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Encyclopedia > Boston, Massachusetts
City of Boston
Flag of City of Boston
Flag
Official seal of City of Boston
Seal
Nickname: Beantown, The Hub (of the Universe),1 The Cradle of Liberty, City on a Hill, Athens of America
Location in Suffolk County in Massachusetts, USA
Coordinates: 42°21′28″N 71°03′42″W / 42.35778, -71.06167
Country United States
State Massachusetts
County Suffolk
Settled 1630
Incorporated (city) 1822
Government
 - Mayor Thomas M. Menino (D)
Area
 - City 89.6 sq mi (232.1 km²)
 - Land 48.4 sq mi (125.4 km²)
 - Water 41.2 sq mi (106.7 km²)
 - Metro 4,511.5 sq mi (11,684.7 km²)
Elevation 141 ft (43 m)
Population (2006)[1][2]
 - City 590,763
 - Density 12,327/sq mi (4,815/km²)
 - Urban 4,313,000
 - Metro 4,455,217
 - Demonym Bostonian
Time zone Eastern (UTC-5)
 - Summer (DST) Eastern (UTC-4)
Area code(s) 617 / 857
FIPS code 25-07000
GNIS feature ID 0617565
1 The State House, according to Oliver Wendell Holmes, is the hub of the Solar System
Website: www.cityofboston.gov

Boston (pronounced /ˈbɒstən/ ) is the capital and largest city of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts. The city is located in Suffolk County, Massachusetts, in the northeastern United States.[3] The largest city in New England, Boston is considered the economic and cultural center of the entire New England region.[4] The city, which had an estimated population of 590,763 in 2006, lies at the center of the Cambridge–Boston-Quincy metropolitan area—the 10th-largest metropolitan area (5th largest CSA) in the U.S., with a population of 4.5 million. Look up Boston in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 509 pixelsFull resolution (2904 × 1848 pixel, file size: 3. ... Image File history File links Us-ma-bo. ... Boston City Seal (presumed fair use from City of Boston - historial document) This work is copyrighted. ... EXAMPLE:Laughbox,Blondie,BamBam,Pinkie,etc. ... Image File history File links Boston_ma_highlight. ... This list of countries, arranged alphabetically, gives an overview of countries of the world. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      The political units and divisions of the United States include: The 50 states... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Massachusetts counties This is a list of Massachusetts counties, consisting of the 14 Massachusetts counties currently in existence. ... Suffolk County is a county located in the state of Massachusetts. ... This is a list of Mayors of Boston, Massachusetts. ... Thomas Michael Menino (born December 27, 1942) is the current mayor of Boston, Massachusetts, United States and the citys first Italian-American mayor. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  Politics Portal      Further information: Politics of the United States#Organization of American political parties The Democratic... This article is about the physical quantity. ... For other uses, see City (disambiguation). ... A square mile is an English unit of area equal to that of a square with sides each 1 statute mile (≈1,609 m) in length. ... To help compare different orders of magnitude and geographical regions, we list here areas between 100 km² and 1000 km². See also areas of other orders of magnitude. ... Elevation histogram of the surface of the Earth – approximately 71% of the Earths surface is covered with water. ... A foot (plural: feet or foot;[1] symbol or abbreviation: ft or, sometimes, ′ – a prime) is a unit of length, in a number of different systems, including English units, Imperial units, and United States customary units. ... This article is about the unit of length. ... For other uses, see City (disambiguation). ... Population density per square kilometre by country, 2006 Population density map of the world in 1994. ... Cities with at least a million inhabitants in 2006 An urban area is an area with an increased density of human-created structures in comparison to the areas surrounding it. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... A demonym or gentilic is a word that denotes the members of a people or the inhabitants of a place. ... Timezone and TimeZone redirect here. ... “Eastern Daylight Time” redirects here. ... -12 | -11 | -10 | -9:30 | -9 | -8 | -7 | -6 | -5 | -4 | -3:30 | -3 | -2:30 | -2 | -1 | -0:25 | UTC (0) | +0:20 | +0:30 | +1 | +2 | +3 | +3:30 | +4 | +4:30 | +4:51 | +5 | +5:30 | +5:40 | +5:45 | +6 | +6:30 | +7 | +7:20 | +7... Although DST is common in Europe and North America, most of the worlds people do not use it. ... “Eastern Daylight Time” redirects here. ... −12 | −11 | −10 | −9:30 | −9 | −8 | −7 | −6 | −5 | −4 | −3:30 | −3 | −2:30 | −2 | −1 | −0:25 | UTC (0) | +0:20 | +0:30 | +1 | +2 | +3 | +3:30 | +4 | +4:30 | +4:51 | +5 | +5:30 | +5:40 | +5:45 | +6 | +6:30 | +7 | +7:20 | +7... A telephone numbering plan is a plan for allocating telephone number ranges to countries, regions, areas and exchanges and to non-fixed telephone networks such as mobile phone networks. ... Area code 617 once covered the entire Greater Boston (Eastern Massachusetts) area, reaching beyond the I-495 loop. ... Area code 857 is an overlay of parts of area code 617. ... Federal Information Processing Standards (FIPS) are publicly announced standards developed by the U.S. Federal government for use by all (non-military) government agencies and by government contractors. ... GNIS (The Geographic Names Information System) contains name and locative information about almost two million physical and cultural features located throughout the United States of America and its Territories. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Oliver Wendell Holmes Sr. ... This article is about the Solar System. ... In countries with federal constitutions divided into subnational entities known as states, the state capital is the administrative center of a state. ... For other uses, see Commonwealth (disambiguation). ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Suffolk County is a county located in the state of Massachusetts. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... This article is about the region in the United States of America. ... This article is about the region in the United States of America. ... Light Blue represents the area in Massachusetts known as Greater Boston, while Dark Blue represents the Metro-Boston area and Red represents Boston proper, the City of Boston Greater Boston is the area of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts surrounding the city of Boston, Massachusetts. ... In the United States, the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) has produced a formal definition of metropolitan areas. ... The United States Office of Management and Budget (OMB) defines micropolitan and metropolitan statistical areas. ...


In 1630, Puritan colonists from England founded the city on the Shawmut Peninsula.[5] During the late eighteenth century Boston was the location of several major events during the American Revolution, including the Boston Massacre and the Boston Tea Party. Several early battles of the American Revolution, such as the Battle of Bunker Hill and the Siege of Boston, occurred within the city and surrounding areas. After American independence was attained Boston became a major shipping port and manufacturing center, and its rich history now attracts 16.3 million visitors annually.[6][5] The city was the site of several firsts, including America's first public school, Boston Latin School (1635),[7] and first college, Harvard College (1636), in neighboring Cambridge. Boston was also home to the first subway system in the United States.[8] For the record label, see Puritan Records. ... This diagram shows the original dimension of the Shawmut Peninsula. ... John Trumbulls Declaration of Independence, showing the five-man committee in charge of drafting the Declaration in 1776 as it presents its work to the Second Continental Congress in Philadelphia The American Revolution refers to the period during the last half of the 18th century in which the Thirteen... Engraving by Paul Revere The Boston Massacre refers to an incident involving the deaths of five civilians at the hands of British troops on March 5, 1770, the legal aftermath of which helped spark the rebellion in some of the British colonies in America which culminated in the American Revolution. ... This article is about a 1773 American protest. ... For a list of numerous places and things that are named after this battle, see Bunker Hill. ... Combatants New England militia, Continental Army Great Britain Commanders Artemas Ward, George Washington Thomas Gage, William Howe Strength 17,000 The Siege of Boston (April 19, 1775 – March 17, 1776) was the opening phase of the American Revolutionary War, in which New England militiamen—and then the Continental Army—surrounded... The Boston Latin School is a public exam school founded on April 23, 1635, in Boston, Massachusetts, making it the oldest public school in the United States. ... Harvard Yard Harvard College is the undergraduate section and oldest school of Harvard University, a private university in the United States, founded in 1636 by the Massachusetts legislature. ... Location in Middlesex County in Massachusetts Coordinates: , Country State County Middlesex Settled 1630 Incorporated 1636 Government  - Type Mayor-City Council  - Mayor Kenneth Reeves (D) Area  - Total 7. ... “Mass Transit” redirects here. ...


Through land reclamation and municipal annexation, Boston has expanded beyond the peninsula. With many colleges and universities within the city and surrounding area, Boston is a center of higher education[9] and a center for health care. The city's economy is also based on research, finance, and technology – principally biotechnology. Boston has been experiencing gentrification and has one of the highest costs of living in the United States.[10] Land reclamation is either of two distinct practices. ... In the United States, all local governments are considered creatures of the state according to Dillons Rule, which resulted from the work of John Forrest Dillon on the law of municipal corporations. ... The structure of insulin Biotechnology is technology based on biology, especially when used in agriculture, food science, and medicine. ... In San Francisco, during the mid-1960s, the bohemian center of the city shifted from the old Beat enclave of North Beach to Haight-Ashbury (pictured) as a response to gentrification. ... For other uses, see The Cost of Living. ...

Contents

History

Boston in 1772.

Boston was founded on September 17, 1630 by Puritan colonists from England.[5] The Puritans of the Massachusetts Bay Colony are sometimes confused with the Pilgrims who founded Plymouth Colony ten years earlier in what is today Bristol County, Plymouth County, and Barnstable County, Massachusetts. The two groups are historically distinct and differed in religious practice. The separate colonies were not united until the formation of the Province of Massachusetts Bay in 1691. 1740 Faneuil Hall, sketch by John Smybert The 18th-century Old State House in Boston is surrounded by tall buildings of the 19th and 20th centuries. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1536x1414, 298 KB) Summary Boston in 1772. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1536x1414, 298 KB) Summary Boston in 1772. ... is the 260th day of the year (261st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events February 22 - Native American Quadequine introduces Popcorn to English colonists. ... For the record label, see Puritan Records. ... A map of the Massachusetts Bay Colony Capital Charlestown, Boston History  - Established 1629  - New England Confederation 1643  - Dominion of New England 1686  - Province of Massachusetts Bay 1692  - Disestablished 1692 The Massachusetts Bay Colony (sometimes called the Massachusetts Bay Company, for the institution that founded it) was an English settlement on... This article is about a particular group of seventeenth-century European colonists of North America. ... Seal of Plymouth Colony Map of Plymouth Colony showing town locations Capital Plymouth Language(s) English Religion Puritan, Separatist Government Monarchy Legislature General Court History  - Established 1620  - First Thanksgiving 1621  - Pequot War 1637  - King Philips War 1675–1676  - Part of the Dominion of New England 1686–1688  - Disestablished 1691... Bristol County is a county located in the U.S. state of Massachusetts. ... Plymouth County is a county located in the U.S. state of Massachusetts. ... Barnstable County is a county located in the U.S. state of Massachusetts. ... A map of the Province of Massachusetts Bay. ...


The Shawmut peninsula was connected to the mainland by a narrow isthmus, and surrounded by the waters of Massachusetts Bay and the Back Bay, an estuary of the Charles River. Several prehistoric Native American archaeological sites excavated in the city have shown that the peninsula was inhabited as early as 5,000 BC.[11] Boston's early European settlers first called the area Trimountaine, but later renamed the town after Boston, Lincolnshire, England, from which several prominent colonists had emigrated. Massachusetts Bay Colony's original governor, John Winthrop, gave a famous sermon entitled "A Model of Christian Charity," popularly known as the "City on a Hill" sermon, which captured the idea that Boston had a special covenant with God. (Winthrop also led the signing of the Cambridge Agreement, which is regarded as a key founding document of the city.) Puritan ethics molded a stable and well-structured society in Boston. For example, shortly after Boston's settlement, Puritans founded America's first public school, Boston Latin School (1635),[7] and America's first college, Harvard College (1636). Boston was the largest town in British North America until the mid-1700s.[12] For other uses, see Isthmus (disambiguation). ... Map of Massachusetts Bay. ... For other meanings, see Estuary (disambiguation) Río de la Plata estuary An estuary is a semi-enclosed coastal body of water with one or more rivers or streams flowing into it, and with a free connection to the open sea. ... The Charles River from the Boston side, facing Cambridge and the main campus of Harvard University. ... This article is about the people indigenous to the United States. ... A large number of places in the U.S were named after places in England as a result of English settlers and explorers. ... , Boston is a town and small port in Lincolnshire, UK, on the east coast of England. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... A map of the Massachusetts Bay Colony Capital Charlestown, Boston History  - Established 1629  - New England Confederation 1643  - Dominion of New England 1686  - Province of Massachusetts Bay 1692  - Disestablished 1692 The Massachusetts Bay Colony (sometimes called the Massachusetts Bay Company, for the institution that founded it) was an English settlement on... John Winthrop (12 January 1587/8–26 March 1649) led a group of English Puritans to the New World, joined the Massachusetts Bay Colony in 1629 and was elected their first governor on April 8, 1630. ... City upon a hill is phrase often used to refer to John Winthrops famous sermon, A Model of Christian Charity,, of 1630, based on the one of the metaphors of Salt and Light in the Sermon on the Mount (You are the light of the world. ... The Cambridge Agreement was an agreement made on August 29, 1629, between the shareholders of the Massachusetts Bay Company. ... The Boston Latin School is a public exam school founded on April 23, 1635, in Boston, Massachusetts, making it the oldest public school in the United States. ... Harvard Yard Harvard College is the undergraduate section and oldest school of Harvard University, a private university in the United States, founded in 1636 by the Massachusetts legislature. ...

Part of current downtown Boston by its harbor.
Part of current downtown Boston by its harbor.

In the 1770s, British attempts to exert more stringent control on the thirteen colonies, primarily via taxation, prompted Bostonians to initiate the American Revolution.[5] The Boston Massacre, the Boston Tea Party, and several early battles occurred in or near the city, including the Battle of Lexington and Concord, Battle of Bunker Hill, and the Siege of Boston. During this period, Paul Revere made his famous midnight ride. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2500x1894, 3102 KB) A view of downtown Boston, Massachusetts taken in August of 2006. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2500x1894, 3102 KB) A view of downtown Boston, Massachusetts taken in August of 2006. ... In 1775, the British claimed authority over the red and pink areas on this map and Spain ruled the orange. ... John Trumbulls Declaration of Independence, showing the five-man committee in charge of drafting the Declaration in 1776 as it presents its work to the Second Continental Congress in Philadelphia The American Revolution refers to the period during the last half of the 18th century in which the Thirteen... Engraving by Paul Revere The Boston Massacre refers to an incident involving the deaths of five civilians at the hands of British troops on March 5, 1770, the legal aftermath of which helped spark the rebellion in some of the British colonies in America which culminated in the American Revolution. ... This article is about a 1773 American protest. ... The Battle of Lexington and Concord on April 19, 1775 was the first battle of the American Revolutionary War and was described as the shot heard round the world in Emersons Concord Hymn. ... For a list of numerous places and things that are named after this battle, see Bunker Hill. ... Combatants New England militia, Continental Army Great Britain Commanders Artemas Ward, George Washington Thomas Gage, William Howe Strength 17,000 The Siege of Boston (April 19, 1775 – March 17, 1776) was the opening phase of the American Revolutionary War, in which New England militiamen—and then the Continental Army—surrounded... For the song by the Beastie Boys, see Paul Revere (song). ...


After the Revolution, Boston had become one of the world's wealthiest international trading ports due to the city's consolidated seafaring tradition – exports included rum, fish, salt, and tobacco. During this era, descendants of old Boston families became regarded as the nation's social and cultural elites; they were later dubbed the Boston Brahmins. In 1822, Boston was chartered as a city.[13] Boston Brahmins, or simply Brahmins—sometimes also called the First Families of Boston—are a blue-blooded class of New Englanders who claim hereditary or cultural descent from the Anglo-Saxon Protestants who founded the city of Boston, Massachusetts and originally settled New England. ...


The Embargo Act of 1807, adopted during the Napoleonic Wars, and the War of 1812 significantly curtailed Boston's harbor activity. Although foreign trade returned after these hostilities, Boston's merchants had found alternatives for their capital investments in the interim. Manufacturing became an important component of the city's economy and by the mid-1800s, the city's industrial manufacturing overtook international trade in economic importance. Until the early 1900s, Boston remained one of the nation's largest manufacturing centers, and was notable for its garment production and leather goods industries.[6] A network of small rivers bordering the city and connecting it to the surrounding region made for easy shipment of goods and allowed for a proliferation of mills and factories. Later, a dense network of railroads facilitated the region's industry and commerce. From the mid- to late nineteenth century, Boston flourished culturally; it became renowned for its rarefied literary culture and lavish artistic patronage. It also became a center of the abolitionist movement.[14] The city reacted strongly to the Fugitive Slave Law, which contributed to President Franklin Pierce's attempt to make an example of Boston after the Burns Fugitive Slave Case. The Embargo Act was a series of laws passed by the Congress of the United States between the years 1806-1808, during the second term of President Thomas Jefferson. ... Combatants Austria[a] Portugal Prussia[a] Russia[b] Sicily[c] Sardinia  Spain[d]  Sweden[e] United Kingdom French Empire Holland[f] Italy Etruria[g] Naples[h] Duchy of Warsaw[i] Confederation of the Rhine[j] Bavaria Saxony Westphalia Württemberg Denmark-Norway[k] Commanders Archduke Charles Prince Schwarzenberg Karl Mack... This article is about the U.S.–U.K. war. ... A baby wearing many items of winter clothing: headband, cap, fur-lined coat, shawl and sweater. ... For other uses, see Leather (disambiguation). ... This article is about the abolition of slavery. ... The Fugitive Slave Law of the United States may refer to one of two laws of the same name: Fugitive Slave Law of 1793 Fugitive Slave Law of 1850 This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Franklin Pierce (November 23, 1804 – October 8, 1869) was an American politician and the fourteenth President of the United States, serving from 1853 to 1857. ...

Scollay Square in the 1880s
Scollay Square in the 1880s

In the 1820s, Boston's population began to swell and the city's ethnic composition changed dramatically with the first wave of European immigrants. Irish immigrants dominated the first wave of newcomers during this period. By 1850, about 35,000 Irish lived in Boston.[15] In the latter half of the nineteenth century, the city saw increasing numbers of Irish, Germans, Lebanese, French Canadians, and Russian and Polish Jews settle in the city. By the end of the nineteenth century, Boston's core neighborhoods had become enclaves of ethnically distinct immigrants – Italians inhabited the North End, the Irish dominated South Boston, and Russian Jews lived in the West End. Scollay Square in the 1880s Location: Scollay Square, Boston Source: [1] This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Scollay Square in the 1880s Location: Scollay Square, Boston Source: [1] This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Government Center is a city square and plaza in Boston, Massachusetts, bounded by Cambridge, Court, Congress, and Sudbury Streets. ... 2000 Census Population Ancestry Map Immigration to the United States of America is the movement of non-residents to the United States. ... French Canadian is a term that has several different connotations. ... Jewish history in Poland 960 Jewish merchant from Spain, Ibrahim Ibn Jaqub (Abraham ben Jakov), travels to Poland and writes the first description of the country. ... Image of the North End, Boston neighborhood. ... South Boston is a heavily populated neighborhood in Boston, Massachusetts, located south of the Fort Point Channel and abutting Dorchester Bay. ... The West End of Boston, Massachusetts is a neighborhood bounded generally by Cambridge Street to the south, the Charles River to the west and northwest, Martha Road and Lomasney Way on the north and northeast, and Staniford Street on the west. ...


Irish and Italian immigrants brought with them Roman Catholicism. Currently, Catholics make up Boston's largest religious community[16] and since the early twentieth century the Irish have played a major role in Boston politics—prominent figures include the Kennedys, Tip O'Neill, and John F. Fitzgerald. The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... The Irish Catholic political dynasty, John, Robert, and Edward Kennedy The Kennedy family is a prominent Irish-American family in American politics and government descending from the marriage of Joseph P. and Rose Fitzgerald Kennedy. ... Thomas Phillip ONeill, Jr. ... For the American author John Fitzgerald, see John D. Fitzgerald. ...

Trinity Church reflected in the façade of the John Hancock Tower.
Trinity Church reflected in the façade of the John Hancock Tower.

Between 1630 and 1890, the city tripled its physical size by land reclamation, by filling in marshes, mud flats, and gaps between wharves along the waterfront,[17] a process Walter Muir Whitehill called "cutting down the hills to fill the coves." The largest reclamation efforts took place during the 1800s. Beginning in 1807, the crown of Beacon Hill was used to fill in a 50-acre (20 ha) mill pond that later became Haymarket Square. The present-day State House sits atop this shortened Beacon Hill. Reclamation projects in the middle of the century created significant parts of the South End, West End, the Financial District, and Chinatown. After The Great Boston Fire of 1872, workers used building rubble as landfill along the downtown waterfront. During the mid-to-late nineteenth century, workers filled almost 600 acres (2.4 km²) of brackish Charles River marshlands west of the Boston Common with gravel brought by rail from the hills of Needham Heights. In addition, the city annexed the adjacent towns of Roxbury (1868), Dorchester (1870), Brighton, West Roxbury (including present day Jamaica Plain, Roslindale and West Roxbury), and Charlestown. The last three towns were annexed in 1874.[18] Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 533 pixelsFull resolution (2000 × 1333 pixel, file size: 2. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 533 pixelsFull resolution (2000 × 1333 pixel, file size: 2. ... Land reclamation is either of two distinct practices. ... Walter Muir Whitehill (b. ... This article is about the unit of measurement. ... A hectare (symbol ha) is a unit of area, equal to 10 000 square metres, commonly used for measuring land area. ... Haymarket Square is an area of Boston, Massachusetts, USA noted for its old style open air markets. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The South End is a neighborhood in Boston, Massachusetts. ... The West End of Boston, Massachusetts is a neighborhood bounded generally by Cambridge Street to the south, the Charles River to the west and northwest, Martha Road and Lomasney Way on the north and northeast, and Staniford Street on the west. ... The Beach Street gate into Bostons Chinatown. ... Ruins left by the fire The Great Boston Fire of 1872 was Bostons largest urban fire and still one of the most costly fire-related property losses in American history. ... Roxbury is a neighborhood within Boston, Massachusetts USA. It was one of the first towns founded in the Massachusetts Bay Colony in 1630 and became a city in 1846 until it was annexed to Boston on January 5, 1868. ... 1888 German map of Boston Harbor showing Dorchester in the lower left hand corner. ... Cemetery and apartment houses along Commonwealth Avenue, Brighton, near Chandlers Pond Brighton is a neighborhood of the City of Boston, Massachusetts, located in the northwest corner of the city. ... Founded in 1630 (contemporaneously with Boston), West Roxbury, Massachusetts was originally part of the town of Roxbury and was mainly used as farmland. ... Soldiers Monument and First Church in Jamaica Plain Unitarian Universalist Jamaica Plain, commonly known as JP, is a historic neighborhood of 4. ... Birdseye view of Boston, Charlestown, and Bunker Hill between 1890 and 1910. ...


The first community health center in the United States was the Columbia Point Health Center in the Dorchester neighborhood of Boston. It was opened in December 1965 and served mostly the massive Columbia Point public housing complex adjoining it. It was founded by two medical doctors, Jack Geiger of Harvard University and Count Gibson of Tufts University. It is still in operation and was re-dedicated in 1990 as the Geiger-Gibson Community Health Center.[19] 1888 German map of Boston Harbor showing Dorchester in the lower left hand corner. ...

The skyline of Boston's Back Bay neighborhood, home to some of the city's tallest skyscrapers, as seen from the Back Bay Fens. The Prudential Tower, John Hancock Tower, 111 Huntington Avenue, and the Christian Science Center are all visible; left to right.

By the early and mid-twentieth century, the city was in decline as factories became old and obsolete, and businesses moved out of the region for cheaper labor elsewhere.[5] Boston responded by initiating various urban renewal projects under the direction of the Boston Redevelopment Authority (BRA), which was established in 1957. In 1958, BRA initiated a project to improve the historic West End neighborhood. Extensive demolition garnered vociferous public opposition to the new agency.[20] BRA subsequently reevaluated its approach to urban renewal in its future projects, including the construction of Government Center. By the 1970s, the city's economy boomed after thirty years of economic downturn. Hospitals such as Massachusetts General Hospital, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, and Brigham and Women's Hospital led the nation in medical innovation and patient care. Schools such as Harvard University, MIT, Boston University, Boston College and Northeastern University attracted students to the Boston area. Nevertheless, the city experienced conflict starting in 1974 over desegregation busing, which resulted in unrest and violence around public schools throughout the mid-1970s. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 719 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (740 × 617 pixel, file size: 149 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) The Boston skyline as seen from the Fens. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 719 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (740 × 617 pixel, file size: 149 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) The Boston skyline as seen from the Fens. ... List of buildings List of masts List of tallest buildings in the world List of tallest buildings and structures in the world List of tallest buildings and structures in the world by country List of tallest buildings in Chicago List of tallest buildings in New York City List of tallest... Sunset view of the Back Bay Fens in Boston The Back Bay Fens (also called The Fens), once a salt water shallow bay, is now a fresh water park in Boston, Massachusetts, USA designed by Frederick Law Olmsted. ... Prudential Tower in 2006. ... John Hancock Tower, 200 Clarendon St. ... View of 111 Huntington Avenue from the Prudential Tower observatory. ... Christian Science Plaza in Boston, Massachusetts The First Church of Christ, Scientist (Christian Science Center in common reference) is the mother church and administrative headquarters of the Christian Science Church and is located in the Back Bay neighborhood of Boston, Massachusetts. ... Urban Renewal redirects here. ... The Boston Redevelopment Authority (BRA) is the municipal planning and development agency for Boston, working on both housing and commercial developments. ... Government Center circa 2000 Government Center is a city square and plaza in Boston, Massachusetts, bounded by Cambridge, Court, Congress, and Sudbury Streets. ... Massachusetts General Hospital (often abbreviated to Mass General or just MGH) is a teaching hospital of Harvard Medical School and biomedical research facility in Boston, Massachusetts. ... Both an international and regional referral center, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center (BIDMC) in Boston, Massachusetts is a major teaching hospital of Harvard Medical School. ... Brigham and Womens Hospital (BWH) is a hospital in Boston, Massachusetts. ... Harvard redirects here. ... “MIT” redirects here. ... For the similarly named institution in Chestnut Hill, see Boston College. ... For similarly-named academic institutions, see Education in Boston, MA. Boston College (BC) is a private university located in Chestnut Hill, Massachusetts, in the New England region of the United States. ... “Neu” redirects here. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...


The Columbia Point housing projects, built in 1953 on the Dorchester peninsula, had gone through bad times until there were only 350 families living in it in 1988. It was run down and dangerous. In 1984, the city of Boston gave control of it to a private developer, Corcoran-Mullins-Jennison, who re-developed and re-vitalised the property into an attractive residential mixed-income community called Harbor Point Apartments which was opened in 1988 and completed by 1990. It is a very significant example of revitalisation and re-development and was the first federal housing project to be converted to private, mixed-income housing in the United States.


In the early twenty-first century the city has become an intellectual, technological, and political center. It has, however, experienced a loss of regional institutions,[21] which included the acquisition of the Boston Globe by The New York Times, and the loss to mergers and acquisitions of local financial institutions such FleetBoston Financial, which was acquired by Charlotte-based Bank of America in 2004. The city also had to tackle gentrification issues and rising living expenses, with housing prices increasing sharply since the 1990s. The Boston Globe is the most widely-circulated daily newspaper in Boston, Massachusetts and in the greater New England region. ... The New York Times is a daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed internationally. ... FleetBoston Financial was a Boston, Massachusetts-based bank created in 1999 by the merger of Fleet Financial Group and BankBoston. ... Charlotte redirects here. ... Bank of America (NYSE: BAC TYO: 8648) is the largest commercial bank in the United States in terms of deposits, and the largest company of its kind in the world. ... In San Francisco, during the mid-1960s, the bohemian center of the city shifted from the old Beat enclave of North Beach to Haight-Ashbury (pictured) as a response to gentrification. ...


Geography

See also: Neighborhoods in Boston, Massachusetts
A simulated-color satellite image of the Boston area taken on NASA's Landsat 3
A simulated-color satellite image of the Boston area taken on NASA's Landsat 3
The headquarters of the Church of Christ, Scientist in the Back Bay are dominated by a reflecting pool. The tall buildings in the background are the Prudential Tower and 111 Huntington Avenue.
The headquarters of the Church of Christ, Scientist in the Back Bay are dominated by a reflecting pool. The tall buildings in the background are the Prudential Tower and 111 Huntington Avenue.

Owing to its early founding, Boston is very compact. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 89.6 square miles (232.1 km²)—48.4 square miles (125.4 km²) of it is land and 41.2 square miles (106.7 km²) (46.0%) of it is water. This compares with cities of comparable population such as Denver at 154.9 square miles (401 km²) and Charlotte, North Carolina at 280.5 square miles (726 km²). Of United States cities over 500,000 in population, only San Francisco is smaller in land area. Boston's official elevation, as measured at Logan International Airport, is 19 feet (5.8 m) above sea level.[22] The highest point in Boston is Bellevue Hill at 330 feet (101 m) above sea level, while the lowest point is at sea level.[23] Houses on Louisburg Square, Beacon Hill. ... Boston LANDSAT File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Boston LANDSAT File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... For other uses, see NASA (disambiguation). ... Landsat 3 undergoing final launch preparations Landsat 3 is the third satellite of the Landsat program. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 533 pixelsFull resolution (2000 × 1332 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 533 pixelsFull resolution (2000 × 1332 pixel, file size: 1. ... The factual accuracy of this article is disputed. ... Back Bay is the name of several places and neighborhoods in the world, including: Back Bay, Boston Back Bay, New Brunswick This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Prudential Tower in 2006. ... The United States Census Bureau (officially Bureau of the Census as defined in Title ) is a part of the United States Department of Commerce. ... Square kilometre (U.S. spelling: square kilometer), symbol km², is a decimal multiple of SI unit of surface area square metre, one of the SI derived units. ... Nickname: Location of Denver in the State of Colorado Location of Colorado in the United States Coordinates: , Country United States State State of Colorado City and County Denver[1] Founded 1858-11-22, as Denver City, K.T.[2] Incorporated 1861-11-07, as Denver City, C.T.[3] Consolidated... Charlotte redirects here. ... This page is a candidate for speedy deletion. ... For the Logan airport in Billings, Montana, see Billings Logan International Airport. ... A foot (plural: feet or foot;[1] symbol or abbreviation: ft or, sometimes, ′ – a prime) is a unit of length, in a number of different systems, including English units, Imperial units, and United States customary units. ... Bellevue Hill is the highest natural point in the city of Boston and Suffolk County[1][2][3]. It rises to a height of 330 feet (101m) above sea level[4]. Located in the West Roxbury neighborhood of Boston, the closest major intersection is that of Washington Street and West...


Boston is surrounded by the "Greater Boston" region, and bordered by the cities and towns of Winthrop, Revere, Chelsea, Everett, Somerville, Cambridge, Watertown, Newton, Brookline, Needham, Dedham, Canton, Milton, and Quincy. Light Blue represents the area in Massachusetts known as Greater Boston, while Dark Blue represents the Metro-Boston area and Red represents Boston proper, the City of Boston Greater Boston is the area of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts surrounding the city of Boston, Massachusetts. ...   Nickname: Winthrop-by-the-Sea Settled: 1635 â€“ Incorporated: 1852 Zip Code(s): 02152 â€“ Area Code(s): 617 / 857 Official website: http://www. ... Location in Suffolk County in Massachusetts Coordinates: , Country State County Suffolk County Settled 1630 Incorporated 1846 Government  - Type Mayor-council city  - Mayor Thomas G. Ambrosino Area  - City  10. ... Location in Massachusetts Coordinates: Country United States State Massachusetts County Suffolk County Settled 1624 Incorporated 1739 Government  - Type Council-manager city  - City Manager Jay Ash Area  - City  2. ... Nickname: Location in Middlesex County in Massachusetts Coordinates: , Country State County Middlesex Settled 1630 Incorporated 1870 Government  - Type Mayor-council city  - Mayor John F. Hanlon Area  - Total 3. ... Location in Middlesex County in Massachusetts Coordinates: , Country State County Middlesex Settled 1630 Incorporated 1842 Government  - Type Mayor-council city  - Mayor Joseph A. Curtatone Area  - Total 4. ... Location in Middlesex County in Massachusetts Coordinates: , Country State County Middlesex Settled 1630 Incorporated 1636 Government  - Type Mayor-City Council  - Mayor Kenneth Reeves (D) Area  - Total 7. ... The Town of Watertown is a city[1] in Middlesex County, Massachusetts, United States. ... Nickname: Location in Middlesex County in Massachusetts Coordinates: , Country State County Middlesex County Settled 1630 Incorporated 1688 Government  - Type Mayor-council city  - Mayor David B. Cohen (Dem) Area  - City  18. ... Location in Norfolk County in Massachusetts Coordinates: , Country State County Norfolk Settled 1638 Incorporated 1705 Government  - Type Representative town meeting Area  - Total 6. ... Needham is a town in Norfolk County, Massachusetts, United States. ... Nickname: Location in Massachusetts Coordinates: , Country United States State Massachusetts County Norfolk County Settled 1635 Incorporated 1636 Government  - Type Representative town meeting  - Town    Administrator Bill Keegan  - Board of    Selectmen Marie-Loise Kehoe Mike Butler James MacDonald Carmen DelloIocono Dennis Teehan Area  - Town  10. ... Canton is a town in Norfolk County, Massachusetts, United States. ... Milton is a suburban Boston town in Norfolk County, Massachusetts, United States. ... Location in Massachusetts Coordinates: , Country State County Norfolk County Settled 1625 Incorporated 1792 Government  - Type Mayor-council city  - Mayor William J. Phelan Area  - City  26. ...


Much of the Back Bay and South End neighborhoods are built on reclaimed land—all of the earth from two of Boston's three original hills, the "trimount", was used as landfill material. Only Beacon Hill, the smallest of the three original hills, remains partially intact; just half of its height was cut down for landfill. The downtown area and immediate surroundings consist mostly of low-rise brick or stone buildings, with many older buildings in the Federal style. Several of these buildings mix in with modern high-rises, notably in the Financial District, Government Center, the South Boston waterfront, and Back Bay, which includes many prominent landmarks such as the Boston Public Library, Christian Science Center, Copley Square, Newbury Street, and New England's two tallest buildings: the John Hancock Tower and the Prudential Center.[24] Near the John Hancock Tower is the old John Hancock Building with its prominent weather forecast beacon—whatever light illuminates gives an indication of weather to come: "steady blue. clear view; flashing blue, clouds are due; steady red, rain ahead; flashing red, snow instead." (In the summer, flashing red indicates instead that a Red Sox game has been rained out.) Smaller commercial areas are interspersed among single-family homes and wooden/brick multi-family row houses. Currently, the South End Historic District remains the largest surviving contiguous Victorian-era neighborhood in the U.S.[25] This article is about the neighborhood of Back Bay. ... The South End is a neighborhood in Boston, Massachusetts. ... Land reclamation is either of two distinct practices. ... Cutting down Beacon Hill, about 1800; a view from the north toward the Massachusetts State House. ... Central Pavilion, Tontine Crescent, 1793-1794, by Charles Bulfinch Federal style architecture occurred in the United States between 1780 and 1830, particularly from 1785 to 1815. ... Government Center is a city square and plaza in Boston, Massachusetts, bounded by Cambridge, Court, Congress, and Sudbury Streets. ... South Boston redirects here. ... The Boston Public Librarys McKim building The Boston Public Library was established in 1848. ... The factual accuracy of this article is disputed. ... Trinity Church with the Old John Hancock Tower in Copley Square Trinity Church reflected in the windows of the John Hancock Tower Copley Square is an area of the Back Bay district of Boston, Massachusetts. ... Newbury Street is located in the Back Bay area of Boston, Massachusetts. ... John Hancock Tower, 200 Clarendon St. ... Prudential Tower in 2006. ... John Hancock Tower, 200 Clarendon St. ... A weather beacon is a tower which indicates the weather forecast, usually with colored or flashing lights. ... The Boston Red Sox are a Major League Baseball team located in Boston, Massachusetts. ...


Along with downtown, the geography of South Boston was particularly impacted by the Central Artery/Tunnel (CA/T) Project (or the "Big Dig"). The unstable reclaimed land in South Boston posed special problems for the project's tunnels. In the downtown area, the CA/T Project allowed for the removal of the unsightly elevated Central Artery and the incorporation of new green spaces and open areas. South Boston redirects here. ... For other projects of the same name, see Big Dig. ... For other projects of the same name, see Big Dig. ... The Central Artery, officially the John F. Fitzgerald Expressway, is a section of freeway in downtown Boston, Massachusetts, designated as Interstate 93, U.S. Highway 1 and Route 3. ...


Boston Common, located near the Financial District and Beacon Hill, is the oldest public park in the U.S.[26] Along with the adjacent Boston Public Garden, it is part of the Emerald Necklace, a string of parks designed by Frederick Law Olmsted to encircle the city. Franklin Park, which is also part of the Emerald Necklace, is the city's largest park and houses a zoo.[27] Another major park is the Esplanade located along the banks of the Charles River. Other parks are scattered throughout the city, with the major parks and beaches located near Castle Island, in Charlestown and along the Dorchester, South Boston, and East Boston shorelines. Equestrian statue of George Washington. ... Boston Public Garden, the second link of the Emerald Necklace The Emerald Necklace consists of an 1,100-acre chain of parks linked by parkways and waterways in Boston and Brookline, Massachusetts. ... {{Infobox Person | name = | image = FLOlmstead. ... Boston Public Garden, the second link of the Emerald Necklace The Emerald Necklace consists of an 1,100-acre chain of parks linked by parkways and waterways in Boston and Brookline, Massachusetts. ... Zoo New Englands Logo The Franklin Park Zoo, located in Boston, Massachusetts, is one of the oldest zoos in the U.S. It is operated by Zoo New England, which also operates the Stone Zoo in Stoneham, Massachusetts. ... St Clair Beach and esplanade, Dunedin, New Zealand Promenade at Rizal Boulevard in Dumaguete City, Philippines. ... The Charles River from the Boston side, facing Cambridge and the main campus of Harvard University. ... Castle Island is a 22 acre (89,000 m²) major recreation site located in South Boston on Boston Harbor, owned by the Department of Conservation and Recreation. ...


The Charles River separates Boston proper from Cambridge, Watertown, and the neighborhood of Charlestown. To the east lies Boston Harbor and the Boston Harbor Islands National Recreation Area. The Neponset River forms the boundary between Boston's southern neighborhoods and the city of Quincy and the town of Milton. The Mystic River separates Charlestown from Chelsea and Everett, while Chelsea Creek and Boston Harbor separate East Boston from Boston proper.[28] Categories: Stub | Massachusetts geography | Boston ... The Harbor Islands of Boston Harbor, Boston, Massachusetts, are a collection of 34 islands, many of which are open for public recreation and some of which are very small and best suited for wildlife. ... The Neponset River is a river in eastern Massachusetts. ... Location in Massachusetts Coordinates: , Country State County Norfolk County Settled 1625 Incorporated 1792 Government  - Type Mayor-council city  - Mayor William J. Phelan Area  - City  26. ... Milton is a suburban Boston town in Norfolk County, Massachusetts, United States. ... For other uses, see Mystic River (disambiguation) A quiet afternoon on the Mystic River, as seen from very close to Grandfathers House, Medford, Massachusetts Mystic River and environs The Mystic River is the name of a short river in the Commonwealth of Massachusetts in the United States. ...


Cityscape

Boston skyline from the North side of the Charles River.
Boston skyline from the North side of the Charles River.

Climate

Boston experiences a humid continental climate, with prevailing wind patterns that blow offshore, minimizing the influence of the Atlantic Ocean. Summers are typically hot and humid, while winters are cold, windy and snowy. The humid continental climate is a climate found over large areas of land masses in the temperate regions of the mid-latitudes where there is a zone of conflict between polar and tropical air masses. ...


February in Boston has seen 70 °F (21 °C) only once in recorded history, on February 24, 1985. The maximum temperature recorded in March was 90 °F (32 °C), on March 31, 1998. Spring in Boston can be warm, with temperatures as high as the 90s when winds are offshore, though it is just as possible for a day in late May to remain in the lower 40s due to cool ocean waters. The hottest month is July, with an average high of 82 °F (28 °C) and average low of 66 °F (18 °C), with conditions usually humid. The coldest month is January, with an average high of 36 °F (2 °C) and an average low of 22 °F (-6 °C).[29] Periods exceeding 90 °F (32 °C) in summer and below 10 °F (−12 °C) in winter are not uncommon, but rarely prolonged. The record high temperature is 104 °F (40 °C), recorded July 4, 1911. The record low temperature is -18 °F (-28 °C), recorded on February 9, 1934.[30] For other uses, see Fahrenheit (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Celsius (disambiguation). ... is the 55th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... is the 90th day of the year (91st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1998 Gregorian calendar). ... For other uses, see Fahrenheit (disambiguation). ... is the 185th day of the year (186th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1911 (MCMXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... is the 40th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1934 (MCMXXXIV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display full 1934 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


The city averages about 42 in (108 cm) of precipitation a year, with 40.9 in (104 cm) of snowfall a year.[31] Snowfall increases dramatically as one goes inland away from the city and the warming influence of the ocean.[32] Most snowfall occurs December through March, usually with little or no snow in April and November and rare snow events in May and October.[33][34] An inch (plural: inches; symbol or abbreviation: in or, sometimes, ″ - a double prime) is the name of a unit of length in a number of different systems, including English units, Imperial units, and United States customary units. ... cm redirects here, alternate uses: cm (disambiguation) A centimetre (symbol cm; American spelling: centimeter) is an SI unit of length. ...


Boston's coastal location on the North Atlantic, though it moderates temperatures, also makes the city very prone to Nor'easter weather systems that can produce much snow and rain.[35] Fog is prevalent, particularly in spring and early summer, and the occasional tropical storm or hurricane can threaten the region, especially in early autumn. For other uses, see Atlantic (disambiguation) The Atlantic Ocean is Earths second-largest ocean, covering approximately one-fifth of its surface. ... Satellite image of the intense noreaster responsible for the North American blizzard of 2006. ... This article is about weather phenomena. ...

Weather averages for Boston, Massachusetts
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °F (°C) 36 (2) 38 (3) 45 (7) 56 (13) 67 (19) 77 (25) 82 (28) 80 (27) 73 (23) 63 (17) 52 (11) 41 (5) 59 (15)
Average low °F (°C) 22 (-6) 23 (-5) 31 (-1) 40 (4) 50 (10) 59 (15) 65 (18) 64 (18) 57 (14) 47 (8) 38 (3) 27 (-3) 44 (7)
Precipitation inches (mm) 3.8 (97) 3.5 (89) 4.0 (102) 3.7 (94) 3.4 (86) 3.0 (76) 2.8 (71) 3.6 (91) 3.3 (84) 3.3 (84) 4.4 (112) 4.2 (107) 42.9 (1,090)
Source: Weatherbase[36] Feb 2007

Demographics

Historical populations
Census Pop.  %±
1790 18,320
1800 24,937 36.1%
1810 33,787 35.5%
1820 43,298 28.1%
1830 61,392 41.8%
1840 93,383 52.1%
1850 136,881 46.6%
1860 177,840 29.9%
1870 250,526 40.9%
1880 362,839 44.8%
1890 448,477 23.6%
1900 560,892 25.1%
1910 670,585 19.6%
1920 748,060 11.6%
1930 781,188 4.4%
1940 770,816 -1.3%
1950 801,444 4.0%
1960 697,197 -13.0%
1970 641,071 -8.1%
1980 562,994 -12.2%
1990 574,283 2.0%
2000 589,141 2.6%
Est. 2006 590,763 0.3%
Per capita income in the greater Boston area, by U.S. Census block group, 2000. The dashed line shows the boundary of the city of Boston.
Per capita income in the greater Boston area, by U.S. Census block group, 2000. The dashed line shows the boundary of the city of Boston.

According to the census[37] of 2000, there were 589,141 people, (the population estimate of 2006 was 596,638 people),[38] 239,528 households, and 115,212 families residing in the city. The population density was 12,166 people per square mile (4,697/km²). Of major US cities,[39] only New York City, San Francisco, and Chicago have a greater population density than Boston.[40] There were 251,935 housing units at an average density of 5,203 per square mile (2,009/km²). The United [[States Census of 1790 was the first Census conducted in the United States. ... The United States Census of 1800 was the second Census conducted in the United States. ... The United States Census of 1810 was the third Census conducted in the United States. ... The United States Census of 1820 was the fourth Census conducted in the United States. ... The United States Census of 1830 was the fifth Census conducted in the United States. ... The Sixth Census of the United States, conducted by the Bureau of the Census, determined the resident population of the United States to be 17,069,453 — an increase of 32. ... The Seventh Census of the United States, conducted by the Bureau of the Census, determined the resident population of the United States to be 23,191,876 — an increase of 35. ... The United States Census of 1860 was the eighth Census conducted in the United States. ... The Ninth United States Census was taken in 1870. ... 1880 US Census The United States Census of 1880 was the tenth United States Census. ... The Eleventh United States Census was taken June 1, 1890. ... 1900 US Census The Twelfth United States Census, conducted by the Census Bureau, determined the resident population of the United States to be 76,212,168, an increase of 21. ... The Thirteenth United States Census was taken in 1910. ... The Fourteenth United States Census was taken in 1920. ... The Fifteenth United States Census was taken in 1930. ... The Sixteenth United States Census, conducted by the Census Bureau, determined the resident population of the United States to be 132,164,569, an increase of 7. ... The Seventeenth United States Census was taken in 1950. ... The Eighteenth United States Census was taken in 1960. ... The Nineteenth United States Census was taken in 1970. ... The Twentieth United States Census, conducted by the Census Bureau, determined the resident population of the United States to be 226,545,805, an increase of 11. ... The Twenty-first United States Census, conducted by the Census Bureau, determined the resident population of the United States to be 248,709,873, an increase of 9. ... 2000 US Census logo The Twenty-Second United States Census, known as Census 2000 and conducted by the Census Bureau, determined the resident population of the United States on April 1, 2000, to be 281,421,906, an increase of 13. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 543 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (650 × 718 pixel, file size: 202 KB, MIME type: image/png) I am the creator of this map and hereby release it under the Creative Commons Attribution license. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 543 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (650 × 718 pixel, file size: 202 KB, MIME type: image/png) I am the creator of this map and hereby release it under the Creative Commons Attribution license. ... The U.S. Census is mandated by the United States Constitution. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... San Francisco redirects here. ... For other uses, see Chicago (disambiguation). ...


However, the population of Boston can grow during the daytime to about 1.2 million. This fluctuation of people is caused by suburban residents traveling to the city for work, education, medical purposes, and special events.[41]


According to the 2000 census, the racial makeup of the city was 49% Non-Hispanic White, 25% African-American or Black, 8% Asian-American, 1% Native American, 4% from other races, and 3% from two or more races. 14% of the population was Hispanic or Latino who can be of any race. Whites redirects here. ... Languages Predominantly American English Religions Protestantism (chiefly Baptist and Methodist); Roman Catholicism; Islam Related ethnic groups Sub-Saharan Africans and other African groups, some with Native American groups. ... Though most indigenous Africans possess relatively dark skin, they exhibit much variation in physical appearance. ... An Asian American is generally defined as a person of Asian ancestry and American citizenship,[2][3][4] although may also be extended to include non-citizen resident Asians as well. ... This article is about the people indigenous to the United States. ... Hispanic Americans (Spanish: Hispano Americano) are Americans of Hispanic ethnicity who largely identify with the Hispanic cultural heritage. ... The United States Census Bureau uses the federal governments definitions of race when performing a census. ...


According to a 2006 estimate, the White population comprises 53.5% of the population, while Hispanics make up 15.5%.[42] People of Irish descent form the largest single ethnic group in the city, making up 15.8% of the population, followed by Italians, accounting for 8.3% of the population. People of West Indian ancestry are another sizeable group, at 6.4%,[43] about half of whom are of Haitian ancestry. Some neighborhoods, such as Dorchester, have received an influx of Vietnamese residents in recent decades. Irish ethnicity is common in the world, as many people are descended from Ireland or share an Irish heritage. ... By county. ... The Caribbean or the West Indies is a group of islands in the Caribbean Sea. ...


There were 239,528 households, out of which 22.7% had children under the age of 18 living in them, 27.4% were married couples living together, 16.4% had a female householder with no husband present, and 51.9% were non-families. 37.1% of all households were made up of individuals and 9.1% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.31 and the average family size was 3.17.[44] Matrimony redirects here. ...


In the city the population was spread out with 19.8% under the age of 18, 16.2% from 18 to 24, 35.8% from 25 to 44, 17.8% from 45 to 64, and 10.4% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 31 years. For every 100 females, there were 92.8 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 90.2 males.[44]


The median income for a household in the city was $39,629, and the median income for a family was $44,151. Males had a median income of $37,435 versus $32,421 for females. The per capita income for the city was $23,353. 19.5% of the population and 15.3% of families are below the poverty line. Out of the total population, 25.6% of those under the age of 18 and 18.2% of those 65 and older were living below the poverty line.[45] This article is about the statistical concept. ... The per capita income for a group of people may be defined as their total personal income, divided by the total population. ... Map of countries showing percentage of population who have an income below the national poverty line The poverty line is the level of income below which one cannot afford to purchase all the resources one requires to live. ...


Government

See also: List of Mayors of Boston, Boston Fire Department, Boston Emergency Medical Services, and Boston Finance Commission

Boston has a strong mayor system in which the mayor is vested with extensive executive powers. The mayor is elected to a four-year term by plurality voting. The city council is elected every two years. There are nine district seats, each elected by the residents of that district through plurality voting, and four at-large seats. Each voter casts up to four votes for at-large councilors, with no more than one vote per candidate. The candidates with the four highest vote totals are elected. The president of the city council is elected by the councilors from within themselves. The school committee for the Boston Public Schools is appointed by the mayor.[46] The Boston Redevelopment Authority and the Zoning Board of Appeals (a seven-person body appointed by the mayor) share responsibility for land-use planning.[47] This is a list of Mayors of Boston, Massachusetts. ... The Boston Fire Department (BFD) provides fire protection services for Boston, Massachusetts, USA. The department serves approximately 575,000 people in a 47 square mile area. ... Boston Emergency Medical Services (BEMS) provides advanced life support (ALS) and ambulance transport for the city of Boston, Massachusetts, USA. BEMS is a department within the Boston Public Health Commission, and employs around 300 emergency medical technicians (EMT) and paramedics[1]. BEMS is a separate agency from the Boston Fire... The Boston Finance Commission (FinComm) is an agency that monitors finances for the city of Boston. ... A mayor (from the Latin maīor, meaning larger,greater) is the politician who serves as chief executive official of some types of municipalities. ... A mayor (from the Latin māior, meaning larger, greater) is the modern title of the highest ranking municipal officer. ... The plurality electoral system (or first past the post electoral system), is a voting system for single-member districts. ... Pictured, from left to right, Eli Broad presents the 2006 Broad Prize for Urban Education to Boston Public Schools officials: Elizabeth Reilinger, Chair of the Boston School Committee; Michael G. Contompasis, Superintendent; Boston Mayor Thomas M. Menino, and former Superintdent Thomas W. Payzant. ... The Boston Redevelopment Authority (BRA) is the municipal planning and development agency for Boston, working on both housing and commercial developments. ...

In addition to city government, numerous state authorities and commissions play a role in the life of Bostonians, including the Massachusetts Department of Conservation and Recreation and the Massachusetts Port Authority (Massport). As the capital of Massachusetts, Boston plays a major role in state politics. The city has several properties relating to the United States federal government, including the John F. Kennedy Federal Office Building and the Thomas P. O'Neill Federal Building.[48] The city also serves as the home of the United States Court of Appeals for the First Circuit, the United States District Court for the District of Massachusetts, as well as the headquarters of the Federal Reserve Bank of Boston (the First District of the Federal Reserve). The city is in the Eighth and Ninth Congressional districts.[49] [1] File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... [1] File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Massachusetts State House, designed by Charles Bulfinch and completed in 1798. ... The Department of Conservation and Recreation (DCR) is a state agency of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts. ... Massachusetts Port Authority, or Massport, is an independent agency of the state of Massachusetts. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... This article is about the federal government of the United States. ... The United States Court of Appeals for the First Circuit is a federal court with appellate jurisdiction over the following United States District Courts: District of Maine District of Massachusetts District of New Hampshire District of Puerto Rico District of Rhode Island The court is based at the John Joseph... The United States District Court for the District of Massachusetts is the Federal district court whose jurisdiction is the state of Massachusetts. ... The Federal Reserve Bank of Boston The Federal Reserve Bank of Boston is responsible for the First District of the Federal Reserve, which covers Connecticut (excluding Fairfield County), Massachusetts, Maine, New Hampshire, Rhode Island and Vermont. ... The Federal Reserve System is headquartered in the Eccles Building on Constitution Avenue in Washington, DC. The Federal Reserve System (also the Federal Reserve; informally The Fed) is the central banking system of the United States. ... Massachusetts Congressional District 8 is a congessional district in eastern Massachusetts. ... Massachusetts Congressional District 9 is a congessional district in eastern Massachusetts. ... A congressional district is an electoral constituency that elects a single member of a congress. ...


Crime

The city has seen a great reduction in violent crime since the early 1990s. Boston's low crime rate in the last years of the twentieth century and the beginning of the twenty-first has been credited to its police department's collaboration with neighborhood groups and church parishes to prevent youths from joining gangs, as well as involvement from the United States Attorney and District Attorney's offices. This helped lead in part to what has been touted as the "Boston Miracle." Murders in the city dropped from 152 in 1990 (for a murder rate of 26.5 per 100,000 people) to just 31—not one of them a juvenile—in 1999 (for a murder rate of 5.26 per 100,000). In more recent years, however, the annual murder count has fluctuated by as much as 50% compared to the year before, with 60 murders in 2002, followed by just 39 in 2003, 64 in 2004, and 75 in 2005. Though the figures are nowhere near the high-water mark set in 1990, the aberrations in the murder rate have been unsettling for many Bostonians and have prompted discussion over whether the Boston Police Department should reevaluate its approach to fighting crime.[50][51][52] Current BPD Uniform Patch The Boston Police Department (BPD) has the primary responsibility for law enforcement and investigation within the city of Boston, Massachusetts. ... United States Attorneys (also known as federal prosecutors) represent the U.S. federal government in United States district court and United States court of appeals. ... A district attorney is, in some U.S. jurisdictions, the title of the local public official who represents the government in the prosecution of criminals. ...


Economy

See also: Major companies in Greater Boston
Hyatt in downtown Boston
Hyatt in downtown Boston

Boston's colleges and universities have a major impact on the city and region's economy. Not only are they major employers, but they also attract high-tech industries to the city and surrounding region, including computer hardware and software companies as well as biotechnology companies like Millennium Pharmaceuticals, Merck & Co., Millipore, Genzyme, and Biogen Idec. According to a 2003 report by the Boston Redevelopment Authority, students enrolled in Boston's colleges and universities contribute $4.8 billion annually to the city's economy.[53] Boston also receives the highest amount of annual funding from the National Institutes of Health of all cities in the United States.[54] Light Blue represents the area in Massachusetts known as Greater Boston, while Dark Blue represents the Metro-Boston area and Red represents Boston proper, the City of Boston Greater Boston is the area of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts surrounding the city of Boston, Massachusetts. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2288x1712, 763 KB) I am the author, creator and taker of this image. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2288x1712, 763 KB) I am the author, creator and taker of this image. ... The structure of insulin Biotechnology is technology based on biology, especially when used in agriculture, food science, and medicine. ... Millennium Pharmaceuticals NASDAQ: MLNM is a biotechnology company based in the Cambridge, Massachusetts area of the United States of America. ... Merck & Co. ... Millipore (MIL), is a provider of biosciences technology and services. ... Genzyme Corporation (NASDAQ: GENZ) is a biotechnology company based in Cambridge, Massachusetts. ... Biogen Idec, Inc. ... National Institutes of Health Building 50 at NIH Clinical Center - Building 10 The National Institutes of Health (NIH) is an agency of the United States Ministry of Health and Human Services and is the primary agency of the United States government responsible for biomedical and health-related research. ...

Data from City-Data.com
Data from City-Data.com[55]

Tourism comprises a large part of Boston's economy. In 2004 tourists spent $7.9 billion and made the city one of the ten most popular tourist locations in the country.[6] Other important industries include financial services, especially mutual funds and insurance.[6] Boston-based Fidelity Investments helped popularize the mutual fund in the 1980s, and has made Boston one of the top financial cities in the United States. The city is also the regional headquarters of major banks such as Bank of America and Sovereign Bank, and a center for venture capital. State Street Corporation, which specializes in asset management and custody services, is headquartered in the city. Boston is also a printing and publishing center – Houghton Mifflin is headquartered within the city, along with Bedford-St. Martin's Press, Beacon Press, and Little, Brown and Company. Pearson PLC publishing units also employ several hundred people in Boston. The city is home to four major convention centers: the Hynes Convention Center in the Back Bay, the Bayside Expo Center in Dorchester, and the World Trade Center Boston and Boston Convention and Exhibition Center on the South Boston waterfront. Because of its status as a state capital and the regional home of federal agencies, law and government is another major component of the city's economy.[6] Financial services is a term used to refer to the services provided by the finance industry. ... This article deals with U.S. mutual funds. ... Insurance, in law and economics, is a form of risk management primarily used to hedge against the risk of a contingent loss. ... Fidelity Investments is a group of privately held companies in the financial services industry. ... Bank of America (NYSE: BAC TYO: 8648) is the largest commercial bank in the United States in terms of deposits, and the largest company of its kind in the world. ... Sovereign Bank NYSE: SOV, currently the 18th largest banking institution in the United States [1], has more than $63 billion in assets [2] and operates more than 650 retail banking offices [3], over 1,000 ATMs [4], and employes approximately 10,000 people [5]. The company is based in Reading... Venture capital is a general term to describe financing for startup and early stage businesses as well as businesses in turn around situations. ... State Street Corporation (NYSE: STT) is a financial services company based in Boston, Massachusetts. ... Houghton Mifflin Company is a leading educational publisher in the United States. ... Bedford/St. ... Beacon Press, founded in 1854 and a department of the Unitarian Universalist Association, operates as a book publisher in the United States of America. ... Little, Brown and Company is a publishing house established by Charles Coffin Little and his partner, James Brown. ... Pearson plc LSE: PSON;NYSE: PSO is a London-based media conglomerate. ... Exhibition Hall of the Makaryev Fair. ... The John B. Hynes Veterans Memorial Convention Center located in Bostons Back Bay has 193,000 square feet of exhibit space and can accommodate up to four concurrent events. ... Boston Convention and Exhibition Center at night The Boston Convention and Exhibition Center (BCEC) is the largest exhibition center in the Northeast United States, with some 1,700,000 square feet of contiguous exhibition space. ...


Major companies headquartered within the city include the Liberty Mutual insurance company, Gillette (now owned by Procter & Gamble), and Teradyne, one of the world's leading manufacturers of semiconductor and other electronic test equipment. New Balance has its headquarters in the city. Boston is also home to management consulting firms The Boston Consulting Group, Monitor Group, and Bain & Company, as well as the private equity group Bain Capital.[56] Other major companies are located outside the city, especially along Route 128.[57] The Port of Boston is a major seaport along the United States' East Coast, and is also the oldest continuously-operated industrial and fishing port in the Western Hemisphere.[58] Liberty Mutuals current logo Liberty Mutual Group (LMG, Liberty, Liberty Mutual), is a large American insurance company. ... The Gillette brand logo The Gillette Company (NYSE: G) was founded by King C. Gillette in 1901 as a safety razor manufacturer. ... Procter & Gamble Co. ... Overview Teradyne (NYSE:TER) is a leading supplier of Automatic Test Equipment (ATE) and interconnection systems. ... New Balance Athletic Shoe, Inc. ... Management consultant redirects here. ... The Boston Consulting Group (BCG) is a management consulting firm founded by Harvard Business School alum Bruce Henderson in 1963. ... Monitor Group is a global strategy and management consulting firm headquartered in Cambridge, Massachusetts. ... Bain & Company is a management consulting firm, headquartered in Boston, MA, that is recognized as one of the leading business institutions in the world. ... Route 128, also known as the Yankee Division Highway (for the U.S. 26th Infantry Division), and originally the Circumferential Highway, is a partial beltway around Boston, Massachusetts, United States. ... Long Wharf in waterfront downtown Boston was once the main commercial wharf of the port, but is now used by ferries and cruise boats. ... For the computer security term, see Phishing. ... The geographical western hemisphere of Earth, highlighted in yellow. ...


Education

See also: List of colleges and universities in metropolitan Boston
Partial map of colleges and universities within Boston's Inner Core
Partial map of colleges and universities within Boston's Inner Core

Boston's reputation as the Athens of America derives in large part from the teaching and research activities of more than 100 colleges and universities located in the Greater Boston Area,[59] with more than 250,000 students attending college in Boston and Cambridge alone.[9] Within the city, Boston University exudes a large presence as the city's fourth-largest employer,[60] and maintains a campus along the Charles River on Commonwealth Avenue and its medical campus in the South End. Northeastern University, another large private university, is located in the Fenway area, and is particularly known for its Business and Health Science schools and cooperative education program. Wheelock College, Massachusetts College of Art and Design, Simmons College, Emmanuel College, Massachusetts College of Pharmacy and Health Sciences, and Wentworth Institute of Technology, founding members of the Colleges of the Fenway, are adjacent to Northeastern University. Suffolk University, a small private university known for its law school, maintains a campus on Beacon Hill. New England School of Law, a small private law school located in the theater district, was originally established as America's only all female law school.[61] Emerson College, a small private college with a strong reputation in the fields of performing arts, journalism, writing, and film, is located nearby on Boston Common. Boston College, whose original campus was located in South Boston, moved its campus west to a site that straddles the Boston(Brighton)-Newton border. Boston College is expanding further into the Brighton neighborhood following the purchase of adjacent land from the Boston Catholic Archdiocese.[62] Colleges and universities in metropolitan Boston include: // Berklee College of Music Boston Architectural College Boston Baptist College Boston Conservatory Boston University Emerson College Emmanuel College Massachusetts College of Art Massachusetts College of Pharmacy and Health Sciences New England College of Optometry New England Conservatory of Music New England School of... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 710 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1212 × 1024 pixel, file size: 986 KB, MIME type: image/png) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 710 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1212 × 1024 pixel, file size: 986 KB, MIME type: image/png) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Light Blue represents the area in Massachusetts known as Greater Boston, while Dark Blue represents the Metro-Boston area and Red represents Boston proper, the City of Boston Greater Boston is the area of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts surrounding the city of Boston, Massachusetts. ... For the similarly named institution in Chestnut Hill, see Boston College. ... Commonwealth Avenue (often abbreviated Comm Ave by locals) is a road in the city of Boston, Massachusetts beginning at the western edge of the Public Garden, and continuing west through the Back Bay, Kenmore Square, and the suburbs of Brighton and Chestnut Hill. ... The South End is a neighborhood in Boston, Massachusetts. ... Northeastern University, occasionally abbreviated as NU or NEU, is a top-tier private research university in Boston, Massachusetts. ... Fenway-Kenmore is an area of Boston, Massachusetts. ... Wheelock College is an institution of higher learning located in Boston, Massachusetts. ... MassArt, August 2005 Massachusetts College of Art (also known as MassArt) is a publicly funded college of visual and applied art, founded in 1873. ... Simmons College is a liberal arts womens college in Boston, Massachusetts. ... There is more than one Emmanuel College: Emmanuel College, Cambridge (part of the University of Cambridge) Emmanuel College, Boston Emmanuel College, Georgia Emmanuel College, Toronto (part of Victoria University in the University of Toronto) Emmanuel College, Carrara This is a disambiguation page, a list of pages that otherwise might share... Massachusetts College of Pharmacy and Health Sciences (MCPHS) is an accredited [2] private institution providing traditional and non-traditional programs of study focusing on vocational education of pharmacy and areas of the health sciences. ... The Wentworth Institute of Technology is a nationally accredited institution located in Boston, Massachusetts. ... The Colleges of the Fenway consortium comprises Emmanuel College, Massachusetts College of Art, Massachusetts College of Pharmacy and Health Sciences, Simmons College, Wentworth Institute of Technology, and Wheelock College. ... Suffolk University is a private university in Boston, Massachusetts, United States, situated on Beacon Hill. ... The New England School of Law (NESL) is located in Boston, Massachusetts in the theater district. ... Emerson College was founded in 1880 by Charles Wesley Emerson as a school of oratory, in Boston, Massachusetts. ... For similarly-named academic institutions, see Education in Boston, MA. Boston College (BC) is a private university located in Chestnut Hill, Massachusetts, in the New England region of the United States. ... The Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Boston is an ecclesiastical territory or diocese of the Roman Catholic Church in the New England region of the United States. ...

Harvard Yard, Cambridge, heart of the oldest institution of higher education in the United States, Harvard University, and located just across the Charles River from the Allston neighborhood of Boston.

Boston is also home to several conservatories and art schools, including the Art Institute of Boston, Massachusetts College of Art, and the New England Conservatory of Music (the oldest independent conservatory in the United States).[63] Other conservatories include the Boston Conservatory, the School of the Museum of Fine Arts and Berklee College of Music. Boston has one major public university, the University of Massachusetts Boston, located on Columbia Point in Dorchester, while Roxbury Community College and Bunker Hill Community College are the city's two community colleges. Image File history File linksMetadata Harvard_Yard,_Dudesleeper. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Harvard_Yard,_Dudesleeper. ... City Hall - Cambridge MA Cambridge is a city in the Greater Boston area of Massachusetts, United States. ... Harvard redirects here. ... The Charles River from the Boston side, facing Cambridge and the main campus of Harvard University. ... Allston is a diverse neighborhood in the city of Boston, Massachusetts with a population which includes Boston natives, students from neighboring Boston University, Boston College, MIT and Harvard and various ethnic groups such as Chinese, Vietnamese, Brazilian, and Irish. ... A music school or conservatoire (British English) — also known as a conservatory (American English) or a conservatorium (Australian English) — is an institution dedicated to teaching the art of music, including the playing of musical instruments, musical composition, musicianship, music history, and music theory. ... AIBs main building at 700 Beacon Street. ... MassArt, August 2005 Massachusetts College of Art (also known as MassArt) is a publicly funded college of visual and applied art, founded in 1873. ... The New England Conservatory of Music (NEC) in Boston, Massachusetts is the oldest independent conservatory in the United States. ... The Boston Conservatory is an arts conservatory located in the Fenway-Kenmore region of Boston, Massachusetts, United States. ... The School of the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston (also known as the Museum School or SMFA) is an undergraduate and graduate college located in Boston, Massachusetts and is dedicated to the visual arts. ... Berklee College of Music, founded in 1945, is an independent music college in Boston, Massachusetts with many prominent faculty, staff, alumni, and visiting artists. ... University of Massachusetts Boston, or UMass Boston, is a university in Boston, Massachusetts in the northeastern United States. ... 1888 German map of Boston Harbor showing Dorchester in the lower left hand corner. ... Bunker Hill Community College is a two-year college located in Charlestown, Massachusetts, which is a neighborhood of Boston. ...


Several major national universities located outside Boston have a major presence in the city. Harvard University, the nation's oldest institution of higher learning, is located across the Charles River in Cambridge. The business and medical schools are in Boston, and there are plans for additional expansion into Boston's Allston neighborhood.[64] The Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), which originated in Boston and was long known as "Boston Tech," moved across the river to Cambridge in 1916. Tufts University administers its medical and dental school adjacent to the Tufts-New England Medical Center (Tufts-NEMC), a 451-bed academic medical institution that is home to both a full-service hospital for adults and the Floating Hospital for Children. Eastern Nazarene College in Quincy, is the only evangelical Christian college in metropolitan Boston and is active in Christian ministry in the City of Boston.[65] Harvard redirects here. ... Location in Middlesex County in Massachusetts Coordinates: , Country State County Middlesex Settled 1630 Incorporated 1636 Government  - Type Mayor-City Council  - Mayor Kenneth Reeves (D) Area  - Total 7. ... Harvard Business School, officially named the Harvard Business School: George F. Baker Foundation, and also known as HBS, is one of the graduate schools of Harvard University. ... Harvard Medical School (HMS) is one of the graduate schools of Harvard University. ... Allston is a neighborhood of Boston, Massachusetts, USA, located in the western part of the city. ... “MIT” redirects here. ... The Massachusetts Institute of Technology was founded in 1861 and has played pivotal roles in the many scientific and technological developments since then. ... Tufts University is a private research university in Medford/Somerville, Massachusetts, suburbs of Boston. ... Tufts-New England Medical Center (Tufts-NEMC) is a medical institution in Boston, Massachusetts. ... Eastern Nazarene College is a small liberal arts college south of Boston in Quincy, Massachusetts. ... Location in Massachusetts Coordinates: , Country State County Norfolk County Settled 1625 Incorporated 1792 Government  - Type Mayor-council city  - Mayor William J. Phelan Area  - City  26. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Evangelicalism is a theological perspective in Protestant Christianity which identifies with the gospel. ... This does not cite any references or sources. ...


Boston Public Schools, the oldest public school system in the U.S., enrolls 57,000 students from kindergarten to grade 12.[7] The system operates 145 schools, which includes Boston Latin School (the oldest public school in the United States, established in 1635; which, along with Boston Latin Academy, is a highly prestigious public exam school admitting students in the 7th and 9th grades only and serving grades 7–12), English High (the oldest public high school, established 1821), and the Mather School (the oldest public elementary school, established in 1639).[7] The city also has private, parochial, and charter schools. 3000 students of racial minorities attend participating suburban schools through the Metropolitan Educational Opportunity Council, or METCO. In 2002, Forbes Magazine ranked the Boston Public Schools as the best large city school system in the country, with a graduation rate of 82%.[66] In 2005, the student population within the school system was 45.5% Black or African-American, 31.2% Hispanic or Latino, 14% White, and 9% Asian, as compared with 24%, 14%, 49%, and 8% respectively for the city as a whole.[67] [68] Pictured, from left to right, Eli Broad presents the 2006 Broad Prize for Urban Education to Boston Public Schools officials: Elizabeth Reilinger, Chair of the Boston School Committee; Michael G. Contompasis, Superintendent; Boston Mayor Thomas M. Menino, and former Superintdent Thomas W. Payzant. ... For other uses, see Kindergarten (disambiguation). ... The Boston Latin School is a public exam school founded on April 23, 1635, in Boston, Massachusetts, making it the oldest public school in the United States. ... Image:BLA.jpg Motto vita tua sit sincera. ... A sketch of the original Boston English School in the 1820s Founded in 1821, The English High School of Boston, Massachusetts, is the oldest public high school in America. ... For other uses, see High school (disambiguation). ... Photo of he oldest School House still standing (in 1913). ... Charter schools are publicly funded elementary or secondary schools in the United States that have been freed from some of the rules, regulations, and statutes that apply to other public schools in exchange for some type of accountability for producing certain results, which are set forth in each schools... METCO (Metropolitan Council for Educational Opportunity) is a Boston-based program operated and funded by the Department of Education (MA DOE) of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts. ... Alternate meaning: For the Boston Brahmin family associated with John Forbes Kerry, see Forbes family. ...


Culture

See also: Sites of interest in Boston, Massachusetts

Boston shares many cultural roots with greater New England, including a dialect of the non-rhotic Eastern New England accent known as Boston English, and a regional cuisine with a large emphasis on seafood, rum, tobacco, salt, and dairy products. Irish Americans are a major influence on Boston's politics and religious institutions. Boston also has its own collection of neologisms known as Boston slang. Swan boats in the Boston Public Garden. ... The following is a list of sites of interest (attractions) in Boston, Massachusetts. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (2576 × 1932 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (2576 × 1932 pixel, file size: 1. ... Quincy Market, east side, 1987 Quincy Market as it appeared in 1830. ... Alexander Parris Alexander Parris (November 24, 1780 - June 16, 1852) was a prominent American architect-engineer. ... English pronunciation is divided into two main accent groups, the rhotic and the non-rhotic, depending on when the phoneme (the letter r, equivalent to Greek rho) is pronounced. ... For other uses, see American English (disambiguation). ... The Boston accent is found not only in the city of Boston, Massachusetts itself but also much of eastern Massachusetts. ... New England cuisine is a type of American cuisine found in New England, the northeastern region of the United States. ... Irish Americans are residents or citizens of the United States who claim Irish ancestry. ... A neologism is a word, term, or phrase which has been recently created (or coined), often to apply to new concepts, to synthesize pre-existing concepts, or to make older terminology sound more contemporary. ...


Many consider Boston to have a strong sense of cultural identity, perhaps as a result of its intellectual reputation; much of Boston's culture originates at its universities.[69] The city has several ornate theatres, including the Cutler Majestic Theatre, Boston Opera House, Citi Performing Arts Center, and the Orpheum Theatre. Renowned performing arts organizations include the Boston Symphony Orchestra, Boston Ballet, Boston Pops, Celebrity Series of Boston, Boston Early Music Festival, Boston Lyric Opera Company, OperaBoston, Emmanuel Music, and the Handel and Haydn Society (one of the oldest choral companies in the United States).[70] There are also many major annual events such as First Night, which occurs during New Year's Eve, Italian summer feasts in the North End honoring Catholic saints, and several events during the Fourth of July. These events include the week-long Harborfest festivities[71] and a Boston Pops concert accompanied by fireworks on the banks of the Charles River.[72] The Cutler Majestic Theatre at Emerson College, in Boston, Massachusetts, is a 1903 Beaux Arts style opera house, designed by the architect John Galen Howard. ... The first Boston Opera House was built in 1901 on Huntington Ave. ... The Boston Symphony Orchestra is one of the worlds premiere orchestras. ... The Boston Ballet is a professional ballet company based in Boston, Massachusetts. ... The Boston Pops Orchestra was founded in 1885 as a subsection of the Boston Symphony Orchestra. ... The Celebrity Series of Boston (Bank of America Celebrity Series) is a non-profit performing arts presenter established in Boston, Massachusetts by Boston impresario Aaron Richmond in 1938 as the Aaron Richmond Celebrity Series. ... The Boston Early Music Festival (BEMF) is a music festival held every two years in Boston, Massachusetts, USA, for all people interested in historical music performance. ... Boston Lyric Opera New England (BLO) is an opera company in Boston, Massachusetts. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... The Handel and Haydn Society is a choral society in the city of Boston, Massachusetts. ... An ice sculpture at First Night Boston First Night is an outdoor artistic and cultural celebration on New Years Eve, taking place from afternoon until midnight. ... For other articles with similar names, see New Year (disambiguation). ... These fireworks over the Washington Monument are typical of Fourth of July celebrations In the United States, Independence Day, also called the Fourth of July, is a federal holiday celebrating the adoption of the Declaration of Independence in 1776. ... The Boston Pops Orchestra was founded in 1885 as a subsection of the Boston Symphony Orchestra. ... The Charles River from the Boston side, facing Cambridge and the main campus of Harvard University. ...

Because of the city's prominent role in the American Revolution, several historic sites relating to that period are preserved as part of the Boston National Historical Park. Many are found along the Freedom Trail, which is marked by a red line or bricks embedded in the ground. The city is also home to several prominent art museums, including the Museum of Fine Arts and the Isabella Stewart Gardner Museum. In December 2006 the Institute of Contemporary Art moved from its Back Bay location to a new contemporary building designed by Diller Scofidio + Renfro located in the Seaport District. The University of Massachusetts campus at Columbia Point houses the John F. Kennedy Library. The Boston Athenaeum (one of the oldest independent libraries in the United States),[73] Boston Children's Museum, Bull & Finch Pub (whose building is known from the television show Cheers), Museum of Science, and the New England Aquarium are within the city. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 567 pixelsFull resolution (2868 × 2031 pixel, file size: 774 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 567 pixelsFull resolution (2868 × 2031 pixel, file size: 774 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Symphony Hall in Boston, Massachusetts is widely considered to be one of the two or three finest concert halls in the world, alongside Amsterdams Concertgebouw and Viennas Grosser Musikvereinssaal. ... McKim, Mead, and White was a prominent architectural firm in the eastern United States at the turn of the twentieth century. ... John Trumbulls Declaration of Independence, showing the five-man committee in charge of drafting the Declaration in 1776 as it presents its work to the Second Continental Congress in Philadelphia The American Revolution refers to the period during the last half of the 18th century in which the Thirteen... Discover the revolutionary generation of Bostonians who blazed a trail from colonialism to independence. ... Bostons Freedom Trail is a red (mostly brick) path through downtown Boston which leads to sixteen significant historical sites. ... Paul Gauguin, Where Do We Come From? What Are We? Where Are We Going? (Doù venons-nous? Que faisons-nous? Où allons-nous?) (1897). ... The Isabella Stewart Gardner Museum is a museum in Boston, Massachusetts with a collection of over 2,500 works of European, Asian and American art, including paintings, sculpture, tapestries, and decorative arts. ... The entrance to the new ICA building. ... Blur Building at Expo. ... This page is about the university system across Massachusetts. ... The John F Kennedy Library The John Fitzgerald Kennedy Library is the presidential library and museum of U.S. President John F. Kennedy. ... Boston Athenæum is an historical independent library and museum in Boston, Massachusetts, United States. ... The Boston Childrens Museum is a museum in Boston, Massachusetts dedicated to the education of children. ... The Bull & Finch Pub on Beacon Street, Boston. ... This article is about the TV series. ... Outside the Museum of Science, August 2005 The Museum of Science (MoS) is a Boston, Massachusetts landmark, located in Science Park, a plot of land spanning the Charles River. ... The New England Aquarium is a major aquarium located in the city of Boston, Massachusetts. ...


Boston is also one of the birthplaces of the hardcore punk genre of music. Boston musicians have contributed greatly to this music scene over the years (see also Boston hardcore). Boston neighborhoods were home to one of the leading local third wave ska and ska punk scenes in the 1990s, led by bands such as The Mighty Mighty Bosstones, The Allstonians, Skavoovie and the Epitones, and the Dropkick Murphys. The 1980s hardcore punk rock compilation This Is Boston, Not L.A. highlights some of the bands that built the genre. Several nightclubs, such as The Channel, Bunnratty's in Allston, and The Rathskeller, were renowned for showcasing both local punk rock bands and those from farther afield. All of these clubs are now closed, and in many cases razed during recent gentrification.[74] Hardcore Punk is a subgenre of Punk Rock that originated in North America in the late 1970s. ... Boston Hardcore is the influential hardcore punk scene of Boston, Massachusetts. ... Third wave ska is a music genre derived from the fusion of Jamaican ska with various American and British styles of music, such as 2 Tone, rock music, punk rock, pop punk, hardcore and jazz. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Mighty Mighty Bosstones were a ska-core band from Boston, Massachusetts. ... The Allstonians are a third-wave reggae/ska music group formed in Allston, Massachusetts in 1992. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... DKM redirects here. ... This Is Boston, Not L.A. was a hardcore punk compilation album released in 1982. ... youth hang out in the Channels parking lot before an all-ages show The Channel was a music venue in Boston located at 25 Necco Street. ... Allston is a neighborhood of Boston, Massachusetts, USA, located in the western part of the city. ... The Rathskellar (known as The Rat for short) was a Kenmore Square live music venue in Boston, Massachusetts that opened in 1974. ...


Media

Copley Square with the Boston Public Library designed by Charles Follen McKim on the left, and Old South Church designed by Charles Amos Cummings on the right.
Copley Square with the Boston Public Library designed by Charles Follen McKim on the left, and Old South Church designed by Charles Amos Cummings on the right.

The Boston Globe (owned by The New York Times Company) and the Boston Herald are Boston's two major daily newspapers. The Christian Science Monitor, a third daily, is edited in Boston and printed in a series of regional presses across the U.S. The city is also served by other publications such as The Boston Phoenix, Boston magazine, The Improper Bostonian, BostonNOW, and the Boston edition of Metro. The Boston Globe also releases a teen publication to the city's public high schools. The newspaper Teens in Print or T.i.P. is written by the city's teens and delivered quarterly within the school year.[75] The following is a list of media companies located and/or serving Boston, Massachusetts: // Newspapers Daily The Boston Globe, owned by the New York Times Company The Boston Herald The Boston Metro, (5 days a week) 51% owned by the Boston Globe Weekly The Boston Phoenix The Improper Bostonian, a... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 799 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1126 × 845 pixel, file size: 863 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 799 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1126 × 845 pixel, file size: 863 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Trinity Church with the Old John Hancock Tower in Copley Square Trinity Church reflected in the windows of the John Hancock Tower Copley Square is an area of the Back Bay district of Boston, Massachusetts. ... The Boston Public Librarys McKim building The Boston Public Library was established in 1848. ... Charles Follen McKim, portrait by Frances Benjamin Johnston. ... Northwest corner of Copley Square showing Charles Follen McKims Boston Public Library on the left, and Chalres Amos Cummings Old South Church to the right. ... Lantern and exterior chancel wall at Old South Church in Boston. ... The Boston Globe (and Boston Sunday Globe) is the most widely circulated daily newspaper in Boston, Massachusetts and New England. ... The New York Times Company (NYSE: NYT) is an American media company best known as the publisher of its namesake, The New York Times. ... The Boston Herald is a tabloid format newspaper, though not a tabloid in the traditional sense, and is the smaller of the two big dailies in Boston, Massachusetts (the other being The Boston Globe). ... The Christian Science Monitor (CSM) is an international newspaper published daily, Monday through Friday. ... The Boston Phoenix is an alternative weekly publication in Boston, Massachusetts that emphasizes arts and entertainment coverage, as well as alternative political viewpoints. ... Boston (almost invariably called Boston magazine and often incorrectly written as Boston Magazine) is a glossy monthly magazine concerning life in the Greater Boston area and has been in publication for more than 40 years. ... For other newspapers with the same name, see Metro (newspaper). ...


Boston has the largest broadcasting market in New England, with the Boston radio market being the eleventh largest in the United States.[76] Several major AM stations include talk radio WRKO 680 AM, sports/talk station WEEI 850 AM, and news radio WBZ 1030 AM. A variety of FM radio formats serve the area, as do NPR stations WBUR and WGBH. College and university radio stations include WERS (Emerson), WHRB (Harvard), WUMB (UMass Boston), WMBR (M.I.T.), WZBC (Boston College), WMFO (Tufts University), WTBU (Boston University, campus and web only), and WRBB (Northeastern University). Amplitude modulation (AM) is a technique used in electronic communication, most commonly for transmitting information via a radio carrier wave. ... For other uses, see Talk Radio. ... WRKO is an AM radio station based in Boston, Massachusetts, currently owned by Entercom and broadcasting on 680 kHz. ... WEEI is a sports radio station in Boston, Massachusetts that broadcasts on 850 kHz from a transmitter in Needham, Massachusetts. ... WBZ (AM) is the callsign for an AM radio station in Boston, Massachusetts which is owned by CBS Radio (formerly Infinity Broadcasting), which itself is owned by the CBS Corporation. ... In telecommunications, frequency modulation (FM) conveys information over a carrier wave by varying its frequency. ... A radio format or programming format describes the overall content broadcast on a radio station. ... NPR redirects here. ... WBUR is the larger of two NPR member stations in Boston, Massachusetts. ... WERS (89. ... WHRB is a commercial FM radio station in Cambridge, Massachusetts. ... WUMB (91. ... WMBR is the MIT-run student broadcasting station. ... WZBC is the Boston College student-run radio station. ... WMFO is a freeform radio station at Tufts University in Medford, Massachusetts, broadcasting on the 91. ... WTBU(640 AM, 89. ...


The Boston television DMA, which also includes Manchester, New Hampshire, is the seventh largest in the United States.[77] The city is served by stations representing every major American network including WBZ 4 (CBS), WCVB 5 (ABC), WHDH 7 (NBC), WFXT 25 (Fox), WUNI 27 (Univision), and WLVI 56 (The CW). Boston is also home to PBS station WGBH 2, a major producer of PBS programs, which also operates WGBX 44. Most Boston television stations have their transmitters in nearby Needham and Newton.[78] A designated market area is a group of counties in the United States that are covered by a specific television station. ... Nickname: Location in Hillsborough County, New Hampshire Coordinates: Country United States State New Hampshire County Hillsborough County Incorporated 1751 Government  - Mayor Frank Guinta (R) Area  - City  34. ... In the United States, for most of the history of broadcasting, there were only four major national broadcasting networks. ... WBZ-TV is the CBS owned-and-operated television station serving the Boston, Massachusetts television market. ... This article is about the broadcast network. ... WCVB-TV, channel 5, is an ABC-affiliated television station in Boston, Massachusetts. ... The American Broadcasting Company (ABC) is an American television network. ... WHDH redirects here. ... This article is about the television network. ... WFXT is an American television station which uses the on-air brand Fox 25. ... FOX redirects here. ... WUNI, channel 27, is the Univision television affiliate for the Greater Boston market. ... Univision is a Spanish-language television network in the United States and Puerto Rico. ... WLVI-TV, channel 56, is a CW Television Network affiliate licensed to Cambridge, Massachusetts, and serving the Boston, Massachusetts television market. ... The CW Television Network, normally abbreviated to The CW, also known as The New CW in its first season of the network, is a television network in the United States launched during the 2006 television season. ... PBS redirects here. ... The WGBH identity still used today WGBH is Boston, Massachusetts longtime public television and public radio station (PBS and NPR affiliates, respectively). ... The TV version of the WGBH drop-shadow logo WGBH are call-letters for Boston, Massachusetts longtime public television and public radio stations ( PBS, and NPR & PRI affiliates, respectively). ... Needham is a town in Norfolk County, Massachusetts, United States. ... Nickname: Location in Middlesex County in Massachusetts Coordinates: , Country State County Middlesex County Settled 1630 Incorporated 1688 Government  - Type Mayor-council city  - Mayor David B. Cohen (Dem) Area  - City  18. ...


Sports

Prudential Tower lit up for the 2007 World Series.
Prudential Tower lit up for the 2007 World Series.
Main article: Sports in Boston

The Boston Red Sox are a founding member of the American League of Major League Baseball and are the 2007 World Series champions. The team plays its home games at Fenway Park, near Kenmore Square in the Fenway section. Built in 1912, it is the oldest sports arena or stadium in active use in the United States among the four major professional sports. Boston was also the site of the first game of the first modern World Series, in 1903. The series was played between the Red Sox and the Pittsburgh Pirates.[79] Persistent reports that the team was known in 1903 as the "Boston Pilgrims" appear to be unfounded.[80] The Boston Braves were Boston's NL team (1871-1953) until they moved to Milwaukee in 1953, then later Atlanta in 1966 where they currently play as the Atlanta Braves. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... For other events named World Series, see World Series (disambiguation). ... A Boston Red Sox baseball game at Fenway Park Boston, Massachusetts, is home to several major league sports teams, including the Boston Red Sox (baseball), Boston Celtics (basketball), and Boston Bruins (hockey). ... Major league affiliations American League (1901–present) East Division (1969–present) Current uniform Retired Numbers 1, 4, 8, 9, 27, 42 Name Boston Red Sox (1908–present) Boston Americans (1901-1907) Other nicknames The BoSox, The Olde Towne Team, The Sox Ballpark Fenway Park (1912–present) Huntington Avenue Baseball Grounds... The American League (or formally the American League of Professional Baseball Clubs) is one of two leagues that make up Major League Baseball in the United States of America and Canada. ... Major Leagues redirects here. ... Dates: October 24 – October 28, 2007 MVP: Mike Lowell Television: FOX (U.S.), RSN (Canada), NASN (Europe), ESPN Latin America Announcers: Joe Buck and Tim McCarver Umpires: Ed Montague, Laz Díaz, Ted Barrett, Chuck Meriwether, Mike Everitt, Mike Reilly[1] ALCS: Boston Red Sox def. ... Fenway redirects here. ... View of the Citgo sign in Kenmore Square Kenmore Square is a square in Boston, Massachusetts near Fenway Park, consisting of the intersection of several main avenues, (including Beacon Street and Commonwealth Avenue) as well as several other cross streets, and Kenmore Station, a T stop. ... Fenway-Kenmore is an area of Boston, Massachusetts. ... For other events named World Series, see World Series (disambiguation). ... This article is about the baseball team. ... Two major American professional sports teams have existed under the name Boston Braves, both of which still exist today but are no longer located in Boston, Massachusetts. ... For other places with the same name, see Milwaukee (disambiguation). ... Major league affiliations National League (1876–present) East Division (1994–present) Current uniform Retired Numbers 3, 21, 35, 41, 42, 44 Name Atlanta Braves (1966–present) Milwaukee Braves (1953-1965) Boston Braves (1941-1952) Boston Bees (1936-1940) Boston Braves (1912-1935) Boston Rustlers (1911) Boston Doves (1907-1910) Boston...


The TD Banknorth Garden (formerly called the Fleet Center, and the Shawmut Center) is adjoined to North Station and is the home of two major league teams: the Boston Bruins ice hockey team of the National Hockey League and the Boston Celtics basketball team of the National Basketball Association. The Bruins were the first American member of the National Hockey League and an Original Six franchise. The Boston Celtics were founding members of the Basketball Association of America, one of the two leagues that merged to form the NBA. The Celtics have the distinction of having more national titles than any other NBA team with 16 championships from 1957 to 1986.[81] TD Banknorth Garden is a sports arena in the West End neighborhood of Boston, Massachusetts. ... Platforms at North Station North Station, located at Causeway and Nashua Streets, in Boston, Massachusetts is a major transportation hub. ... The Boston Bruins are a professional mens ice hockey team based in Boston, Massachusetts. ... Ice hockey, known simply as hockey in areas where it is more common than field hockey, is a team sport played on ice. ... NHL redirects here. ... The Boston Celtics are a professional basketball team based in Boston, Massachusetts. ... This article is about the sport. ... NBA redirects here. ... NHL redirects here. ... The Original Six is a well-known term for the six teams which comprised the National Hockey League (NHL) for the 25 seasons between the 1942-43 NHL season and the 1967 NHL Expansion. ... NBA official website NBA News from Pro Sports Daily Dougs NBA Statistics NBA Statistics from 82games. ...

A Boston Red Sox baseball game at Fenway Park
A Boston Red Sox baseball game at Fenway Park

Although the team has played in suburban Foxboro since 1971, the New England Patriots are Boston's football team. The team was founded in 1960 as the Boston Patriots, a charter member of the American Football League, and in 1970 the team joined the National Football League. The team has won three Super Bowl titles since the 2001 season (in 2001, 2003, and 2004).[82] They share Gillette Stadium with the New England Revolution of Major League Soccer. There has also been talk of a possible Arena Football League expansion team coming to Boston sometime in the next few years.[83] Fenway Park, 1989, by Rick Dikeman File links The following pages link to this file: Fenway Park Baseball parks Categories: GFDL images | NowCommons ... Fenway Park, 1989, by Rick Dikeman File links The following pages link to this file: Fenway Park Baseball parks Categories: GFDL images | NowCommons ... Location in Norfolk County in Massachusetts Coordinates: , Country State County Norfolk Settled 1704 Incorporated 1778 Government  - Type Open town meeting Area  - Town  20. ... City Foxborough, Massachusetts Other nicknames The Pats Team colors Nautical Blue, New Century Silver, Red, and White Head Coach Bill Belichick Owner Robert Kraft General manager Bill Belichick (de facto) Mascot Pat Patriot League/Conference affiliations American Football League (1960–69) Eastern Division (1960–69) National Football League (1970–present... Note: There were three earlier and unrelated major American professional football leagues of the same name: One in 1926, one in 1936-1937 and one in 1940-1941. ... NFL redirects here. ... The winning Super Bowl team receives the Vince Lombardi Trophy. ... Gillette Stadium is the home stadium for the New England Patriots football team and the New England Revolution soccer team. ... Year founded 1995 League Major League Soccer Nickname Revolution, Revs Stadium Gillette Stadium Foxborough, MA Coach Steve Nicol, 2002— Owner Robert Kraft First Game Tampa Bay Mutiny 3–2 New England Revolution (Tampa Stadium; April 13, 1996) Largest Win New England Revolution 6–1 Colorado Rapids (Gillette Stadium; September 18... Major League Soccer (MLS) is a North America professional soccer league. ... The Arena Football League (AFL) was founded in 1987 as an American football indoor league. ...


Boston's many colleges and universities are active in college athletics. There are four NCAA Division I members in the city: Boston College (member of the Atlantic Coast Conference), Boston University (America East Conference), Northeastern University (Colonial Athletic Association), and Harvard University (Ivy League). All except Harvard, which belongs to ECAC Hockey, belong to the Hockey East conference. The hockey teams of these four universities meet every year in a four-team tournament known as the "Beanpot Tournament," which is played at the TD Banknorth Garden over two Monday nights in February.[84] NCAA redirects here. ... For similarly-named academic institutions, see Education in Boston, MA. Boston College (BC) is a private university located in Chestnut Hill, Massachusetts, in the New England region of the United States. ... The Atlantic Coast Conference (ACC) is a collegiate athletic league in the United States. ... For the similarly named institution in Chestnut Hill, see Boston College. ... The America East Conference is a college athletic conference whose members are located mainly in the northeastern United States. ... Northeastern University, occasionally abbreviated as NU or NEU, is a top-tier private research university in Boston, Massachusetts. ... The Colonial Athletic Association, also known as the CAA, is a NCAA Division I college athletic conference whose members are located in East Coast states from Massachusetts to Georgia. ... Harvard redirects here. ... For other uses, see Ivy League (disambiguation). ... ECAC Hockey is one of the six conferences that compete in NCAA Division I ice hockey. ... Hockey East is a college athletic conference which operates in New England. ... The Beanpot refers primarily to a college mens ice hockey tournament between four major college hockey schools of the Boston, Massachusetts area, held annually since the 1952-53 season. ...


One of the most famous sporting events in the city is the Boston Marathon, the 26.2 mile (42.2 km) run from Hopkinton to Copley Square in the Back Bay. The Marathon, the world's oldest, is popular and heavily attended.[85] It is run on Patriots' Day in April and always coincides with a Red Sox home baseball game that starts at 11:05 AM (10:05 beginning in 2007), the only MLB game all year to start before noon local time.[86] Another major event held in the city is the Head of the Charles Regatta rowing competition on the Charles River. The 100th running of the Boston Marathon, 1996 The Boston Marathon is an annual marathon sporting event hosted by the city of Boston, Massachusetts, on Patriots Day, the third Monday of April. ... Location in Massachusetts Coordinates: Country United States State Massachusetts County Middlesex County Settled 1715 Incorporated 1715 Government  - Type Open town meeting  - Town    Manager Anthony Troiano  - Board of    Selectmen Muriel E. Kramer, Chair Mary C. Pratt, Vice Chair Leonard A. Holden Ronald M. Clark Michael Shepard Area  - Town  28. ... Minuteman Statue on the Lexington Green in Lexington, Massachusetts Patriots Grave in the Old Burying Ground, Arlington, Massachusetts. ... Kennedy School womens team outside the Weld Boathouse preparing to row the Head of the Charles in 1996, though that year the race was cancelled due to bad weather. ...

Club League Sport Venue Established Championships
Boston Red Sox MLB Baseball Fenway Park 1901 7 World Series Titles
12 AL Pennants
New England Patriots NFL Football Gillette Stadium 1960 3 Super Bowl Titles
Boston Celtics NBA Basketball TD Banknorth Garden 1946 16 NBA Titles
Boston Bruins NHL Hockey TD Banknorth Garden 1924 5 Stanley Cups
New England Revolution MLS Soccer Gillette Stadium 1995 1 U.S. Open Cup
Boston Cannons MLL Lacrosse (Outdoor) Harvard Stadium 2001 None
Boston Blazers NLL Lacrosse (Indoor) TD Banknorth Garden 2008 None
New England Riptide NPF Softball Martin Softball Field 2004 1 Cowles Cup

Major league affiliations American League (1901–present) East Division (1969–present) Current uniform Retired Numbers 1, 4, 8, 9, 27, 42 Name Boston Red Sox (1908–present) Boston Americans (1901-1907) Other nicknames The BoSox, The Olde Towne Team, The Sox Ballpark Fenway Park (1912–present) Huntington Avenue Baseball Grounds... Major Leagues redirects here. ... Fenway redirects here. ... City Foxborough, Massachusetts Other nicknames The Pats Team colors Nautical Blue, New Century Silver, Red, and White Head Coach Bill Belichick Owner Robert Kraft General manager Bill Belichick (de facto) Mascot Pat Patriot League/Conference affiliations American Football League (1960–69) Eastern Division (1960–69) National Football League (1970–present... NFL redirects here. ... Gillette Stadium is the home stadium for the New England Patriots football team and the New England Revolution soccer team. ... The Boston Celtics are a professional basketball team based in Boston, Massachusetts. ... NBA redirects here. ... TD Banknorth Garden is a sports arena in the West End neighborhood of Boston, Massachusetts. ... The Boston Bruins are a professional mens ice hockey team based in Boston, Massachusetts. ... NHL redirects here. ... Year founded 1995 League Major League Soccer Nickname Revolution, Revs Stadium Gillette Stadium Foxborough, MA Coach Steve Nicol, 2002— Owner Robert Kraft First Game Tampa Bay Mutiny 3–2 New England Revolution (Tampa Stadium; April 13, 1996) Largest Win New England Revolution 6–1 Colorado Rapids (Gillette Stadium; September 18... Major League Soccer (MLS) is a North America professional soccer league. ... The Boston Cannons are a professional lacrosse team based in Boston, Massachusetts. ... Major League Lacrosse is a professional outdoor Lacrosse league that is made up of teams within the United States. ... Harvard Stadium is a football stadium in the Allston neighborhood of Boston, Massachusetts. ... The Boston Blazers were a member of the Major Indoor Lacrosse League from 1989 to 1997. ... NLL redirects here. ... The New England Riptide is a womens softball team based in Lowell, Massachusetts. ... National Pro Fastpitch (NPF), formerly the Womens Pro Softball League (WPSL), is the only professional womens softball league in the world. ...

Healthcare and utilities

See also: List of hospitals in Boston
Longwood Medical Area
Longwood Medical Area

The Longwood Medical Area is a region of Boston with a concentration of medical and research facilities, including Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Children's Hospital Boston, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Harvard Medical School, Harvard School of Public Health and Harvard School of Dental Medicine.[87] Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH) is near the Beacon Hill neighborhood, with the Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary and Spaulding Rehabilitation Hospital nearby. Boston also has VA medical centers in the Jamaica Plain and West Roxbury neighborhoods.[88] List of hospitals in Massachusetts (U.S. state), sorted by location. ... Image File history File linksMetadata View-over-lma. ... Image File history File linksMetadata View-over-lma. ... Longwood Medical and Academic Area (also known as Longwood Medical Area, LMA, or just Longwood) is a section of Boston with a high density of hospitals and biomedical research centers. ... Both an international and regional referral center, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center (BIDMC) in Boston, Massachusetts is a major teaching hospital of Harvard Medical School. ... Brigham and Womens Hospital (BWH) is a hospital in Boston, Massachusetts. ... Childrens Hospital Boston is a hospital located in Boston, Massachusetts, USA, adjacent to Brigham and Womens Hospital and Harvard Medical School. ... Dana-Farber Cancer Institute is a major affiliate of Harvard Medical School and a Comprehensive Cancer Center designated by the National Cancer Institute. ... Harvard Medical School (HMS) is one of the graduate schools of Harvard University. ... Harvard School of Public Health The Harvard School of Public Health (HSPH) is Harvard Universitys School of Public Health. ... Harvard School of Dental Medicine Harvard School of Dental Medicine (HSDM) is one of the graduate schools of Harvard University. ... Massachusetts General Hospital (often abbreviated to Mass General or just MGH) is a teaching hospital of Harvard Medical School and biomedical research facility in Boston, Massachusetts. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Spaulding Rehabilitation Hospital is a rehabilitation hospital located in Boston, Massachusetts. ... The United States Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) is a government-run military veteran benefit system with Cabinet-level status. ... VA Medical Center Boston (Jamaica Plain campus) The VA Boston Healthcare System is a set of hospitals run by the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs in the Greater Boston area. ...


Many of Boston's major medical facilities are associated with universities. The facilities in the Longwood Medical Area and MGH are world-renowned research medical centers affiliated with Harvard Medical School. New England Medical Center, located in the southern portions of the Chinatown neighborhood, is affiliated with Tufts University. Boston Medical Center, located in the South End neighborhood, is the primary teaching facility for the Boston University School of Medicine as well as the largest trauma center in the Boston area;[89] it was formed by the merger of Boston University Hospital and Boston City Hospital, which was the first municipal hospital in the U.S.[90] Tufts University is a private research university in Medford/Somerville, Massachusetts, suburbs of Boston. ... Boston Medical Center (Boston, Massachusetts, United States) is an academic medical center created by the formal merger of Boston City Hospital and Boston University School of Medicine in the 1990s. ... Boston University School of Medicine (BUSM) is one of the graduate schools of Boston University. ... A trauma center is a hospital equipped to perform as a casualty receiving station for the emergency medical services by providing the best possible medical care for traumatic injuries 24 hours a day, 365 days per year. ...


Water supply and sewage-disposal services are provided by the Boston Water and Sewer Commission.[91] The Commission in turn purchases wholesale water and sewage disposal from the Massachusetts Water Resources Authority (MWRA). The city's water comes from the Quabbin Reservoir and the Wachusett Reservoir, which are about 65 miles (105 km) and 35 miles (56 km) west of the city respectively.[92] NSTAR is the exclusive distributor of electric power to the city, though due to deregulation, customers now have a choice of electric generation companies. Natural gas is distributed by KeySpan Corporation (the successor company to Boston Gas); only commercial and industrial customers may choose an alternate natural gas supplier.[93] The Boston Water and Sewer Commission serves retail customers in Boston, Massachusetts. ... The Massachusetts Water Resources Authority is an agency of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts that provides wholesale drinking water and sewage services to certain municipalities and industrial users in the state. ... It has been suggested that Goodnough Dike be merged into this article or section. ... Wachusett Reservoir at sunset The Wachusett Reservoir is the second largest body of water in the state of Massachusetts. ... NSTAR is a private utility company that provides retail electricity and natural gas to customers in eastern and central Massachusetts. ... For delivered electrical power, see Electrical power industry. ... For other uses, see Natural gas (disambiguation). ... Diversity Keyspan received a 100% rating on the Corporate Equality Index released by the Human Rights Campaign starting in 2004, the third year of the report. ...


Verizon, successor to New England Telephone, NYNEX, Bell Atlantic and earlier, the Bell System, is the primary wired telephone service provider for the area. Phone service is also available from various national wireless companies. Cable television is available from Comcast and RCN, with Broadband Internet access provided by the same companies in certain areas. A variety of DSL providers and resellers are able to provide broadband Internet over Verizon-owned phone lines.[94] This article or section should include material from Bell Atlantic This article or section should include material from GTE Verizon Communications (NYSE: VZ) is a local exchange telephone company formed by the merger of Bell Atlantic, a former Bell Operating Company, and GTE, which was the largest independant local exchange... Verizon New England, Inc. ... NYNEX Corporation (pronounced Nine-x) was a telephone company which served five New England states (Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Rhode Island and Vermont) as well as New York. ... Categories: Corporation stubs | Communications companies of the United States | Defunct companies | Telephone companies | Public Utilities ... The Bell System was a trademark and service mark used by the United States telecommunications company American Telephone & Telegraph Company (AT&T) and its affiliated companies to co-brand their extensive circuit-switched telephone network and their affiliations with each other. ... List of United States mobile phone companies (In alphabetical order). ... Cable TV redirects here. ... Comcast Corporation (NASDAQ: CMCSA) is the largest cable television company and the second largest Internet service provider in the United States. ... RCN, NASDAQ: RCNI, is a cable television, telephone and Internet service provider serving the Northern Virginia to Boston corridor as well as areas of California. ... A WildBlue Satellite Internet dish. ... DSL redirects here. ...


Transportation

Main article: Boston transportation
An MBTA sign at the Chinatown stop.
An MBTA sign at the Chinatown stop.

Logan International Airport, located in the East Boston neighborhood, handles most of the scheduled passenger service for Boston.[95] Surrounding the city are three major general aviation relievers: Beverly Municipal Airport to the north, Hanscom Field in Bedford, to the west, and Norwood Memorial Airport to the south. T. F. Green Airport serving Providence, Rhode Island, and Manchester-Boston Airport in Manchester, New Hampshire, also provide scheduled passenger service. A Boston, Massachusetts above-ground Green Line subway train rumbles by, while a taxicab, a privately owned vehicle, and person walking demonstrate some of the other ways of getting around the city. ... Image File history File linksMetadata MBTA_Chinatown_sign. ... Image File history File linksMetadata MBTA_Chinatown_sign. ... The Beach Street gate into Bostons Chinatown. ... For the Logan airport in Billings, Montana, see Billings Logan International Airport. ... East Boston was annexed by the City of Boston in 1636 and is separated from the rest of the city by Boston Harbor and bordered by Winthrop, Revere, and the Chelsea Creek. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into airline. ... A general aviation scene at Kemble Airfield, England. ... Beverly Municipal Airport (IATA: BVY, ICAO: KBVY) is a public airport located in the city of Beverly, in Essex County, Massachusetts, USA. It is designated by the FAA as a reliever airport, which means it is available to relieve Logan International Airport of small general aviation type aircraft during Logan... Hanscom Field (IATA: BED, ICAO: KBED, FAA LID: BED), also known by its full name Laurence G. Hanscom Field, is a public airport located in Bedford, in Middlesex County, Massachusetts, United States. ... Location in Massachusetts Coordinates: , Country United States State Massachusetts County Middlesex County Settled 1640 Incorporated 1729 Government  - Type Open town meeting  - Town Administrator Richard Reed Area  - Town  13. ... Norwood Memorial Airport is a small airport located right off Route 128 in Norwood, Massachusetts, USA. Norwood Airport is home to several small aircraft, the offices of prominent local businessmen (including Ted Robinson), and several repair shops. ... Runway layout at PVD T. F. Green Airport (IATA: PVD, ICAO: KPVD, FAA LID: PVD), also known as Theodore Francis Green State Airport, is a public airport located in Warwick, six miles (10 km) south of Providence, in Kent County, Rhode Island, USA. Dedicated in 1931, the airport was named... Providence redirects here. ... FAA diagram of Manchester Airport Manchester Airport (IATA: MHT, ICAO: KMHT) is a public airport located in 3 miles (5 km) south of Manchester, on the county line of Hillsborough County and Rockingham Counties, New Hampshire, USA. The airport lies in two towns: Manchester, and Londonderry, New Hampshire. ... Nickname: Location in Hillsborough County, New Hampshire Coordinates: Country United States State New Hampshire County Hillsborough County Incorporated 1751 Government  - Mayor Frank Guinta (R) Area  - City  34. ...


Downtown Boston's streets are not organized on a grid, but grew in a meandering organic pattern beginning early in the seventeenth century. They were created as needed, and as wharves and landfill expanded the area of the small Boston peninsula.[96] Along with several rotaries, roads change names and lose and add lanes seemingly at random. On the other hand, streets in the Back Bay, East Boston, the South End, and South Boston follow a grid system. However, these grids are built around the existing chaos from the city's early growth. In its March 2006 issue, Bicycling magazine named Boston as one of the worst cities in the U.S. for cycling;[97] regardless, it has one of the highest rates of bicycle commuting.[98] A roundabout is a type of road junction at which traffic enters a one-way stream around a central island. ... Back Bay redirects here. ... East Boston is a gritty blue-collar neighborhood that is separated from the rest of the city of Boston by Boston Harbor and bordered by Winthrop, Revere, and the Chelsea Creek. ... The South End is a neighborhood in Boston, Massachusetts. ... Mural in South Boston saying Welcome to South Boston in English and Fáilte go mBoston dheas in Irish. ... A simple grid plan road map (Windermere, Florida). ...

Many of Boston's roads were based upon horse and cart paths from the 17th century. A few horse carriages are still found in the city today.
Many of Boston's roads were based upon horse and cart paths from the 17th century. A few horse carriages are still found in the city today.

Boston is the eastern terminus of I-90, also known as the Mass Pike. I-95, which surrounds the city, is locally referred to as Route 128, its historical state route numbering. U.S. Route 1 and I-93 run north to south through the city. The elevated Central Artery, which ran through downtown Boston and was constantly prone to heavy traffic, was replaced with an underground tunnel through the Big Dig. Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Interstate 90 Interstate 90 (abbreviated I-90) is the longest interstate highway in the United States at nearly 3,100 miles (5,000 kilometers). ... View of the Turnpike from an overpass by Boston University, facing east (towards central Boston). ... Interstate 95 is 92 miles in the state of Massachusetts. ... Route 128, also known as the Yankee Division Highway (for the U.S. 26th Infantry Division), and originally the Circumferential Highway, is a partial beltway around Boston, Massachusetts, United States. ... Wikimedia Commons has media related to: U.S. Route 1 U.S. Route 1 (also called U.S. Highway 1, and abbreviated US 1) is a United States highway which parallels the east coast of the United States. ... Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Interstate 93 Interstate 93 (abbreviated I-93) is an interstate highway in the New England section of the United States. ... The Central Artery, officially the John F. Fitzgerald Expressway, is a section of freeway in downtown Boston, Massachusetts, designated as Interstate 93, U.S. Highway 1 and Route 3. ... For other projects of the same name, see Big Dig. ...


The Massachusetts Bay Transportation Authority (MBTA) now operates what was the first underground rapid transit system in the United States,[8] which has since been expanded to 65.5 miles (105 km) of track,[99] reaching as far north as Malden, as far south as Braintree, and as far west as Newton – collectively known as the "T". The MBTA also operates a network of bus lines and water shuttles, and a commuter rail network totaling over 200 miles (321 km),[99] extending north to the Merrimack Valley, west to Worcester, and south to Providence. The extensiveness of the T is responsible for the fact that 31.5% of Boston commuters use public transit.[100] Walking has a larger transit role in Boston than comparably populated cities. Owing to factors such as the compactness of the city and large student population, 13% of the population commutes by foot, making it the highest percentage of pedestrian commuters in the country out of the major American cities.[101] The Massachusetts Bay Transportation Authority (MBTA) is a body politic and corporate, and a political subdivision of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts [2] formed in 1964 to finance and operate most bus, subway, commuter rail and ferry systems in the greater Boston, Massachusetts area. ... “Mass Transit” redirects here. ... Location in Massachusetts Coordinates: Country United States State Massachusetts County Middlesex County Settled 1640 Incorporated 1649 Government  - Type Mayor-council city  - Mayor Richard C. Howard Area  - City  5. ... For geographic and demographic information on the census-designated place Braintree, please see the article Braintree (CDP), Massachusetts. ... Nickname: Location in Middlesex County in Massachusetts Coordinates: , Country State County Middlesex County Settled 1630 Incorporated 1688 Government  - Type Mayor-council city  - Mayor David B. Cohen (Dem) Area  - City  18. ... The Massachusetts Bay Transportation Authority operates a large number of bus lines in the greater Boston area. ... The MBTA Commuter Rail is the regional rail arm of the Massachusetts Bay Transportation Authority. ... The Merrimack Valley is the region surrounding the Merrimack River in northeastern Massachusetts. ... For other uses, see Worcester (disambiguation). ... Providence redirects here. ... The following is a list of United States cities of 100,000+ inhabitants with the 50 highest rates of pedestrian commuting, according to data from the 2000 Census. ...

South Station is an intermodal station for Amtrak, commuter, and bus service.
South Station is an intermodal station for Amtrak, commuter, and bus service.

Amtrak's Northeast Corridor and Chicago lines originate at South Station and stop at Back Bay. Fast Northeast Corridor trains, which service New York City, Washington, D.C., and points in between, also stop at Route 128 Station in the southwestern suburbs of Boston.[102] Meanwhile, Amtrak's Downeaster service to Maine originates at North Station.[103] Download high resolution version (1280x960, 603 KB)South Station (Massachusetts Bay Transportation Authority), Boston. ... Download high resolution version (1280x960, 603 KB)South Station (Massachusetts Bay Transportation Authority), Boston. ... South Station front entrance. ... Vermonter at the Brattleboro, Vermont, station, 18 March 2004. ... Most of the NEC (those sections shown in red, except Boston to the Rhode Island state line) is owned by Amtrak. ... For other uses, see Chicago (disambiguation). ... South Station front entrance. ... Back Bay Station, located at 145 Dartmouth Street, between Stuart Street and Columbus Avenue, in Back Bay, Boston, is an important transportation center. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... For other uses, see Washington, D.C. (disambiguation). ... Amtrak waiting area Route 128 Station, located at Exit 13 off Interstate 95/US 1 (known locally as Route 128), in Westwood, Massachusetts, a suburb of Boston. ... The Downeaster is a 116-mile (187 km) passenger train route operated by Amtrak, connecting North Station in Boston, Massachusetts to Portland, Maine. ... Official language(s) None (English and French de facto) Capital Augusta Largest city Portland Area  Ranked 39th  - Total 33,414 sq mi (86,542 km²)  - Width 210 miles (338 km)  - Length 320 miles (515 km)  - % water 13. ... Platforms at North Station North Station, located at Causeway and Nashua Streets, in Boston, Massachusetts is a major transportation hub. ...


See also

Boston, Massachusetts, has eight sister cities, as designated by Sister Cities International (SCI): Kyoto, Japan (1959) Strasbourg, France (1960) Barcelona, Spain (1980) Hangzhou, China (1982) Padua, Italy (1983) Melbourne, Australia (1985) Taipei, Republic of China (1996) Sekondi-Takoradi, Ghana (2001) City of Boston - Boston Sister Cities Categories: | ... The following is a list of notable Bostonians. ... Boston Common The city of Boston, Massachusetts, USA, has many nicknames due to historical context. ... This is a list of television shows set in Boston, Massachusetts: Ally McBeal Banacek Boston Common Boston Legal Boston Public Cheers Crossing Jordan Goodnight, Beantown Its All Relative James at 15 Lucky Louie The Law and Harry McGraw Park Street Under The Practice The Real World: Boston Sabrina, the... The following is a partial list of film, opera, and plays set in Boston: Blow, about Weymouth born drug dealer George Jung. ... List of buildings List of masts List of tallest buildings in the world List of tallest buildings and structures in the world List of tallest buildings and structures in the world by country List of tallest buildings in Chicago List of tallest buildings in New York City List of tallest... This is a list of various works of fiction that takes place in Boston, Massachusetts: // The Bostonians, by Henry James; life in aristocratic Boston during the late nineteenth century. ... This is a list of fictional people from Boston: Trapper John McIntyre and Major Charles Emerson Winchester III from M*A*S*H (TV series) Sam Malone, Diane Chambers, Cliff Clavin and Carla Tortelli from the TV sitcom Cheers. ... A large number of places in the U.S were named after places in England as a result of English settlers and explorers. ... Houses on Louisburg Square, Beacon Hill. ...

Notes

  1. ^ Annual Estimates of the Population of Metropolitan and Micropolitan Statistical Areas: April 1, 2000 to July 1, 2006. U.S. Census Bureau (2006). Retrieved on 2007-03-20.
  2. ^ 2007 Census Estimates. U.S. Census Bureau (2006). Retrieved on 2007-03-25.
  3. ^ Massachusetts Bigger Cities (over 6000 residents). City-Data.com (2007). Retrieved on 2007-04-28.
  4. ^ Steinbicker, Earl (2000). 50 one day adventures in Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Connecticut, Vermont, New Hampshire, and Maine. Hastingshouse/Daytrips Publishers, 7. ISBN 0803820089. 
  5. ^ a b c d e Banner, David (2007). BOSTON HISTORY—The History of Boston, Massachusetts. SearchBoston.com. Retrieved on 2007-04-28.
  6. ^ a b c d e Boston: Economy. Thomson Gale (Thomson Corporation) (2006). Retrieved on 2007-04-28.
  7. ^ a b c d BPS at a Glance. Boston Public Schools (March 14, 2007). Retrieved on 2007-04-28.
  8. ^ a b Fagundes, David; Grant, Anthony (April 28, 2003). The Rough Guide to Boston. Rough Guides. ISBN 1-84353-044-9. 
  9. ^ a b Visitors Guide to Boston. SearchBoston.com (2007). Retrieved on 2007-02-19.
  10. ^ Heudorfer, Bonnie; Bluestone, Barry (2004). The Greater Boston Housing Report Card (pdf) 6. Center for Urban and Regional Policy (CURP), Northeastern University. Retrieved on 2007-02-19.
  11. ^ Archaeology of the Central Artery Project: Highway to the Past. Commonwealth Museum—Massachusetts Historical Commission (2007). Retrieved on 2007-04-06.
  12. ^ "Growth" to Boston in its Heyday, 1640’s to 1730’s (pdf). Boston History & Innovation Collaborative (2006). Retrieved on 2007-05-08.
  13. ^ About Boston. City of Boston (2006). Retrieved on 2007-05-08.
  14. ^ Boston African American National Historic Site. National Park Service (April 28, 2007). Retrieved on 2007-05-08.
  15. ^ People & Events: Boston's Immigrant Population. WGBH/PBS Online (American Experience) (2003). Retrieved on 2007-05-04.
  16. ^ Boston People. city-data.com (2007). Retrieved on 2007-05-05.
  17. ^ The History of Land Fill in Boston. iBoston.org (2006). Retrieved on 2006-01-09.. Also see Howe, Jeffery (1996). Boston: History of the Landfills. Boston College. Retrieved on 2007-04-30.
  18. ^ (1991) Historical Atlas of Massachusetts. University of Massachusetts, 37. 
  19. ^ Roessner, Jane. "A Decent Place to Live: from Columbia Point to Harbor Point - A Community History", Boston: Northeastern University Press, c2000. Cf. p.80, "The Columbia Point Health Center: The First Community Health Center in the Country".
  20. ^ Collins, Monica (August 7, 2005). Born Again. The Boston Globe. Retrieved on 2007-05-08.
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Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 79th day of the year (80th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 84th day of the year (85th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 118th day of the year (119th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 118th day of the year (119th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 118th day of the year (119th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 118th day of the year (119th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 118th day of the year (119th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... [[Media:Italic text]]{| style=float:right; |- | |- | |} is the 50th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... [[Media:Italic text]]{| style=float:right; |- | |- | |} is the 50th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 96th day of the year (97th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 128th day of the year (129th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 128th day of the year (129th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 118th day of the year (119th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 128th day of the year (129th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 124th day of the year (125th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 125th day of the year (126th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 9th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 120th day of the year (121st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 219th day of the year (220th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 128th day of the year (129th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 105th day of the year (106th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 90th day of the year (91st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... [[Media:Italic text]]{| style=float:right; |- | |- | |} is the 50th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 80th day of the year (81st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 135th day of the year (136th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... [[Media:Italic text]]{| style=float:right; |- | |- | |} is the 50th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... [[Media:Italic text]]{| style=float:right; |- | |- | |} is the 50th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 118th day of the year (119th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 119th day of the year (120th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 109th day of the year (110th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 40th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 96th day of the year (97th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 119th day of the year (120th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 119th day of the year (120th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 303rd day of the year (304th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 119th day of the year (120th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 119th day of the year (120th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 35th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... The United States Census Bureau (officially Bureau of the Census as defined in Title ) is a part of the United States Department of Commerce. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 31st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 47th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 118th day of the year (119th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 274th day of the year (275th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 55th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 124th day of the year (125th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 124th day of the year (125th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 124th day of the year (125th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 73rd day of the year (74th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 118th day of the year (119th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 32nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 119th day of the year (120th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 118th day of the year (119th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... [[Media:Italic text]]{| style=float:right; |- | |- | |} is the 50th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... [[Media:Italic text]]{| style=float:right; |- | |- | |} is the 50th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... [[Media:Italic text]]{| style=float:right; |- | |- | |} is the 50th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 108th day of the year (109th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... [[Media:Italic text]]{| style=float:right; |- | |- | |} is the 50th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 171st day of the year (172nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 173rd day of the year (174th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 118th day of the year (119th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 118th day of the year (119th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 152nd day of the year (153rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 152nd day of the year (153rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 80th day of the year (81st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 58th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 118th day of the year (119th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 118th day of the year (119th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 110th day of the year (111th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 118th day of the year (119th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 152nd day of the year (153rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... [[Media:Italic text]]{| style=float:right; |- | |- | |} is the 50th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 272nd day of the year (273rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 303rd day of the year (304th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 274th day of the year (275th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 118th day of the year (119th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 15th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 90th day of the year (91st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 119th day of the year (120th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 118th day of the year (119th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 268th day of the year (269th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 118th day of the year (119th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 118th day of the year (119th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 49th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 49th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 118th day of the year (119th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 49th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 93rd day of the year (94th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 51st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 119th day of the year (120th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 258th day of the year (259th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... December 27 is the 361st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (362nd in leap years). ... This article is about the year. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 118th day of the year (119th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 119th day of the year (120th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 119th day of the year (120th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 52nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 118th day of the year (119th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 52nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 318th day of the year (319th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 118th day of the year (119th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 170th day of the year (171st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For information on Wikipedia press releases, see Wikipedia:Press releases. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 170th day of the year (171st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 118th day of the year (119th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 118th day of the year (119th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 129th day of the year (130th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 52nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... [[Media:Italic text]]{| style=float:right; |- | |- | |} is the 50th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 94th day of the year (95th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... [[Media:Italic text]]{| style=float:right; |- | |- | |} is the 50th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... [[Media:Italic text]]{| style=float:right; |- | |- | |} is the 50th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 57th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 129th day of the year (130th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 129th day of the year (130th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

References

  • Winsor, Justin (1881). Memorial History of Boston, Vol.1 Vol.2 Vol.3. Vol.4.. James R. Osgood Publisher.. 
  • Snow, Caleb H. (1828). History of Boston. Abel Bowen. 
  • Boston (1909). Records Relating to the Early History of Boston - Selectmen Minutes 1818-1822.. City of Boston. 
  • Downst, Henry P. (1916). "Random Notes of Boston". Humphrey Publishing. 
  • Gershkoff, Ira; Trachtman, Richard (2004). The Boston Driver's Handbook. Da Capo Press. ISBN 0-306-81326-2. 
  • Harris, Patricia; Lyon, David (1999). Boston. Oakland, CA: Compass American Guides. ISBN 0-679-00284-7. 
  • Jones, Howard Mumford; Jones, Bessie Zaban (1975). The Many Voices of Boston: A Historical Anthology 1630–1975. Boston: Little, Brown and Company. ISBN 0-316-47282-4. 
  • Rambow, John D. et. al (2003). Fodor's Boston. New York: Fodors Travel Publication. ISBN 1-4000-1028-4. 
  • Seasholes, Nancy S. (2003). Gaining ground : a history of landmaking in Boston. Cambridge, Massachusetts: MIT Press. 
  • Vanderwarker, Peter (1982). Boston Then and Now. Courier Dover Publications. ISBN 0-486-24312-5. 

External links

Find more about Boston on Wikipedia's sister projects:
Dictionary definitions
Textbooks
Quotations
Source texts
Images and media
News stories
Learning resources
  • Boston travel guide from Wikitravel
  • City of Boston official website
  • Greater Boston Chamber of Commerce
  • Greater Boston Convention & Visitors Bureau
  • Photos of Boston
  • The Boston Indicators Project
  • Open Space Plan 2002–2006, City of Boston, maps and analyses
  • Historical Maps of Boston from the Norman B. Leventhal Map Center at the Boston Public Library
  • Boston Streets: Mapping Directory Data Project – Tufts University and The Bostonian Society.
  • Maps of Income, Landfill, Growth, Squares, and Public Transport, from www.radicalcartography.net.
  • Historical sites from around Boston
  • Historical maps of Boston in the Boston Public Library collection


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