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Encyclopedia > Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy
Classic image of a cow with BSE. A notable feature of such disease is the inability of the infected animal to stand. Source: APHIS
Classic image of a cow with BSE. A notable feature of such disease is the inability of the infected animal to stand. Source: APHIS

Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE), commonly known as Mad-Cow Disease (MCD), is a fatal, neurodegenerative disease in cattle, that causes a spongy degeneration in the brain and spinal cord and also causes red eyes. BSE has a long incubation period, about 4 years, usually affecting adult cattle at a peak age onset of four to five years, all breeds being equally susceptible.[1] In the United Kingdom, the country worst affected, more than 179,000 cattle have been infected and 4.4 million slaughtered during the eradication programme.[2] Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2100x1680, 3761 KB)Source: http://www. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2100x1680, 3761 KB)Source: http://www. ... COW is an acronym for a number of things: Can of worms The COW programming language, an esoteric programming language. ... Look up Aphis in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Neurodegenerative disease (Greek νέυρο-, néuro-, nerval and Latin dēgenerāre, to decline or to worsen) is a condition in which cells of the brain and spinal cord are lost. ... For general information about the genus, including other species of cattle, see Bos. ... For other uses, see Brain (disambiguation). ... The Spinal cord nested in the vertebral column. ... Incubation period, also called the latent period or latency period, is the time elapsed between exposure to a pathogenic organism, or chemical or radiation, and when symptoms and signs are first apparent. ... A breed is a domesticated subspecies or infrasubspecies of an animal. ...


It is believed by most scientists that the disease may be transmitted to human beings who eat the brain or spinal cord of infected carcasses.[3] In humans, it is known as new variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD or nvCJD), and by April 2008, it had killed 163 people in Britain, and 37 elsewhere[4] with the number expected to rise because of the disease's long incubation period.[5] Between 460,000 and 482,000 BSE-infected animals had entered the human food chain before controls on high-risk offal were introduced in 1989.[6] Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) is a very rare and incurable degenerative neurological disorder (brain disease) that is ultimately fatal. ... Food chains, food webs and/or food networks describe the feeding relationships between species to another within an ecosystem. ... Scrapple sandwich at the Delaware state fair Offal is the entrails and internal organs of a butchered animal. ...


A British inquiry into BSE concluded that the epidemic was caused by cattle, who are normally herbivores, being fed the remains of other cattle in the form of meat and bone meal (MBM), which caused the infectious agent to spread.[7][8] The origin of the disease itself remains unknown. The infectious agent is distinctive for the high temperatures at which it remains viable; this contributed to the spread of the disease in Britain, which had reduced the temperatures used during its rendering process.[7] Another contributory factor was the feeding of infected protein supplements to very young calves.[7][9] In epidemiology, an epidemic (from [[Latin language] epi- upon + demos people) is a disease that appears as new cases in a given human population, during a given period, at a rate that substantially exceeds what is expected, based on recent experience (the number of new cases in the population during... A deer and two fawns feeding on some foliage Herbivory is a form of predation in which an organism known as an herbivore, consumes principally autotrophs[1] such as plants, algae and photosynthesizing bacteria. ... Meat & bone meal Meat and bone meal (MBM) is a by-product of the rendering industry. ... Rendering is a process that converts waste animal tissue into stable, value-added materials. ...

Contents

Infectious agent

Microscopic "holes" of tissue sections are examined in the lab. Source: APHIS
Microscopic "holes" of tissue sections are examined in the lab. Source: APHIS

The infectious agent in BSE is believed to be a specific type of misfolded protein called a prion. Those prion proteins carry the disease between individuals and cause deterioration of the brain. BSE is a type of transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE).[10] TSEs can arise in animals that carry an allele which causes previously normal protein molecules to contort by themselves from an alpha helical arrangement to a beta pleated sheet, which is the disease-causing shape for the particular protein. Transmission can occur when healthy animals come in contact with tainted tissues from others with the disease. In the brain these proteins cause native cellular prion protein to deform into the infectious state, which then goes on to deform further prion protein in an exponential cascade. This results in protein aggregates, which then form dense plaque fibers, leading to the microscopic appearance of "holes" in the brain, degeneration of physical and mental abilities, and ultimately death. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2100x1674, 2848 KB)Source: http://www. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2100x1674, 2848 KB)Source: http://www. ... Look up Aphis in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Protein before and after folding. ... A representation of the 3D structure of myoglobin showing coloured alpha helices. ... For the bird, see Prion (bird). ... For other uses, see Brain (disambiguation). ... Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs, also known as prion diseases) are a group of progressive conditions that affect the brain and nervous system of humans and animals and are transmitted by prions. ... For a non-technical introduction to the topic, see Introduction to genetics. ... Side view of an α-helix of alanine residues in atomic detail. ... In chemistry, a chemical conformation is the spatial arrangement of atoms in a molecule. ... Senile plaques are clumps of A-beta peptides commonly found in Alzheimers disease on microscopic examination of brain tissue. ...


Different theories exist for the origin of prion proteins in cattle. Two leading theories suggest that it may have jumped species from the disease scrapie in sheep, or that it evolved from a spontaneous form of "mad cow disease" that has been seen occasionally in cattle for many centuries.[11] Publius Flavius Vegetius Renatus records cases of a disease with similar characteristics in the 4th and 5th Century AD.[12] The British Government enquiry took the view the cause was not scrapie as had originally been postulated, and was some event in the 1970s that was not possible to identify.[13] Scrapie is a fatal, degenerative disease that affects the nervous systems of sheep and goats. ... Publius Flavius Vegetius Renatus was a writer of the Later Roman Empire. ...


Not all scientists agree that the danger of contracting the disease warrants taking extreme measures. They stress that human infection by mad cow disease has been statistically very small.[citation needed]


The BSE epidemic in British cattle

Cattle are normally herbivores. In nature, cattle eat grass. In modern industrial cattle-farming, various commercial feeds are used, which may contain ingredients including antibiotics, hormones, pesticides, fertilizers, and protein supplements. The use of meat and bone meal, produced from the ground and cooked left-overs of the slaughtering process as well as from the cadavers of sick and injured animals such as cattle, sheep, or chickens, as a protein supplement in cattle feed was widespread in Europe prior to about 1987.[citation needed] Worldwide, soya bean meal is the primary plant-based protein supplement fed to cattle. However, soya beans do not grow well in Europe, so cattle raisers throughout Europe turned to the less expensive animal by-product feeds as an alternative. A change to the rendering process in the early 1980s may have resulted in a large increase of the infectious agents in the cattle feed. A contributing factor was suggested to have been a change in British laws that allowed a lower temperature sterilization of the protein meal. While other European countries like Germany required said animal byproducts to undergo a high temperature steam boiling process, this requirement had been eased in Britain as a measure to keep prices competitive. Later the British Inquiry dismissed this theory saying "changes in process could not have been solely responsible for the emergence of BSE, and changes in regulation were not a factor at all."[14] In zoology, an herbivore is an animal that is adapted to eat primarily plants (rather than meat). ... For other uses, see Grass (disambiguation). ... Staphylococcus aureus - Antibiotics test plate. ... For other uses, see Hormone (disambiguation). ... A pesticide is a substance or mixture of substances used for preventing, controlling, or lessening the damage caused by a pest. ... Spreading manure, an organic fertilizer Fertilizers (also spelled fertilisers) are compounds given to plants to promote growth; they are usually applied either through the soil, for uptake by plant roots, or by foliar feeding, for uptake through leaves. ... A representation of the 3D structure of myoglobin showing coloured alpha helices. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Glycine max Soybeans (US) or soya beans (UK) (Glycine max) are a high-protein legume (Family Fabaceae) grown as food for both humans and livestock. ...


Following an epizootic of BSE in Britain, 165 people (up until 2007) acquired and died of a disease with similar neurological symptoms subsequently called vCJD, or (new) variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. This is a separate disease from 'classical' Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, which is not related to BSE and has been known about since the early 1900s. Three cases of vCJD occurred in people who had lived in or visited Britain — one each in Ireland, Canada and the United States. There is also some concern about those who work with (and therefore inhale) cattle meat and bone meal, such as horticulturists, who use it as fertilizer. Up to date statistics on all types of CJD are published by the UK CJD Surveillance Centre in Edinburgh. An epizootic is the nonhuman equivalent of an epidemic, meaning that large numbers of animals are infected with a disease. ... Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) is a very rare and incurable degenerative neurological disorder (brain disease) that is ultimately fatal. ... Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) is a very rare and incurable degenerative neurological disorder (brain disease) that is ultimately fatal. ... Meat & bone meal Meat and bone meal (MBM) is a by-product of the rendering industry. ... Horticulture (pronounced or US [1]) is the art and science of the cultivation of plants. ...


For many of the vCJD patients, direct evidence exists that they had consumed tainted beef, and this is assumed to be the mechanism by which all affected individuals contracted it. Disease incidence also appears to correlate with slaughtering practices that led to the mixture of nervous system tissue with hamburger and other beef. It is estimated that 400,000 cattle infected with BSE entered the human food chain in the 1980s. Although the BSE epizootic was eventually brought under control by culling all suspect cattle populations, people are still being diagnosed with vCJD each year (though the number of new cases currently has dropped to fewer than 5 per year). This is attributed to the long incubation period for prion diseases, which are typically measured in years or decades. As a result the extent of the human vCJD outbreak is still not fully known. For other uses, see Beef (disambiguation). ... The nervous system is a highly specialized network whose principal components are nerves called neurons. ... This article is about the food item. ...


The scientific consensus is that infectious BSE prion material is not destroyed through normal cooking procedures, meaning that contaminated beef foodstuffs prepared "well done" may remain infectious.[15][16]


In 2004 researchers reported evidence of a second contorted shape of prions in a rare minority of diseased cattle. In other words, this implies a second strain of BSE prion. Very little is known about the shape of disease-causing prions, because their insolubility and tendency to clump thwarts application of the detailed measurement techniques of structural biology. But cruder measures yield a "biochemical signature" by which the newly discovered cattle strain appears different from the familiar one, but similar to the clumped prions in humans with traditional CJD Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease. The finding of a second strain of BSE prion raises the possibility that transmission of BSE to humans has been underestimated, because some of the individuals diagnosed with spontaneous or "sporadic" CJD may have actually contracted the disease from tainted beef. So far nothing is known about the relative transmissibility of the two disease strains of BSE prion. Structural biology is a branch of molecular biology concerned with the study of the architecture and shape of biological macromolecules--proteins and nucleic acids in particular—and what causes them to have the structures they have. ...


Alan Colchester, a professor of neurology at the University of Kent, writing in the September 3, 2005 issue of the medical journal, The Lancet, proposed a theory that the most likely initial origin of BSE in Britain was the importation from the Indian subcontinent of bone meal which contained CJD infected human remains.[17] The government of India vehemently responded to the research calling it "Misleading, highly mischievous, a figment of imagination, absurd," further adding that India maintained constant surveillance and had not had a single case of either BSE or vCJD.[18][19] The authors responded in the January 22, 2006 issue of The Lancet that their theory is unprovable only in the same sense as all other BSE origin theories are and that the theory warrants further investigation.[20] Affiliations University Alliance Association of Commonwealth Universities European University Association Website http://www. ... The Lancet is one of the oldest and most respected peer-reviewed medical journals in the world, published weekly by Elsevier, part of Reed Elsevier. ... The Lancet is one of the oldest and most respected peer-reviewed medical journals in the world, published weekly by Elsevier, part of Reed Elsevier. ...


UK epizootic and UK licensed medicines

During the course of the investigation into the BSE epizootic, an enquiry was also made into the activities of the Department of Health and its Medicines Control Agency. On May 7, 1999, in his written statement number 476 to the BSE Inquiry, David Osborne Hagger reported on behalf of the Medicines Control Agency that in a previous enquiry the Agency had been asked to: The Department of Health headquarters in Whitehall The Department of Health is a department of the United Kingdom government. ... is the 127th day of the year (128th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events of 2008: (EMILY) Me Lesley and MIley are going to China! This article is about the year. ... David Osborne Hagger, born in 1939 in London, England, is a retired British government executive who was employed as Head of Abridged Licensing and Co-ordinator of the Executive support business of the Medicines Division of the Department of Health at Market Towers in London. ...

"... identify relevant manufacturers and obtain information about the bovine material contained in children’s vaccines, the stocks of these vaccines and how long it would take to switch to other products." It was further reported that the: "... use of bovine insulin in a small group of mainly elderly patients was noted and it was recognised that alternative products for this group were not considered satisfactory." A medicines licensing committee report that same year recommended that: "... no licensing action is required at present in regard to products produced from bovine material or using prepared bovine brain in nutrient media and sourced from outside the United Kingdom, the Channel Isles and the Republic of Ireland provided that the country of origin is known to be free of BSE, has competent veterinary advisers and is known to practise good animal husbandry." In 1990 the British Diabetic Association became concerned regarding the safety of bovine insulin and the government licensing agency assured them that: "... there was no insulin sourced from cattle in the UK or Ireland and that the situation in other countries was being monitored." In 1991 a European Community Commission: "... expressed concerns about the possible transmission of the BSE/scrapie agent to man through use of certain cosmetic treatments." Sources in France reported to the British Medicines Control Agency: "... that there were some licensed surgical sutures derived from French bovine material." Concerns were also raised: "... regarding a possible risk of transmission of the BSE agent in gelatin products."

Husbandry practices in the United States relating to BSE

Soybean meal is cheap and plentiful in the United States. As a result, the use of animal byproduct feeds was never common, as it was in Europe. However, U.S. regulations only partially prohibit the use of animal byproducts in feed. In 1997, regulations prohibited the feeding of mammalian byproducts to ruminants such as cows and goats. However, the byproducts of ruminants can still be legally fed to pets or other livestock such as pigs and poultry such as chickens. In addition, it is legal for ruminants to be fed byproducts from some of these animals. [5] A proposal to end the use of cow blood, restaurant scraps, and poultry litter (fecal matter, feathers)[21] in January 2004 has yet to be implemented[22] , despite the efforts of some advocates of such a policy, who cite the fact that cows are herbivores, and that blood and fecal matter could potentially carry BSE. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Ruminantia. ... In agriculture, poultry litter or broiler litter is a mixture of manure, feed, feathers, and the sawdust used as bedding material in poultry farms. ...


In February 2001, the USGAO reported that the FDA, which is responsible for regulating feed, had not adequately policed the various bans.[23] Compliance with the regulations was shown to be extremely poor before the discovery of the Washington cow, but industry representatives report that compliance is now 100%. Even so, critics call the partial prohibitions insufficient. Indeed, US meat producer Creekstone Farms alleges that the USDA is preventing BSE testing from being conducted[24] . General Accounting Office headquarters, Washington, D.C. The Government Accountability Office (GAO) is the non-partisan audit, evaluation, and investigative arm of Congress, and an agency in the Legislative Branch of the United States Government. ... The United States Food and Drug Administration is the government agency responsible for regulating food, dietary supplements, drugs, cosmetics, medical devices, biologics and blood products in the United States. ... Creekstone Farms Premium Beef, LLC is a 10 year old organic beef producer, based in Arkansas City, Arkansas. ... USDA redirects here. ...


Japan was the top importer of U.S. beef, buying 240,000 tons valued at $1.4 billion in 2003. After the discovery of the first case of BSE in the U.S. on December 23, 2003, Japan stopped U.S. beef imports in December 2003. In December 2005, Japan once again allowed imports of U.S. beef, but reinstated its ban in mid-January 2006 after a technical violation of the U.S.-Japan beef import agreement: a vertebral column, which should have been removed prior to shipment, was included in a shipment of veal.


Tokyo yielded to U.S. pressure to resume imports, ignoring consumer worries about the safety of U.S. beef, said Japanese consumer groups. Michiko Kamiyama from Food Safety Citizen Watch said about this: "The government has put priority on the political schedule between the two countries, not on food safety or human health."


Possibly due to pressure from large agribusiness, the United States has drastically cut back on the number of cows inspected for BSE.[25]


65 nations implemented full or partial restrictions on importing U.S. beef products because of concerns that U.S. testing lacked sufficient rigor. As a result, exports of U.S. beef declined from 1.3 million metric tons in 2003, before the first mad cow was detected in the US, to 322 thousand metric tons in 2004. This has increased since then to 771 thousand metric tons in 2007. [26]


On December 31, 2006, Hematech, a biotechnology company based in Sioux Falls, South Dakota, announced that it had used genetic engineering and cloning technology to produce cattle that lacked a necessary gene for prion production - thus theoretically making them immune to BSE.[27] is the 365th day of the year (366th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Nickname: Motto: Gateway to the Plains Location in Minnehaha County and the state of South Dakota Counties (metropolitan area) Government  - Mayor Dave Munson Area  - City 178. ... Official language(s) English Demonym South Dakotan Capital Pierre Largest city Sioux Falls Area  Ranked 17th in the US  - Total 77,116[1] sq mi (199,905 km²)  - Width 210 miles (340 km)  - Length 380 miles (610 km)  - % water 1. ...


BSE statistics by country

Country BSE cases vCJD cases
Austria 5 0
Belgium 125 0
Canada 10 1
Czech Republic 9 0
Denmark 15 0
Falkland Islands 1 0
Finland 1 0
France[28] 900 11
Germany 312 0
Greece 1 0
Hong Kong 2 0
Israel 1 0
Italy 117 1
Japan 26 1
Liechtenstein 2 0
Luxembourg 2 1
Netherlands 75 2
Oman 2 0
Poland 21 0
Portugal 875 2
Republic of Ireland 1,353 4
Slovakia 15 0
Slovenia 7 0
Spain 412 2
Sweden 1 0
Switzerland 453 0
Thailand[29] 2
United Kingdom 183,823 163
United States 3 3
Total 188,535 193
Dark green areas are countries with confirmed human cases of vCJD. Light green shows countries which have reported cases of only BSE.

The table[citation needed] to the right summarizes reported cases of BSE and of vCJD by country. BSE is the disease in cattle, while vCJD is the disease in people. Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) is a very rare and incurable degenerative neurological disorder (brain disease) that is ultimately fatal. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1350x625, 53 KB) Summary I made this map by using Image:BlankMap-World. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1350x625, 53 KB) Summary I made this map by using Image:BlankMap-World. ...


The tests used for detecting BSE vary considerably as do the regulations in various jurisdictions for when, and which cattle, must be tested. For instance, in the EU the cattle tested are older (30 months+), while many cattle are slaughtered earlier than that. At the opposite end of the scale, Japan tests all cattle at the time of slaughter. Tests are also difficult as the altered prion protein has very small levels in blood or urine, and no other signal has been found. Newer tests are faster, more sensitive, and cheaper, so it is possible that future figures may be more comprehensive. Even so, currently the only reliable test is examination of tissues during an autopsy.


It is notable that there are no cases reported in Australia, Brazil, New Zealand and Vanuatu where cattle are mainly fed outside on grass pasture and, mainly in Australia, non-grass feeding is done only as a final finishing process before the animals are processed for meat.


As for vCJD in humans, autopsy tests are not always done and so those figures too are likely to be too low, but probably by a lesser fraction. In the UK anyone with possible vCJD symptoms must be reported to the UK Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease Surveillance Unit and so it is unlikely that any cases would be missed. In the U.S., the CDC has refused to impose a national requirement that physicians and hospitals report cases of the disease. Instead, the agency relies on other methods, including death certificates and urging physicians to send suspicious cases to the National Prion Disease Pathology Surveillance Center (NPDPSC) at Case Western Reserve University in Cleveland, which is funded by the CDC. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in Atlanta, Georgia, is recognized as the leading United States agency for protecting the public health and safety of people. ...


References

  1. ^ A Focus on Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy. Pathogens and Contaminants. Food Safety Research Information Office (November 2007). Retrieved on 2008-04-07.
  2. ^ Brown, David (2001-06-19). The 'recipe for disaster' that killed 80 and left a £5bn bill. The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved on 2008-04-07.
  3. ^ Commonly Asked Questions About BSE in Products Regulated by FDA's Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN). Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition, Food and Drug Administration (2005-09-14). Retrieved on 2008-04-08.
  4. ^ Variant Creutzfeld-Jakob Disease, Current Data (April 2008). The National Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease Surveillance Unit (NCJDSU), University of Edinburgh (April 2008). Retrieved on 2008-04-08.
  5. ^ Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease Fact Sheet. National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (2008-02-13). Retrieved on 2008-04-08.
  6. ^ CJD deaths 'may have peaked'. BBC News (2001-11-23). Retrieved on 2008-04-08.
  7. ^ a b c "BSE: Disease control & eradication - Causes of BSE", Department for Environment, Food, and Rural Affairs, March 2007.
  8. ^ "The BSE Inquiry", led by Lord Phillips of Worth Matravers, report published October 2000.
  9. ^ Harden, Blaine (2003-12-28). Supplements used in factory farming can spread disease. The Washington Post. Retrieved on 2008-04-08.
  10. ^ Bovine Spongiform Encephalopaphy: An Overview (PDF). Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, United States Department of Agriculture (December 2006). Retrieved on 2008-04-08.
  11. ^ New Scientist, 17 March 2007, p 11
  12. ^ Digesta Artis Mulomedicinae, Publius Flavius Vegetius Renatus
  13. ^ Vol.1 - Executive Summary of the Report of the Inquiry
  14. ^ Vol.2 - 3. The nature and cause of BSE
  15. ^ [1][dead link]
  16. ^ Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy - "Mad Cow Disease". Fact Sheets. Food Safety and Inspection Service (March 2005). Retrieved on 2008-04-08.
  17. ^ http://www.gaudiyadiscussions.com/topic_4034.html
  18. ^ India dismisses Lancet's mad cow-India-The Times of India
  19. ^ The World Today - New theory traces mad cow disease to animal feed exported from India
  20. ^ Elsevier
  21. ^ The term "chicken litter" also includes spilled chicken feed as well as fecal matter and feathers. It is still legal in the United States to use ruminant protein to feed chickens. Thus, ruminant protein can get into the food chain of cattle in this round about way.
  22. ^ Reader Questions Poultry Litter And "Downer" Bans. Retrieved on 2008-06-14.
  23. ^ FDA Not Doing Enough to Prevent Mad Cow Disease?. Retrieved on 2008-06-14.
  24. ^ [2][dead link]
  25. ^ USA Today, August 3, 2006, archived at [3]
  26. ^ Statistics provided by U.S. government & compiled by US Meat Export Federation, archived at [4]
  27. ^ Weiss, Rick. "Scientists Announce Mad Cow Breakthrough", The Washington Post, 2007-01-01. Retrieved on 2007-01-01. 
  28. ^ France reports more than 900 BSE cases
  29. ^ The number of BSE cases in not available for Thailand

2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... April 7 is the 97th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (98th in leap years). ... This article is about the year. ... is the 170th day of the year (171st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article concerns the British newspaper. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... April 7 is the 97th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (98th in leap years). ... The Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition is the branch of the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) which regulates food, dietary supplements, and cosmetics. ... FDA redirects here. ... 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External links

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Bovine spongiform encephalopathy
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  • APHIS - BSE Information - U.S. Department of Agriculture
  • Canadian BSE FAQs - Canadian Food Inspection Agency
  • BSE Homepage - Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (UK)
  • UK government inquiry into BSE from discovery to 1996
  • UK Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease Surveillance Unit
  • British Medicines Control Agency statement PDF - (Excerpts cited above.)
  • BSE Resources - Food Safety.gov
  • Impact of BSE on U.S. Economy - Economic Research Service
  • Mad Cow FAQs - Massachusetts Public Health
  • BSE (Mad Cow Disease) - Health Canada
  • List of prohibited substances in ruminant feed - U.S. Code of Federal Regulations
  • Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy in North America - enumeration of reported cattle incidents

Consumer/health groups

Science/research Organic consumers wikipedia entry // Organic Consumers Association The Organic Consumers Association (OCA) is an online and grassroots non-profit public interest organization campaigning for health, justice, and sustainability. ... Screenshot of About. ... BNA (The Bureau of National Affairs, Inc. ... The references in this article would be clearer with a different and/or consistent style of citation, footnoting or external linking. ...

  • BSE and blood transfusion (The Lancet - Vol. 368, Issue 9552, 09 December 2006, Pages 2061-2067)
  • Scientific American - Article from 2004
  • Mad Cow Information - North Dakota State University
  • BSE Information Center - Iowa State University
  • The Origins of BSE - Mark Purdey

Beef/cattle industry John Mark Purdey (December 25, 1953 – November 12, 2006) was a British organic farmer who came to public attention in the 1980s, when he began to investigate the causes of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE or mad cow disease).[1] Purdeys interest in the disease was triggered when four cows...

  • BSE News & Information - American Association of Meat Processors
  • Livestock Feed Industry News - American Feed Industry Association
  • BSE: environmental causation?
For the bird, see Prion (bird). ... Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs, also known as prion diseases) are a group of progressive conditions that affect the brain and nervous system of humans and animals and are transmitted by prions. ... // A00-A79 - Bacterial infections, and other intestinal infectious diseases, and STDs (A00-A09) Intestinal infectious diseases (A00) Cholera (A01) Typhoid and paratyphoid fevers (A010) Typhoid fever (A02) Other Salmonella infections (A03) Shigellosis (A04) Other bacterial intestinal infections (A040) Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli infection (A045) Campylobacter enteritis (A046) Enteritis due to Yersinia... Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) is a very rare and incurable degenerative neurological disorder (brain disease) that is ultimately fatal. ... Kuru (also known as laughing sickness due to the outbursts of laughter that mark its second phase) was first noted in New Guinea in the early 1900s. ... Gerstmann-Sträussler-Scheinker syndrome (GSS) is a very rare, usually familial, neurodegenerative disease that affects patients in the third to seventh decades of life. ... Fatal familial insomnia (FFI) is a very rare autosomal dominant inherited disease of the brain. ... Scrapie is a fatal, degenerative disease that affects the nervous systems of sheep and goats. ... Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) of deer, elk (wapiti), and moose. ... Transmissible mink encephalopathy is caused by proteins called prions ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Homepage | CDC BSE (1763 words)
BSE (bovine spongiform encephalopathy) is a progressive neurological disorder of cattle that results from infection by an unusual transmissible agent called a prion.
On March 13, 2006, the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) announced the confirmation of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) in a cow in Alabama.
Both of the U.S.-born BSE cases and two of the twelve Canadian-born BSE cases were 10 years of age or older and all three of these older North American cases for whom the BSE strain is presently known were linked to an atypical BSE strain known as the H-strain.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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