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Encyclopedia > Botany
Pinguicula grandiflora commonly known as a Butterwort
Pinguicula grandiflora commonly known as a Butterwort
Example of a cross section of a stem
Example of a cross section of a stem [1]

Botany is the scientific study of plant life. As a branch of biology, it is also called plant science(s), phytology, or plant biology. Botany covers a wide range of scientific disciplines that study plants, algae, and fungi including: structure, growth, reproduction, metabolism, development, diseases, and chemical properties and evolutionary relationships between the different groups. The study of plants and botany began with tribal lore, used to identify edible, medicinal and poisonous plants, making botany one of the oldest sciences. From this ancient interest in plants, the scope of botany has increased to include the study of over 550,000 kinds or species of living organisms. Image File history File links 504px-Pinguiculagrandiflora1web. ... Image File history File links 504px-Pinguiculagrandiflora1web. ... Binomial name Pinguicula grandiflora Lam. ... Species See text The genus Pinguicula, or butterworts, is a group of 79 carnivorous plants in the family Lentibulariaceae. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 556 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (800 × 863 pixel, file size: 119 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Example of a cross section of a stem. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 556 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (800 × 863 pixel, file size: 119 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Example of a cross section of a stem. ... Scientific method is a body of techniques for investigating phenomena, acquiring new knowledge, or correcting and integrating previous knowledge. ... For other uses, see Life (disambiguation). ... Biology studies the variety of life (clockwise from top-left) E. coli, tree fern, gazelle, Goliath beetle Biology (from Greek: βίος, bio, life; and λόγος, logos, knowledge), also referred to as the biological sciences, is the study of living organisms utilizing the scientific method. ... For other uses, see Plant (disambiguation). ... Algae have conventionally been regarded as simple plants within the study of botany. ... Divisions Chytridiomycota Zygomycota Ascomycota Basidiomycota The Fungi (singular: fungus) are a large group of organisms ranked as a kingdom within the Domain Eukaryota. ... Plant anatomy or phytotomy is the general term for the study of the structure of plants. ... The term cell growth is used in two different ways in biology. ... For other uses, see Reproduction (disambiguation) Reproduction is the biological process by which new individual organisms are produced. ... Structure of the coenzyme adenosine triphosphate, a central intermediate in energy metabolism. ... Morphogenesis (from the Greek morphê shape and genesis creation) is one of three fundamental aspects of developmental biology along with the control of cell growth and cellular differentiation. ... Phytopathology (plant pathology) is the scientific study of plant diseases caused by pathogens (infectious diseases) and environmental conditons (non-infectiousness). ...

Contents

Scope and importance of botany

Hibiscus
Hibiscus

As with other life forms in biology, plant life can be studied from different perspectives, from the molecular, genetic and biochemical level through organelles, cells, tissues, organs, individuals, plant populations, and communities of plants. At each of these levels a botanist might be concerned with the classification (taxonomy), structure (anatomy and morphology), or function (physiology) of plant life. Image File history File links Beli-hibiskus. ... Image File history File links Beli-hibiskus. ... Species Over 200 species Hibiscus, or rosemallow, is a large genus of about 200–220 species of flowering plants in the family Malvaceae, native to warm temperate, subtropical and tropical regions throughout the world. ... Molecular biology is the study of biology at a molecular level. ... This article is about the general scientific term. ... Biochemistry (from Greek: , bios, life and Egyptian kēme, earth[1]) is the study of the chemical processes in living organisms. ... Schematic of typical animal cell, showing subcellular components. ... Cell biology (also called cellular biology or formerly cytology, from the Greek kytos, container) is an academic discipline that studies cells. ... Biological tissue is a collection of interconnected cells that perform a similar function within an organism. ... This article is about the biological unit. ... For the science of classifying living things, see alpha taxonomy. ... Plant anatomy or phytotomy is the general term for the study of the structure of plants. ... Plant anatomy or phytotomy is the general term for the study of the structure of plants. ... In botany, plant physiology is the study of the function, or physiology, of plants. ...


Historically, botany covers all organisms that were not considered to be animals. Some of these "plant-like" organisms include fungi (studied in mycology), bacteria and viruses (studied in microbiology), and algae (studied in phycology). Most algae, fungi, and microbes are no longer considered to be in the plant kingdom. However, attention is still given to them by botanists, and bacteria, fungi, and algae are usually covered in introductory botany courses. For other uses, see Animal (disambiguation). ... Divisions Chytridiomycota Zygomycota Ascomycota Basidiomycota The Fungi (singular: fungus) are a large group of organisms ranked as a kingdom within the Domain Eukaryota. ... Mycology (from the Greek μύκης, meaning fungus) is the study of fungi, their genetic and biochemical properties, their taxonomy, and their use to humans as a source for tinder, medicinals (e. ... Phyla/Divisions Actinobacteria Aquificae Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi Chlamydiae/Verrucomicrobia Chloroflexi Chrysiogenetes Cyanobacteria Deferribacteres Deinococcus-Thermus Dictyoglomi Fibrobacteres/Acidobacteria Firmicutes Fusobacteria Gemmatimonadetes Nitrospirae Omnibacteria Planctomycetes Proteobacteria Spirochaetes Thermodesulfobacteria Thermomicrobia Thermotogae Bacteria (singular, bacterium) are a major group of living organisms. ... Stop editing pages god ... An agar plate streaked with microorganisms Microbiology is the study of microorganisms, which are unicellular or cell-cluster microscopic organisms. ... Algae have conventionally been regarded as simple plants within the study of botany. ... Phycology (or algology) (from Greek: φύκος, phykos, seaweed; and λόγος, logos, knowledge), a subdiscipline of botany, is the scientific study of algae. ...


The study of plants has importance for a number of reasons. Plants are a fundamental part of life on Earth. They generate the oxygen, food, fibres, fuel and medicine that allow higher life forms to exist. Plants also absorb carbon dioxide through photosynthesis, a minor greenhouse gas that in large amounts can effect global climate. It is believed that the evolution of plants has changed the global atmosphere of the earth early in the earth's history and paleobotanists study ancient plants in the fossil record. A good understanding of plants is crucial to the future of human societies as it allows us to: This article is about the tv programme Life on Earth. ... General Name, symbol, number oxygen, O, 8 Chemical series nonmetals, chalcogens Group, period, block 16, 2, p Appearance colorless (gas) pale blue (liquid) Standard atomic weight 15. ... For the meaning of fiber in nutrition, see dietary fiber. ... For the chemical substances known as medicines, see medication. ... Carbon dioxide is a chemical compound composed of two oxygen atoms covalently bonded to a single carbon atom. ... The leaf is the primary site of photosynthesis in plants. ... Top: Increasing atmospheric CO2 levels as measured in the atmosphere and ice cores. ... Paleobotany (from the Greek words paleon = old and botanikos = of herbs) is the branch of paleontology dealing with the recovery and identification of plant remains from geological contexts, and their use in the reconstruction of past environments and the history of life. ...

  • Produce food to feed an expanding population
  • Understand fundamental life processes
  • Produce medicine and materials to treat diseases and other ailments
  • Understand environmental changes more clearly

Human nutrition

Nearly all the food we eat comes (directly and indirectly) from plants like this American long grain rice.
Nearly all the food we eat comes (directly and indirectly) from plants like this American long grain rice.

Virtually all foods eaten come from plants, either directly from staple foods and other fruit and vegetables, or indirectly through livestock or other animals, which rely on plants for their nutrition. Plants are the fundamental base of nearly all food chains because they use the energy from the sun and nutrients from the soil and atmosphere and convert them into a form that can be consumed and utilized by animals, this is what ecologists call the first trophic level. Botanists also study how plants produce food we can eat and how to increase yields and therefore their work is important in mankind's ability to feed the world and provide food security for future generations, for example through plant breeding. Botanists also study weeds, plants which are considered to be a nuisance in a particular location. Weeds are a considerable problem in agriculture, and botany provides some of the basic science used to understand how to minimize 'weed' impact in agriculture and native ecosystems. Ethnobotany is the study of the relationships between plants and people. Download high resolution version (640x801, 156 KB) [1] File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Download high resolution version (640x801, 156 KB) [1] File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... RICE is a treatment method for soft tissue injury which is an abbreviation for Rest, Ice, Compression and Elevation. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... For other uses, see Fruit (disambiguation). ... Vegetables on a market Vegetable is a nutritional and culinary term denoting any part of a plant that is commonly consumed by humans as food, but is not regarded as a culinary fruit, nut, herb, spice, or grain. ... Sheep are commonly bred as livestock. ... == HEADLINE TEXT== Food chains, food webs and/or food networks describe the feeding relationships between other species to another within an ecosystem. ... In ecology, the trophic level (Greek trophē, food) is the position that an organism occupies in a food chain - what it eats, and what eats it. ... Subsistence farmers with a Treadle Pump. ... Plant breeding is the purposeful manipulation of plant species in order to create desired genotypes and phenotypes for specific purposes. ... Yellow starthistle, a thistle native to southern Europe and the Middle East that is an invasive weed in parts of North America. ... Ethnobotany is the study of the relationship between plants and people: Fromethno - study of people and botany - study of plants. ...

Gregor Mendel laid the foundations of modern genetics from his studies of plants.
Gregor Mendel laid the foundations of modern genetics from his studies of plants.

File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... “Mendel” redirects here. ...

Fundamental life processes

Plants are convenient organisms in which fundamental life processes (like cell division and protein synthesis for example) can be studied, without the ethical dilemmas of studying animals or humans. The genetic laws of inheritance were discovered in this way by Gregor Mendel, who was studying the way pea shape is inherited. What Mendel learned from studying plants has had far reaching benefits outside of botany. Additionally, Barbara McClintock discovered 'jumping genes' by studying maize. These are a few examples that demonstrate how botanical research has an ongoing relevance to the understanding of fundamental biological processes. This does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Protein synthesis is the creation of proteins using DNA and RNA. Biological and artificial methods for creation of proteins differ significantly. ... Mendelian inheritance (or Mendelian genetics or Mendelism) is a set of primary tenets relating to the transmission of hereditary characteristics from parent organisms to their children; it underlies much of genetics. ... “Mendel” redirects here. ... Binomial name Pisum sativum A pea (Pisum sativum) is the small, edible round green seed which grows in a pod on a leguminous vine, hence why it is called a legume. ... Barbara McClintock (June 16, 1902 – September 2, 1992) was a pioneering American scientist and one of the worlds most distinguished cytogeneticists. ... Transposons are sequences of DNA that can move around to different positions within the genome of a single cell, a process called transposition. ... This article is about the maize plant. ...


Medicine and materials

Many medicinal and recreational drugs, like cannabis, caffeine, and nicotine come directly from the plant kingdom. Others are simple derivatives of botanical natural products; for example aspirin is based on the pain killer salicylic acid which originally came from the bark of willow trees.[2] There may be many novel cures for diseases provided by plants, waiting to be discovered. Popular stimulants like coffee, chocolate, tobacco, and tea also come from plants. Most alcoholic beverages come from fermenting plants such as barley malt and grapes. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Recreational drug use is the use of psychoactive drugs for recreational rather than medical or spiritual purposes, although the distinction is not always clear. ... Cannabis, also known as marijuana[1] or ganja,[2] is a psychoactive product of the plant Cannabis sativa L. subsp. ... Caffeine is a xanthine alkaloid compound that acts as a stimulant in humans. ... This article is about the chemical compound. ... Derivative (Chemistry) In chemistry a derivative is a compound that is formed from a similar compound. ... This article is about the drug. ... Salicylic acid is the chemical compound with the formula C6H4(OH)CO2H, where the OH group is adjacent to the carboxyl group. ... For other uses, see Bark (disambiguation). ... Species About 350, including: Salix acutifolia - Violet Willow Salix alaxensis - Alaska Willow Salix alba - White Willow Salix alpina - Alpine Willow Salix amygdaloides - Peachleaf Willow Salix arbuscula - Mountain Willow Salix arbusculoides - Littletree Willow Salix arctica - Arctic Willow Salix atrocinerea Salix aurita - Eared Willow Salix babylonica - Peking Willow Salix bakko Salix barrattiana... In medicine, biotechnology and pharmacology, drug discovery is the process by which drugs are discovered and/or designed. ... Stimulants are drugs that temporarily increase alertness and wakefulness. ... For other uses, see Coffee (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Chocolate (disambiguation). ... Shredded tobacco leaf for pipe smoking Tobacco can also be pressed into plugs and sliced into flakes Tobacco is an agricultural product processed from the fresh leaves of plants in the genus Nicotiana. ... For other uses, see Tea (disambiguation). ... Alcoholic beverages An alcoholic beverage (also known as booze in slang term) is a drink containing ethanol, commonly known as alcohol, although in chemistry the definition of alcohol includes many other compounds. ... For other uses, see Fermentation. ... For other uses, see Barley (disambiguation). ... Species Vitis acerifolia Vitis aestivalis Vitis amurensis Vitis arizonica Vitis x bourquina Vitis californica Vitis x champinii Vitis cinerea Vitis x doaniana Vitis girdiana Vitis labrusca Vitis x labruscana Vitis monticola Vitis mustangensis Vitis x novae-angliae Vitis palmata Vitis riparia Vitis rotundifolia Vitis rupestris Vitis shuttleworthii Vitis tiliifolia Vitis...


Plants also provide us with many natural materials, such as cotton, wood, paper, linen, vegetable oils, some types of rope, and rubber. The production of silk would not be possible without the cultivation of the mulberry plant. Sugarcane, rapeseed, soy and other plants with a highly-fermentable sugar or oil content have recently been put to use as sources of biofuels, which are important alternatives to fossil fuels, see biodiesel. For other uses, see Cotton (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Wood (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Paper (disambiguation). ... Torn linen cloth, recovered from the Dead Sea Linen is a material made from the fibers of the flax plant. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with cooking oil. ... Coils of rope used for long-line fishing A rope (IPA: ) is a length of fibers, twisted or braided together to improve strength for pulling and connecting. ... This does not cite any references or sources. ... For other uses of this word, see Silk (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Mulberry (disambiguation). ... Species Saccharum arundinaceum Saccharum bengalense Saccharum edule Saccharum officinarum Saccharum procerum Saccharum ravennae Saccharum robustum Saccharum sinense Saccharum spontaneum Sugarcane or Sugar cane (Saccharum) is a genus of 6 to 37 species (depending on taxonomic interpretation) of tall perennial grasses (family Poaceae, tribe Andropogoneae), native to warm temperate to tropical... Binomial name Brassica napus L. Rapeseed (Brassica napus), also known as Rape, Oilseed Rape, Rapa, Rapaseed and (one particular cultivar) Canola, is a bright yellow flowering member (related to mustard) of the family Brassicaceae. ... Binomial name Glycine max Soybeans (US) or soya beans (UK) (Glycine max) are a high-protein legume (Family Fabaceae) grown as food for both humans and livestock. ... For articles on specific fuels used in vehicles, see Biogas, Bioethanol, Biobutanol, Biodiesel, and Straight vegetable oil. ... Fossil fuels or mineral fuels are hydrocarbons found within the top layer of the earth’s crust. ... This article is about transesterified plant and animal oils. ...


Environmental changes

Plants can also help us understand changes in on our environment in many ways.

In many different ways, plants can act a little like the 'miners canary', an early warning system alerting us to important changes in our environment. In addition to these practical and scientific reasons, plants are extremely valuable as recreation for millions of people who enjoy gardening, horticultural and culinary uses of plants every day. Habitat destruction is a process of land use change in which one habitat-type is removed and replaced with another habitat-type. ... The Siberian Tiger is a subspecies of tiger that are critically endangered. ... Biological systematics is the study of the diversity of life on the planet earth, both past and present, and the relationships among living things through time. ... For other uses, see Ultraviolet (disambiguation). ... Global monthly average total ozone amount Ozone depletion describes 14 distinct, but related observations: a slow, steady decline of about 4 percent per decade in the total amount of ozone in Earths stratosphere since around 1980; and a much larger, but seasonal, decrease in stratospheric ozone over Earths... Pollen under microscope Palynology is the science that studies contemporary and fossil palynomorphs, including pollen, spores, dinoflagellate cysts, acritarchs, chitinozoans and scolecodonts, together with particulate organic matter (POM) and kerogen found in sedimentary rocks and sediments. ... The geologic time scale is used by geologists and other scientists to describe the timing and relationships between events that have occurred during the history of the Earth. ... Variations in CO2, temperature and dust from the Vostok ice core over the last 450,000 years For current global climate change, see Global warming. ... A life cycle is a period involving one generation of an organism through means of reproduction, whether through asexual reproduction or sexual reproduction. ... Phenology is the study of the times of recurring natural phenomena. ... For other things named Lichen, see: Lichen (disambiguation). ... Air pollution Pollution is the introduction of pollutants (whether chemical substances, or energy such as noise, heat, or light) into the environment to such a point that its effects become harmful to human health, other living organisms, or the environment. ... Binomial name Serinus canaria (Linnaeus, 1758) The Canary (Serinus canaria) sometimes called the Island Canary, Wild Canary or Atlantic Canary, is a small bird in the finch family. ... A gardener Gardening is the practice of growing flowering plants, vegetables, and fruits. ... Horticulture (Latin: hortus (garden plant) + cultura (culture)) are classically defined as the culture or growing of garden plants. ... Herbs: basil Herbs (IPA: hə()b, or əb; see pronunciation differences) are seed-bearing plants without woody stems, which die down to the ground after flowering. ...


Etymology

From Greek βοτάνη = "pasture, grass, fodder", perhaps via the idea of a livestock keeper needing to know which plants are safe for livestock to eat. Pastureland Pasture is land with lush herbaceous vegetation cover used for grazing of ungulates as part of a farm or ranch. ... For other uses, see Grass (disambiguation). ... Fodder growing from barley In agriculture, fodder or animal feed is any foodstuff that is used specifically to feed domesticated livestock, including cattle, goats, sheep, horses, chickens and pigs. ... Sheep are commonly bred as livestock. ...


History

The traditional tools of a botanist.
The traditional tools of a botanist.

Early examples of plant taxonomy occur in the Rigveda, that divides plants into Vrska (tree), Osadhi (herbs useful to humans) and Virudha (creepers). which are further subdivided. The Atharvaveda divides plants into eight classes, Visakha (spreading branches), Manjari (leaves with long clusters), Sthambini (bushy plants), Prastanavati (which expands); Ekasrnga (those with monopodial growth), Pratanavati (creeping plants), Amsumati (with many stalks), and Kandini (plants with knotty joints). The Taittiriya Samhita and classifies the plant kingdom into vrksa, vana and druma (trees), visakha (shrubs with spreading branches), sasa (herbs), amsumali (a spreading or deliquescent plant), vratati (climber), stambini (bushy plant), pratanavati (creeper), and alasala (those spreading on the ground). Download high resolution version (640x897, 196 KB)A historical collection of botanists tools. ... Download high resolution version (640x897, 196 KB)A historical collection of botanists tools. ... Rig veda is the oldest text in the world. ... The Atharvaveda (Sanskrit: अथर्ववेद, , a tatpurusha compound of , a type of priest, and meaning knowledge) is a sacred text of Hinduism, and one of the four Vedas, often called the fourth Veda. According to tradition, the Atharvaveda was mainly composed by two groups of rishis known as the Bhrigus and the... The Yajurveda (Sanskrit , a tatpurusha compound of sacrifice + veda knowledge) is one of the four Hindu Vedas. ...


Manusmriti proposed a classification of plants in eight major categories. Charaka Samhitā and Sushruta Samhita and the Vaisesikas also present an elaborate taxonomy. The Manu Smriti or Laws of Manu, is one of the eighteen Smritis of the Dharma Sastra (or laws of righteous conduct), written c. ... The Charaka Samhitā is one of the early ancient texts of Ayurveda. ... The Sushruta Samhita is a Sanskrit text on surgery, attributed to Sushruta (lived in ca. ... Vaisheshika, also Vaisesika, (Sanskrit: वैशॆषिक)is one of the six Hindu schools of philosophy (orthodox Vedic systems) of India. ...


Parashara, the author of Vrksayurveda (the science of life of trees), classifies plants into Dvimatrka (Dicotyledons) and Ekamatrka (Monocotyledons). These are further classified into Samiganiya (Fabaceae), Puplikagalniya (Rutaceae), Svastikaganiya (Cruciferae), Tripuspaganiya (Cucurbitaceae), Mallikaganiya (Apocynaceae), and Kurcapuspaganiya (Asteraceae). [2] Sage Parashara was father of Vyasa. ... Orders See text. ... Hemerocallis flower, with three flower parts in each whorl Wheat, an economically important monocot The monocotyledons or Monocots are a group of flowering plants, (angiosperms) dominating great parts of the earth. ... Subfamilies Faboideae Caesalpinioideae Mimosoideae References GRIN-CA 2002-09-01 The name Fabaceae belongs to either of two families, depending on viewpoint. ... Genera About 160 genera; selected important genera: Amyris - West Indian Sandalwood Choisya - Mexican orange Citrus - Citrus Dictamnus - Burning-bush Fortunella - Kumquat Melicope - Corkwood, Alani Murraya - Curry tree Phellodendron - Cork-trees Poncirus - Trifoliate orange Ptelea - Hoptree Ruta - Rue Skimmia - Skimmia Tetradium (Euodia) - Euodias Zanthoxylum - Toothache trees Rutaceae is a family of... Genera See text The flowering plant family Brassicaceae, known as the mustard/cabbage family, provides much of the worlds winter vegetables. ... Genera Abobra Acanthosicyos Actinostemma Alsomitra Ampelosycios Anacaona Apatzingania Apodanthera Bambekea Benincasa Biswarea Bolbostemma Brandegea Bryonia Calycophysum Cayaponia Cephalopentandra Ceratosanthes Chalema Cionosicyos Citrullus Coccinia Cogniauxia Corallocarpus Cremastopus Ctenolepis Cucumella Cucumeropsis Cucumis Cucurbita Cucurbitella Cyclanthera Dactyliandra Dendrosicyos Dicoelospermum Dieterlea Diplocyclos Doyerea Ecballium Echinocystis Echinopepon Edgaria Elateriopsis Eureiandra Fevillea Gerrardanthus Gomphogyne Gurania Guraniopsis... Genera See Taxonomy and Genera. ... Diversity About 1500 genera and 23,000 species Type Genus Aster L. Subfamilies Barnadesioideae Cichorioideae Tribe Arctotidae Tribe Cardueae Tribe Eremothamneae Tribe Lactuceae Tribe Liabeae Tribe Mutisieae Tribe Tarchonantheae Tribe Vernonieae Asteroideae Tribe Anthemideae Tribe Astereae Tribe Calenduleae Tribe Eupatorieae Tribe Gnaphalieae Tribe Helenieae Tribe Heliantheae Tribe Inuleae Tribe Plucheae...


Among the earliest of botanical works, written around 300 B.C., are two large treatises by Theophrastus: On the History of Plants (Historia Plantarum) and On the Causes of Plants. Together these books constitute the most important contribution to botanical science during antiquity and on into the Middle Ages. The Roman medical writer Dioscorides provides important evidence on Greek and Roman knowledge of medicinal plants. Centuries: 4th century BC - 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC Decades: 350s BC 340s BC 330s BC 320s BC 310s BC - 300s BC - 290s BC 280s BC 270s BC 260s BC 250s BC Years: 305 BC 304 BC 303 BC 302 BC 301 BC - 300 BC - 299 BC 298 BC... Theophrastus (Greek Θεόφραστος, 370 — about 285 BC), a native of Eressos in Lesbos, was the successor of Aristotle in the Peripatetic school. ... Historia Plantarum (Latin for History of Plants) is the name by which is known an atlas of botany written by Theophrastus between the third and the second century BC. This work was organised in ten books, and is an encyclopedia of the plant kingdom, in which a draft taxonomy is... Pedanius Dioscorides (ca. ...


In ancient China, the recorded listing of different plants and herb concoctions for pharmaceutical purposes spans back to at least the Warring States (481 BC-221 BC). Many Chinese writers over the centuries contributed to the written knowledge of herbal pharmaceutics. There was the Han Dynasty (202 BC-220 AD) written work of the Huangdi Neijing and the famous pharmacologist Zhang Zhongjing of the 2nd century. There was also the 11th century scientists and statesmen Su Song and Shen Kuo, who compiled treatises on herbal medicine and included the use of mineralogy. China is the worlds oldest continuous major civilization, with written records dating back about 3,500 years and with 5,000 years being commonly used by Chinese as the age of their civilization. ... Pharmacology (in Greek: pharmacon is drug, and logos is science) is the study of how chemical substances interfere with living systems. ... Alternative meaning: Warring States Period (Japan) The Warring States Period (traditional Chinese: 戰國時代, simplified Chinese: 战国时代 pinyin Zhànguó Shídài) takes place from sometime in the 5th century BC to the unification of China by Qin in 221 BC. It is nominally... Centuries: 6th century BC - 5th century BC - 4th century BC Decades: 530s BC 520s BC 510s BC 500s BC 490s BC - 480s BC - 470s BC 460s BC 450s BC 440s BC 430s BC Years: 486 BC 485 BC 484 BC 483 BC 482 BC _ 481 BC _ 480 BC... Centuries: 4th century BC - 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC Decades: 270s BC 260s BC 250s BC 240s BC 230s BC - 220s BC - 210s BC 200s BC 190s BC 180s BC 170s BC Years: 226 BC 225 BC 224 BC 223 BC 222 BC - 221 BC - 220 BC 219 BC... Han Dynasty in 87 BC Capital Changan (202 BC–9 AD) Luoyang (25 AD–190 AD) Language(s) Chinese Religion Taoism, Confucianism Government Monarchy History  - Establishment 206 BC  - Battle of Gaixia; Han rule of China begins 202 BC  - Interruption of Han rule 9 - 24  - Abdication to Cao Wei 220... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 3rd century BC - 4th century BC Decades: 230s BC 220s BC 210s BC - 200s BC - 190s BC 180s BC 170s BC Years: 207 BC 206 BC 205 BC 204 BC 203 BC - 202 BC - 201 BC 200 BC 199 BC 198 BC 197 BC Events October... Events By Place Roman Empire The Goths invade Asia Minor and the Balkans. ... The Huangdi Neijing 黃帝內經 ( Note, technically speaking, Thearch is more accurate than Emperor. ... Zhang Zhongjing or Chang Chung Ching (Wades-Giles) (張仲景, 150 - 219) , also known as Zhang Ji (張機), was one of the most eminent Chinese physicians during the later years of the Eastern Han era. ... Su Song 蘇頌 (1020 – 1101), style Zirong 子容, was a Chinese engineer. ... This is a Chinese name; the family name is Shen Shen Kuo or Shen Kua (Chinese: ; pinyin: ) (1031–1095) was a polymathic Chinese scientist and statesman of the Song Dynasty (960–1279). ... Mineralogy is an earth science that involves the chemistry, crystal structure, and physical (including optical) properties of minerals. ...


Important medieval works of plant physiology include the Prthviniraparyam of Udayana, Nyayavindutika of Dharmottara, Saddarsana-samuccaya of Gunaratna, and Upaskara of Sankaramisra. [3] Udayana also known as Udyanacharya lived in 10th century, near Darbhanga, Bihar state, India. ...


In 1665, using an early microscope, Robert Hooke discovered cells in cork, and a short time later in living plant tissue. The German Leonhart Fuchs, the Swiss Conrad von Gesner, and the British authors Nicholas Culpeper and John Gerard published herbals that gave information on the medicinal uses of plants. Robert Hooke, FRS (July 18, 1635 – March 3, 1703) was an English polymath who played an important role in the scientific revolution, through both experimental and theoretical work. ... Drawing of the structure of cork as it appeared under the microscope to Robert Hooke from Micrographia which is the origin of the word cell being used to describe the smallest unit of a living organism Cells in culture, stained for keratin (red) and DNA (green) The cell is the... For other uses, see Cork. ... Leonhart Fuchs (17 January 1501 – 10 May 1566) was a medic and a botanist. ... Conrad von Gesner (Konrad von Gesner, Conrad Gessner, Conradus Gesnerus) ( 26 March 1516- 13 December 1565) was a Swiss naturalist. ... Nicholas Culpeper - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... John Gerard John Gerard (1545 in Nantwich – 1611/12 in London) was an English botanist famous for his herbal garden. ...


In 1754 Carl von Linné (Carl Linnaeus) devided the plant Kingdom into 25 classes. One, the Cryptogamia, included all the plants with concealed reproductive parts (algae, fungi, mosses and liverworts and ferns).[3] Carl Linnaeus, Latinized as Carolus Linnaeus, also known after his ennoblement as  , (May 13, 1707[1] – January 10, 1778), was a Swedish botanist, physician and zoologist[2] who laid the foundations for the modern scheme of nomenclature. ...


Modern botany

A considerable amount of new knowledge today is being generated from studying model plants like Arabidopsis thaliana. This weedy species in the mustard family was one of the first plants to have its genome sequenced. The sequencing of the rice (Oryza sativa) genome and a large international research community have made rice the de facto cereal/grass/monocot model. Another grass species, Brachypodium distachyon is also emerging as an experimental model for understanding the genetic, cellular and molecular biology of temperate grasses. Other commercially-important staple foods like wheat, maize, barley, rye, pearl millet and soybean are also having their genomes sequenced. Some of these are challenging to sequence because they have more than two haploid (n) sets of chromosomes, a condition known as polyploidy, common in the plant kingdom. Chlamydomonas reinhardtii (a single-celled, green alga) is another plant model organism that has been extensively studied and provided important insights into cell biology. A model organism is one that is extensively studied to understand particular biological phenomena, with the expectation that discoveries made in the model organism will provide insight into the workings of other organisms. ... Binomial name Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. ... In biology the genome of an organism is the whole hereditary information of an organism that is encoded in the DNA (or, for some viruses, RNA). ... RICE is a treatment method for soft tissue injury which is an abbreviation for Rest, Ice, Compression and Elevation. ... RICE is a treatment method for soft tissue injury which is an abbreviation for Rest, Ice, Compression and Elevation. ... Grain redirects here. ... For other uses, see Grass (disambiguation). ... Orders Base Monocots: Acorus Alismatales Asparagales Dioscoreales Liliales Pandanales Family Petrosaviaceae Commelinids: Arecales Commelinales Poales Zingiberales Family Dasypogonaceae Monocotyledons or monocots are a group of flowering plants usually ranked as a class and once called the Monocotyledoneae. ... Binomial name Brachypodium distachyon (L.) P.Beauv. ... Species T. aestivum T. boeoticum T. dicoccoides T. dicoccon T. durum T. monococcum T. spelta T. sphaerococcum T. timopheevii References:   ITIS 42236 2002-09-22 Wheat Wheat For the indie rock group, see Wheat (band). ... This article is about the maize plant. ... For other uses, see Barley (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Secale cereale M.Bieb. ... Binomial name (L.) R. Br. ... Binomial name (L.) Merr. ... Haploid (meaning simple in Greek) cells have only one copy of each chromosome. ... Figure 1: A representation of a condensed eukaryotic chromosome, as seen during cell division. ... Polyploid (in Greek: πολλαπλόν - multiple) cells or organisms contain more than one copy (ploidy) of their chromosomes. ... Binomial name Chlamydomonas reinhardtii P.A.Dang. ... A seaweed (Laurencia) up close: the branches are multicellular and only about 1 mm thick. ...


In 1998 the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group published a phylogeny of flowering plants based on an analysis of DNA sequences from most families of flowering plants. As a result of this work, major questions such as which families represent the earliest branches in the genealogy of angiosperms are now understood. Investigating how plant species are related to each other allows botanists to better understand the process of evolution in plants. The Angiosperm Phylogeny Group is an international group of systematic botanists who have come together to try to establish a consensus view of the taxonomy of flowering plants in the light of the rapid rise of molecular systematics. ... In biology, phylogenetics (Greek: phylon = tribe, race and genetikos = relative to birth, from genesis = birth) is the study of evolutionary relatedness among various groups of organisms (e. ... The structure of part of a DNA double helix Deoxyribonucleic acid, or DNA, is a nucleic acid molecule that contains the genetic instructions used in the development and functioning of all known living organisms. ... Classes Magnoliopsida - Dicots Liliopsida - Monocots The flowering plants (also angiosperms or Magnoliophyta) are one of the major groups of modern plants, comprising those that produce seeds in specialized reproductive organs called flowers, where the ovulary or carpel is enclosed. ...


Subdisciplines of Botany

Agronomy is a branch of agricultural science that deals with the study of crops and the soils in which they grow. ... Bryologie is the branch of botany concerned with the scientific study of mosses. ... Ethnobotany is the study of the relationship between plants and people: Fromethno - study of people and botany - study of plants. ... A decidous beech forest in Slovenia. ... Horticulture (Latin: hortus (garden plant) + cultura (culture)) are classically defined as the culture or growing of garden plants. ... Paleobotany (from the Greek words paleon = old and botanikos = of herbs) is the branch of paleontology dealing with the recovery and identification of plant remains from geological contexts, and their use in the reconstruction of past environments and the history of life. ... Pollen under microscope Palynology is the science that studies contemporary and fossil palynomorphs, including pollen, spores, dinoflagellate cysts, acritarchs, chitinozoans and scolecodonts, together with particulate organic matter (POM) and kerogen found in sedimentary rocks and sediments. ... Phycology (or algology) (from Greek: φύκος, phykos, seaweed; and λόγος, logos, knowledge), a subdiscipline of botany, is the scientific study of algae. ... Phytochemistry is in the strict sense of the word the study of phytochemicals. ... Phytopathology (plant pathology) is the scientific study of plant diseases caused by pathogens (infectious diseases) and environmental conditons (non-infectiousness). ... Plant anatomy or phytotomy is the general term for the study of the structure of plants. ... The word ecology is often used in common parlance as a synonym for the natural environment or environmentalism. ... Plant anatomy or phytotomy is the general term for the study of the structure of plants. ... In botany, plant physiology is the study of the function, or physiology, of plants. ... Plant taxonomy is the science that finds, describes, classifies and names plants. ...

See also

Crantz's Classis cruciformium..., 1769
Crantz's Classis cruciformium..., 1769
Part of a series on
Horticulture and Gardening
Gardening

Gardening • Garden • Botanical garden • Arboretum • Botany • Plant Image File history File links Download high resolution version (500x819, 121 KB) Title of: H. I. N. Crantz, . Leipzig: J. P. Kraus, 1769 File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Botany Heinrich Johann Nepomuk von Crantz ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (500x819, 121 KB) Title of: H. I. N. Crantz, . Leipzig: J. P. Kraus, 1769 File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Botany Heinrich Johann Nepomuk von Crantz ... Crantzs , 1769 Heinrich Johann Nepomuk von Crantz (Roodt, Luxemburg, November 25, 1722 – January 18, 1797, Judenburg, Austria) was a botanist and a physician. ... A history of plant systematics should either start with folk taxonomy or with Theophrastus’s Historia Plantarum, the first scientific treatise published on plants. ... Phycology is the study of marine algae (seaweeds) and history is the study of the past human activities. ... Inside the United States Botanic Garden Washington, D.C. Botanical gardens grow a wide variety of plants primarily categorized and documented for scientific purposes. ... A botanical garden is a place where plants, especially ferns, conifers and flowering plants, are grown and displayed for the purposes of research and education. ... The growth rings of an unknown tree species, at Bristol Zoo, England Pinus taeda Cross section showing annual rings, Cheraw, South Carolina Pine stump showing growth rings Dendrochronology or tree-ring dating is the method of scientific dating based on the analysis of tree-ring growth patterns. ... This is a list of plants that have been domesticated by humans. ... Just as flowers are used to decorate a room, some common flowers can also be used to decorate foods. ... For other uses, see Flower (disambiguation). ... This list of flowers includes different individual flowers produced by flowering plants (Division Magnoliophyta). ... A decidous beech forest in Slovenia. ... Herbs: basil Herbs (IPA: hÉ™()b, or É™b; see pronunciation differences) are seed-bearing plants without woody stems, which die down to the ground after flowering. ... The following is a list of botanical journals and magazines Acta Botanica Gallica Acta Botánica Mexicana Acta Botanica Yunnanica Acta Phytotaxonomica Geobotanica Acta Phytotaxonomica Sinica Adansonia (journal) American Journal of Botany Annales Forestales (Anali za Sumarstvo, Zagreb) Annals of Botany Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden Arboretum Kórnickie... This is a list of botanists who have articles, in alphabetical order by surname. ... This is a list of botanists by their author abbreviation, including that established by Brummitt & Powell (1992), designed for citation in the botanical names they have published. ... This list of systems of plant taxonomy presents “taxonomic systems” used in plant classification. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Paleobotany (from the Greek words paleon = old and botanikos = of herbs) is the branch of paleontology dealing with the recovery and identification of plant remains from geological contexts, and their use in the reconstruction of past environments and the history of life. ... Pollen under microscope Palynology is the science that studies contemporary and fossil palynomorphs, including pollen, spores, dinoflagellate cysts, acritarchs, chitinozoans and scolecodonts, together with particulate organic matter (POM) and kerogen found in sedimentary rocks and sediments. ... Plant anatomy or phytotomy is the general term for the study of the structure of plants. ... In botany, plant physiology is the study of the function, or physiology, of plants. ... A biocoenosis (alternatively, biocoenose or biocenose), termed by Karl Möbius in 1877, describes all the interacting organisms living together in a specific habitat (or biotope). ... Close-up of an Echinopsis spachiana flower, showing both carpels and stamen, making it a complete flower. ... Soil science deals with soil as a natural resource on the surface of the earth including soil formation, classification and mapping; physical, chemical, biological, and fertility properties of soils per se; and these properties in relation to the use and management of soils. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1024 × 768 pixel, file size: 97 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Descripción: Pequeña regadera metálica - Regando un mininaranjo Fecha: 15/07/2006 Hora: 11:16 Cámara: EOS 30D ISO: 200 Tv: 1/1250... A gardener Gardening is the practice of growing flowering plants, vegetables, and fruits. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Inside the United States Botanic Garden Washington, D.C. Botanical gardens grow a wide variety of plants primarily categorized and documented for scientific purposes. ... This article is about a type of botanical garden. ... For other uses, see Plant (disambiguation). ...

Horticulture

Horticulture • Agriculture • Urban agriculture • City farm • Organic farming • Herb farm • Hobby farm • Intercropping • Farm Horticulture (Latin: hortus (garden plant) + cultura (culture)) are classically defined as the culture or growing of garden plants. ... Urban (or peri-urban) agriculture is the practice of agriculture (including crops, livestock, fisheries, and forestry activities) within or surrounding the boundaries of cities. ... City farms are community-run projects in urban areas, which involve people working with animals and plants. ... Organic farming is a psuedoscientific form of agriculture which avoids or largely excludes the use of synthetic fertilizers and pesticides, plant growth regulators, and livestock feed additives. ... An herb farm is usually a farm where herbs are grown for market sale. ... An old dairy farm has become a hobby farm near Leicester, New York A hobby farm is a small farm that is maintained without expectation of being a primary source of income. ... Intercropping is the agricultural practice of cultivating two or more crops in the same space at the same time (Andrews & Kassam 1976). ... For other uses, see Farm (disambiguation). ...

Customs

Harvest festival • Thanksgiving • History of agriculture In Britain, thanks have been given for successful harvests since pagan times. ... The art of diplomacy, painted by Jean Leon Gerome Ferris (1863-1930). ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...

Plant protection

Phytopathology • Pesticide • Weed control Phytopathology (plant pathology) is the scientific study of plant diseases caused by pathogens (infectious diseases) and environmental conditons (non-infectiousness). ... A cropduster spreading pesticide. ... Weed control, a botanical component of pest control, stops weeds from reaching a mature stage of growth when they could be harmful to domesticated plants, sometimes livestocks, by using manual techniques including soil cultivation, mulching and herbicides. ...

This box: view  talk  edit

The coniferous Coast Redwood, the tallest tree species on earth. ... Vegetation is a general term for the plant life of a region; it refers to the ground cover provided by plants, and is, by far, the most abundant biotic element of the biosphere. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ...

References

  1. ^ Winterborne J, 2005. Hydroponics - Indoor Horticulture [1]
  2. ^ Mann, J. (1987). Secondary Metabolism, 2nd ed.. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 186-187. ISBN 0-19-855529-6. 
  3. ^ Hoek, C.van den, Mann, D.G. and Jahns, H.M. 2005. Algae An Introduction to Phycology. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. ISBN 0 521 30419 9

Further reading

Popular science style books on Botany

  • Attenborough, David The Private Life of Plants, ISBN 0-563-37023-8
  • Bellamy, D Bellamy on Botany, ISBN 0-563-10666-2 an accessible and short introduction to various botanical subjects
  • Capon, B: Botany for Gardeners ISBN 0-88192-655-8
  • Cohen, J. How many people can the earth support? W.W. Norton 1995 ISBN 0-393-31495-2
  • Halle, Francis. In praise of plants ISBN 0-88192-550-0. English translation of a poetic advocacy of plants.
  • King, J. Reaching for the sun: How plants work ISBN 0-521-58738-7. A fluent introduction to how plants work.
  • Pakenham, T: Remarkable Trees of the World (2002) ISBN 0-297-84300-1
  • Pakenham, T: Meetings with Remarkable Trees (1996) ISBN 0-297-83255-7
  • Pollan, M The Botany of Desire: A Plant's-eye View of the World Bloomsbury ISBN 0-7475-6300-4 Account of the co-evolution of plants and humans
  • Thomas, B.A.: The evolution of plants and flowers St Martin's Press 1981 ISBN 0-312-27271-5
  • Walker, D. Energy, Plants and Man ISBN 1-870232-05-4 A presentation of the basic concepts of photosynthesis

Sir David Frederick Attenborough, OM, CH, CVO, CBE, FRS (born on May 8, 1926 in London, England) is one of the worlds best known broadcasters and naturalists. ... The Private Life of Plants (1995) is a six-part BBC television series presented by David Attenborough, on the growth, movement, reproduction and survival of plants around the world. ... David Bellamy Professor David J. Bellamy OBE (born 18 January 1933) is an English botanist, author, broadcaster and environmental campaigner. ... Thomas Francis Dermot Pakenham, 8th Earl of Longford (born 14 August 1933), known simply as Thomas Pakenham, is an Anglo-Irish historian and arborist who has authored several prize winning books on the diverse subjects of Victorian and post-Victorian British history and trees. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... Year 1996 (MCMXCVI) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display full 1996 Gregorian calendar). ... Bumblebees and the flowers they pollinate have co-evolved so that both have become dependent on each other for survival. ... Year 1981 (MCMLXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link displays the 1981 Gregorian calendar). ...

Academic and Scientific books on Botany

  • Buchanan, B.B., Gruissem, W & Jones, R.L. (2000) Biochemistry & molecular biology of plants. American Society of Plant Physiologists ISBN 0-943088-39-9
  • Crawford, R. M. M. (1989). Studies in plant survival. Blackwell. ISBN 0-632-01475-X
  • Crawley, M. J. (1997). Plant ecology. Blackwell Scientific. ISBN 0-632-03639-7
  • Ennos, R and Sheffield, E Plant life, Blackwell Science, ISBN 0-86542-737-2 Introduction to plant biodiversity
  • Fitter, A & Hay, R Environmental physiology of plants 3rd edition Sept 2001 Harcourt Publishers, Academic Press ISBN 0-12-257766-3
  • Lambers, H., Chapin, F.S. III and Pons, T.L. 1998. Plant Physiological Ecology. Springer-Verlag, New York. ISBN 0-387-98326-0
  • Lawlor, D.W. (2000) Photosynthesis BIOS ISBN 1-85996-157-6
  • Matthews, R. E. F. Fundamentals of plant virology Academic Press,1992.
  • Mauseth, J.D.: Botany : an introduction to plant biology. Jones and Bartlett Publishers, ISBN 0-7637-2134-4, A first year undergraduate level textbook
  • Morton, A.G. (1981). History of Botanical Science.Academic Press, London. ISBN 0-12-508380-7 (hardback) ISBN 0-12-508382-3 (paperback)
  • Raven, P.H, Evert R.H and Eichhorn, S.E: Biology of Plants, Freeman. ISBN 1-57259-041-6, A first year undergraduate level textbook
  • Richards, P. W. (1996). The tropical rainforest. 2nd ed. C.U.P. (Pbk) ISBN 0-521-42194-2 £32.50
  • Ridge, I. (2002) Plants Oxford University Press ISBN 0-19-925548-2
  • Salisbury, FB and Ross, CW: Plant physiology Wadsworth publishing company ISBN 0-534-15162-0
  • Stace, C. A. A new flora of the British Isles. 2nd ed. C.U.P.,1997. ISBN 0-521-58935-5
  • Strange, R. L. Introduction to plant pathology. Wiley-VCH, 2003. ISBN 0-470-84973-8
  • Taiz, L. & Zeiger, E. (1998). Plant physiology. 3rd ed. August 2002 Sinauer Associates. ISBN 0-87893-823-0
  • Walter, H. (1985). Vegetation of the earth. 3rd rev. ed. Springer.
  • Willis, K (2002) The evolution of plants Oxford University Press ISBN 0-19-850065-3 £22-99

Rainforests are among the most biodiverse ecosystems on earth Biodiversity is the variation of taxonomic life forms within a given ecosystem, biome or for the entire Earth. ... Oxford University Press (OUP) is a highly-respected publishing house and a department of the University of Oxford in England. ... In botany, plant physiology is the study of the function, or physiology, of plants. ... In Botany a Flora (or Floræ) is a collective term for plant life and can also refer to a descriptive catalogue of the plants of any geographical area, geological period, etc. ... Phytopathology or Plant Pathology is the science of diagnosing and managing plant diseases. ... Vegetation is a general term for the plant life of a region; it refers to the ground cover provided by plants, and is, by far, the most abundant biotic element of the biosphere. ...

External links

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At Wikiversity you can learn more and teach others about Botany at:
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Biology Portal

Image File history File links Wikiversity-logo-Snorky. ... Wikiversity logo Wikiversity is a Wikimedia Foundation beta project[1], devoted to learning materials and activities, located at www. ... Image File history File links Wikibooks-logo-en. ... Wikibooks logo Wikibooks, previously called Wikimedia Free Textbook Project and Wikimedia-Textbooks, is a wiki for the creation of books. ... Image File history File links Portal. ...

Flora and other plant catalogs or databases



  Results from FactBites:
 
Department of Botany, UW-Madison (289 words)
of the Department of Botany is to discover, maintain, and transmit knowledge concerning basic plant biology and provide leadership in the biological sciences.
New Undergraduate Major - A new Botany Undergraduate Major with different requirements goes into effect at the beginning of the Fall semester, 2007...
Botany Garden blossoming with new expansion - The Botany Garden, a green and fragrant oasis in a sea of buildings and traffic, has recently become a larger, more welcoming sanctuary as an expansion is well underway...
Botany - MSN Encarta (1112 words)
Organisms that had previously been called plants, however, such as bacteria, algae, and fungi, continue to be the province of botany, because of their historical connection with the discipline and their many similarities to true plants, and because of the practicality of not fragmenting the study of organisms into too many separate fields.
Thus, botany as a pure science began in the 4th century BC with the Greek philosopher Theophrastus, whose treatises on the classification, morphology, and reproduction of plants heavily influenced the discipline until the 17th century.
Botany does not depend on the fossil record for information concerning evolution and classification as much as does zoology, because the record for plants is much less complete than that for animals.
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