yutang. ... Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to: Lin Yutang Lin Yutang, photographed by Carl Van Vechten, 1939 This is a Chinese name; the family name is Lin (æž—) Lin Yutang (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; pinyin: , October 10, 1895 – March 26, 1976) was a Chinese writer and inventor whose original works... Cover of The Palace of Heavenly Pleasure The Palace of Heavenly Pleasure, written by Adam Williams (2003) was published by Hodder and Stoughton. ... C.Y. Lee is a Chinese-American author, perhaps best known for his best selling 1957 novel The Flower Drum Song, which inspired the Richard Rodgers and Oscar Hammerstein, II musical Flower Drum Song. ... Neal Town Stephenson (born October 31, 1959) is an American writer, known primarily for his science fiction works in the postcyberpunk genre with a penchant for explorations of society, mathematics, currency, and the history of science. ... The Diamond Age or, A Young Ladys Illustrated Primer is a postcyberpunk novel by Neal Stephenson. ... Tulku (1979) is a childrens novel by Peter Dickinson. ... Peter Dickinson is a British author who has written a wide variety of books over a long and distinguished career. ... For other uses, see Buffy the Vampire Slayer (disambiguation). ... Spike (a. ... Darla is a fictional character created by Joss Whedon for the television programs, Buffy the Vampire Slayer and Angel. ... Drusilla (born circa 1840 in London, England) is a fictional character created by Joss Whedon for the cult television series, Buffy the Vampire Slayer and Angel. ... Angel (also known as Angelus, originally Liam) (born 1727 in Galway, Ireland) is a fictional character created by Joss Whedon and David Greenwalt for the television programs Buffy the Vampire Slayer and Angel. ... William Corey Dietz (born 1945) is an U.S. science fiction author who has written 28 novels in the genre, some of which have been translated into German, Russian and Japanese. ... Peter ODonnell (born 1920), British cartoon writer and author and creator of Modesty Blaise. ... André de Lorde, (1871-1933 (?)) born in France, the son of a nobleman whose title was more impressive than his fortune, was the chief author of the Grand Guignol plays. ... Promotional poster for a Grand Guignol performance This article is about the Paris theatre. ...

See also

// List of China Inland Mission missionaries killed during the Boxer Rebellion Rev. ... Father Auguste Chapdelaine (Chinese name: Ma Lai) (February 6, 1814 - February 29, 1856) was a French Christian missionary of the Paris Society of Foreign Missions. ... The Beijing Legation Quarter was the area in Beijing where a number of foreign legations were located between 1861 and 1959. ... 1912 song by Harry Lee Wilber who was involved in the hoax The Great Wall of China hoax was a faked story published in U.S. newspapers on June 25, 1899, about bids by American businesses to demolish the Great Wall of China and construct a road in its place. ... Nieh Shih-cheng (d. ... Combat at Guangzhou during the Second Opium War The Opium Wars (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ), or the Anglo-Chinese Wars were two wars fought around the middle of the 19th century (1839-1842 and 1858-1860 respectively)[1] that were the climax of a long dispute between China and... Shiba Gorō ) (21 June 1860-13 December 1945) was a Japanese samurai and later general in the Imperial Japanese Army. ... Combatants Qing Empire United Kingdom France (United Kingdom and France join the war later) Taiping Heavenly Kingdom Commanders Xianfeng Emperor Tongzhi Emperor Empress Dowager Cixi Charles George Gordon Frederick Townsend Ward Hong Xiuquan Yang Xiuqing Xiao Chaogui Feng Yunshan Wei Changhui Shi Dakai Li Xiucheng Strength 2,000,000-5...

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Boxer Rebellion

Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... The Internet Movie Database (IMDb) is an online database of information about movies, actors, television shows, production crew personnel, and video games. ... The Internet Movie Database (IMDb) is an online database of information about movies, actors, television shows, production crew personnel, and video games. ...

References

  • Immanuel C.Y. Hsu, The rise of modern China, Oxford University Press, 1970
  • Brandt, Nat. Massacre in Shansi. Syracuse U. Press, 1994.
  • Broomhall, Marshall (1901). Martyred Missionaries of The China Inland Mission; With a Record of The Perils and Sufferings of Some Who Escaped. London: Morgan and Scott. 
  • Chen, Shiwei. "Change and Mobility: the Political Mobilization of the Shanghai Elites in 1900." Papers on Chinese History 1994 3(spr): 95-115.
  • Paul A. Cohen; History in Three Keys: The Boxers as Event, Experience, and Myth Columbia University Press, 1997 online edition
  • Cohen, Paul A. "The Contested Past: the Boxers as History and Myth." Journal of Asian Studies 1992 51(1): 82-113. Issn: 0021-9118 Fulltext: in Jstor
  • Elliott, Jane. "Who Seeks the Truth Should Be of No Country: British and American Journalists Report the Boxer Rebellion, June 1900." American Journalism 1996 13(3): 255-285. Issn: 0882-1127
  • Joseph W. Esherick, The Origins of the Boxer Uprising University of California Press, 1987 ISBN 0-520-06459-3
  • Harrison, Henrietta. "Justice on Behalf of Heaven." History Today (2000) 50(9): 44-51. Issn: 0018-2753 Fulltext: in Ebsco; popular account
  • George, 2nd Earl Jellicoe, The Boxer Rebellion, The Fifth Wellington Lecture, University of Southampton, University of Southampton, 1993.
  • Diana Preston. The Boxer Rebellion by , Berkley Books, New York, 2000 ISBN 0-425-18084-0 online edition
  • Preston, Diana. "The Boxer Rising." Asian Affairs (2000) 31(1): 26-36. Issn: 0306-8374 Fulltext: in Ebsco
  • Victor Purcell; The Boxer Uprising: A background study, (1963) online edition
  • Sterling Seagrave, Dragon Lady: The Life and Legend of the Last Empress of China Vintage Books, New York, 1992 ISBN 0-679-73369-8 Challenges the notion that the Empress-Dowager used the Boxers. She is portrayed sympathetically.
  • Tiedemann, R. G. "Boxers, Christians and the Culture of Violence in North China." Journal of Peasant Studies 1998 25(4): 150-160. Issn: 0306-6150
  • Marina Warner. The Dragon Empress The Life and Times of Tz'u-hsi, 1835-1908, Empress Dowager of China , Vintage, UK, US 1993, ISBN 0-09-916591-0

Marshall B. Broomhall (July 17, 1866 – October 24, 1937), Christian missionary to China, and author of many books about the China Inland Mission (renamed as Overseas Missionary Fellowship, OMF International [1] in 1964 and based in Singapore). ... George Patrick John Rushworth Jellicoe, 2nd Earl Jellicoe, KBE, DSO, MC, PC, FRS, LLD, FKC, (April 3, 1918–22 February 2007) was a British politician and statesman, diplomatist and businessman. ... Sterling Seagrave is best-selling author of The Soong Dynasty. ...

Primary sources

  • Eva Jane Price. China journal, 1889-1900: an American missionary family during the Boxer Rebellion, (1989). ISBN 0-684-19851-8; see Susanna Ashton, "Compound Walls: Eva Jane Price's Letters from a Chinese Mission, 1890-1900." Frontiers 1996 17(3): 80-94. Issn: 0160-9009 Fulltext: in Jstor

Notes

  1. ^ Broomhall (1901), 7
  2. ^ Broomhall (1901), 10
  3. ^ Chen (1994)
  4. ^ Preston (2000) Page 173-4.
  5. ^ Elliott (1996)
  6. ^ Account of the Seymour column in "La Royale", Jean Randier
  7. ^ Russojapanesewarweb
  8. ^ Eugene, Melvin. Sonnenburg, Penny M. [2003] (2003). Digitized 2006. Colonialism: An International, Social, Cultural, and Political Encyclopedia. ISBN 1576073351
  9. ^ Hsu, 481
  10. ^ Broomhall (1901), several pages
  11. ^ Pan, Philip P. (2006-01-25). Leading Publication Shut Down In China. The Washington Post.
  12. ^ Kahn, Joseph (2006-09-01). Where’s Mao? Chinese Revise History Books. The New York Times.
  13. ^ Zone Europa
  14. ^ 55 Days at Peking at the Internet Movie Database
  15. ^ HKflix

  Results from FactBites:
 
Electronic Passport to the Boxer Rebellion (261 words)
The Boxers believed they had magical powers and that the bullets could not harm them.
The empress dowager publicly opposed the Boxers, but her ministers quietly convinced them to join forces in order to drive foreigners from China.
Throughout the summer of 1900 the Boxers burned churches and foreign residences and killed Chinese Christians on sight.
Boxer Rebellion - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2558 words)
The Boxer rebellion was concentrated in northern China where the European powers had begun to demand territorial, rail and mining concessions.
Boxer activity developed in Shandong province in March 1898, in response to both foreign influence in the region and the failure of the Imperial court's "self-strengthening" strategy of officially-directed development, whose shortcomings had been shown graphically by China's defeat in the Sino-Japanese War (1894-1895).
The United States was able to play a significant role in suppressing the Boxer Rebellion because of the large number of American ships and troops deployed in the Philippines as a result of the U.S. conquest of the islands during the Spanish American War (1898) and the subsequent Philippine-American War.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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