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Encyclopedia > Bourbon whiskey
Bourbon bottle, 19th century
Bourbon bottle, 19th century
Oak casks in ricks used store and age bourbon. Bourbon that ejects naturally from the wooden casks, as seen by the stains along the sides of the barrels, is known to distillers as the "angel's share"
Oak casks in ricks used store and age bourbon. Bourbon that ejects naturally from the wooden casks, as seen by the stains along the sides of the barrels, is known to distillers as the "angel's share"

Bourbon is an American form of whiskey named for Bourbon County, Kentucky. By United States law, it consists of at least 51% corn — typically about 70% — with the remainder being wheat and/or rye, and malted barley.[1] It is distilled to no more than 160 (U.S.) proof, and aged in new charred oak barrels for at least two years.[1] The two years maturation process is not a legal requirement for a whiskey to be called "bourbon," but it is a legal requirement for "straight bourbon."[2] However, in practice, most bourbon whiskeys are aged for at least four years. Bourbon-bottle from Gettysburg Bottle From http://www. ... Bourbon-bottle from Gettysburg Bottle From http://www. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 536 pixelsFull resolution (2240 × 1500 pixels, file size: 660 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 536 pixelsFull resolution (2240 × 1500 pixels, file size: 660 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Species See List of Quercus species The term oak can be used as part of the common name of any of several hundred species of trees and shrubs in the genus Quercus (from Latin oak tree), and some related genera, notably Cyclobalanopsis and Lithocarpus. ... A barrel is a hollow cylindrical container, usually made of wood staves and bound with iron bands. ... Rick may refer to: A shortened version of a given name such as Richard, Eric, Frederick, Derrick, Garrick, Ulrich or Patrick. It may also be formal or full name on its own. ... The Angels share describes a phenomenon of winemaking or aging after distillation. ... Whisky (or whiskey) is an alcoholic beverage distilled from grain, often including malt, which has then been aged in wooden barrels. ... Bourbon County is a county located in the U.S. state of Kentucky. ... The law of the United States is derived from the common law of England, which was in force at the time of the Revolutionary War. ... This article is about the maize plant. ... Species T. aestivum T. boeoticum T. dicoccoides T. dicoccon T. durum T. monococcum T. spelta T. sphaerococcum T. timopheevii References:   ITIS 42236 2002-09-22 Wheat Wheat For the indie rock group, see Wheat (band). ... Binomial name Secale cereale M.Bieb. ... Malted barley Malting is a process applied to cereal grains, in which the grains are made to germinate and then are quickly dried before the plant develops. ... For other uses, see Barley (disambiguation). ... Distillation is a means of separating liquids through differences in their boiling points. ... Alcoholic proof is a measure of how much ethanol is in an alcoholic beverage, and is approximately twice the percentage of alcohol by volume (ABV, the unit that is commonly used presently). ... Whiskey barrels at the Jack Daniels distillery Barrels for aging wine in Napa Valley An aging barrel is a barrel used to age wine or distilled spirits such as whiskey, brandy, or rum. ... Species See List of Quercus species The term oak can be used as part of the common name of any of several hundred species of trees and shrubs in the genus Quercus (from Latin oak tree), and some related genera, notably Cyclobalanopsis and Lithocarpus. ... For other uses, see Barrel (disambiguation). ...


Bourbon must be put into the barrels at no more than 125 U.S. proof.[1] After aging it is diluted with water and bottled. Bottling proof for whiskey must be at least 80 proof (40% abv)[3] and most whiskey is sold at 80 proof. Other common proofs are 86, 90, 94, 100 and 107, and whiskeys of up to 142 proof have been sold. Some higher proof bottlings are "barrel proof."


Bourbon can legally be made anywhere in the United States where it is legal to distill spirits. Legitimate production is not restricted to Kentucky, although currently all but a few brands are made there, and the drink is associated strongly with that commonwealth.[4] Illinois once produced nearly as much bourbon whiskey as Kentucky, and bourbon continues to be made in Virginia. In the past bourbon has been made in Pennsylvania, Indiana, Ohio, Tennessee, Missouri and Kansas. Official language(s) English[1] Capital Frankfort Largest city Louisville Area  Ranked 37th  - Total 40,444 sq mi (104,749 km²)  - Width 140 miles (225 km)  - Length 379 miles (610 km)  - % water 1. ... Official language(s) English[1] Capital Springfield Largest city Chicago Largest metro area Chicago Metropolitan Area Area  Ranked 25th  - Total 57,918 sq mi (140,998 km²)  - Width 210 miles (340 km)  - Length 390 miles (629 km)  - % water 4. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Capital Harrisburg Largest city Philadelphia Largest metro area Delaware Valley Area  Ranked 33rd  - Total 46,055 sq mi (119,283 km²)  - Width 280 miles (455 km)  - Length 160 miles (255 km)  - % water 2. ... For other uses, see Indiana (disambiguation). ... Official language(s) English de facto Capital Columbus Largest city Columbus Largest metro area Greater Cleveland Area  Ranked 34th  - Total 44,825 sq mi (116,096 km²)  - Width 220 miles (355 km)  - Length 220 miles (355 km)  - % water 8. ... Official language(s) English Capital Nashville Largest city Memphis Largest metro area Nashville Metropolitan Area Area  Ranked 36th  - Total 42,169 sq mi (109,247 km²)  - Width 120 miles (195 km)  - Length 440 miles (710 km)  - % water 2. ... Official language(s) English Capital Jefferson City Largest city Kansas City Largest metro area St Louis[1] Area  Ranked 21st  - Total 69,709 sq mi (180,693 km²)  - Width 240 miles (385 km)  - Length 300 miles (480 km)  - % water 1. ... Official language(s) English[2] Capital Topeka Largest city Wichita Area  Ranked 15th  - Total 82,277 sq mi (213,096 km²)  - Width 211 miles (340 km)  - Length 417 miles (645 km)  - % water 0. ...

Contents

History

Some of the most common stories about the origins of bourbon are untrue, such as its invention by Baptist minister and distiller Elijah Craig. Each county in Kentucky tends to name a favorite son as the "inventor" of bourbon. In fact, there was no single "inventor" of the product, which evolved into its present form only in the late 19th century.[5] It is often written that many of the original distillers of bourbon were Pennsylvanians fleeing taxation during and after the Whiskey Rebellion, but this claim is widely disputed. For the musical form, see Invention (music). ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Baptist is... A bottle of Kentucky Straight Bourbon Whiskey named for Elijah Craig Elijah Craig (1738 – May 18, 1808) was a Baptist preacher from Kentucky, who is remembered chiefly for being credited with the invention of bourbon whiskey. ... Capital Harrisburg Largest city Philadelphia Largest metro area Delaware Valley Area  Ranked 33rd  - Total 46,055 sq mi (119,283 km²)  - Width 280 miles (455 km)  - Length 160 miles (255 km)  - % water 2. ... Washington leads his troops to western Pennsylvania (Metropolitan Museum of Art) The Whiskey Rebellion, less commonly known as the Whiskey Insurrection, was a popular uprising that had its beginnings in 1791 and culminated in an insurrection in 1794 in the locality of Washington, Pennsylvania, in the Monongahela Valley. ...


One of the earliest records of distillation in the region goes back to Fort Harrod (modern Harrodsburg, Kentucky), established in 1774, when Theodore J. Queenan planted corn (maize). Within a few years, when his harvests exceeded what he and his livestock could eat, Theodore began to convert the rest into whiskey, because it didn't spoil and could be transported more readily than the grain itself. Here is how this whiskey came to be called "bourbon": Harrodsburgs city hall. ... Harrodsburg is a city located in Mercer County, Kentucky. ... This article is about the maize plant. ... Whisky (or whiskey) is an alcoholic beverage distilled from grain, often including malt, which has then been aged in wooden barrels. ...

When American pioneers pushed west of the Allegheny Mountains following the Revolution, the first counties they founded covered vast regions. One of these original, huge counties was Bourbon, established in 1785 and named after the French royal family. While this vast county was being carved into many smaller ones, early in the 19th century, many people continued to call the region Old Bourbon. Located within Old Bourbon was the principal Ohio River port from which whiskey and other products were shipped to market. "Old Bourbon" was stenciled on the barrels to indicate their port of origin. Old Bourbon whiskey was different because it was the first corn whiskey most people had ever tasted, and they liked it. In time, bourbon became the name for any corn-based whiskey.[6]

A refinement usually credited to Dr. James C. Crow was the sour mash process, by which each new fermentation is conditioned with some amount of spent mash (previously fermented mash that has been separated from its alcohol). The acid introduced by using the sour mash controls the growth of bacteria that could taint the whiskey and creates a proper pH balance for the yeast to work. As of 2005, all straight bourbons use a sour mash process. Dr. Crow developed this refinement while working at the Old Oscar Pepper Distillery (now the Woodford Reserve Distillery) in Woodford County, Kentucky. (Spent mash is also known as distillers spent grain, stillage, slop or feed mash, so named because it is used as animal feed.) As of today, there are no running distilleries within the current boundaries of Bourbon County due to new counties being formed from Bourbon County since early whiskey making days. The Allegheny Mountain Range (also spelled Alleghany and Allegany) -- informally, the Alleghenies -- is part of the Appalachian Mountain Range of the eastern United States. ... John Trumbulls Declaration of Independence, showing the five-man committee in charge of drafting the Declaration in 1776 as it presents its work to the Second Continental Congress in Philadelphia The American Revolution refers to the period during the last half of the 18th century in which the Thirteen... This article or section should include material from France: Wars of Religion _ Bourbon Dynasty The House of Bourbon dates from at least the beginning of the 13th century, when the estate of Bourbon was ruled by a Lord, vassal of France. ... View of Pittsburgh, the largest metropolitan area on the Ohio River, where the Allegheny River (left) and the Monongahela River (right) join at Point State Park to form the Ohio River Cincinnati, Ohio is a well known city along the Ohio River, historically known for its riverboats. ... Barrels of sour mash whiskey aging at the Jack Daniels distillery The Makers Mark label stating it is a sour mash whiskey Sour mash is not a type or flavor of whiskey as is commonly thought. ... For other uses, see Fermentation. ... For other uses, see Acid (disambiguation). ... Phyla/Divisions Actinobacteria Aquificae Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi Chlamydiae/Verrucomicrobia Chloroflexi Chrysiogenetes Cyanobacteria Deferribacteres Deinococcus-Thermus Dictyoglomi Fibrobacteres/Acidobacteria Firmicutes Fusobacteria Gemmatimonadetes Nitrospirae Omnibacteria Planctomycetes Proteobacteria Spirochaetes Thermodesulfobacteria Thermomicrobia Thermotogae Bacteria (singular, bacterium) are a major group of living organisms. ... For other uses, see PH (disambiguation). ... 2005 is a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Woodford Reserve is a brand of premium bourbon whiskey made by the Labrot & Graham Distillery, near Versailles, Woodford County, Kentucky. ... Woodford County is a county located in the state of Kentucky. ... Bourbon County is a county located in the U.S. state of Kentucky. ...


A resolution of the U.S. Congress in 1964 declared bourbon to be a "distinctive product of the United States."[7] [8] That resolution asked "the appropriate agencies of the United States Government . . . [to] take appropriate action to prohibit importation into the United States of whiskey designated as 'Bourbon Whiskey.'"[7] Federal regulation now defines "bourbon whiskey" to only include "bourbon" produced in the United States.[9] The Congress of the United States is the legislative branch of the federal government of the United States of America. ...


National Bourbon Heritage Month

On August 2, 2007, the U.S. Senate passed a resolution sponsored by Senator Jim Bunning (R-KY) officially declaring September 2007 “National Bourbon Heritage Month,” celebrating the uniquely American history of bourbon whiskey.[10] The resolution notes Kentucky's role in developing and producing bourbon, as well as "the contributions of the Commonwealth of Kentucky to the culture of the United States."[10] It also calls on adult consumers who enjoy bourbon to do so responsibly and in moderation.[10] Notably, the resolution claims that Congress declared bourbon to be "America's Native Spirit" in its 1964 resolution.[10] The 1964 resolution, however, does not contain such a statement per se; it only declares that bourbon is a distinctive product identifiable with the United States in the same way that Scotch is identifiable with Scotland.[7] The United States Senate is the upper house of the U.S. Congress, smaller than the United States House of Representatives. ... James Paul David Jim Bunning (born October 23, 1931 in Southgate, Kentucky) is an American politician who was a Hall of Fame pitcher in Major League Baseball from 1955 to 1971. ... National Bourbon Heritage Month is an observance in the United States that calls for celebration of bourbon as Americas Native Spirit. On August 2, 2007, the US Senate declared September 2007 as National Bourbon Heritage Month. ...


Since 2003, high-end bourbons have seen revenue grow from $450 million to over $500 million, some 2.2 million cases, in the United States. High-end bourbon sales accounted for eight percent of total spirits growth in 2006. Most high-end bourbons are aged for six years or longer.[11]


References

  1. ^ a b c 27 C.F.R. sec 5.22(b)(1)(i)
  2. ^ 27 C.F.R. sec 5.22(b)(1)(iiii)
  3. ^ 27 C.F.R. sec 5.22(b)
  4. ^ http://www.straightbourbon.com/faq.html#4
  5. ^ Cowdery, Charles K., "Who Invented Bourbon?" Malt Advocate Magazine (4th Quarter 2002), pp. 72-75
  6. ^ Cowdery, Charles K., Bourbon, Straight: The Uncut and Unfiltered Story of American Whiskey, p. 25
  7. ^ a b c 78 Stat. 1208 (1964).
  8. ^ Defining “Bourbon.” The State (Columbia, SC), 5-1-02, p. D1.
  9. ^ 27 C.F.R. sec 5.22(b)(2)
  10. ^ a b c d S. Res. No. 110-294 (2007).
  11. ^ Distilled Spirits Council of the US Press Release, August 31, 2007.

Recommended reading

  • Cowdery, Charles K. Bourbon, Straight: The Uncut and Unfiltered Story of American Whiskey (Chicago: Made and Bottled in Kentucky), 2004. ISBN 0-9758-7030-0
  • Crowgey, Henry G. Kentucky Bourbon: The Early Years of Whiskeymaking (Lexington, KY: The University Press of Kentucky), 1971. ISBN 0-8131-1225-7
  • Regan, Gary and Mardee Haidin Regan. The Bourbon Companion: A Connisseur's Guide (Philadelphia, PA: Running Press), 1998. ISBN 0-7624-0013-7

See also

The List of bourbon brands is a list of bourbon whiskeys and their distilleries. ... Wikibooks Bartending has a page on the topic of Cocktails A cocktail is a style of mixed drink made predominantly with a distilled beverage, such as vodka, gin, whiskey, rum, or tequila, mixed with another drink other than water. ... // Charbay McCarthys Notch Old Potrero Peregrine Rock St. ... Corn whiskey is an American whiskey made from a mash made up of at least 80 percent maize, or corn. ... Rye whiskey describes two types of whiskies, theoretically distilled from rye. ... Revenue men at the site of moonshine stills, Kentucky, 1911 or earlier For other uses, see Moonshine (disambiguation). ... Tennessee whiskey is a type of American whiskey. ... The American Whiskey Trail[1] is a cultural heritage and tourism initiative of the Distilled Spirits Council in cooperation with historic Mount Vernon. ... Bottled in bond refers to a method of aging and strength of American whiskeys. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Bourbon whiskey - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (708 words)
Bourbon is an American form of whiskey made from (pursuant to U.S. trade law) at least 51% corn, or maize, (typically about 70%) with the remainder being wheat and/or rye, and malted barley.
Most bourbons are distilled in Kentucky, and it is sometimes said that only Kentucky whiskey can properly be called bourbon; this is, however, not true, as a few exceptions to the rule demonstrate.
An act of the U.S. Congress in 1964 declared bourbon to be "America's Native Spirit" and its official distilled spirit.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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