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Encyclopedia > Bowman's capsule
Bowman's capsule
Glomerulus. (Bowman's capsule not labeled, but visible at top.)
Glomerulus is red; Bowman's capsule is green.
Latin capsula glomeruli
Gray's subject #253 1222
Precursor Metanephric blastema
MeSH Bowman+Capsule
Dorlands/Elsevier c_07/12211408

The Bowman's capsule(other names: capsula glomeruli, glomerular capsule) is a cup like sac at the beginning of the tubular component of a nephron in the mammalian kidney. A glomerulus is enclosed in the sac. Fluids from blood in the glomerulus are collected in the Bowman's capsule (i.e., glomerular filtrate) and further processed along the nephron to form urine. Image File history File links Gray1130. ... Image File history File links Corpuscule-malpighi. ... Glomerulus refers to two unrelated structures in the body, both named for their globular form. ... Latin is an ancient Indo-European language originally spoken in Latium, the region immediately surrounding Rome. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... The Metanephric blastema (or metanephric mesenchyme) is one of the two embryological structures that give rise to the kidney (the other is the ureteric bud. ... Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) is a huge controlled vocabulary (or metadata system) for the purpose of indexing journal articles and books in the life sciences. ... Elseviers logo. ... A nephron is the basic structural and functional unit of the kidney. ... The kidneys are organs that filter wastes (such as urea) from the blood and excrete them, along with water, as urine. ... The glomerulus is a capillary bed found surrounded by the Bowmans capsule of the nephron in the vertebrate kidney. ... The glomerulus is a capillary bed found surrounded by the Bowmans capsule of the nephron in the vertebrate kidney. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ...

Contents

Anatomy

Outside the capsule, there are two "poles":

Inside the capsule, the layers are as follows, from outside to inside: The vascular pole is a location of the glomerulus. ... The afferent arterioles are a group of blood vessels that supply the nephrons in many excretory systems. ... The Efferent arterioles are a group of blood vessels that are part of the urinary system of many animals. ... The distal convoluted tubule (DCT) is a portion of kidney nephron between the loop of Henle and the collecting duct system. ... The urinary pole is a location on the renal corpuscle opposite to the vascular pole. ... In the biology of the kidney, the proximal convoluted tubule is the segment of the renal tubule that drains Bowmans capsule. ...

parietal layer A single layer of simple squamous epithelium. Does not function in filtration.
Bowman's space (or "urinary space", or "capsular space") Between the visceral and parietal layers, into which the filtrate enters after passing through the podocytes' filtration slits.[1]
visceral layer Lies just beneath the thickened glomerular basement membrane and is made of podocytes. Beneath the visceral layer lie the glomerular capillaries. See glomerulus#layers for more details.

In simple squamous epithelia all the cells are in contact with the basal lamina (basement membrane) of the epithelium. ... Foot processes of podocytes interdigitate with one another forming filtration slits (or slit pores) that, in contrast to those in the glomerular endothelium, are spanned by diaphragms. ... The glomerular basement membrane is the basal laminal portion of the glomerulus which performs the actual filtration though the filtration slits between the podocytes , separating the blood on the inside from the urine on the outside. ... Podocytes are cells of the visceral epithelium in the kidneys and form a crucial component of the glomerular filtration barrier by covering the exterior basement surface of the glomerular capillary and maintaining a massive filtration surface. ... A glomerulus is a capillary tuft surrounded by Bowmans capsule in nephrons of the vertebrate kidney. ... Glomerulus refers to two unrelated structures in the body, both named for their globular form. ...

Physiology

The process of filtration of the blood in the Bowman's capsule is ultrafiltration (or glomerular filtration), and the normal rate of filtration is 125 ml/min, equivalent to ten times the blood volume daily. In biological terms, Ultrafiltration occurs at the barrier between the blood and the filtrate in the renal corpuscle or Bowmans capsule in the kidneys. ...


Any proteins under roughly 30 kilodaltons can pass freely through the membrane, although there is some extra hindrance for negatively charged molecules due to the negative charge of the basement membrane and the podocytes. The unified atomic mass unit (u), or dalton (Da), is a small unit of mass used to express atomic masses and molecular masses. ...


Any small molecules such as water, glucose, salt (NaCl), amino acids, and urea pass freely into Bowman's space, but cells, platelets and large proteins do not. Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ... Glucose (Glc), a monosaccharide (or simple sugar), is the most important carbohydrate in biology. ... For other uses, see Salt (disambiguation). ... Phenylalanine is one of the standard amino acids. ... Urea is an organic compound of carbon, nitrogen, oxygen and hydrogen, with the formula CON2H4 or (NH2)2CO. Urea is also known as carbamide, especially in the recommended International Nonproprietary Names (rINN) in use in Europe. ... Drawing of the structure of cork as it appeared under the microscope to Robert Hook from Micrographia which is the origin of the word cell. POOP Cells in culture, stained for keratin (red) and DNA (green). ... A 250 ml bag of newly collected platelets. ... A representation of the 3D structure of myoglobin, showing coloured alpha helices. ...


As a result, the filtrate leaving the Bowman's capsule is very similar to blood plasma in composition as it passes into the proximal convoluted tubule. Blood plasma is the liquid component of blood, in which the blood cells are suspended. ... In the biology of the kidney, the proximal convoluted tubule is the segment of the renal tubule that drains Bowmans capsule. ...


Clinical significance

Measuring the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is a diagnostic test of kidney function. Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is the volume of fluid filtered from the renal glomerular capillaries into Bowmans capsule per unit time. ... Renal physiology is the study of the physiology of the kidneys. ...


A decreased GFR may be a sign of renal failure. Renal failure is the condition in which the kidneys fail to function properly. ...


Eponym

Bowman's capsule is named after Sir William Bowman (1816-1892), a British surgeon and anatomist. An eponym is the name of a person, whether real or fictitious, who has (or is thought to have) given rise to the name of a particular place, tribe, discovery, or other item. ... Sir William Bowman Sir William Bowman (July 20, 1816 - March 29, 1892) was a British surgeon and anatomist. ... A cardiothoracic surgeon performs a mitral valve replacement at the Fitzsimons Army Medical Center. ... Greek anatome, from ana-temnein, to cut up), is the branch of biology that deals with the structure and organization of living things; thus there is animal anatomy (zootomy) and plant anatomy (phytonomy). ...


Together with the glomerulus it is known as a renal corpuscle, or a Malpighian corpuscle, named after Marcello Malpighi (1628-1694), an Italian physician and biologist. This name is not used widely anymore, probably to avoid confusion with a Malpighian corpuscle in the spleen. A renal corpuscle is the initial filtering component of a nephron in the kidney. ... There are at least two anatomical structures called a Malpighian corpuscle. ... An eponym is the name of a person, whether real or fictitious, who has (or is thought to have) given rise to the name of a particular place, tribe, discovery, or other item. ... Marcello Malpighi (March 10, 1628 - September 30, 1694) was an Italian doctor, who gave his name to several physiological features. ... The Doctor by Luke Fildes This article is about the term physician, one type of doctor; for other uses of the word doctor see Doctor. ... A biologist is a scientist devoted to and producing results in biology through the study of organisms. ... There are at least two anatomical structures called a Malpighian corpuscle. ... The spleen is an organ located the abdomen, where it functions in the destruction of old white blood cells and holding a reservoir of blood. ...


See also

Mesangial cells are specialized cells around blood vessels in the kidneys. ...

Additional images

References

  1. ^ Histology at BU 22401lba

For similarly-named academic institutions, see Boston (disambiguation). ...

External links


 
 

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