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Encyclopedia > Boxer Protocol

The Treaty of 1901, known as the Xinchou Treaty (辛丑条约) in China, and more commonly known as Boxer Protocol or Peace Agreement between the Great Powers and China, was a peace treaty signed on September 7, 1901 between the Qing Empire of China and the Eight-Nation Alliance: the United Kingdom, the USA, Japan, Russia, France, Germany, Italy, Austro-Hungary, Belgium, Spain and the Netherlands after China's defeat in the Boxer Rebellion by the Eight Power Expeditionary Force. September 7 is the 250th day of the year (251st in leap years). ... 1901 (MCMI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... The Qing Dynasty (Manchu: daicing gurun; Chinese: 清朝; pinyin: qīng cháo; Wade-Giles: ching chao), sometimes known as the Manchu Dynasty, was founded by the Manchu clan Aisin Gioro, in what is today northeast China expanded into China proper and the surrounding territories of Inner Asia, establishing the... Military of the Powers during the Boxer Rebellion, with their naval flags, from left to right: Italy, United States, France, Austria-Hungary, Japan, Germany, United Kingdom, Russia. ... Austria-Hungary, also known as the Dual monarchy (or: the k. ... Boxer forces, 1900 photograph The Boxer Uprising (Traditional Chinese: 義和團起義; Simplified Chinese: 义和团起义; Pinyin: Yìhétuán Qǐyì; The Righteous and Harmonious Fists) or Boxer Rebellion (義和團之亂 or 義和團匪亂) was a Chinese rebellion against foreign influence in areas such as trade, politics, religion and technology that occurred in China during the final...

The full name of the protocol is: "Austria-Hungary, Belgium, France, Germany, Great Britain, Italy, Japan, Netherland, Russia, Spain, United States and China —Final Protocol for the Settlement of the Disturbances of 1900", reflecting its nature as a diplomatic protocol rather than a peace treaty at the time of signature.

China later regarded this as one of a series of "Unequal Treaties" which it signed since the First Opium War. The Unequal Treaties (lit. ... The First Opium War or the First Anglo-Chinese War was fought between Great Britain and the Qing Empire in China from 1839 to 1842 with the aim of forcing China to import British opium. ...


Chinese signatories

It was signed by Chinese representatives, Yikuang, the Prince Qing and Li Hongzhang. Yikuang, the Prince Qing, in Imperial Robes Yikuang, the Prince Qing (Simplified Chinese:庆亲王奕劻, Wade-Giles:Prince Ching, February 1836 - January 1918) was a Manchu noble of the late Qing Dynasty. ... Li Hongzhang (February 15, 1823 – November 7, 1901) was a Chinese general who ended several major rebellions, and a leading statesman of the late Qing Empire. ...

Foreign signatories

Sir Ernest Mason Satow, G.C.M.G., P.C. (1843-1929), a British scholar-diplomat born to an ethnically German father (Hans David Christoph Satow, born in Swedish-occupied Wismar, naturalised British in 1846) and an English mother (Margaret, nee Mason) in Clapton, North London, and educated at Mill... Komura Jutaro Komura, Jutaro (小村 壽太郎, 1855 - 1911) was a Japanese statesman. ...

See also

Anglo-Chinese relations (Traditional Chinese: 中英關係; Simplified Chinese: 中英关系; Hanyu Pinyin: ), also known as Sino-British relations, refers to the interstate relations between China and the United Kingdom. ... The China Relief Expedition was the United States military term for the rescue of diplomatic personnel, and other U.S. citizens, in the wake of the Boxer Rebellion. ...

External links

  • Text of Boxer Protocol, Peking 7. September 1901

  Results from FactBites:
Boxer Rebellion - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2720 words)
Boxer activity developed in Shandong province in March 1898, in response to both foreign influence in the region and the failure of the Imperial court's "self-strengthening" strategy of officially-directed development, whose shortcomings had been shown graphically by China's defeat in the Sino-Japanese War (1894-1895).
The United States was able to play a significant role in suppressing the Boxer Rebellion because of the large number of American ships and troops deployed in the Philippines as a result of the U.S. conquest of the islands during the Spanish American War (1898) and the subsequent Philippine-American War.
Though the reaction of the Boxers against foreign imperialism in China is regarded by some as patriotic, the violence that they caused in committing acts of murder, robbery, vandalism and arson cannot be considered much different from the events of other rebellions in China, if not worse.
Encyclopedia4U - Boxer Rebellion - Encyclopedia Article (745 words)
The Boxer Rebellion (義和團起義) was an uprising against Western commercial and political influence in China during the final years of the 19th century.
Boxer activity began in northern Shandong in March 1898, with the slogan "Overthrow the Qing, destroy the foreigner".
On September 7, 1901, the Qing court was compelled to sign the "Boxer Protocol", undertaking to execute ten officials linked to the outbreak and to pay war reparations of $333 million.
  More results at FactBites »



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