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Encyclopedia > Bottled water
A 1.5 liter bottle of water

Bottled water is drinking water packaged in bottles for individual consumption and retail sale. Image File history File links Emblem-important. ... Image File history File links Gnome-globe. ... Download high resolution version (960x1280, 172 KB)Costco-brand Kirkland Signature bottled water. ... Download high resolution version (960x1280, 172 KB)Costco-brand Kirkland Signature bottled water. ... Tap water Mineral Water Drinking water is water that is intended to be ingested through drinking by humans. ... Composite body, painted, and glazed bottle. ...


The water used can be glacial water, spring water, well water, purified water as well as public water sources (ie, tap water). Many countries, particularly developed countries, regulate the quality of bottled water through government standards, typically used to ensure that water quality is safe and labels accurately reflect bottle contents. In many developing countries, however, such standards are variable and are often less stringent than those of developed nations[citation needed]. This article is about the geological formation. ... A spring is a point where groundwater flows out of the ground, and is thus where the aquifer surface meets the ground surface. ... Well water is drawn via mechanical pump from a source below the surface of the earth. ... Purified water can come from any source, including spring water, well water, seawater, or municipal water. ... A developed country is a country that has achieved (currently or historically) a high degree of industrialization, and which enjoys the higher standards of living which wealth and technology make possible. ... A developing country is a country with low average income compared to the world average. ...

Contents

Demand

The sales for bottled water are estimated to be between $50 and $100 billion (US) annually and increasing approximately 7 to 10 percent annually. In 2004, total sales were approximately 154 billion liters (41 billion gallons).[1]


In developed countries, demand is driven by a variety of factors including convenience, the perception that bottled water may be safer than local municipal water, and taste preferences. Packaging and advertising work to foster these perceptions and brand bottled water in ways similar to branded soft drinks. Though many municipalities, particularly in the developed world, provide high-quality, highly regulated, potable water, occasional problems with contamination from commercial fertilizer, MTBE, or other contaminants are often widely publicized. Violations of tap water standards are, in the United States, openly reported, especially examples like the severe 1993 Cryptosporidium outbreak in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, which led to 100 deaths and 400,000 illnesses (see: Milwaukee Cryptosporidium outbreak). For other uses, see Brand (disambiguation). ... A soft drink is a drink that contains no alcohol. ... Spreading manure, an organic fertilizer Fertilizers (also spelled fertilisers) are compounds given to plants to promote growth; they are usually applied either via the soil, for uptake by plant roots, or by foliar feeding, for uptake through leaves. ... MTBE is highly flammable and is widely used as an oxygenate. ... Species Cryptosporidium bailey Cryptosporidium meleagridis Cryptosporidium muris Cryptosporidium parvum Cryptosporidium serpentis Cryptosporidium is a protozoan pathogen of the Phylum Apicomplexa and causes a diarrheal illness called cryptosporidiosis. ... For other places with the same name, see Milwaukee (disambiguation). ... The 1993 Milwaukee Cryptosporidium outbreak was a significant distribution of the Cryptosporidium protozoan in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, and the largest waterborne disease outbreak in documented United States history. ...


In most developed countries, however, especially the United States, the regulations governing tap water quality, monitoring, and regulation are more stringent than those for bottled water, where monitoring is less frequent and strict, and reporting violations is often voluntary. In the United States, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency set standards for tap water; the Food and Drug Administration sets standards for bottled water. EPA redirects here. ... “FDA” redirects here. ...


In developing countries, demand is driven by similar factors but further increased by the lack of potable groundwater in many areas, the lack of reliable or safe municipal water in many urban areas, chemical and organic pollution of ground and well water, and convenience relative to boiling or otherwise treating accessible but potentially contaminated water. As in richer countries, advertising also contributes to water sales in developing countries. Though bottled water may provide an alternative to unsafe drinking water, it does so only for those able to afford it; many of the world's poorest people cannot afford bottled water (UN World Water Development Report 2006).


In 2006, the US bottled water sales surpassed 8 Billion gallons of water (31 billion liters)(Beverage Marketing Corporation, 2007) exceeding sales of all other beverages except carbonated soft drinks.


Regulation

Regulation of bottled water varies widely by country, with developed nations generally having more regulation and enforcement than developing countries.


Regulation in the United States

In the United States, specific definitions and meanings ("standards of identity") apply to the most common types of bottled water. Bottled water manufacturers must ensure that their products meet the FDA established standard of identity for bottled water products. A bottled water product bearing a particular statement of identity (e.g., mineral water) must meet the requirements of the standard of identity in order to avoid being misbranded. For example, under the standard of identity regulations bottled water may only be labeled "mineral water" in the United States if it: (1) contains not less than 250 ppm total dissolved solids; (2) comes from a source tapped at one or more bore holes or springs; (3) originates from a hydrogeologically protected source; and (4) contains no added minerals. There are similar definitions for bottled water, drinking water, artesian water, ground water, distilled water, deionized water, reverse osmosis water, purified water, sparkling bottled water, spring water, sterile water and well water. A bottled water product must bear the appropriate name as reflected in the applicable standard of identity definition or it is misbranded. A standard of identity for a food product is the legal terminology used in the United States for a government regulation which establishes the criteria which must be met before foods can be labeled in a certain way. ...


Nutritional information required on water bottle labels varies from region to region and country to country. In the U.S. the only labeling required in the traditional "nutrition" label, which has almost no relevant information for water. In Europe, labels must include a chemical analysis for a far wider set of minerals. Bottled water in the U.S. is regulated by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), who demand suppliers use an "approved source", which the FDA defines as: The Nutrition Facts table indicates the amounts of nutrients which experts recommend you limit or consume in adequate amounts. ... “FDA” redirects here. ...

[approved source] means a source of water...that has been inspected and the water sampled, analyzed, and found to be of a safe and sanitary quality according to applicable laws and regulations of state and local government agencies having jurisdiction.

However, the FDA does not define guidelines for which regulations may be considered applicable, nor set requirements for water sources in the absence of applicable laws. Additionally, bottled water suppliers are not required to provide details of the water source on the labels. Water bottlers are permitted to sell contaminated water if, and only if, their labeling notes the water contains "excessive bacteria" or "excessive chemical substances". Water bottlers are not required to test for the presence of E. coli, cryptosporidium, giardia, asbestos, or certain organic compounds such as benzenes.[2] E. coli redirects here. ... Species Cryptosporidium bailey Cryptosporidium meleagridis Cryptosporidium muris Cryptosporidium parvum Cryptosporidium serpentis Cryptosporidium is a protozoan pathogen of the Phylum Apicomplexa and causes a diarrheal illness called cryptosporidiosis. ... Binomial name Giardia lamblia (Kunstler, 1882) Giardia lamblia (formerly also Lamblia intestinalis) is a protozoan parasite that infects the gastrointestinal tract of humans. ... For other uses, see Asbestos (disambiguation). ... Benzene is the simplest of the arenes, a family of organic compounds An organic compound is any member of a large class of chemical compounds whose molecules contain carbon. ... For benzine, see petroleum ether. ...


In the United States, tap water is regulated by the stringent United States Environmental Protection Agency. Bottled water is regulated under a similar, but significantly less strict set of regulations from the United States Food and Drug Administration under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act ("FFDCA" or the "Act"), 21 U.S.C. § 301et seq. [3] EPA redirects here. ... The United States Food and Drug Administration is the government agency responsible for regulating food, dietary supplements, drugs, cosmetics, medical devices, biologics and blood products in the United States. ...


U.S. FDA "Standards of Identity" for Bottled Water

The FDA has established "Standards of Identity" for bottled water products sold in the U.S. Note that other countries have different definitions and standards; some countries have no consistent labeling requirements. Some of the more common U.S. types of bottled water are listed below:

  • Artesian Water - This type of water originates from a confined aquifer that has been tapped. The distinguishing feature of water from an artesian aquifer is that it flows from the tap due to gravity; the subterranean water level is at a height greater than that of the location of the tap.
  • Fluoridated Water - This type of water contains fluoride added within the limitations established in the FDA Code of Federal Regulations. This category includes water classified as "For Infants" or "Nursery."
  • Mineral Water - This type of water contains at least 250 parts per million total dissolved solids (TDS). It comes from a source tapped at one or more bore holes or spring, and originates from a geologically and physically protected underground water source. No minerals may be added to this water.
  • Purified water - This type of water has been produced by distillation, deionization, reverse osmosis, or other suitable processes. Purified water may also be referred to as "demineralized water." It meets the definition of "purified water" in the United States Pharmacopoeia.
  • Sparkling Water - This type of water contains the same amount of carbon dioxide that it had at emergence from the source. The carbon dioxide may be removed and replenished after treatment.
  • Spring Water - This type of water comes from an underground formation from which water flows naturally to the Earth's surface.
  • Sterile Water - This type of water meets the requirements under "sterility tests" in the United States Pharmacopoeia.

Geological strata giving rise to an Artesian well. ... An aquifer is an underground layer of water-bearing permeable rock or unconsolidated materials (gravel, sand, silt, or clay) from which groundwater can be usefully extracted using a water well. ... Water fluoridation is the practice of adding fluoride compounds to water with the intended purpose of reducing tooth decay in the general population. ... Fluoride is the ionic form of fluorine. ... Groundwater is any water found below the land surface. ... Diurnal (daily) rhythm of air pressure in northern Germany (black curve is air pressure) Atmospheric pressure is the pressure at any point in the Earths atmosphere. ... In many places, mineral water is often colloquially used to mean carbonated water (which is usually carbonated mineral water, as opposed to tap water). ... For other uses, see Mineral (disambiguation). ... Purified water can come from any source, including spring water, well water, seawater, or municipal water. ... Laboratory distillation set-up: 1: Heat source 2: Still pot 3: Still head 4: Thermometer/Boiling point temperature 5: Condenser 6: Cooling water in 7: Cooling water out 8: Distillate/receiving flask 9: Vacuum/gas inlet 10: Still receiver 11: Heat control 12: Stirrer speed control 13: Stirrer/heat plate... Deionized water (DI water or de-ionized water; also spelled deionised water, see spelling differences) is water that lacks ions, such as cations from sodium, calcium, iron, copper and anions such as chloride and bromide. ... Reverse osmosis is a separation process that uses pressure to force a solvent through a membrane that retains the solute on one side and allows the pure solvent to pass to the other side. ... Effervescence from soda. ... Carbon dioxide is a chemical compound composed of two oxygen atoms covalently bonded to a single carbon atom. ... A natural spring on Mackinac Island in Michigan. ... Sterilization (or sterilisation) refers to any process that effectively kills or eliminates transmissible agents (such as fungi, bacteria, viruses and prions) from a surface, equipment, foods, medications, or biological culture medium. ... Village pump redirects here, for information on Wikipedia project-related discussions, see Wikipedia:Village pump. ... Look up well in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...

Markets

The United States is the largest market for bottled water, at 26 billion liters in 2004. On average, this is one 8-ounce glass per person per day. Italy has the highest average consumption per person, at two 8-ounce glasses per person per day.


Consumption by Country

Here is data for global markets in 2004, in billions of liters consumed. As ordered in greatest from least.[4]

  • All Others 39.9
  • USA 25.8
  • Mexico 17.7
  • China 11.9
  • Brazil 11.6
  • Italy 10.7
  • Germany 10.3
  • France 8.5
  • Indonesia 7.4
  • Spain 5.5
  • India 5.1
  • Total 154.3

Consumption per Person

Per person data is shown below, in average number of liters consumed per person per year.

  • Italy 183.6
  • Mexico 168.5
  • United Arab Emirates 163.5
  • Belgium 148.0
  • France 141.6
  • Spain 136.7
  • Germany 124.9
  • Lebanon 101.4
  • Switzerland 99.6
  • Cyprus 92.0
  • United States 90.5
  • Saudi Arabia 87.8
  • Czech Republic 87.1
  • Austria 82.1
  • Portugal 80.3
  • India 79.6
  • Global Average 24.2

More data and graphs are available externally.


Producer Revenues

U.S. Bottled Water Market, producer revenues, 2000 – 2006

Year Millions of US dollars Annual Change
2000 $6,113.0 --
2001 $6,880.6 12.6%
2002 $7,901.4 14.8%
2003 $8,526.4 7.9%
2004 $9,169.4 7.5%
2005 $10,012.5 9.2%
2006 * $10,980.0 9.7%

(*) Preliminary
Source: Beverage Marketing Corporation.[5][6]


Impact of bottled water

A large pile of full Poland Spring bottles
A large pile of full Poland Spring bottles

With sales of $11 billion a year [1], bottled water is a successful product available throughout the world. The behaviors it enables are the subject of vocal criticism. This criticism primarily falls into environmental, economic, and health categories. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2560x1920, 2470 KB)Lots and lots of bottled water This file is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution ShareAlike 2. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2560x1920, 2470 KB)Lots and lots of bottled water This file is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution ShareAlike 2. ... Poland Spring is a brand of bottled water manufactured by a subsidiary of Nestlé.[1] It was founded in 1845 by Hiram Ricker. ...


Environmental impact

In 2004 the total global consumption of bottled water was 154 billion liters (41 billion gallons), a 57 percent increase from the 98 billion liters consumed in 1999.[7] Americans buy about 28 billion water bottles a year, 80% end up in landfills. California is leading the solution by recycling 60% of their bottles. (12 billion out of 20 billion sold)[citation needed] The environmental impact of bottled water includes

  • energy use in manufacturing, storing and transporting bottled water;
  • local effects on water resources; and
  • generation of solid waste.

Energy use in manufacturing, storage and transport

The Pacific Institute calculates that the process of making the plastic bottles for the water bottles consumed in the U.S. uses approximately 17 million barrels of oil per year. The manufacture of every ton of PET produces around 3 tons of carbon dioxide (CO2). Bottling water thus created more than 2.5 million tons of CO2 in 2006. [8] The Pacific Institute is a non-profit research institute created in 1987 to provide independent research and policy analysis on issues at the intersection of development, environment, and security. ... This article is about animals kept for companionship. ... Carbon dioxide is a chemical compound composed of two oxygen atoms covalently bonded to a single carbon atom. ...


Once the bottle is created and filled with water, large amounts of fossil fuel are expended delivering the water from its source to end user by means of ground transportation. Some bottled water is transported long distances by ship in addition to the distances it travels by truck or rail. It takes a fair amount of energy to move a plastic bottle from where it is made, to where it is filled, then to the store, and finally into the consumer's hand. 250g of CO2 are released for each bottle of FIJI Water imported to the United States. This includes 93g for manufacturing a bottle in China, 4g for transporting an empty bottle to Fiji, and 153g for shipping a full bottle to the United States. [9] Country Fiji Source Nakauvadra Mountains Type still pH 7. ...


Overall, the average energy cost to make the plastic, fill the bottle, transport it to market and then deal with the waste would be "like filling up a quarter of every bottle with oil." (Peter Gleick, an expert on water policy and director at the Pacific Institute in Oakland, California.[10] Dr. Peter H. Gleick (b. ...


Local effects on water resources

See also: Global use of fresh water Water resources are sources of water that are useful or potentially useful to humans. ...


It also takes water to make a bottle. If a container holds 1 liter it requires 3 to 5 liters of water in its manufacturing process (the higher estimate includes power plant cooling water). By one estimate the total amount of water used to produce and deliver one bottle of imported water is even 6.74 l. [2]


The amount of water used to manufacture and fill water bottles is only a small fraction of the amount of global water withdrawals, since by far most water used by humans goes to irrigated agriculture and other large scale uses. But the local effects of bottled water are of growing concern in communities with large bottled water plants tapping into local aquifers. For example, large commercial bottlers are trying to meet growing demand for their product and are projecting large increases in coming years. Companies like Perrier's Zephyrhills facility are requesting to increase their pumping from a spring on a private ranch in central Florida by 600 percent in the next 10 years. The request was denied by a judge ruling that the pumping could dry up Tampa Bay kitchen sinks, some 37 miles downstream. [3]


On a local level, water bottlers may adversely affect ground water levels if they bottle more water than is naturally replenished. Rivers are delicate ecosystems. Tapping springs and aquifers even on a small scale can alter the movement of sediment in nearby streams, which can in turn disrupt the food supply for fish and other wildlife. "It's a very complicated system, and we don't have a very good predictive understanding of how the properties of the river channel will be affected [by large-scale pumping]," warns Kurt Cuffey, assistant professor of geology at the University of California at Berkeley.[4] An aquifer is an underground layer of water-bearing permeable rock, or permeable mixtures of unconsolidated materials (gravel, sand, silt, or clay) (see also groundwater). ...


Saltwater intrusion is another problem with tapping aquifers in coastal areas. In healthy ecosystems along coastal areas there is a natural flow of groundwater that pushes freshwater out against the saltwater, creating a kind of sea wall. When the groundwater is being over used and the flow falters as a result the saltwater will begin to creep underground, ruining drinking water, wetlands, and crops. Saltwater intrusion is already a problem in parts of coastal California, Florida, and New York as a result of the demands–including water for bottling–being made on local water supplies. [5]


Solid waste generation

Though the materials used for water bottles are generally recyclable, around 80% of bottled water bottles sold in the U.S. end up in landfills; only 20% are recycled. Worldwide, recycling rates are even lower: up to 90% of bottles are not recycled. [6] The international recycling symbol. ...


Economic impact

See also: Water supply and sanitation in Latin America Water supply and sanitation in Latin America is characterized by insufficient access and in many cases by poor service quality, with detrimental impacts on public health. ...


The economic impact of bottled water consumption is especially relevant in developing countries, where tap water is often of poor quality and where, even if the quality of tap water may be acceptable, it is often difficult to obtain reliable data on the quality of tap water. Therefore those who can afford it do not want to take a risk and switch to bottled water, usually of the type sold in large bottles of 5 gallons. Bottled water use is especially high in countries such as Mexico and Brazil (see above). While the poorest often can't afford bottled water and the richest face little economic constraints in buying bottled water, the cost of bottled water is a significant burden for middle-class households in many developing countries. For example, sales of bottled water in Mexico are estimated at 32 billion Pesos (US$ 3bn) in 2005,[11] or about US$ 135 per household, which is about twice the level of the average tap water bill. If these funds were available to water utilities they would have the financial means to improve significantly the quality of tap water.


The Wall Street Journal, after seeing the incredible demand for bottled water, is considering it the next best thing to oil and gold. [7]


In 2004, Andrea Petersen wrote in the Wall Street Journal that "... for the first time, Americans are expected to buy more bottled water than beer or coffee. Sales of bottled water reached $7.7 billion in 2002, up 12% from 2001, according to Beverage Marketing Corp., a New York-based consulting company.” [8] Bottled water is a big business and with the current trend, everyone trying to get a piece, the individual states and countries are beginning to voice their objections. Many states have voted the big companies not over pump on their soil. [9]


In Ontario, Canada, a fee has been aimed at commercial and industrial water users to contribute to the cost of managing the water supply. The fee has been dubbed a 'cost recovery regulatory charge'. Those charges are explicitly stated as not a tax but as a fee to create a more sustainable system. Polaris Institute[10]


Another concern is the "privatization" of water. The United Church of Christ, United Church of Canada, National Council of Churches, National Coalition of American Nuns and Presbyterians for Restoring Creation are among some of the religious organizations that have raised questions about whether or not this is ethical. They regard the industrial purchase and repackaging at a much higher resale price of a basic resource as an unethical trend. [11]


Health impact

About 25% of bottled water sold is simply re-processed/used municipal(city) water according to a 1999 study in the United States.[12] Both Aquafina from Pepsi-Cola Company and Dasani from The Coca-Cola Company are reprocessed from municipal water systems. [13][14] Some bottled waters, such as Penta Water make unverified health benefit claims. While there have been few comprehensive studies, one analysis several years ago found that about 22 percent of brands that were tested contain, in at least one sample, chemical contaminants at levels above strict state health limits. If consumed over a long period of time, some of these contaminants could cause cancer or other health problems.[15] In addition, 60 to 70 percent of all bottled water in the U.S. is packaged and sold in a state that is not regulated by the FDA. In the United States, 1 in 5 states do not regulate bottled water[16]. The FDA reports that:"about 75 percent of bottled water sold in the U.S. comes from natural underground sources, which include rivers, lakes, springs and artesian wells." The other 25% comes from municipal sources, which are the “sources” of two leading brands of bottled water--Dasani (Coca-Cola) and Aquafina (PepsiCo)[12]. Bottled water processed with distillation or reverse osmosis lacks fluoride ions which are sometimes naturally present in groundwater, or added at a water treatment plant and which has an effect on the inhibition of cavity formation; the drinking of distilled water may conceivably increase the risk of tooth decay due to a lack of this element.[17] People who drink mostly bottled water may wish to use supplemental fluoride, such as is available by prescription from dentists or doctors. However, most people continue to cook with common tap water and this is thought to potentially provide sufficient fluoride to maintain normal prophylaxis in many instances. Any other minerals in tap water such as calcium and magnesium are present in such minuscule amounts that their absence is compensated for many thousands of times over by other dietary sources. On the other hand, some people wish to avoid exposure to fluoride, particularly systemic ingestion of fluoride in drinking water, and may choose such bottled water for this feature. [13] Aquafina is a popular brand of bottled water. ... The current Pepsi logo Pepsi-Cola (often shortened to Pepsi), is a carbonated cola soft drink manufactured by PepsiCo, and the principal rival of Coca-Cola. ... Dasani (pronounced ) is a popular brand of bottled water from the Coca-Cola company, launched in 1999, after the success of Aquafina (produced by Coca-Cola-rival PepsiCo). ... The Coca-Cola Company (NYSE: KO) is one of the largest manufacturers, distributors and marketers of nonalcoholic beverage concentrates and syrups in the world. ... This article or section is not written in the formal tone expected of an encyclopedia article. ... The United States Food and Drug Administration is the government agency responsible for regulating food, dietary supplements, drugs, cosmetics, medical devices, biologics and blood products in the United States. ... The United States Food and Drug Administration is the government agency responsible for regulating food, dietary supplements, drugs, cosmetics, medical devices, biologics and blood products in the United States. ... A water supply network is a system of engineered hydrologic and hydraulic components, including: the watershed or geographic area that collects the water, see water purification - sources of drinking water; a raw (untreated) water reservoir (above or below ground) where the water gathers, such as a lake, a river, or... Fluoride is the ionic form of fluorine. ... Groundwater is water located beneath the ground surface in soil pore spaces and in the fractures of lithologic formations. ... Caries is a progressive destruction of any kind of bone structure, including the skull, the ribs and other bones. ... Bottle for Distilled water in the Real Farmacia in Madrid. ... A water tap Tap water (running water) is part of indoor plumbing, which became available in the late 19th century and common in the mid-20th century. ... Prophylaxis refers to any medical or public health procedure whose purpose is to prevent, rather than treat or cure, disease. ...


Bottled water is typically printed with expiration dates. Even if the water itself is pure, a plastic container may leak chemicals such as phthalates or Bisphenol A into the bottled water[18]. Storage in cool and dark places helps reduce leaching of these chemicals. Industry associations claim "bottled water can be used indefinitely if stored properly."[19] Shelf-life is the length of time that corresponds to a tolerable loss in quality of a processed food. ... General chemical structure of phthalates. ... This article needs to be wikified. ...


If the original water bottled is not pure, especially if it contained biological contaminants, then the water quality will continue to degrade regardless of the storage container or conditions.[20]


Alternatives to bottled water

Tap Water

In developed countries, municipal water is generally of high quality, and provides a far cheaper alternative to pure or bottled water. In municipalities where the water is of a somewhat lower quality, the use of home filtration systems such as Brita, Culligan, Kinetico or PUR filters provides potable water at considerably lower cost than pure or bottled water[citation needed]. A Brita kettle, boiling water that has passed from the top reservoir through a filter element (white) into the main jug at the bottom. ... Culligan is an international water purification business based in Northbrook, Ill. ... Pur is a division of Procter & Gamble that produces Pur Water products. ...


In many areas of the world, good municipal water is unavailable. The United Nations estimates that in 2005, 1.1 billion people lacked access to safe, affordable, drinking water, and two to five million people die every year from preventable water-related diseases. In areas without a consistent supply of safe, potable water, alternatives to bottled water include boiling, filtering, or otherwise processing contaminated water to remove harmful pathogens or chemicals[citation needed]. UN and U.N. redirect here. ...


Even where advanced water filters are not available, and fuel for boiling is scarce, effective water filters can be made in a few hours from clay by hand without advanced technology or skills. [21]. In some areas, water may be obtained from and in the form of rainwater, stored in a cistern or rainwater tank. In rural areas the rain is typically very pure and can be safely consumed without additional treatment or filtration[citation needed] For other uses, see Clay (disambiguation). ... This article is about precipitation. ... // Getting water out of a cistern A cistern (Middle English cisterne, from Latin cisterna, from cista, box, from Greek kistê, basket) is a receptacle for holding liquids, usually water. ... A rainwater tank is a water tank which is used to collect and store rainwater runoff, typically from rooftops. ...


Ground water obtained through pumps or wells should be monitored for quality to ensure no risk of contamination or build up. Many people in Bangladesh and West Bengal, India are drinking groundwater that has been discovered to be contaminated with arsenic after wells were drilled to protect the population from the contaminated surface water[citation needed]. , West Bengal (Bengali: পশ্চিমবঙ্গ Poshchimbôŋgo) is a state in eastern India. ... General Name, Symbol, Number arsenic, As, 33 Chemical series metalloids Group, Period, Block 15, 4, p Appearance metallic gray Standard atomic weight 74. ...


Many countries such as the United Kingdom, have water that is adequate for drinking on tap, due to filters in the plumbing infrastructure.


Recently, San Francisco Mayor Gavin Newsom has issued an executive order banning city departments from buying bottled water, including water coolers. This goes into effect July 1, 2007. The mayor argues against the sale of a product that is generally considered inferior to the quality of San Francisco tap water.[citation needed]


See also

Reusing water bottles is the practice of refilling and reuse of plastic water bottles designed for one use, with tap water for multiple uses. ...

Brands

Country United States Source Arrowhead Type still pH 7. ... Aquafina is a popular brand of bottled water. ... Aquapod is non-carbonated natural spring water that is targeted towards kids and manufactured by Nestlé Waters North America. ... Bisleri is a brand of mineral water. ... Ciel is a brand of bottled water owned by The Coca-Cola Company which is bottled and sold in Mexico, Angola, and Morocco. ... Sams Choice is a private label brand created by Cott Beverages for Wal-Mart discount stores, supercenters, and neighborhood markets. ... Crystal Geyser is in Green River, Utah. ... Dasani (pronounced ) is a popular brand of bottled water from the Coca-Cola company, launched in 1999, after the success of Aquafina (produced by Coca-Cola-rival PepsiCo). ... Deer Park Water Co. ... Dejà Blue [sic] (déjà) is a brand of bottled water, owned by Cadbury/Schweppes PLC and distributed by Dr Pepper/Seven Up, Inc. ... , Elsenham is a small village in north west Essex in southern England. ... Country France Source Évian-les-Bains Type still pH 7. ... Farris Farris is a natural mineral water, created under a mountain called Bøkkerfjellet near a small Norwegian town called Larvik. ... Country Fiji Source Nakauvadra Mountains Type still pH 7. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... Gerolsteiner Brunnen GmbH & Co. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Ice Mountain is a forested mountain ridge of the Ridge-and-valley Appalachians in Hampshire County, West Virginia, United States. ... Imsdal is flat, bottled mineral water from a clear spring in Norway. ... Malvern is the name of a town in Worcestershire, England. ... NZ Natural is a brand of bottled water collected and bottled in New Zealand, owned and operated by Frucor, one of the largest food and drink manufacturers in the nation. ... Olden is a Norwegian water distributor. ... Ozarka is a brand of bottled water which is bottled and sold in the United States. ... Pennine Spring is a brand of mineral water that comes from the Yorkshire Pennines. ... Country France/USA Source Vergeze Type sparkling pH 5. ... Poland Spring is a brand of bottled water manufactured by a subsidiary of Nestlé.[1] It was founded in 1845 by Hiram Ricker. ... Propel Fitness Water is a lightly flavored, non-carbonated water beverage containing antioxidant vitamins C and E, along with B vitamins. ... Ramlösa is a brand of mineral water from a source in Ramlösa Brunnspark, Sweden. ... Roaring Spring is a borough located in Blair County, Pennsylvania. ... Country Italy Source San Pellegrino Terme Type Sparkling pH 7. ... Spa is a brand of mineral water from Spa Belgium and is owned by the Spadel Group. ... // Ty Nant Mineral Water Ty Nant - Design Classic History Ty Nant, a mineral water from Wales (UK) was launched in 1989. ... Country Norway Source VOSS source, Iveland county Type Still and sparkling (chemical analysis below represent typical values for the still water) pH 6. ... Wawa Food Markets is a convenience store and filling station chain in the Delaware Valley of the United States; given the name for the town in Pennsylvania Wawa, Ontario is a town in Ontario Wawa, Pennsylvania is a town in Pennsylvania Wawa, Togo , prefecture of Togo Wawa of Mataram was... Zephyrhills is a brand of bottled water headquartered in Washington County, Florida, owned by Nestle Waters North America. ...

References

  1. ^ Gleick, P.H. 2004. "Bottled Water." In P.H. Gleick (editor), The World's Water 2004-2005: The Biennial Report on Freshwater Resources. Island Press, Washington, D.C.
  2. ^ Gaping Holes in Government Bottled Water Regulation
  3. ^ FD&C Act Chapter IV
  4. ^ Rodwan, John G. Jr. (2005), "Bottled Water 2004: U.S. and International Statistics and Developments", Bottled Water Reporter, International Bottled Water Association April/May 2005, <http://www.beveragemarketing.com/news3e.htm>
  5. ^ Beverage Marketing Corporation 2005 Market report findings
  6. ^ Beverage Marketing Corporation 2006 Market report findings
  7. ^ [http://www.earth-policy.org/Updates/2006/Update51.htm BOTTLED WATER: Pouring Resources Down the Drain]. February 2, 2006. Accessed September 24, 2007.
  8. ^ Pacific Institute - Bottled Water and Energy: A Fact Sheet
  9. ^ Estimate by Pablo Päster as quoted on Treehugger
  10. ^ Pacific Institute - Bottled Water and Energy: A Fact Sheet and (Seattle P.I.))
  11. ^ La Jornada
  12. ^ According to a four-year study of drinking water in the United States by the Natural Resources Defense Council, see National Geographic 2006 and NRDC
  13. ^ Bottled Water: Pure Drink or Pure Hype?
  14. ^ Is your bottled water coming from a faucet?
  15. ^ Drinking Water: In Brief: FAQ
  16. ^ Is bottled water really better than tap?
  17. ^ Bottled Water Cited as Contributing to Cavity Comeback
  18. ^ Firefighters help sponsor CancerSmart Consumer Guide
  19. ^ Canadian Bottled Water Association
  20. ^ Microbial quality of domestic and imported brands of bottled water in Trinidad.
  21. ^ Water Filter

External links

  • Message in a Bottle, an in-depth Fast Company article on the impact of bottled water on our economy and environment
  • Benefits of drinking water for health
  • International Bottled Water Association
  • Bottled Twaddle: Is bottled water tapped out?, from Scientific American
  • Bottled Water: Pure Drink or Pure Hype? - extensive study of bottled water quality from NRDC
  • E the Environmental Magazine piece on bottled water (Oct 2003).
  • Researcher Dispels Myth of Dioxins and Plastic Water Bottles: Dr. Rolf Halden says "There are no dioxins in plastics." but "If you heat up plastics, you could increase the leaching of phthalates" and "It is very important to drink adequate amounts of water ... Unless you are drinking really bad water, you are more likely to suffer from the adverse effects of dehydration than from the minuscule amounts of chemical contaminants present in your water supply."
  • Emily Arnold, Earth Policy Institute 2006 Press release, Bottled Water: Pouring Resources Down the Drain'
  • British Bottled Water Producers [14]

  Results from FactBites:
 
IBWA: FAQs (1690 words)
Water is classified as "bottled water" or "drinking water" when it meets all applicable federal and state standards, is sealed in a sanitary container and is sold for human consumption.
Spring water collected with the use of an external force must be from the same underground stratum as the spring and must have all the physical properties before treatment, and be of the same composition and quality as the water that flows naturally to the surface of the earth.
Mineral water is distinguished from other types of bottled water by its constant level and relative proportions of mineral and trace elements at the point of emergence from the source.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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