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Encyclopedia > Bottom quark

The bottom quark is a third-generation quark with a charge of -(1/3)e. Although all quarks are described in a similar way by the theory of Quantum Chromodynamics, the bottom quark's large mass (around 4 GeV, or four times the mass of a proton) gives it a distinctive signature that makes it relatively easy to identify experimentally (a technique called B-tagging). Because three generations of quark are required for CP violation (see CKM matrix for an explanation of why), mesons containing the bottom quark are the easiest particles to use to investigate the phenomenon; this is being done at the BaBar and Belle experiments. The bottom is also notable because it is a product in almost all top quark decays, and a frequent decay product for the hypothetical Higgs Boson if it is sufficiently light. Quarks are one of the two basic constituents of matter in the Standard Model of particle physics. ... The elementary charge (symbol e or sometimes q) is the electric charge carried by a single proton, or equivalently, the negative of the electric charge carried by a single electron. ... Theory has a number of distinct meanings, depending on the context. ... Quantum chromodynamics (QCD) is the theory describing one of the fundamental forces, the strong interaction. ... A GEV (or Ground Effect Vehicle) is vehicle that takes advantage of the aerodynamic principle of ground effect (or Wing-in-ground). ... Properties In physics, the proton (Greek proton = first) is a subatomic particle with an electric charge of one positive fundamental unit (1. ... B-tagging is the name given to the special efforts required in modern Particle detectors to identify jets originating from bottom quarks (b-quarks). ... CP-symmetry is a symmetry obtained by a combination of the C-symmetry and the P-symmetry. ... In the standard model of particle physics the Cabibbo Kobayashi Maskawa matrix (CKM matrix, sometimes earlier called KM matrix) is a unitary matrix which contains information on the strength of flavour changing weak decays. ... In particle physics, a meson is a strongly interacting boson, that is, it is a hadron with integral spin. ... Babar can refer to: Babar the Elephant The BaBar Experiment at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Babur (also spelled Baber or Babar), 16th-century ruler of India and founder of the Mogul Empire Babar Island, an island of Indonesia Safir A Babar, This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which... Belle was once a member of RBAP who believed a Husky could jump a 6 foot fence without a running start. ... The top quark is a third-generation quark with a charge of +2/3. ... The Higgs boson is a hypothetical elementary particle predicted to exist by the Standard Model of particle physics. ...


The bottom quark was discovered at Fermilab in 1977. Fermilab Robert Rathbun Wilson Hall Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab), located in Batavia near Chicago, Illinois, is a U.S. Department of Energy national laboratory specializing in high-energy particle physics, operated for the Department of Energy by the Universities Research Association (URA). ... 1977 was a common year starting on Saturday (the link is to a full 1977 calendar). ...


On its discovery, a valiant effort was made by many particle physicists to name it "Beauty", paired along with "Truth". Poetic license gave way to pragmatics, and the quarks were named Top and Bottom instead.


Hadrons containing bottom quarks

Some of the hadrons containing bottom quarks include: In particle physics, a hadron is a subatomic particle which experiences the strong nuclear force. ...

In particle physics, a meson is a strongly interacting boson, that is, it is a hadron with integral spin. ... Corresponding to each kind of particle, there is an associated antiparticle with the same mass and spin. ... For other uses of this term, see: Quark (disambiguation) 1974 discovery photograph of a possible charmed baryon, now identified as the Σc++ In particle physics, the quarks are subatomic particles thought to be elemental and indivisible. ... For other uses of this term, see: Quark (disambiguation) 1974 discovery photograph of a possible charmed baryon, now identified as the Σc++ In particle physics, the quarks are subatomic particles thought to be elemental and indivisible. ... For other uses of this term, see: Quark (disambiguation) 1974 discovery photograph of a possible charmed baryon In particle physics, the quarks are subatomic particles thought to be elemental and indivisible. ... For other uses of this term, see: Quark (disambiguation) 1974 discovery photograph of a possible charmed baryon, now identified as the Σc++ In particle physics, the quarks are subatomic particles thought to be elemental and indivisible. ... In high energy physics, a bottomonium is any of the flavorless, heavy mesons that are composed by a bottom quark and an anti-bottom quark. ... The upsilon particle () is a flavorless meson formed from a bottom quark and its antiparticle. ... In particle physics, the baryons are a family of subatomic particles including the proton and the neutron (collectively called nucleons), as well as a number of unstable, heavier particles (called hyperons). ...

External links

  • Bottom quark information on Fermilab website

Particles in physics - elementary particles List of particles in particle physics. ... Since antiquity, people have tried to understand the behavior of matter: why unsupported objects drop to the ground, why different materials have different properties, and so forth. ... In particle physics, an elementary particle is a particle of which other, larger particles are composed. ...

edit
Fermions: Quarks | Leptons
Quarks: Up | Down | Strange | Charm | Bottom | Top
Leptons: Electron | Muon | Tau | Neutrinos
Gauge bosons: Photon | W+, W- and Z0 bosons | Gluons
Not yet observed: Higgs boson | Graviton | Other hypothetical particles

  Results from FactBites:
 
Quark - MSN Encarta (1524 words)
Unlike other elementary particles, quarks have electric charges that are a fraction of the standard charge—that is, the charge (e) of one proton.
A particle containing the charm quark, the second-generation partner of the strange quark, was discovered at the Stanford Linear Accelerator and at the Brookhaven National Laboratory in Brookhaven, New York, in 1974.
The bottom quark was discovered in 1977 and, after a long search by physicists from all over the world, the top quark was found in 1995.
Bottom quark - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (359 words)
The bottom quark is a third-generation quark with a charge of -(1/3)e.
Although all quarks are described in a similar way by the theory of quantum chromodynamics, the bottom quark's large mass (around 4 GeV, or four times the mass of a proton), combined with low values of CKM values V
Because three generations of quark are required for CP violation (see CKM matrix for an explanation of why), mesons containing the bottom quark are the easiest particles to use to investigate the phenomenon; this is being done at the BaBar and Belle experiments.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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