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Encyclopedia > Boston Tea Party
This 1846 lithograph has become a classic image of the Boston Tea Party.
This 1846 lithograph has become a classic image of the Boston Tea Party.

The Boston Tea Party was an act of protest by the American colonists against Great Britain in which they destroyed many crates of tea bricks on ships in Boston Harbor. The incident, which took place on Thursday, December 16, 1773, has been seen as helping to spark the American Revolution. Current uses of the term Boston Tea Party may refer to: The historical Boston Tea Party, a 1773 colonial American protest action which presaged the American Revolution. ... Image File history File links Emblem-important. ... Image source : http://teachpol. ... Image source : http://teachpol. ... Demonstrators march in the street while protesting the World Bank and International Monetary Fund on April 16, 2005. ... For colonies not part of the 13 colonies see European colonization of the Americas or British colonization of the Americas. ... Look up crate in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A compressed brick of pu-erh tea . ... Categories: Stub | Massachusetts geography | Boston ... is the 350th day of the year (351st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1773 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... John Trumbulls Declaration of Independence, showing the five-man committee in charge of drafting the Declaration in 1776 as it presents its work to the Second Continental Congress in Philadelphia The American Revolution refers to the period during the last half of the 18th century in which the Thirteen...

Contents

Background

The Stamp Act of 1765 and the Townshend Acts of 1767 angered colonists regarding British decisions on taxing the colonies despite a lack of representation in the Westminster Parliament. One of the protesters was John Hancock. In 1768, Hancock's ship Liberty was seized by customs officials, and he was charged with smuggling. He was defended by John Adams, and the charges were eventually dropped. However, Hancock later faced several hundred more indictments. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Townshend Acts refer to two Acts of the Parliament of Great Britain passed in 1767, which were proposed by Charles Townshend, Chancellor of the Exchequer, just before his death. ... No taxation without representation was a slogan in the period 1763-1775 that summarized a primary grievance of the American colonists in the Thirteen colonies. ... Type Bicameral Houses House of Commons House of Lords Speaker of the House of Commons The Right Honourable Michael Martin MP Lord Speaker Hélène Hayman, Baroness Hayman, PC Members 1377 (646 Commons, 731 Peers) Political groups (as of May 5, 2005 elections) Labour Party Conservative Party Liberal Democrats... For other persons named John Hancock, see John Hancock (disambiguation). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... John Adams, Jr. ...


Hancock organized a boycott of tea from China sold by the British East India Company, whose sales in the colonies then fell from 320,000 pounds (145,000 kg) to 520 pounds (240 kg). By 1773, the company had large debts, huge stocks of tea in its warehouses and no prospect of selling it because smugglers, such as Hancock, were importing tea without paying import taxes. The British government passed the Tea Act, which allowed the East India Company to sell tea to the colonies directly and without "payment of any customs or duties whatsoever" in Britain, instead paying the much lower American duty. This tax break allowed the East India Company to sell for lower prices than those offered by the colonial merchants and smugglers. Look up Boycott in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The British East India Company, sometimes referred to as John Company, was the first joint-stock company (the Dutch East India Company was the first to issue public stock). ... An import tariff or import duty is a schedule of duties imposed by a country on imported goods. ... The Tea Act was an Act of the Parliament of Great Britain (13 Geo III c. ...


American colonists, particularly the wealthy smugglers, resented this favored treatment of a major company, which employed lobbyists and wielded great influence in Parliament. Protests resulted in both Philadelphia and New York, but it was those in Boston that made their mark in history. Still reeling from the Hutchinson letters, Bostonians suspected the new Tea Tax was simply another attempt by the British Parliament to squash American freedom. Samuel Adams, wealthy smugglers and others who had profited from the smuggled tea, called for agents and consignees of the East India Company tea to abandon their positions; consignees who hesitated were terrorized through attacks on their warehouses and even their homes.[1] For other uses, see Samuel Adams (disambiguation). ... The British East India Company, sometimes referred to as John Company, was the first joint-stock company (the Dutch East India Company was the first to issue public stock). ...


The first of many ships carrying the East India Company tea was HMS Dartmouth arriving in late November 1773. A standoff ensued between the port authorities and the Sons of Liberty. Samuel Adams whipped up the growing crowd by demanding a series of protest meetings. Coming from both the city and outlying areas, thousands attended these meetings; every meeting larger than the one before. The crowds shouted defiance not only at the British Parliament, the East India Company, and HMS Dartmouth but at Governor Thomas Hutchinson as well, who was still struggling to have the tea landed. On the night of December 16, the protest meeting, held at Boston's Old South Meeting House, was the largest yet seen. An estimated 8,000 people were said to have attended. The Sons of Liberty as depicted in British press The Sons of Liberty was a secret organization of American Patriots which originated in the Thirteen Colonies before the American Revolution. ... Thomas Hutchinson (September 9, 1711 – June 3, 1780) was the American colonial governor of Massachusetts from 1771 to 1774 and a prominent Loyalist in the years before the American Revolutionary War. ... The Old South Meeting House with 33 Arch Street in the background The Old South Meeting House, in Boston, Massachusetts, gained fame as the organizing point for the Boston Tea Party on December 16, 1773. ...


Event

1789 engraving
1789 engraving

On Thursday, December 16, 1773, the evening before the tea was due to be landed, the Sons of Liberty thinly disguised as Mohawk Indians in coustumes designed by Jacqueline Monica L'Alessandra , left the massive protest meeting and headed toward Griffin's Wharf, where lay Dartmouth and the newly arrived Beaver and Eleanour. Swiftly and efficiently, casks of tea were brought up from the hold to the deck, reasonable proof that some of the "Indians" were, in fact, longshoremen. The casks were opened and the tea dumped overboard; the work, lasting well into the night, was quick, thorough, and efficient. By dawn, 90,000 lbs (45 tons) of tea worth an estimated £10,000 had been consigned to waters of Boston harbor.[1] Nothing else had been damaged or stolen, except a single padlock accidentally broken and anonymously replaced not long thereafter. Tea washed up on the shores around Boston for weeks. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (912x627, 101 KB) Summary W.D. Cooper. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (912x627, 101 KB) Summary W.D. Cooper. ... is the 350th day of the year (351st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1773 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... Tea leaves in a Chinese gaiwan. ... The Sons of Liberty as depicted in British press The Sons of Liberty was a secret organization of American Patriots which originated in the Thirteen Colonies before the American Revolution. ... This article is about the people known as Mohawk. For other uses, see Mohawk. ...


Reaction

This act brought criticism from both colonial and British officials. For instance, Benjamin Franklin stated that the destroyed tea must be repaid, and he offered to repay with his own money. The British government responded by closing the port of Boston and put in place other laws that were known as the "Intolerable Acts," also called the Coercive Acts, or Punitive Acts. However, a number of colonists were inspired to carry out similar acts, such as the burning of the Peggy Stewart. The Boston Tea Party eventually proved to be one of the many causes that led to the American Revolution. At the very least, the Boston Tea Party and the reaction that followed served to rally support for revolutionaries in the thirteen colonies who were eventually successful in their fight for independence. Benjamin Franklin (January 17 [O.S. January 6] 1706 – April 17, 1790) was one of the most well known Founding Fathers of the United States. ... This British cartoon, depicting the Intolerable Acts as an assault upon a Native American woman (a symbol of the American colonies), was copied and distributed by Paul Revere throughout the colonies. ... A painting by Francis Blackwell Mayer depicting the burning of the Peggy Stewart The Peggy Stewart was a British tea ship burned in protest of the Tea Act on October 19, 1774 in Annapolis by a crowd of citizens inspired by the Boston Tea Party. ... John Trumbulls Declaration of Independence, showing the five-man committee in charge of drafting the Declaration in 1776 as it presents its work to the Second Continental Congress in Philadelphia The American Revolution refers to the period during the last half of the 18th century in which the Thirteen... In 1775, the British claimed authority over the red and pink areas on this map and Spain ruled the orange. ... This article is about military actions only. ...


Many colonists, in Boston and elsewhere in the country, pledged to abstain from tea drinking as a protest, turning instead to "Balsamic hyperion" (made from raspberry leaves), other herbal infusions and coffee. This social protest movement away from tea drinking was not, however, long-lived. A cup of coffee. ...


International influence

The Boston Tea Party is known around the world and has been inspirational to other noted activists and reform leaders. For example, Erik H. Erikson records in his book "Gandhi's Truths" that when Mahatma Gandhi met with the British viceroy in 1930 after the Indian salt protest campaign, Gandhi took some duty-free salt from his shawl and said, with a smile, that the salt was "to remind us of the famous Boston Tea Party." Activism, in a general sense, can be described as involvement in action to bring about change, be it social, political, environmental, or other change. ... Reform movement is a kind of social movement that aims to make a change in certain aspects of the society rather than fundamental changes. ... Erik Homburger Erikson (June 15, 1902 - May 12, 1994) was a developmental psychologist and psychoanalyst known for his theory on social development of human beings, and for coining the phrase identity crisis. Bibliography Major works: Childhood and Society (1950) Young Man Luther. ... Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi (Gujarati: , Hindi: , IAST: mohandās karamcand gāndhī, IPA: ) (October 2, 1869 – January 30, 1948), was a major political and spiritual leader of India and the Indian independence movement. ... Scenes on the eve of the Salt Satyagraha, Gandhis famous 240 mile march on foot to the sea at Dandi. ...


Notes

  1. ^ a b Brands, H.W. Benjamin Franklin(Anchor Books, 2000)p.465

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Boston Tea Party

  Results from FactBites:
 
From revolution to reconstruction: Essays: Boston Teaparty: Boston Teaparty (422 words)
In an effort to save it, the government passed the Tea Act of 1773, which gave the company the right to export its merchandise directly to the colonies without paying any of the regular taxes that were imposed on the colonial merchants, who had traditionally served as the middlemen in such transactions.
In Boston, the agents refused to resign and, with the support of the royal governor, preparations were made to land incoming cargoes regardless of opposition.
In these four acts of 1774, Parliament closed the port of Boston, drastically reduced the powers of selfgovernment in the colony, permitted royal officers to be tried in other colonies or in England when accused of crimes, and provided for the quartering of troops in the colonists' barns and empty houses.
The Boston Tea Party, 1773 (0 words)
Tea was a staple of colonial life - it was assumed that the colonists would rather pay the tax than deny themselves the pleasure of a cup of tea.
We then were ordered by our commander to open the hatches and take out all the chests of tea and throw them overboard, and we immediately proceeded to execute his orders, first cutting and splitting the chests with our tomahawks, so as thoroughly to expose them to the effects of the water.
In about three hours from the time we went on board, we had thus broken and thrown overboard every tea chest to be found in the ship, while those in the other ships were disposing of the tea in the same way, at the same time.
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