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Encyclopedia > Bourbon Restoration
Royaume de France
Kingdom of France

1814 – 1830
Flag Coat of arms
Flag Coat of arms
Kingdom of France
Capital Paris
Language(s) French
Government Monarchy
King of France and Navarre
 - 1814-1824 Louis XVIII
 - 1824-1830 Charles X
 - 1830 Louis XIX
 - 1830 Henri V
Legislature Parliament
History
 - Louis XVIII restored 6 April, 1814
 - July Revolution 21 January, 1830
Currency French Franc

Following the ousting of Napoleon I of France in 1814, the Allies restored the Bourbon Dynasty to the French throne. The ensuing period is called the Restoration, following French usage, and is characterized by a sharp conservative reaction and the re-establishment of the Roman Catholic Church as a power in French politics. Map of the First French Empire in 1811, with the Empire in dark blue and satellite states in light blue Capital Paris Language(s) French Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1804 - 1814/1815 Napoleon I  - 1814/1815 Napoleon II Legislature Parliament  - Upper house Senate  - Lower house Corps législatif Historical era Napoleonic... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Year 1814 (MDCCCXIV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar). ... Liberty Leading the People by Eugène Delacroix commemorates the July Revolution 1830 (MDCCCXXX) was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Capital Paris Language(s) French Government Monarchy King of the French  - 1830-1848 Louis-Phillipe Legislature Parliament  - Upper house Chamber of Peers  - Lower house Chamber of Deputies History  - July Revolution 1830  - Revolution of 1848 1848 Currency French Franc The July Monarchy (1830-1848) was a period of liberal monarchy rule... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (580x840, 192 KB) Royal Arms of France Drawn by Theo van der Zalm I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version... The national flag of France (known in French as drapeau tricolore, drapeau bleu-blanc-rouge, drapeau français, rarely, le tricolore and, in military parlance, les couleurs) is a tricolour featuring three vertical bands coloured blue (hoist side), white, and red. ... The current coat of arms of France has been a symbol of France since 1953, although it does not have any legal status as an official coat of arms. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Throughout the world there are many cities that were once national capitals but no longer have that status because the country ceased to exist, the capital was moved, or the capital city was renamed. ... This article is about the capital of France. ... For the documentary series, see Monarchy (TV series). ... It has been suggested that Regents: France and French States be merged into this article or section. ... Coat of Arms of the Kings of Navarre since 1212. ... Louis XVIII (17 November 1755 – 16 September 1824), was a King of France and Navarre. ... Charles X (October 9, 1757 – November 6, 1836) ruled as King of France and Navarre from 1824 until the French Revolution of 1830, when he abdicated. ... Louis XIX, King of France and of Navarre (Louis-Antoine, duc dAngoulême) (August 6, 1775 - June 3, 1844) was the eldest son of the comte dArtois (later King Charles X of France). ... Henri Charles Ferdinand Marie Dieudonné dArtois, comte de Chambord (September 29, 1820 – August 24, 1883) technically reigned as Henry V, King of France and Navarre from August 2 to August 9, 1830. ... A legislatureis a type of representative deliberative assembly with the power to ratify laws. ... The Parlement of France is bicameral, and consists of the National Assembly (Assemblée Nationale) and the Senate (Sénat). ... is the 96th day of the year (97th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... // The French Revolution of 1830, also known as the July Revolution, saw the overthrow of King Charles X, the last of the House of Bourbons, and the ascension of his cousin Louis-Philippe, the Duc dOrléans, who himself, after eighteen precarious years on the throne, would in turn... is the 21st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... ISO 4217 Code FRF User(s) Monaco, Andorra, France except New Caledonia, French Polynesia, and Wallis and Futuna ERM Since 13 March 1979 Fixed rate since 31 December 1998 Replaced by €, non cash 1 January 1999 Replaced by €, cash 1 January 2002 € = 6. ... Napoléon I, Emperor of the French (born Napoleone di Buonaparte, changed his name to Napoléon Bonaparte)[1] (15 August 1769; Ajaccio, Corsica – 5 May 1821; Saint Helena) was a general during the French Revolution, the ruler of France as First Consul (Premier Consul) of the French Republic from... Also see:  Early Modern France The House of Bourbon is an important European royal house, a branch of the Capetian dynasty. ... Catholic Church redirects here. ...

Contents

Louis XVIII, 1814–1824

Louis XVIII's restoration to the throne in 1814 was effected largely through the support of Napoleon's former foreign minister Talleyrand who convinced the victorious Allied Powers of the desirability of a Bourbon restoration. Louis was forced to grant a written constitution, the Charter of 1814, which guaranteed a bicameral legislature, with a hereditary/appointive Chamber of Peers and an elected Chamber of Deputies. The franchise was limited to men with considerable property holdings. Many of the legal, administrative, and economic reforms of the revolutionary period were left intact; the Napoleonic Code, the land reforms that helped the peasants, and the new system of dividing the country into departments were not undone by the new King. Relations between church and state remained regulated by the Concordat of 1801. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 452 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1119 × 1484 pixel, file size: 240 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Luís XVIII da França, Hotel de Beauharnais, Paris-França séc. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 452 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1119 × 1484 pixel, file size: 240 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Luís XVIII da França, Hotel de Beauharnais, Paris-França séc. ... Louis XVIII (November 17, 1755 - September 16, 1824) was King of France from 1814 (although he declared that he considered his reign to have begun in 1795) until his death in 1824. ... Louis XVIII (November 17, 1755 - September 16, 1824) was King of France from 1814 (although he declared that he considered his reign to have begun in 1795) until his death in 1824. ... Charles Maurice de Talleyrand Charles Maurice de Talleyrand-Périgord (February 2, 1754 - May 17, 1838) was a French diplomat. ... The French Charter of 1814 was a constitution granted by King Louis XVIII of France shortly after his restoration. ... The Peerage of France (French: ) was a distinction within the French nobility which appeared in the Middle Ages. ... Chamber of Deputies (French: ) was the name given to several parliamentary bodies in France in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries: 1814 - 1848 during the Bourbon Restoration and the July Monarchy, the Chamber of Deputies was the Lower chamber of the French Parliament, elected by census suffrage. ... Elections Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Suffrage (from the Latin suffragium, meaning vote) is the civil right to vote, or the exercise of that right. ... First page of the 1804 original edition. ... The word department has a number of meanings: It can mean an administrative sector of the government. ... The Concordat of 1801 reaffirmed the Roman Catholic Church as the major religion of France and restored some of its civil status. ...


After a first sentimental flush of popularity, Louis's gestures towards reversing the results of the French Revolution quickly lost him public support among the disenfranchised majority. Within a year, he fled Paris to Ghent on the news of the return of Napoleon from Elba, but returned after the Battle of Waterloo ended Napoleon's rule of the Hundred Days. This Second Restoration saw the atrocities of The White Terror, largely in the south, when supporters of the monarchy murdered many who had supported Napoleon's return. Although the King and his ministers opposed the violence, they were ineffectual in taking active steps to stop it. The French Revolution (1789–1815) was a period of political and social upheaval in the political history of France and Europe as a whole, during which the French governmental structure, previously an absolute monarchy with feudal privileges for the aristocracy and Catholic clergy, underwent radical change to forms based on... This article is about the Belgian city. ... Elba (bottom centre) from space, February 1994. ... Combatants French Empire Seventh Coalition: United Kingdom Prussia United Netherlands Hanover Nassau Brunswick Commanders Napoleon Bonaparte, Michel Ney Duke of Wellington, Gebhard von Blücher Strength 73,000 67,000 Anglo-Allies 60,000 Prussian (48,000 engaged by about 18:00) Casualties 25,000 killed or wounded 7,000... The Hundred Days (French Cent-Jours) or the Waterloo Campaign commonly refers to the period between 20 March 1815, the date on which Napoleon Bonaparte arrived in Paris after his return from Elba, and 8 July 1815, the date of the restoration of King Louis XVIII. The phrase Cent jours... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into White Terror. ...


Louis's chief ministers were at first moderate, including Talleyrand, the Duc de Richelieu, and Élie Decazes, and Louis himself followed a cautious policy. The Chambre introuvable elected in 1815, dominated by ultraroyalists, or Ultras, was dissolved by Richelieu as being impossible to work with, and electoral manipulation resulted in a more liberal chamber in 1816. Prohibition of divorce was re-established this year. However, the liberals ultimately proved just as unmanageable, and by 1820 Decazes and the King were looking for ways to revise the electoral laws again, to ensure a more tractable conservative majority. However, the assassination of the Duc de Berry, the ultrareactionary son of Louis's ultrareactionary brother (and heir-presumptive) the future Charles X, in February 1820, caused Decazes's fall from power and the triumph of the Ultras. After an interval in which Richelieu returned to power from 1820 to 1821, a new Ultra ministry was formed, headed by the Comte de Villèle, a leading Ultra. Soon, however, Villèle proved himself to be nearly as cautious as his master, and, so long as Louis lived, overtly reactionary policies were kept to a minimum. Armand_Emmanuel du Plessis, Duc de Richelieu, French statesman Armand Emmanuel Sophie Septemanie du Plessis, duc de Richelieu (September 25, 1766 - May 17, 1822) was a French statesman. ... Élie, duc Decazes, French statesman Elie, Comte (later Duc) Decazes (1788 - October 24, 1860), was a French statesman. ... La Chambre introuvable is the name given by king Louis XVIII of France to the 1815-1816 Chamber of Deputies dominated by Ultra-royalists who completely refused the inheritance of the French Revolution. ... The term Ultra-Royalists or simply Ultras refers to a reactionary faction which sat in the French parliament from 1815 to 1830. ... Feminism in France founds its origins in the French Revolution. ... Charles Ferdinand, duc de Berry (1778 - February 13, 1820) was the younger son of Charles X of France and Marie-Thérèse de Savoie. ... Charles X (October 9, 1757 – November 6, 1836) ruled as King of France and Navarre from 1824 until the French Revolution of 1830, when he abdicated. ... Jean-Baptiste Guillaume Joseph Marie Anne Seraphin, comte de Villèle (April 14, 1773 - March 13, 1854), was a French statesman. ...

History of France
Ancient times
  Prehistoric France
  Celtic Gaul
  Roman Gaul (50 BC–486)
  The Franks
    Merovingians (481–751)
France in the Middle Ages
  Carolingians (751–987)
  Direct Capetians (987–1328)
  Valois (direct) (1328–1498)
Early Modern France (1492–1792)
  Valois-Orléans (1498–1515)
  Valois-Angoulême (1515–1589)
  House of Bourbon (1589–1792)
  French Revolution (1789)
France in the 19th century
  First Republic (1792–1804)
    National Convention (1792–1795)
    Directory (1795–1799)
    Consulate (1799–1804)
  First Empire (1804–1814)
  Restoration (1814–1830)
  July Revolution (1830)
  July Monarchy (1830–1848)
  1848 Revolution
  Second Republic (1848–1852)
  Second Empire (1852–1870)
  Third Republic (1870–1940)
    Paris Commune (1871)
France in the 20th century
  Vichy France (1940–1944)
  Provisional Government (1944–1946)
  Fourth Republic (1946–1958)
  Fifth Republic (1958–present)
Topical
  Historical French provinces
  Economic history
  Demographic history
  Military history
  Colonial history
  Art history
  Literary history
  French culture
Timeline of French history
French Portal
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Louis XVIII died on September 16, 1824, and was succeeded by his brother, the comte d'Artois, who took the title of Charles X. The History of France has been divided into a series of separate historical articles navigable through the list to the right. ... “Ancient” redirects here. ... Prehistoric France is the period in the human occupation (including early hominins) of the geographical area covered by present-day France which extended through prehistory and ended in the Iron Age with the Celtic La Tène culture. // France includes Olduwan (Abbevillian) and Acheulean sites from early or non-modern... Gaul (Latin: ) was the name given, in ancient times, to the region of Western Europe comprising present-day northern Italy, France, Belgium, western Switzerland and the parts of the Netherlands and Germany on the west bank of the Rhine river. ... Gaul in the Roman Empire Roman Gaul consisted of an area of provincial rule in what would become modern day France, Belgium, Luxembourg, and western Germany. ... This article is about the Frankish people and society. ... For other uses, see Merovingian (disambiguation). ... This does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Also see: France in the Middle Ages. ... The House of Capet includes any of the direct descendants of Robert the Strong. ... The Valois Dynasty succeeded the Capetian Dynasty as rulers of France from 1328-1589. ... For the administrative and social structures of early modern France, see Ancien Régime in France. ... The Valois Dynasty succeeded the Capetian Dynasty as rulers of France from 1328-1589. ... The Valois Dynasty succeeded the Capetian Dynasty as rulers of France from 1328-1589. ... Also see:  Early Modern France The House of Bourbon is an important European royal house, a branch of the Capetian dynasty. ... The French Revolution (1789–1815) was a period of political and social upheaval in the political history of France and Europe as a whole, during which the French governmental structure, previously an absolute monarchy with feudal privileges for the aristocracy and Catholic clergy, underwent radical change to forms based on... The History of France from 1789 to 1914 (the long 19th century) extends from the French Revolution to World War I and includes the periods of the First French Empire, the Restoration under Louis XVIII and Charles X (1814–1830), the July Monarchy under Louis Philippe dOrléans (1830... Motto: (Liberty, equality, brotherhood, or death!) Anthem: La Marseillaise (unofficial) Capital Paris Language(s) French Government Republic Various  - 1792-1795 National Convention (rule by legislature)  - 1794-1799 Directory  - 1799-1804 First Consul Napoleon Bonaparte Legislature National Convention French Directory French Consulate History  - Storming of the Bastille/French Revolution 14 July... This article is about the legislative body and constitutional convention during the French Revolution. ... Executive Directory (in French Directoire exécutif), commonly known as the Directory (or Directoire) held executive power in France from November 2, 1795 until November 10, 1799: following the Convention and preceding the Consulate. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Map of the First French Empire in 1811, with the Empire in dark blue and satellite states in light blue Capital Paris Language(s) French Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1804 - 1814/1815 Napoleon I  - 1814/1815 Napoleon II Legislature Parliament  - Upper house Senate  - Lower house Corps législatif Historical era Napoleonic... // The French Revolution of 1830, also known as the July Revolution, saw the overthrow of King Charles X, the last of the House of Bourbons, and the ascension of his cousin Louis-Philippe, the Duc dOrléans, who himself, after eighteen precarious years on the throne, would in turn... Capital Paris Language(s) French Government Monarchy King of the French  - 1830-1848 Louis-Phillipe Legislature Parliament  - Upper house Chamber of Peers  - Lower house Chamber of Deputies History  - July Revolution 1830  - Revolution of 1848 1848 Currency French Franc The July Monarchy (1830-1848) was a period of liberal monarchy rule... The February 1848 Revolution in France ended the reign of King Louis-Philippe, and led to the creation of the French Second Republic (1848-1852). ... This article or section is not written in the formal tone expected of an encyclopedia article. ... Map of the French Second Empire Capital Paris Language(s) French Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1852-1870 Napoleon III Legislature Parliament  - Upper house Senate  - Lower house Corps législatif History  - French coup of 1851 December 2 1851  - Established 1852  - Disestablished September 4, 1870 Currency French Franc The Second French Empire or... Motto Liberté, égalité, fraternité (Liberty, equality, brotherhood) Anthem La Marseillaise The French Third Republic, pre-World War I Capital Paris Language(s) French Religion Roman Catholicism, protestantism and judaism official religions (until 1905), None (from 1905 until 1940) (Law on the separation of Church and State of 1905) Government Republic... Le Père Duchesne looking at the statue of Napoleon I on top of the Vendome column: Eh ben ! bougre de canaille, on va donc te foutre en bas comme ta crapule de neveu !… (Well now! buggering rascal, we will knock you the fuck off just like your crook of... The History of France from 1914 to the present, includes the later years of the Third French Republic (1871-1941), the Vichy Regime (1940-1944), the years after Libération (1944-1946), the French Fourth Republic (1946-1958) and the French Fifth Republic (since 1958) and also includes World War... Motto Travail, famille, patrie French: Unoccupied zone of Vichy France (until November 1942) Capital Vichy Capital-in-exile Sigmaringen (1944-1945) Language(s) French Religion Roman Catholic Government Dictatorship Chief of state  - 1940 — 1944 Philippe Pétain President of the Council  - 1940 — 1942 Philippe Pétain  - 1942 — 1944 Pierre Laval... The Provisional Government of the French Republic was an interim government which governed France from 1944 to 1946. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... The Kingdom of France was organised into provinces until March 4, 1790, when the establishment of the département system superseded provinces. ... This is a history of the economy of France. ... With a total fertility rate of 2. ... Henry IV at the Battle of Ivry, by Peter Paul Rubens. ... For the French colonial postage stamps, see French Colonies. ... The visual and plastic arts of France have had an unprecedented diversity -- from the Gothic cathedral of Chartres to Georges de la Tours night scenes to Monets Waterlilies and finally to Duchamps radical Fontaine -- and have exerted an unparalleled influence on world cultural production. ... French literature is, generally speaking, literature written in the French language, particularly by citizens of France; it may also refer to literature written by people living in France who speak other traditional non-French languages. ... Masterpiece painting by Eugène Delacroix called Liberty Leading the People portrays the July Revolution using the stylistic views of Romanticism. ... This is a timeline of French history. ... is the 259th day of the year (260th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1824 was a leap year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Charles X (October 9, 1757 – November 6, 1836) ruled as King of France and Navarre from 1824 until the French Revolution of 1830, when he abdicated. ...


Charles X, 1824–1830

During his brother's reign the comte d'Artois headed the ultra-royalist opposition, which took power after the traumatic assassination of the duc du Berry, with the ministry of the comte de Villèle, who continued as chief minister after Charles became king. Emotionally, Charles never really recovered from his son's murder. The Villèle government voted the Anti-Sacrilege Act in January 1825, which punished by death the theft of consecrated hosts. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (450x626, 200 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): List of French monarchs Charles X of France ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (450x626, 200 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): List of French monarchs Charles X of France ... Charles X (October 9, 1757 – November 6, 1836) ruled as King of France and Navarre from 1824 until the French Revolution of 1830, when he abdicated. ... The term Ultra-Royalists or simply Ultras refers to a reactionary faction which sat in the French parliament from 1815 to 1830 under the Bourbon Restoration. ... Jean-Baptiste Guillaume Joseph Marie Anne Seraphin, comte de Villèle (April 14, 1773 - March 13, 1854), was a French statesman. ... The Anti-Sacrilege Act (1825–1830) was a French law against blasphemy and sacrilege passed in January 1825 under King Charles X. The law was never applied (except for a minor point) and finally revoked under King Louis-Philippe in the first months of the July monarchy. ... Big and small host tongs for baking hosts detail of tongs for baking hosts jagger for making hosts A host is a thin, round wafer made from bread and used for Holy Communion in many Christian churches. ...


The Villèle cabinet resigned in 1827 under pressure from the liberal press, including the Journal des débats, which hosted Chateaubriand's articles. Villèle's successor, the vicomte de Martignac, tried to steer a middle course, but in 1829 Charles appointed Prince Jules Armand de Polignac (Louise de Polastron's nephew), an ultra-reactionary, as chief minister. Polignac initiated French colonization in Algeria. His dissolution of the chamber of deputies, his July Ordinances, which set up rigid control of the press, and his restriction of suffrage resulted in the July Revolution of 1830. The major cause of his downfall, however, was that, while he managed to keep the support of the aristocracy, the Catholic Church and even much of the peasantry, he was deeply unpopular with industrial workers and the bourgeoisie. Journal des Débats - Portrait of Monsieur Bertin, director, by Ingres The Journal des Débats is a French newspaper, published between 1789 and 1944 that changed title several times. ... François-René de Chateaubriand, painting by Anne-Louis Girodet de Roussy-Trioson, beginning of 19th century. ... Jean Baptiste Gay, vicomte de Martignac, French statesman Jean Baptiste Sylvere Gay, Vicomte de Martignac (June 20, 1778 - April 3, 1832), was a French statesman. ... Jules, prince de Polignac, French statesman Jules Auguste Armand Marie, prince de Polignac (1780 - March 29, 1847), French statesman, played a conspicuous part in the clerical and ultra-royalist reaction after the Revolution. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... // The French Revolution of 1830, also known as the July Revolution, saw the overthrow of King Charles X, the last of the House of Bourbons, and the ascension of his cousin Louis-Philippe, the Duc dOrléans, who himself, after eighteen precarious years on the throne, would in turn...


Charles abdicated in favor of his grandson, the Comte de Chambord, and left for England. However, the liberal, bourgeois-controlled Chamber of Deputies refused to confirm the Comte de Chambord as Henri V. In a vote largely boycotted by conservative deputies, the body declared the French throne vacant, and elevated Louis-Philippe, duc d'Orleans, to power. Henri Charles Ferdinand Marie Dieudonne, Comte de Chambord (September 29, 1820 - August 24, 1883) was the grandson of King Charles X of France, the posthumous son of Charless younger son Charles, Duc de Berry, who had been assassinated several months before Henris birth. ... Henri Charles Ferdinand Marie Dieudonne, Comte de Chambord (September 29, 1820 - August 24, 1883) was the grandson of King Charles X of France, the posthumous son of Charless younger son Charles, Duc de Berry, who had been assassinated several months before Henris birth. ... Louis Philippe (real name: Philippe Auclair) is a London-based French singer, songwriter, arranger and producer who has been active from the mid-80s onwards. ... This article is about Orléans, France; for other meanings see Orleans (disambiguation). ...


The Fall of the Restoration, 1827–1830

There is still considerable debate among historians as to the actual cause of the downfall of Charles X. What is generally conceded, though, is that between 1827 and 1830, a series of economic downturns combined with the rise of a liberal opposition within the Chamber of Deputies ultimately felled the conservative Bourbons.


Between 1827 and 1830, France faced an economic downturn, industrial and agricultural, that was possibly worse than the one that sparked the Revolution of 1789. A series of progressively worsening grain harvests pushed up the prices on various staple foods and cash crops. In response, the rural peasantry throughout France lobbied for the relaxation of protective tariffs on grain in order to lower prices and ease their economic situation. However, Charles X, bowing to pressure from wealthier landowners, kept the tariffs in place. He did so based upon the Bourbon response to 1816-1817, during which Louis XVIII relaxed tariffs during a series of famines, caused a downturn in prices, and incurred the ire of wealthy landowners, the traditional source of Bourbon legitimacy. Thus, peasants throughout France between 1827 and 1830 faced a period of relative economic hardship and rising prices. The French Revolution (1789–1815) was a period of political and social upheaval in the political history of France and Europe as a whole, during which the French governmental structure, previously an absolute monarchy with feudal privileges for the aristocracy and Catholic clergy, underwent radical change to forms based on... In agriculture, a cash crop is a crop which is sold for money. ... Development of global average temperatures during the last thousand years. ...


At the same time, international pressures combined with weakened purchasing power from the provinces led to decreased economic activity in urban centers. This industrial downturn contributed to rising poverty levels among Parisian artisans. By 1830, then, multiple demographics had suffered from the economic policies of Charles X.


While the French economy faltered, a series of elections brought a relatively powerful liberal bloc into the Chamber of Deputies. The 17-strong liberal bloc of 1824 grew to 180 in 1827, and 274 in 1830. This liberal majority grew increasingly dissatisfied with the policies of the centrist Martignac and the Ultra-Royalist Polignac, seeking to protect the limited protections of the Charter of 1814. They sought the expansion of the franchise, and more liberal economic policies. They also demanded the right, as the majority bloc, to appoint the Prime Minister and the Cabinet. Jean Baptiste Gay, vicomte de Martignac, French statesman Jean Baptiste Sylvere Gay, Vicomte de Martignac (June 20, 1778 - April 3, 1832), was a French statesman. ... Jules Auguste Armand Marie, prince de Polignac (Versailles, 1780 – March 29, 1847(dubious; discuss) ), was a French statesman. ...


Also, the growth of the liberal bloc within the Chamber of Deputies corresponded roughly with the rise of a liberal press within France. Generally centered around Paris, this press provided a counterpoint to the government's journalistic services, and to the newspapers of the right. It grew increasingly important in conveying political opinions and the political situation to the Parisian public, and can thus be seen as a crucial link between the rise of the liberals and the increasingly agitated and economically suffering French masses.


Thus, by 1830, the Restoration government of Charles X faced difficulties on all sides. The new liberal majority clearly had no intention of budging in the face of Polignac's aggressive policies. The rise of a liberal press within Paris that outsold the official government newspaper indicated a general shift in Parisian politics towards the left. And yet, Charles' base of power was certainly toward the right of the political spectrum, as were his own views. He simply could not yield to the growing demands from within the Chamber of Deputies. The situation would soon come to a head.

Governments of
France series
Gaul
Franks
Valois Dynasty
Bourbon Dynasty
First Republic
First Empire
Bourbon Restoration
House of Orléans
Second Republic
Second Empire
Third Republic
Vichy France
Fourth Republic
Fifth Republic

A government is an organization that has the power to make and enforce laws for a certain territory. ... Gaul (Latin: ) was the name given, in ancient times, to the region of Western Europe comprising present-day northern Italy, France, Belgium, western Switzerland and the parts of the Netherlands and Germany on the west bank of the Rhine river. ... This article is about the Frankish people and society. ... Main articles: France in the Middle Ages and Early Modern France The Valois Dynasty succeeded the Capetian Dynasty as rulers of France from 1328-1589. ... Also see:  Early Modern France The House of Bourbon is an important European royal house, a branch of the Capetian dynasty. ... Motto: (Liberty, equality, brotherhood, or death!) Anthem: La Marseillaise (unofficial) Capital Paris Language(s) French Government Republic Various  - 1792-1795 National Convention (rule by legislature)  - 1794-1799 Directory  - 1799-1804 First Consul Napoleon Bonaparte Legislature National Convention French Directory French Consulate History  - Storming of the Bastille/French Revolution 14 July... Map of the First French Empire in 1811, with the Empire in dark blue and satellite states in light blue Capital Paris Language(s) French Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1804 - 1814/1815 Napoleon I  - 1814/1815 Napoleon II Legislature Parliament  - Upper house Senate  - Lower house Corps législatif Historical era Napoleonic... Duke of Orléans is one of the most important titles in the French peerage, dating back at least to the 14th century. ... This article or section is not written in the formal tone expected of an encyclopedia article. ... Map of the French Second Empire Capital Paris Language(s) French Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1852-1870 Napoleon III Legislature Parliament  - Upper house Senate  - Lower house Corps législatif History  - French coup of 1851 December 2 1851  - Established 1852  - Disestablished September 4, 1870 Currency French Franc The Second French Empire or... Motto Liberté, égalité, fraternité (Liberty, equality, brotherhood) Anthem La Marseillaise The French Third Republic, pre-World War I Capital Paris Language(s) French Religion Roman Catholicism, protestantism and judaism official religions (until 1905), None (from 1905 until 1940) (Law on the separation of Church and State of 1905) Government Republic... Motto Travail, famille, patrie French: Unoccupied zone of Vichy France (until November 1942) Capital Vichy Capital-in-exile Sigmaringen (1944-1945) Language(s) French Religion Roman Catholic Government Dictatorship Chief of state  - 1940 — 1944 Philippe Pétain President of the Council  - 1940 — 1942 Philippe Pétain  - 1942 — 1944 Pierre Laval... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ...

The Four Ordinances

Main articles: July Ordinances and July Revolution

Technically, the Charter of 1814 made France a constitutional monarchy. While the King retained extensive power over policy-making as well as the sole power of the Executive, he was nonetheless reliant upon the Parliament to accept and pass his legal decrees. The Charter also fixed the method of election of the Deputies, their rights within the Chamber of Deputies, and the rights of the majority bloc. Thus, Charles X in 1830 faced a significant problem. He could not overstep his constitutional bounds, and yet, he could not preserve his policies with a liberal majority within the Chamber of Deputies. Stark action was required. A final no-confidence vote by the liberals in March of 1830 spurred the king into action, and he set about to alter the Charter of 1814 by decree. These decrees, known as the Four Ordinances, or the Ordinances of St Cloud, included: This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... // The French Revolution of 1830, also known as the July Revolution, saw the overthrow of King Charles X, the last of the House of Bourbons, and the ascension of his cousin Louis-Philippe, the Duc dOrléans, who himself, after eighteen precarious years on the throne, would in turn...

  1. Dissolution of the Chamber of Deputies
  2. Restriction of the Press Laws
  3. Restriction of the franchise to only the wealthiest within France
  4. Immediate new elections based upon the new electorate.

Word spread quickly of the king's intent. On July 10, 1830, before the King had even made his declarations, a group of wealthy, liberal journalists and newspaper proprietors, led by Adolphe Thiers, met in Paris to decide upon a strategy to counter Charles X. It was decided then, nearly three weeks before the Revolution, that in the event of Charles' expected proclamations, the journalistic establishment of Paris would publish vitriolic criticisms of the King’s policies in an attempt to mobilize the masses (this is the assertion of H.A.C. Collingham, and may require more explanation or elaboration). Thus, When Charles X made his declarations on the July 25, 1830, the liberal journalism machine mobilized, publishing articles and complaints decrying the despotism of the King’s actions. is the 191st day of the year (192nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A caricature of Adolphe Thiers charging on the Paris Commune, published in Le Père Duchêne illustré Louis Adolphe Thiers (April 16, 1797–September 3, 1877) was a French statesman and historian. ... is the 206th day of the year (207th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


The urban mobs of Paris also mobilized, driven by patriotic fervor and economic hardship, assembling barricades and attacking the infrastructure of Charles X. Within days, the situation escalated beyond the ability of the monarchy to control it. As the Crown moved to shut down liberal periodicals, the radical Parisian masses defended those publications. They also launched attacks against pro-Bourbon presses, and paralyzed the coercive apparatus of the monarchy. Seizing the opportunity, the liberals in Parliament began drafting resolutions, complaints, and censures against the King.


The king finally abdicated on July 30. Twenty minutes later, his son, Le Duc d'Angouleme, also abdicated. The Crown nominally fell upon Charles X's grandson, the would-be Henry V. Instead, the newly-empowered Chamber of Deputies declared the throne vacant, and elevated Louis-Philippe, Duc de Orleans, to power. Thus, the July Monarchy began. is the 211th day of the year (212th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Louis-Philippe and the House of Orleans

Louis-Philippe ascended the throne on the strength of the July Revolution of 1830, and ruled, not as "King of France" but as "King of the French," marking the shift to national sovereignty. The Orleanists were thereafter in power, defeating the Legitimists. // The French Revolution of 1830, also known as the July Revolution, saw the overthrow of King Charles X, the last of the House of Bourbons, and the ascension of his cousin Louis-Philippe, the Duc dOrléans, who himself, after eighteen precarious years on the throne, would in turn... Sovereignty is the exclusive right to exercise supreme authority over a geographic region or group of people, such as a nation or a tribe. ... Orleanists comprised a French political faction or party which arose out of the Revolution, and ceased to have a separate existence shortly after the establishment of the Third Republic in 1872. ... Legitimists are those Royalists in France who believe that the King of France and Navarre must be chosen according to the simple application of the Salic Law. ...


Following the ousting of the last king to rule France during the February 1848 Revolution, the Second Republic was formed after the election of Louis Napoleon Bonaparte as President (1848–1852), who subsequently made a coup in 1851 and had himself declared Emperor Napoleon III of the Second Empire from 1852–1871. Painting of a barricade on Rue Soufflot (with the Panthéon behind), Paris, June 1848. ... The French Second Republic (often simply Second Republic) was the republican regime of France from February 25, 1848 to December 2, 1852. ... Charles Louis Napoléon Bonaparte (April 20, 1808 - January 9, 1873) was the son of King Louis Bonaparte and Queen Hortense de Beauharnais; both monarchs of the French puppet state, the Kingdom of Holland. ... The Coup dÉtat of 2 December 1851 was the coup détat staged by Louis-Napoléon Bonaparte, President of the French Republic, who was successful by this means in dissolving the French National Assembly without having the constitutional right to do so. ... Charles Louis Napoléon Bonaparte (April 20, 1808 - January 9, 1873) was the son of King Louis Bonaparte and Queen Hortense de Beauharnais; both monarchs of the French puppet state, the Kingdom of Holland. ... Map of the French Second Empire Capital Paris Language(s) French Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1852-1870 Napoleon III Legislature Parliament  - Upper house Senate  - Lower house Corps législatif History  - French coup of 1851 December 2 1851  - Established 1852  - Disestablished September 4, 1870 Currency French Franc The Second French Empire or...


Political parties under Restoration

Political parties saw substantial changes of alignment and membership under the Restoration. The Chamber of Deputies oscillated between recessive ultra-royalist phases and progressive liberal phases. Opponents of the monarchy were absent from the political scene because of the repression of the White Terror. Individuals of influence who had different visions of the French constitutional monarchy clashed. A political party is a political organization that seeks to attain political power within a government, usually by participating in electoral campaigns. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into White Terror. ... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A constitutional monarchy or limited monarchy is a form of government established under a constitutional system which acknowledges an elected or hereditary monarch as head of state, as opposed to an absolute monarchy, where the monarch is not...


All parties remained fearful of the common people, whom Adolphe Thiers later referred to by the term cheap multitude. Their political sights were set on a favoritism of class. Political changes in the Chamber were due to abuse by the majority tendancy (involving a dissolution and then an inversion of the majority) or critical events (for example, the assassination of the Duke of Berry in 1820). A caricature of Adolphe Thiers charging on the Paris Commune, published in Le Père Duchêne illustré Louis Adolphe Thiers (April 16, 1797–September 3, 1877) was a French statesman and historian. ... Charles Ferdinand, duc de Berry (1778 - February 13, 1820), younger son of Charles X of France, was born at Versailles. ...


Disputes were a power struggle between the powerful (royalty against deputies) rather than a fight between royal tyranny and noble defenders of the interests of the people. Although the deputies claimed to defend the interests of the people, most had an important fear of common people, of innovations, of socialism and even of simple measures such as the extension of voting rights. Religious socialism Key Issues People and organizations Related subjects Socialism refers to a broad array of ideologies and political movements with the goal of a socio-economic system in which property and the distribution of wealth are subject to control by the community. ... Voting rights refers to the right of a person to vote in an election. ...


The principal political parties during the Restoration were:


Constitutionnels

Constitutionnels were mostly rich and educated middle-class men: lawyers, senior officials of the Empire and academics. They feared the triumph of the aristocracy as much as that of the democrats. They accepted the charter because it guaranteed freedom and civil equality and created a barrier to the popular masses who were considered unable, because of their ignorance, to be involved in the management of public affairs. Important personalities were Pierre-Paul Royer-Collard, François Guizot and the count of Serre. Their newspapers were Le Courrier Français and Le Censeur Pierre Paul Royer-Collard (June 21, 1763 - September 2, 1845), was a French statesman and philosopher. ... François Pierre Guillaume Guizot (October 4, 1787 -September 12, 1874) was a French historian, orator and statesman. ...


Doctrinaires

Doctrinaires promoted a return to a moderate monarchy and were opposed to the extremists in the early period of the Restoration. Doctrinaires was the name given during the Bourbon Restoration (1814-1830) to the little group of French Royalists who hoped to reconcile the Monarchy with the Revolution, and power with liberty. ...


Independents

Independents were mostly lower middle class: doctors and lawyers, tradesmen, men of law and, in rural constituencies, traders of national goods. They rejected the charter, considering it too conservative. They rejected the treaties of 1815, the white flag and the pre-eminence of clergy and of nobility. Important personalities were parliamentary monarchist Benjamin Constant, officer of the Empire General Foy, republican lawyer Jacques Antoine Manuel and Fayette. Their newspapers were La Minerve, Le Constitutionnel and Le Globe. April 5-12: Mount Tambora explodes, changing climate. ... Clergy is the generic term used to describe the formal religious leadership within a given religion. ... Nobility is a traditional hereditary status (see hereditary titles) that exists today in many countries (mainly present or former monarchies). ... Please wikify (format) this article or section as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... Fayette is the name of a number of places in the United States of America. ... Le Globe was a French newspaper, published between 1824 and 1832, created with the goal of publishing Romantic creations. ...


Liberal royalists

Liberals appeared as a party in the last years of the Restoration. Liberal royalists preached movement towards more liberty and openness. They wished to lower the taxable quota to support the middle-class as a whole, to the detriment of the aristocracy. Liberals had profited from the emergence of a new middle-class elite, due to the industrial revolution, which upset the aristocratic order. Look up liberal on Wiktionary, the free dictionary Liberal may refer to: Politics: Liberalism American liberalism, a political trend in the USA Political progressivism, a political ideology that is for change, often associated with liberal movements Liberty, the condition of being free from control or restrictions Liberal Party, members of... A Watt steam engine, the steam engine that propelled the Industrial Revolution in Britain and the world. ...


Republicans

Facing the representatives of the middle class, the Republicans, then situated on the extreme left, addressed the miserable world of the worker. Workers were not represented, nor listened to. Their demonstrations were repressed or diverted, causing at most a reinforcement of parliamentarism, which did not mean democratic evolution, only wider taxation. For some such as Blanqui, revolution seemed the only solution. Look up republican in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A parliamentary system, or parliamentarism, is distinguished by the executive branch of government being dependent on the direct or indirect support of the parliament, often expressed through a vote of confidence. ... Louis Auguste Blanqui (February 8, 1805 _ January 1, 1881) was a French political activist. ...


Ultra-royalists

Ultra-royalists wished for a return to the Ancien Régime, such as before 1789, with a view toward absolutism: domination by the nobility and "other devoted Christians". They were anti-Republican, anti-Democratic, and preached Government on High, by a marked noble elite. They tolerated "vote censitaire": a form of democracy limited to taxpayers. Ultra-royalists were interested in preserving aristocracy and promoting absolutism. They found the charter of 1814 to be too revolutionary. The ultra-royalists wanted a return to monarchy, the re-establishment of privileges and a king: Charles X. Prominent ultra-royalists theorists were Louis de Bonald and Joseph de Maistre. Their parliamentary leaders were François of Bourdonnaye, baron de Vitrolles and in 1829 Jules de Polignac. Their newspapers were La Quotidienne and La Gazette. The term Ultra-Royalists or simply Ultras refers to a reactionary faction which sat in the French parliament from 1815 to 1830 under the Bourbon Restoration. ... Ancien Régime, a French term meaning Former Regime, but rendered in English as Old Rule, Old Order, or simply Old Regime, refers primarily to the aristocratic social and political system established in France under the Valois and Bourbon dynasties. ... Year 1789 (MDCCLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... Absolutism is a political theory which argues that one person, who is often generally a monarch, should hold all power. ... Look up republican in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Democracy is a form of government under which the power to alter the laws and structures of government lies, ultimately, with the citizenry. ... The term Ultra-Royalists or simply Ultras refers to a reactionary faction which sat in the French parliament from 1815 to 1830 under the Bourbon Restoration. ... Absolutism is a political theory which argues that one person, who is often generally a monarch, should hold all power. ... The French Charter of 1814 was a constitution granted by King Louis XVIII of France shortly after his restoration. ... For the documentary series, see Monarchy (TV series). ... Charles X (October 9, 1757 – November 6, 1836) ruled as King of France and Navarre from 1824 until the French Revolution of 1830, when he abdicated. ... Louis Gabriel Ambroise, vicomte de Bonald (October 2, 1754 - November 23, 1840), French philosopher and politician, was born at Le Monna, near Millau in Aveyron. ... Joseph de Maistre (portrait by Karl Vogel von Vogelstein, 1810) Joseph-Marie, Comte de Maistre (April 1, 1753- February 26, 1821) was a French-speaking Savoyard lawyer, diplomat, writer, and philosopher. ... Johann Wolfgang von Goethe 1829 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Jules, prince de Polignac, French statesman Jules Auguste Armand Marie, prince de Polignac (1780 - March 29, 1847), French statesman, played a conspicuous part in the clerical and ultra-royalist reaction after the Revolution. ...


See also

Armand Emmanuel Sophie Septemanie du Plessis, duc de Richelieu (September 25, 1766 - May 17, 1822) was a prominent French statesman during the Bourbon Restoration. ... Élie, duc Decazes, French statesman Elie, Comte (later Duc) Decazes (1788 - October 24, 1860), was a French statesman. ... Mathieu Jean Felicité, duc de Mont-Morency-Laval (July 10, 1766 - March 24, 1826), French politician, was born in Paris. ... François-René de Chateaubriand, painting by Anne-Louis Girodet de Roussy-Trioson, beginning of 19th century. ... Jean-Baptiste Guillaume Joseph Marie Anne Séraphin, comte de Villèle (April 14, 1773 - March 13, 1854), was a French statesman. ... Jules Auguste Armand Marie, prince de Polignac (Versailles, 1780 – March 29, 1847(dubious; discuss) ), was a French statesman. ... La Chambre introuvable is the name given by king Louis XVIII of France to the 1815-1816 Chamber of Deputies dominated by Ultra-royalists who completely refused the inheritance of the French Revolution. ... The Anti-Sacrilege Act (1825–1830) was a French law against blasphemy and sacrilege passed in January 1825 under King Charles X. The law was never applied (except for a minor point) and finally revoked under King Louis-Philippe in the first months of the July monarchy. ... This is the Kings of France family tree, including all kings, from Charles Magne to the advent of the Republic. ... The tone of this article is inappropriate for an encyclopedia article. ...

Sources

  • Collingham, Hugh A. C. (1988). The July Monarchy: A Political History of France, 1830–1848. London: Longman. ISBN 0582021863. 
  • Pilbeam, Pamela (June 1989). "The Economic Crisis of 1827–32 and the 1830 Revolution in Provincial France". The Historical Journal 32 (2). 
  • Rader, Daniel L. (1973). The Journalists and the July Revolution in France. The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff. ISBN 9024715520. 

Further reading

  • G. de Bertier de Sauvigny (Spring 1981). "The Bourbon Restoration: One Century of French Historiography". French Historical Studies 12 (1): 41-67. 
  • Kroen, Sheryl T. (Winter 1998). "Revolutionizing Religious Politics during the Restoration". French Historical Studies 21 (1): 27-53. 
  • Newman, Edgar Leon (March 1974). "The Blouse and the Frock Coat: The Alliance of the Common People of Paris with the Liberal Leadership and the Middle Class during the Last Years of the Bourbon Restoration". The Journal of Modern History 46 (1): 26-59. 
  • Pilbeam, Pamela (June 1982). "The Growth of Liberalism and the Crisis of the Bourbon Restoration, 1827-1830". The Historical Journal 25 (2): 351-366. 
French Historical Studies is the quarterly journal of the Society for French Historical Studies (SFHS), one of the two primary historical societies devoted to the study of French history headquartered in the United States. ... French Historical Studies is the quarterly journal of the Society for French Historical Studies (SFHS), one of the two primary historical societies devoted to the study of French history headquartered in the United States. ... The Journal of Modern History is an academic journal published by the University of Chicago Press. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
NationMaster - Encyclopedia: Restoration of the Bourbons (379 words)
Following the ouster of Napoleon Bonaparte in 1814, the Allies restored the Bourbon Dynasty to the French throne.
Following the ouster of the last king to rule France in 1848, the Second Republic was formed after the election of Charles Louis Napoleon Bonaparte as President (1848-1852), who subsequently had himself declared Emperor Napoleon III of the Second Empire from 1852 - 1871.
Specialist historians describing the campaign of 1813 or the restoration of the Bourbons plainly assert that these events were produced by the will of Alexander.
Hugues-Bernard Maret, duc de Bassano - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (754 words)
On the withdrawal of the British legation, Maret went on a mission to London, where he had a favourable interview with William Pitt the Younger on December 22, 1792 - all hope of an accommodation was, however, in vain.
After the execution of Bourbon King Louis XVI (January 21, 1793), the chief French diplomatic agent, François Bernard Chauvelin, was ordered to leave Britain, while the National Convention declared war (February 1, 1793 - see French Revolutionary Wars: Campaigns of 1793).
After the full Restoration of the Bourbons, Maret was exiled, and retired to Graz, where he occupied himself with literary work.
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