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Encyclopedia > Bow (weapon)
This image depicts a modern approximation of a historical Composite, lying against a tree.

A bow is an ancient weapon that projects arrows powered by the elasticity of the bow. Energy is stored in the limbs of the bow and transformed into rapid motion when the string is released, with the string transferring this force to the arrow. The bow is used for hunting, sport (target shooting), and in historical times was a weapon of war. Quarterstaffs in use, from Old English Sports, Pastimes and Customs, published 1891 A quarterstaff is a medieval English variant of the staff weapon, consisting of a shaft of hardwood, sometimes with metal-reinforced tips. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... hun bow length 125cm strung, 132 cm unstrung. ... hun bow length 125cm strung, 132 cm unstrung. ... A composite bow is a bow made from disparate materials laminated together, usually applied under tension. ... For other uses, see Weapon (disambiguation). ... An arrow is a pointed projectile that is shot with a bow. ... Elasticity is a branch of physics which studies the properties of elastic materials. ... This article is about the hunting of prey by human society. ... For other uses, see War (disambiguation). ...


The technique of using a bow is called archery. Someone who makes bows is known as a bowyer, and a fletcher makes arrows. Together with the atlatl and the sling, the bow was one of the first ranged weapons or hunting tools which used mechanical principles, instead of relying solely on strength and skill of its user. Archery is the practice of using a bow to shoot arrows. ... A bowyer is a person who makes bows for archery. ... Fletching is the ancient art of creating arrows from materials such as wood and feathers. ... An atlatl (from Nahuatl ahtlatl ; in English pronounced [1] or [2]) or spear-thrower is a tool that uses leverage to achieve greater velocity in spear-throwing, and includes a bearing surface which allows the user to temporarily store energy during the throw. ... Home-made sling. ... A period illustration of the Battle of Crécy. ... For other uses, see Mechanic (disambiguation). ...


Many bow designs have been used in different cultures and time periods. Common designs are: solid wood (the English longbow), known as a 'self bow', laminated wood (Japanese and Sami bows), and horn-wood-sinew composite (Middle East, India, Mongols). In modern times, the recurve and compound bows dominate for sport and hunting practices. Newer materials include flexible plastics, fiberglass, and carbon fibers, leading to increases in range and projectile velocity. For other uses, see Wood (disambiguation). ... Self-yew English longbow, 6 ft 6 in (2 m) long, 470 N (105 lbf) draw force. ... Laminate flooring Laminated core transformer A laminate is a material constructed by uniting two or more layers of material together. ... The Sami people (also Sámi, Saami, Lapps, sometimes also Laplanders) are the indigenous people of Sápmi, which today encompasses parts of northern Sweden, Norway, Finland and the Kola Peninsula of Russia. ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... Honorary guard of Mongolia. ... Modern recurve bow // A recurve bow is a form of bow defined by the side-view profile; in contrast to the simple longbow, a recurve bow has tips that curve away from the archer when the bow is aimed. ... A Browning Compound Bow A compound bow is a modern bow that uses a levering system of cables and usually cams and pulleys to draw the limbs back. ... Bundle of fiberglass Fiberglass (also called fibreglass and glass fibre) is material made from extremely fine fibers of glass. ... Carbon fiber composite is a strong, light and very expensive material. ...


Modern-day use of bows for hunting is a matter of controversy in some areas, but common and accepted in others. Modern hunters are often drawn to bow-hunting because it generally requires more practice and skill than taking game with a firearm. While modern rifles allow hunters to shoot large game (such as deer or elk) at distances of 100 yards (metres) or more, archers usually take large game within 40 yards (metres) which requires the archer to stalk the game more closely without frightening it away. Bow hunting is also still practiced in traditional cultures worldwide. Bowhunting is the practice of taking game animals by archery. ... Firearms redirects here. ... A yard (abbreviation: yd) is the name of a unit of length in a number of different systems, including English units, Imperial units, and United States customary units. ... This article is about the unit of length. ... Defined narrowly, a game stalker is a hunter who for sport, approaches close to his timid quarry before making a kill. ...

Contents

History

Rama breaking Shiva's bow at Sita's Swayamvara in Mithila, by Raja Ravi Varma (1848–1906)
Rama breaking Shiva's bow at Sita's Swayamvara in Mithila, by Raja Ravi Varma (1848–1906)

The bow seems to have been invented in the late Paleolithic or early Mesolithic. The oldest indication for its use in Europe comes from the Stellmoor in the Ahrensburg valley north of Hamburg, Germany and date from the late Paleolithic Hamburgian culture (9000–8000 BC). The arrows were made of a pine and consisted of a mainshaft and a 15–20 centimetre (6–8 inches) long foreshaft with a flint point. There are no known definite earlier bows; previous pointed shafts are known, but may have been launched by atlatls rather than bows. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (489x650, 87 KB) Skildring Licensing File links The following pages link to this file: Ramayana ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (489x650, 87 KB) Skildring Licensing File links The following pages link to this file: Ramayana ... Shiva Dhanush was the bow of lord Shiva. ... Swayamvara, in ancient India, was a practice of choosing a life partner, among a list of suitors by a girl of marriageable age. ... Mithila (Sanskrit: मिथिला, mithilā) was a kingdom in ancient India. ... Raja Ravi Varma (1848-1906) was an Indian painter who achieved recognition for his depiction of scenes from the epics of the Mahabharata and Ramayana. ... // The Paleolithic is a prehistoric era distinguished by the development of stone tools. ... The Mesolithic (Greek mesos=middle and lithos=stone or the Middle Stone Age[1]) was a period in the development of human technology between the Paleolithic and Neolithic periods of the Stone Age. ... This article is about the city in Germany. ... // The Paleolithic is a prehistoric era distinguished by the development of stone tools. ... The Hamburg culture (12400 BP-12100 BP, C14-years) was a late Upper Paleolithic culture of reindeer hunters during the last part of the Weichsel Glaciation. ... Europe and surrounding areas in the 9th millennium BC. Blue areas are covered in ice. ... For other uses, see Pine (disambiguation). ... A centimetre (American spelling centimeter, symbol cm) is a unit of length that is equal to one hundredth of a metre, the current SI base unit of length. ... An inch (plural: inches; symbol or abbreviation: in or, sometimes, ″ - a double prime) is the name of a unit of length in a number of different systems, including English units, Imperial units, and United States customary units. ... This article is about the sedimentary rock. ... An atlatl (from Nahuatl ahtlatl ; in English pronounced [1] or [2]) or spear-thrower is a tool that uses leverage to achieve greater velocity in spear-throwing, and includes a bearing surface which allows the user to temporarily store energy during the throw. ...


The usage of bows in warfare is described in the Indian epics Ramayana and Mahabharata. For the television series by Ramanand Sagar, see Ramayan (TV series). ... For the film by Peter Brook, see The Mahabharata (1989 film). ...


The oldest bows known so far come from the Holmegård Fen, or swamp in Denmark. In the 1940s, two bows were found there. They are made of elm and have flat arms and a D-shaped midsection. The center section is biconvex. The complete bow is 1.50 m (5 ft) long. Bows of Holmegaard-type were in use until the Bronze Age; the convexity of the midsection has decreased with time. Holmegaard is a municipality in south Denmark, in the county of Storstrøm. ... The 1940s decade ran from 1940 to 1949. ... Species See Elm species, varieties, cultivars and hybrids Elms are deciduous and semi-deciduous trees making up the genus Ulmus, family Ulmaceae, found throughout the Northern Hemisphere from Siberia to Indonesia, Mexico to Japan. ... A foot (plural: feet or foot;[1] symbol or abbreviation: ft or, sometimes, ′ – a prime) is a unit of length, in a number of different systems, including English units, Imperial units, and United States customary units. ... The Bronze Age is a period in a civilizations development when the most advanced metalworking has developed the techniques of smelting copper from natural outcroppings and alloys it to cast bronze. ...


Mesolithic pointed shafts have been found in England, Germany, Denmark and Sweden. They were often rather long (up to 120 cm [4 ft]) and made of hazel (Corylus avellana), wayfaring tree (Viburnum lantana) and other woody shoots. Some still have flint arrow-heads preserved; others have blunt wooden ends for hunting birds and small game. The ends show traces of fletching, which was fastened on with birch-tar. This article is about the tree; for other meanings of hazel, see Hazel (disambiguation). ... This article is about the tree; for other meanings of hazel, see Hazel (disambiguation). ... Species About 150 species; see text Viburnum (Viburnum) is a genus of about 175 species of shrubs or (in a few species) small trees that were previously included in the honeysuckle family Caprifoliaceae. ...


The "Levantine" style of rock art, once dated to the Paleolithic but now thought to be early Neolithic,[1] includes pictures of archers, such as the Cova dels Cavalls [1] in La Valltorta, declared a World Heritage site in 1924.[2] One petroglyph of the Levantine style has been dated to approximately 5000 BC.[3]


Self bows and arrows have been present in Egyptian culture since its predynastic origins. The nine bows symbolise the various peoples that had been ruled over by the pharaoh since Egypt was united. Egyptian composite bows are known from the ancient tombs, some dating from the early New Kingdom, indicating possible introduction by the Hyksos Sea People. Some bows from Tutankhamun's tomb were composite bows, others were self bows.[4] Self bow A self bow is a bow made from a single piece of wood. ... A composite bow is a bow made from disparate materials laminated together, usually applied under tension. ... Sea Peoples is the term used in ancient Egyptian records of a race of ship-faring raiders who drifted into the eastern shores of the Mediterranean and attempted to enter Egyptian territory during the late 19th dynasty, and especially year 5 of Rameses III of the 20th Dynasty. ... Nebkheperure Lord of the forms of Re Nomen Tutankhaten Living Image of the Aten Tutankhamun Hekaiunushema Living Image of Amun, ruler of Upper Heliopolis Horus name Kanakht Tutmesut The strong bull, pleasing of birth Nebty name Neferhepusegerehtawy One of perfect laws, who pacifies the two lands[1] Wer-Ah-Amun... A composite bow is a bow made from disparate materials laminated together, usually applied under tension. ... Self bow A self bow is a bow made from a single piece of wood. ...


Most Neolithic European bows are made of yew. Ötzi the Iceman found in the Ötztaler Alps carried an unfinished yew longbow, with a bowstring of nettle or flax fibre. An array of Neolithic artifacts, including bracelets, axe heads, chisels, and polishing tools. ... Binomial name L. Taxus baccata is a conifer native to western, central and southern Europe, northwest Africa, northern Iran and southwest Asia. ... “Ötzi” redirects here. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Lemonwood, purpleheart and hickory longbow, 45 lbf draw force. ... “Nettles” redirects here. ... For other uses, see Flax (disambiguation). ...


In the Levant, artifacts which may be arrow-shaft straighteners are known from the Natufian culture, ca. 12.800-10.300 BP) onwards. The Khiamian and PPN A shouldered Khiam-points may well be arrowheads. The Levant The Levant (IPA: ) is an imprecise geographical term historically referring to a large area in the Middle East south of the Taurus Mountains, bounded by the Mediterranean Sea on the west, and by the northern Arabian Desert and Upper Mesopotamia to the east. ... The Natufian culture existed in the Mediterranean region of the Levant. ... The Pre-Pottery Neolithic A (short PPNA) represents the early neolithic in the Levantine and upper Mesopotamian region of the Fertile Crescent. ...


Native Americans used longbows (especially on the east coast) and flatbows (especially on the west coast), often recurved, made from various hardwood species, such as hickory. Likewise, the Fenno-Ugrian nations in Eurasia have traditionally used ash, maple or elm flatbows. The bow was a late invention in the Americas. Native Americans redirects here. ... Lemonwood, purpleheart and hickory longbow, 45 lbf draw force. ... An American Flat bow, similar to the longbow but based on native American bows A flatbow is a bow with non-recurved, flat, relatively wide limbs that are rectangular in cross-section. ... Modern recurve bow // A recurve bow is a form of bow defined by the side-view profile; in contrast to the simple longbow, a recurve bow has tips that curve away from the archer when the bow is aimed. ... Species See text Comparison of Carya nuts Ripe hickory nuts ready to fall, Andrews, SC Hickory is a tree of the genus Carya, including 17-19 species of deciduous trees with pinnately compound leaves and large nuts. ... Species See text European Ash in flower Narrow-leafed Ash (Fraxinus angustifolia) shoot with leaves Closeup of European Ash seeds 19th century illustration of Manna Ash (Fraxinus ornus) An ash can be any of four different tree genera from four very distinct families (see end of page for disambiguation), but... For other uses, see Maple (disambiguation). ...

Archers, also armed with spears, detail from the archers' frieze in Darius' palace, Susa.
Archers, also armed with spears, detail from the archers' frieze in Darius' palace, Susa.

The bow became the main weapon of war used in the Middle East by the Assyrians and Egyptians, whose warriors shot it on the ground and from chariots to great effect. War chariots fell entirely out of fashion by approximately the beginning of the Common Era, but development of horse archers by the people of the Eurasian Steppe, brought highly mobile archers back to the fore. Using composite bows, steppe peoples such as the Scythians, Huns, Turks and Mongols became a dominant force. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (924x1322, 1084 KB) Summary Description: Lancers, detail from the archers frieze in Darius palace, Susa. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (924x1322, 1084 KB) Summary Description: Lancers, detail from the archers frieze in Darius palace, Susa. ... Darius the Great (c. ... Winged sphinx from the palace of Darius the Great at Susa. ... Languages Aramaic Religions Christianity Related ethnic groups other Semitic peoples The Assyrians (also called Syriacs or Aramaeans[11]) are an ethnic group whose origins lie in what is today Iraq, Iran, Turkey and Syria, but many of whom have migrated to the Caucasus, North America and Western Europe during the... For other uses, see Chariot (disambiguation). ... A horse archer (or horsed archer, mounted archer) is a cavalryman armed with a bow. ... The Eurasian Steppe (sometimes referred to collectively as The Steppes or The Steppe) is the term often used to describe the vast steppe ecoregion of Eurasia stretching from the western borders of the steppes of Hungary to the eastern border of the steppes of Mongolia. ... A steppe in Western Kazakhstan in early spring In physical geography, a steppe (Russian: - , Ukrainian: - , Kazakh: - ), pronounced in English as , is a plain without trees (apart from those near rivers and lakes); it is similar to a prairie, although a prairie is generally considered as being dominated by tall grasses... Scythia was an area in Eurasia inhabited in ancient times by an Indo-Aryans known as the Scythians. ... For other uses, see Mongols (disambiguation). ...


In the Middle Ages, European powers made effective use of the longbow as a major weapon of war. It was an extremely effective weapon in battle and could penetrate armor from a considerable distance. The longbow however is a difficult weapon to master and requires years of training for effective use in war. A longbow which can pierce later medieval armour also requires a very strong man to draw it. In Medieval England and Wales, the longbow became a popular weapon and archery a popular pastime. When the quality of English archery began to decline in the 16th century, English monarchs went so far as to mandate by law longbow training for males of military age, and placed restrictions on other physical sports such as football and ninepins so that people would practice archery. The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... Armor or armour (see spelling differences) is protective clothing intended to defend its wearer from intentional harm in combat and military engagements, typically associated with soldiers. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... This article is about the country. ... For other uses, see Monarch (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Law (disambiguation). ... This article is about the Male sex. ... Look up Football in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Skittles is a centuries old European target sport, from which Ten-pin bowling in the United States, and Five-pin bowling in Canada are descended. ...


The development of gunpowder, muskets and the growing size of armies slowly led to the replacement of bows as weapons of war, causing them to be relegated to sport and hobby. See archery for the modern sport of shooting bows. Smokeless powder Gunpowder is a pyrotechnic composition, an explosive mixture of sulfur, charcoal and potassium nitrate that burns rapidly, producing volumes of hot gas which can be used as a propellant in firearms and fireworks. ... Muskets and bayonets aboard the frigate Grand Turk. ... Archery is the practice of using a bow to shoot arrows. ...


Types of bows

Compound bow

Main article: Compound bow

A compound bow is a modern bow that has pulleys or cams at the end of each limb through which the bow string passes. As the bow is drawn, the pulleys or cams turn, which in turn changes the leverage of the bows' limbs. They are normally made to give a high resistance in the middle of the draw, and significant "let-off" at the end; this enables the bow to store a lot of energy while still being easy to hold and aim at full draw. They are little affected by changes in temperature or humidity and will give high speed at a lower draw weight compared to the simple bow. Unlike traditional bows, compound bows are always made of modern materials such as aluminium and carbon fiber. They were first developed and patented by Holless Wilbur Allen in the USA in the 1960s and have become increasingly popular. A Browning Compound Bow A compound bow is a modern bow that uses a levering system of cables and usually cams and pulleys to draw the limbs back. ... A Browning Compound Bow A compound bow is a modern bow that uses a levering system of cables and usually cams and pulleys to draw the limbs back. ... For the band, see Pulley (band). ... monkey ... Holless Wilbur Allen was the inventor of the compound bow. ... The 1960s decade refers to the years from 1960 to 1969, inclusive. ...


With a traditional bow, the force required to draw the bow increases as the bow is drawn. This limits the total amount of energy and means that when the archer is at full draw and aiming, they have to hold the maximum draw weight of the bow.


Crossbow

Main article: Crossbow

The crossbow is a small bow attached to a wooden support and drawn towards a nut or pin. When a trigger is pressed, the pin or nut releases the bow string, shooting the bolt. The crossbow required little effort to shoot, but early on took great strength to load, though this was solved by adding a windlass or crank. Another means of loading the crossbow was to use a small hook attached to the belt of the archer. The archer would then hold the crossbow still by slipping his foot into a foothold at the tip of the bow. He then pulled the bowstring back by placing the hook in the crossbow's string and standing up. This permitted the shooter to use his legs, instead of his arms, to pull back the string. This method was not long-lived in European land warfare, however, because the crossbow was soon after replaced by the musket. This article is about the weapon. ...


The oldest remains of crossbows are found in East Asia and date back to 2000 BCE. Some crossbows are known as a bowgun. They launch stones or lead. This Chinese invention dates back to at least 300 BCE. (Redirected from 2000s BC) (22nd century BC - 21st century BC - 20th century BC - other centuries) (4th millennium BC - 3rd millennium BC - 2nd millennium BC) Events 2130 - 2080 BC -- Ninth Dynasty wars in Egypt 2112 - 2095 BC -- Sumerian campaigns of Ur-Nammu 2064 - 1986 BC -- Twin Dynasty wars in Egypt 2049... Centuries: 4th century BC - 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC Decades: 350s BC 340s BC 330s BC 320s BC 310s BC - 300s BC - 290s BC 280s BC 270s BC 260s BC 250s BC Years: 305 BC 304 BC 303 BC 302 BC 301 BC - 300 BC - 299 BC 298 BC...


Arbalest

Main article: Arbalest

An arbalest is a large, powerful crossbow with a bow (prod) of steel, rather than of wood or horn/sinew composite. The Hussites were famous for their arbalest archers. An arbalest. ... An arbalest. ... Crusades First – Peoples – German – 1101 – Second – Third – Fourth – Albigensian – Childrens – Fifth – Sixth – Seventh – Shepherds – Eighth – Ninth – Aragonese – Alexandrian – Nicopolis – Northern – Hussite – Varna – Otranto Hussite Wars Nekmer - Sudomĕř – Vítkov – Vyšehrad – Nebovidy - Německý Brod – Hořice – Ústí nad Labem – Tachov – Lipany – Grotniki The Hussite Wars, also called...


Ballista

Main article: Ballista

A ballista is a torsion spring crossbow. Depending on size, it was used as a siege weapon (the ballista is an ancient siege weapon). It has a high degree of efficiency because of the low inertia of the torsion springs, but efficiency decreases if operated under humid conditions and needs permanent anointment. It was usually operated by one (the "Scorpion" ballista) to three men. It shoots large arrows or stones. Nowadays, ballista-bows have been constructed. The ballista (Latin, from Greek ballistēs, from ballein to throw, plural ballistae) was a powerful ancient crossbow, although employing several loops of twisted skeins to power it, it used torsion (instead of a prod). ... The ballista (Latin, from Greek ballistēs, from ballein to throw, plural ballistae) was a powerful ancient crossbow, although employing several loops of twisted skeins to power it, it used torsion (instead of a prod). ... Helical or coil springs designed for tension A spring is a flexible elastic object used to store mechanical energy. ... A siege engine is a device that is designed to break or circumvent city walls and other fortifications in siege warfare. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... “Rock” redirects here. ...


Composite bow

Main article: composite bow
A bow from Nature
A bow from Nature
Main methods of drawing bows
Main methods of drawing bows

A composite bow is laminated from different materials to produce a bow. The Asiatic traditional composite bows use horn on the belly and sinew on the back, often with a wooden core to provide a gluing surface. The bows are backed with sinew because it is very elastic. Sinew will also shrink and pull a bow into reflex. The horn on the belly is very strong in compression, and can handle a high draw weight without taking a set. These Asiatic bows were often highly recurved and reflexed, giving a short bow the ability to store lots of energy and shoot nearly as fast as a much longer bow. Modern, non traditional "composite" bows use laminated wood, plastic, and fiberglass. A composite bow is a bow made from disparate materials laminated together, usually applied under tension. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 400 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (600 × 900 pixel, file size: 151 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 400 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (600 × 900 pixel, file size: 151 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Bow_Draw. ... Image File history File links Bow_Draw. ... A composite bow is a bow made from disparate materials laminated together, usually applied under tension. ... A laminate is a material constructed by uniting two or more layers of material together. ... Highland cow, a very old long-horned breed from Scotland. ... This article describes the wood that comprises trees and boards. ... A reflex bow is a bow (often made entirely of wood) that has curved or curled arms. ... Bold text Wiktionary has related dictionary definitions, such as: compressor, compression inthe wkjhrlfidhb;g/df == Compressor may refer to: Gas compressor, a mechanical device that compresses a gas e. ... // Laminated bow is a description applied to a method of construction of bows in which different materials are laminated together to form the bow stave itself. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...


Longbow

Main article: Longbow

Longbows were ideally made from yew, Italian yew being the best, but white woods elm, ash, hazel and Brazil (sp) were commonly used due to availability. Longbows were often built to be as tall as the archer and a well-made bow could shoot well in excess of 300 yards (275 meters) using flight arrows. A longbow archer could shoot up to 12 arrows per minute as a crossbowman or 'Arbelestier' of the Hundred Years War between England and France could only shoot up to three. Most of the so-called French crossbowmen were mercenaries from Genoa in Italy. Lemonwood, purpleheart and hickory longbow, 45 lbf draw force. ... Species Taxus baccata - European Yew Taxus brevifolia - Pacific Yew Taxus canadensis - Canadian Yew Taxus chinensis - Chinese Yew Taxus cuspidata - Japanese Yew Taxus floridana - Florida Yew Taxus globosa - Mexican Yew Taxus sumatrana - Sumatran Yew Taxus wallichiana - Himalayan Yew Yews are small coniferous trees or shrubs in the genus Taxus in the... Species See Elm species, varieties, cultivars and hybrids Elms are deciduous and semi-deciduous trees making up the genus Ulmus, family Ulmaceae, found throughout the Northern Hemisphere from Siberia to Indonesia, Mexico to Japan. ... Species See text European Ash in flower Narrow-leafed Ash (Fraxinus angustifolia) shoot with leaves Closeup of European Ash seeds 19th century illustration of Manna Ash (Fraxinus ornus) An ash can be any of four different tree genera from four very distinct families (see end of page for disambiguation), but...


The most famous example is the English longbow, carried by English (and Welsh) soldiers to great effect in the Hundred Years' War. At this time it was called the "war bow". At close range the longbow was capable of penetrating all but the very best plate armor of the time. At a distance, groups of archers would loose mass volleys on a high, arching trajectory at enemy formations. The arrows used were very heavy, 1 ounce (28 grams) or more, with narrow heavy bodkin pointed heads and thick arrows often made of ash. This style of bow was used up until the time of the English Civil War but was almost completely replaced by the musket, mostly because of the years of training involved with archery. Self-yew English longbow, 6 ft 6 in (2 m) long, 470 N (105 lbf) draw force. ... Combatants France Castile Scotland Genoa Majorca Bohemia Crown of Aragon Brittany England Burgundy Brittany Portugal Navarre Flanders Hainaut Aquitaine Luxembourg Holy Roman Empire The Hundred Years War was a conflict between France and England, lasting 116 years from 1337 to 1453. ... The ounce (abbreviation: oz) is the name of a unit of mass in a number of different systems, including various systems of mass that form part of English units, Imperial units, and United States customary units. ... BIC pen cap, about 1 gram. ... Bodkin point arrows were invented in the Middle Ages, as an improvement of the earlier broadhead arrow. ...


Construction of a longbow begins with a stave of yew or another suitable wood. The stave is worked down a few growth rings on the back to ensure that the bow has some sapwood and mostly heartwood. White woods such as elm or ash need not be worked down a growth-ring, the sapwood in these woods are as strong as the heartwood. The stave is then tillered so the center of the bow is thicker than mid-limb, and mid-limb is thicker than the tips. Nocks are filed and the stave is braced low and rasped or planed more to train the bow to bend, eventually to full brace and then full draw, giving the bow a few extra pounds to make up for poundage lost when the bow is broken in. This process is known as tillering.


Yew sapwood is elastic in tension and yew heartwood is elastic in compression. This combination makes a durable bow. Modern yew bows are often backed with a thin layer of rawhide to keep from splintering or breaking on the back, since yew is so expensive. Although the whitewoods will make an English longbow if specially treated, they are better suited to making flatbows. More information on this topic is available on the internet and in some books. The Traditional Bowyers' Bibles are a good place to start, as is Paul Comstocks' The Bent Stick.


Flatbow

Main article: Flatbow

The limbs of a flatbow have a rectangular or rhombic cross-section, rather than curved or "crowned" as with a longbow. The typical modern flatbow is made from a whitewood such as ash, hickory, hazel, or oak, with limbs about 2 inches (5 cm) wide, tapering in the last outer third of the limbs to ½-inch (1 cm) nocks. It is often made about 66 inches (1.67 m) long and tillered elliptically, with good potential for high draw weights. This is a good form of bow because it allows anyone to make an excellent bow with little expense; many suitable whitewoods are cheap and plentiful, whereas yew and osage are expensive and the supply of good material is limited. An American Flat bow, similar to the longbow but based on native American bows A flatbow is a bow with non-recurved, flat, relatively wide limbs that are rectangular in cross-section. ... Species See text European Ash in flower Narrow-leafed Ash (Fraxinus angustifolia) shoot with leaves Closeup of European Ash seeds 19th century illustration of Manna Ash (Fraxinus ornus) An ash can be any of four different tree genera from four very distinct families (see end of page for disambiguation), but... Species See text Comparison of Carya nuts Ripe hickory nuts ready to fall, Andrews, SC Hickory is a tree of the genus Carya, including 17-19 species of deciduous trees with pinnately compound leaves and large nuts. ... This article is about the tree; for other meanings of hazel, see Hazel (disambiguation). ... Species See List of Quercus species The term oak can be used as part of the common name of any of several hundred species of trees and shrubs in the genus Quercus (from Latin oak tree), and some related genera, notably Cyclobalanopsis and Lithocarpus. ... A centimetre (American spelling centimeter, symbol cm) is a unit of length that is equal to one hundredth of a metre, the current SI base unit of length. ... For other uses, see M (disambiguation). ...


Yumi

Main article: Yumi

A yumi is a Japanese longbow used in the practice of kyūdō (Japanese archery). Traditionally made from a laminate of bamboo, wood and leather, yumi are of asymmetrical design, with the grip positioned at about one-third the distance from the lower tip. It is believed the asymmetric shape was designed for use on horseback, allowing the bow to be more easily moved from one side of the horse to the other. Yumi (弓, ゆみ) is the Japanese term for bows (which includes the longbow, Daikyu and the shortbow, hankyu) used in the practice of Kyudo (弓道, Japanese archery). ... This article contains a trivia section. ... For other uses, see Bamboo (disambiguation). ... Modern leather-working tools Leather is a material created through the tanning of hides and skins of animals, primarily cattlehide. ...


Unlike most archery disciplines, the yumi was not drawn with fingers alone (see above "Main methods of drawing bows" pict : Fig.3), but with a ridge on the thumb of the leather glove "Yugake" worn on the back hand. This meant that the weight of the draw or pull of the bow was not limited to the finger strength of the shooter. Instead, a more relaxed and holistic technique was developed and the yumi was drawn not just with the arm, but with the whole breadth and being of the archer or kyūdōka. The arrow was often nocked to the "wrong" side or far side of the bow to allow quicker setting of the arrow and the string was released not by relaxing the hand, but by altering the posture of the back hand wrist, allowing the string to slip over the ridge of the glove. (The thumb becomes part of a rigid frame with the wrist piece, effectively negating finger strength in the process of shooting.)


Related weapons

  • Whip bow: an arrow or dart attached via a notch in its forward end to the knotted end of a cord attached at the other end to a flexible stick. The stick is used to 'whip' or slingshot the dart forward, and the knotted cord releases from the notch. Mainly a children's toy, this "bow" is described in The American Boy's Handy Book In the United Kingdom this is known, for an unknown reason, as a 'French Arrow'.
  • Atlatl: Spearthrower or woomera. Although the darts are often fletched, there is no bow or significant amount of stored energy before release. The atlatl relies instead on leverage.

The American Boys Handy Book The American Boys Handy Book is a handbook of activities intended for boys, written by the founder of the Boy Scouts of America, Daniel Carter Beard. ... An atlatl (from Nahuatl ahtlatl ; in English pronounced [1] or [2]) or spear-thrower is a tool that uses leverage to achieve greater velocity in spear-throwing, and includes a bearing surface which allows the user to temporarily store energy during the throw. ... This article is about the woomera, a weapon. ...

See also

For other uses, see Quiver (disambiguation). ...

Bow construction techniques

  • Cable-backed bow

Bow forms

A decurve bow is a bow that has arms curved or curled at the ends to turn towards the archer. ... A deflex bow is a bow that has arms curved or curled at the base or throughout their length, to turn towards the archer. ...

Notes

  1. ^ http://www.rupestre.net/tracce/levant.html Digital image processing and prehistoric art. The digitalizing of the Rock Art Archives of the Departamento de Prehistoria (Centro de Estudios Históricos, C.S.I.C.) accessed 2007 09 20
  2. ^ http://www.spain.info/TourSpain/Arte+y+Cultura/Monumentos/K/EP/0/Cova+dels+Cavalls+de+Valltorta+Arte+Rupestre++(Tirig)?Language=en
  3. ^ http://www.bradshawfoundation.com/inora/discoveries_46_1.html Inora Newsletter #46. Discoveries. FIRST RADIOCARBON DATING OF OXALATE CRUSTS OVER SPANISH PREHISTORIC ROCK ART
  4. ^ Tutankhamun: Anatomy of an Excavation. The modern compound bow did not exist at this time. The notes were made in the 1920s and describe composite bows as "compound" http://griffith.ashmus.ox.ac.uk/perl/gi-ca-qmakeres.pl?sid=62.56.75.230-1189852846&qno=1&sta=0&qtx=bow+

A Browning Compound Bow A compound bow is a modern bow that uses a levering system of cables and usually cams and pulleys to draw the limbs back. ...

References

  • (1992) The Traditional Bowyer's Bible Volume 1. The Lyons Press. ISBN 1-58574-085-3.
  • (1992) The Traditional Bowyer's Bible Volume 2. The Lyons Press. ISBN 1-58574-086-1.
  • (1994) The Traditional Bowyer's Bible Volume 3. The Lyons Press. ISBN 1-58574-087-X.
  • U. Stodiek/H. Paulsen, "Mit dem Pfeil, dem Bogen..." Techniken der steinzeitlichen Jagd. (Oldenburg 1996).
  • Gray, David (2002) Bows of the World. The Lyons Press. ISBN 1-58574-478-6.

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Bow (weapon) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2971 words)
The usage of bows in warfare is described in the Indian epics Ramayana and Mahabharata.
The Hun bow is an asymmetric, composite and reflex bow.
The Hungarian bow, an improvement of the Hun bow for archers on foot, is a symmetric, composite and reflex bow.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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