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Encyclopedia > Box barrage

A box barrage is a type of artillery barrage. It can be offensive or defensive, and it can move or remain stationary. The main characteristic of a box barrage is that the shells fall into a pattern roughly resembling a quadrangle surrounding an "open" area. This open area, and anything within it, is literally "boxed in" by shell fire, hence the name. Artillery with Gabion fortification Cannons on display at Fort Point Continental Artillery crew from the American Revolution Firing of an 18-pound gun, Louis-Philippe Crepin, (1772 – 1851) A forge-welded Iron Cannon in Thanjavur, Tamil Nadu. ... quadrangle is a good name for a mathlete team. ...

Contents

Offensive

An offensive box barrage is one in which an enemy position is surrounded by shell fire, thus isolating and pinning down the unit(s) within. In this way, the barrage can be used to restrict the movement of enemy unit(s), prevent them from engaging attackers, limit their visibility (through the use of smoke shells), or cut them off from reinforcements, supplies, or communications. A shell is a projectile, which, as opposed to a bullet, contains an explosive or other filling, though modern usage includes large solid projectiles previously termed shot (AP, APCR, APCNR, APDS, APFSDS and Proof shot). ...


Defensive

A defensive box barrage is one which surrounds friendly units in order to protect them from attack while they approach, secure or defend an objective. Often, the artillery will attempt to move the barrage in sync with the friendly unit(s) as it approaches its objective, thus keeping it protected.


Communications and Accuracy

As in a creeping barrage, a box barrage requires good communications between infantry and artillery units if it is to succeed, particularly if the barrage is defensive in nature. The artillery command must constantly be aware of where the friendly forces are located so as to avoid friendly-fire casualties. For the same reason, the accuracy of the shells and guns are of paramount importance. Rolling barrage is a military tactic in which massed artillery support an infantry advance by firing continuously at positions just in front of the advancing troops. ...


Historical Origins

Opinions are divided on the first ever battlefield implementation of the the box barrage. Traditional beliefs maintain that it was first used in World War I, during the High Wood Offensive at the Battle of the Somme, and also at the Third Battle of Ypres (Passchendale). Another school of opinion pertains to origins at the Battle of Gettysburg when utilised by the Confederate army as part of a flanking maneuver. Combatants Allied Powers: Russian Empire France British Empire Italy United States Central Powers: Austria-Hungary German Empire Ottoman Empire Bulgaria Commanders Nikolay II Aleksey Brusilov Georges Clemenceau Joseph Joffre Ferdinand Foch Robert Nivelle Herbert H. Asquith D. Lloyd George Sir Douglas Haig Sir John Jellicoe Victor Emmanuel III Luigi Cadorna... High Wood is a small forest near Bazentin le Petit in the Somme département of northern France which was the scene of intense fighting for two months from 14 July to 15 September 1916 during the Battle of the Somme. ... Combatants British Empire United Kingdom Australia Canada New Zealand Newfoundland South Africa France German Empire Commanders Douglas Haig Joseph Joffre Max von Gallwitz Fritz von Below Strength 13 British and 11 French divisions (initial) 51 British and 48 French divisions (final) 10½ divisions (initial) 50 divisions (final) Casualties 419,654... Passchendaele village, before and after the Battle of Passchendaele The Battle of Passchendaele, otherwise known as the Third Battle of Ypres, was one of the major battles of World War I, fought by British, ANZAC, and Canadian soldiers against the German army near Ypres (Ieper in Flemish) in West Flanders... Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America Commanders George Gordon Meade Robert Edward Lee Strength 93,921 71,699 Casualties 23,055 (3,155 killed, 14,531 wounded, 5,369 captured/missing) 23,231 (4,708 killed, 12,693 wounded, 5,830 captured/missing) The Battle of...


 
 

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