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Encyclopedia > Boston
Boston, Massachusetts
Skyline of Boston, Massachusetts
Official flag of Boston, Massachusetts
Flag
Official seal of Boston, Massachusetts
Seal
Nickname: "City on the Hill, Beantown, The Hub (of the Universe)1, Athens of America, The Cradle of Revolution, Puritan City, America's Walking City"
Location in Massachusetts, USA
Counties Suffolk County
Mayor Thomas M. Menino(D)
Area  
 - City 232.1 km²  (89.6 sq mi)
 - Land 125.4 km²  (48.4 sq mi)
 - Water 106.7 km² (41.2 sq mi)
 - Metro 11,684.7 km² (4,511.5 sq mi)
Elevation 43 m  (141 ft)
Population  
 - City (2005) 596,638
 - Density 4,457/km² (11,543/sq mi)
 - Urban 4,313,000
 - Metro 5,804,816[1]
Time zone Eastern (UTC-5)
 - Summer (DST) Eastern (UTC-4)
1 The State House, according to Oliver Wendell Holmes, is the hub of the Solar System
Website: www.cityofboston.gov

Boston is the capital and the most populous city of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, a state of the United States of America. Founded in 1630, Boston is one of the oldest and most culturally significant cities in the United States. Boston is recognized as a gamma global city. Its economy is based on higher education, research, health care, finance, and technology, principally biotechnology. Citizens of Boston are called Bostonians. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (6891x2000, 3290 KB) Summary Boston as viewed from Harvard Bridge on Massachusetts Avenue. ... Image File history File links Us-ma-bo. ... Image File history File links Boston_city_seal. ... // A nickname is a short, clever, cute, derogatory, or otherwise substitute name for a person or things real name (for example, Bob, Rob, Robby, Robbie, Robi, Bobby, Rab, Bert, Bertie, Butch, Bobbers, Bobert, Beto, Bobadito, and Robban (in Sweden), are all short for Robert). ... For other uses, see Athens (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links Boston_ma_highlight. ... Official language(s) English Capital Boston Largest city Boston Area  Ranked 44th  - Total 10,555 sq mi (27,360 km²)  - Width 183 miles (295 km)  - Length 113 miles (182 km)  - % water 13. ... United States of America, showing states, divided into counties. ... Suffolk County is a county located in the state of Massachusetts. ... now. ... Thomas Menino Thomas Michael Menino (born December 27, 1942) is the current mayor of Boston, Massachusetts and the citys first Italian-American mayor as well as being the citys first non Irish-American mayor since 1884. ... The Democratic Party is one of two major political parties in the United States, the other being the Republican Party. ... Area is a physical quantity expressing the size of a part of a surface. ... To help compare different orders of magnitude and geographical regions, we list here areas between 100 km² and 1000 km². See also areas of other orders of magnitude. ... A square mile is an English unit of area equal to that of a square with sides each 1 statute mile (≈1,609 m) in length. ... Basic Definition In geography, the elevation of a geographic location is its height above mean sea level (or some other fixed point). ... The metre, or meter (U.S.), is a measure of length. ... A foot (plural: feet) is any of several old units of distance or length, measuring around a quarter to a third of a meter. ... Population density by country, 2006 Population density is a measurement of population per unit area or unit volume. ... An urban area is a term used to define an area where there is an increased density of human-created structures in comparison to the areas surrounding it. ... Metropolitan area in Western Tokyo as seen from Tokyo Tower A metropolitan area is a large population center consisting of a large city and its adjacent zone of influence, or of several neighboring cities or towns and adjoining areas, with one or more large cities serving as its hub or... A time zone is a region of the Earth that has adopted the same standard time, usually referred to as the local time. ... The Eastern Standard Time Zone is a geographic region that keeps time by subtracting five hours from Coordinated Universal Time (UTC). ... -12 | -11 | -10 | -9:30 | -9 | -8 | -7 | -6 | -5 | -4 | -3:30 | -3 | -2:30 | -2 | -1 | UTC | +0:20 | +0:30 | +1 | +2 | +3 | +4 | +4:30 | +4:51 | +5 | +5:30 | +5:40 | +5:45 | +6 | +6:30 | +7 | +7:20 | +7:30 | +8 | +8:30 | +8...  Areas that observe daylight saving time  Areas that once observed daylight saving time  Areas that have never observed daylight saving time A 2001 public service announcement for the upcoming turning back of the clocks Daylight saving time (DST), also known as summer time, is a conventional local time adopted by... The Eastern Standard Time Zone is a geographic region that keeps time by subtracting five hours from Coordinated Universal Time (UTC). ... for North America see also: Atlantic Standard Time Zone and Eastern Daylight Time Categories: Time zones ... Oliver Wendell Holmes Sr. ... Major features of the Solar System (not to scale): The Sun, the eight planets, the asteroid belt containing the dwarf planet Ceres, outermost there is the dwarf planet Pluto (the dwarf planet Eris not shown), and a comet. ... Boston is a widely-used name. ... In politics, a capital (also called capital city or political capital — although the latter phrase has a second meaning based on an alternative sense of capital) is the principal city or town associated with a countrys government. ... Official language(s) English Capital Boston Largest city Boston Area  Ranked 44th  - Total 10,555 sq mi (27,360 km²)  - Width 183 miles (295 km)  - Length 113 miles (182 km)  - % water 13. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Chief Justice Associate Justices Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures State Courts Counties, Cities, and Towns Other countries â€¢ Politics Portal      A state of the United States is any one of the fifty subnational entities referred to... A global city or world city are a concept which postulates that globalisation can be broken down in terms of strategic geographic locales that see global processes being created, facilitated and enacted. ... Bostonian may refer to: a resident of Boston, Massachusetts a resident of Massachusetts a resident of the Boston area the passenger train Bostonian This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ...


The city lies at the center of Greater Boston, which also includes the cities of Cambridge, Quincy, and Newton, the town of Brookline, and many suburban communities farther from Boston. The Greater Boston area encompasses parts of the states of New Hampshire, Rhode Island, and Connecticut. The city also lies at the center of the Boston-Worcester-Manchester Combined Statistical Area (CSA), the fifth largest metropolitan area in the United States. Greater Boston is the area of Massachusetts closely surrounding Boston, Massachusetts. ...   Settled: 1630 â€“ Incorporated: 1636 Zip Code(s): 02138, 02139, 02140, 02141, 02142 â€“ Area Code(s): 617 / 857 Official website: http://www. ...   Settled: 1625 â€“ Incorporated: 1792 Zip Code(s): 02169, 02170, 02171 â€“ Area Code(s): 617 / 857 Location Location in Massachusetts Government County Norfolk County Form of Government Mayor-council city Mayor William J. Phelan Geography Area Total 26. ...   Nickname: The Garden City Settled: 1639 â€“ Incorporated: 1688 Zip Code(s): 02446, 02458, 02459, 02460, 02461, 02462, 02464, 02465, 02467, 02468, 02495 â€“ Area Code(s): 617 / 857 Official website: http://www. ...   Settled: 1638 â€“ Incorporated: 1705 Zip Code(s): 02445 â€“ Area Code(s): 617 / 857 Official website: http://www. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Official language(s) None Capital Providence Largest city Providence Area  Ranked 50th  - Total 1,214* sq mi (3,144* km²)  - Width 37 miles (60 km)  - Length 48 miles (77 km)  - % water 32. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The United States Office of Management and Budget (OMB) defines micropolitan and metropolitan statistical areas. ... In the United States, the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) has produced a formal definition of metropolitan areas. ...

Contents

History

The 18th century Old State House in Boston is surrounded by tall buildings of the 19th and 20th centuries.
The 18th century Old State House in Boston is surrounded by tall buildings of the 19th and 20th centuries.
   
Boston, Massachusetts
In the political events which have affected the history of the entire country, and in shaping the thought of a people who have come to be a great nation, Boston has played a leading part.
   
Boston, Massachusetts
-- Boston by Henry Cabot Lodge

Boston was founded on November 17, 1630, by Puritan colonists from England, on a peninsula called Shawmut by its original Native American inhabitants. The peninsula was connected to the mainland by a narrow isthmus, and surrounded by the waters of Massachusetts Bay and the Back Bay, an estuary of the Charles River. Boston's early European settlers first called the area Trimountaine. They later renamed the town for Boston, England, in Lincolnshire, from which several prominent "pilgrim" colonists emigrated. A majority of Boston's early citizens were Puritans. Massachusetts Bay Colony's original governor, John Winthrop, gave a famous sermon entitled "a City upon a Hill," which captured the idea that Boston had a special covenant with God. (Winthrop also led the signing of the Cambridge Agreement which is regarded as a key founding document of the city.) Puritan ethics molded an extremely stable and well-structured society in Boston. For example, shortly after Boston's settlement, Puritans founded America's first public school, Boston Latin School (1635), and America's first college, Harvard College (1636). Hard work, moral uprightness, and an emphasis on education remain part of Boston's culture. Until the 1760s, Boston was America's largest, wealthiest, and most influential city. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1704x2272, 2039 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Boston, Massachusetts Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1704x2272, 2039 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Boston, Massachusetts Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to... Old State House, circa July 2003. ... The history of Boston, Massachusetts intertwines with the history of the United States. ... Image File history File links Cquote1. ... Image File history File links Cquote2. ... Henry Cabot Lodge Henry Cabot Lodge (May 12, 1850 – November 9, 1924), was an American statesman and Republican politician, and noted historian. ... 17 November is also the name of a Marxist group in Greece, coinciding with the anniversary of the Athens Polytechnic uprising. ... Events February 22 - Native American Quadequine introduces Popcorn to English colonists. ... This article describes a highly specialized aspect of its subject. ... Peninsula A peninsula (from Latin paene insula, almost island) is a geographical formation consisting of an extension of land from a larger body, surrounded by water on three sides. ... Shawmut is the name of the peninsula on which Boston was originally constructed. ... An Aani (Atsina) named Assiniboin Boy. ... The Isthmus of Panama connects North and South America. ... Massachusetts Bay is one of the large bays of the Atlantic Ocean that form the distinctive shape of the coastline of the U.S. state of Massachusetts. ... Estuaries and coastal waters are among the most productive ecosystems on Earth, providing ecological, economic, cultural, and aesthetic benefits. ... The Charles River from the Boston side, facing Cambridge and the main campus of Harvard University. ... Statistics Population: 35,124 Ordnance Survey OS grid reference: TF329437 Administration District: Boston Borough Shire county: Lincolnshire Region: East Midlands Constituent country: England Sovereign state: United Kingdom Other Ceremonial county: Lincolnshire Historic county: Lincolnshire Services Police force: Lincolnshire Police Fire and rescue: {{{Fire}}} Ambulance: East Midlands Post office and telephone... Motto: (French for God and my right) Anthem: God Save the King/Queen Capital London Largest city London Official language(s) English (de facto) Unification    - by Athelstan AD 927  Area    - Total 130,395 km² (1st in UK)   50,346 sq mi  Population    - 2005 est. ... Lincolnshire (abbreviated Lincs) is a county in the east of England. ... Pilgrims is the name commonly applied to early settlers of the Plymouth Colony. ... The Puritans were members of a group of radical Protestants which developed in England after the Reformation. ... A map of the Massachusetts Bay Colony. ... John Winthrop was the name of several prominent figures in colonial New England. ... City upon a hill is the phrase often used to refer to John Winthrops famous sermon, A Model of Christian Charity,, of 1630, based on Matthew 5:14 (You are the light of the world. ... The Cambridge Agreement was an agreement made on August 29, 1629, between the shareholders of the Massachusetts Bay Company. ... Motto Sumus Primi Founded April 23, 1635 Head Master Dr. Cornelia A. Kelley School type Public high school Grades 7–12 Enrollment c. ... Harvard Yard Harvard College is the undergraduate section and oldest school of Harvard University, having been founded in 1636. ...


During the early 1770s, British attempts to exert control on the thirteen colonies, primarily via taxation, prompted Bostonians to initiate the American Revolution. The Boston Massacre, the Boston Tea Party, and several early battles occurred in or near the city, including the Battle of Lexington and Concord, Battle of Bunker Hill, and the Siege of Boston. During this period, Paul Revere made his famous midnight ride. In 1775, the British claimed authority over the red and pink areas on this map and Spain ruled the orange. ... This article is the current Esperanza Collaboration of the Month. ... Engraving by Paul Revere The Boston Massacre is the name commonly given to the shooting of five civilians by British troops on March 5, 1770, which became a cause celebre among pro-independence groups and helped to eventually spark the American Revolutionary War. ... The Boston Tea Party was a direct action protest by the American colonists against Great Britain in which they destroyed many crates of tea bricks on ships in Boston Harbor. ... The Battle of Lexington and Concord on April 19, 1775 was the first battle of the American Revolutionary War and was described as the shot heard round the world in Emersons Concord Hymn. ... Combatants Kingdom of Great Britain Province of Massachusetts Bay Commanders William Howe Robert Pigot Henry Clinton Israel Putnam William Prescott Joseph Warren† (Declined command) Strength 2,600 1,500 Casualties 226 dead 828 wounded 140 dead 271 wounded 30 captured (20 POWs Died) The Battle of Bunker Hill took place... The Siege of Boston (April 19, 1775 - March 17, 1776) was the opening phase of the active American Revolutionary War. ... Portrait of Paul Revere by John Singleton Copley, c. ...


After the Revolution, Boston quickly became one of the world's wealthiest international trading ports because it was the closest major American port to Europe — exports included rum, fish, salt, and tobacco. During this era, descendants of old Boston families became regarded, in the American popular mind, as the nation's social and cultural elites; they were later dubbed the Boston Brahmins. In 1822, Boston was chartered as a city. By the mid-1800s, the city's industrial manufacturing overtook international trade in economic importance. Until the early 1900s, Boston remained one of the nation's largest manufacturing centers, and was notable for its garment production, leather goods, and machinery industries. A network of small rivers bordering the city and connecting it to the surrounding region made for easy shipment of goods and allowed for a proliferation of mills and factories. Later, an even denser network of railroads facilitated the region's industry and commerce. From the mid-to-late-nineteenth century, Boston flourished culturally — it became renowned for its rarefied literary culture and lavish artistic patronage. It also became a center of the abolitionist movement. Boston Brahmins, or simply Brahmins—sometimes also called the First Families of Boston—are a blue-blooded class of New Englanders who claim hereditary or cultural descent from the Anglo-Saxon Protestants who founded the city of Boston, Massachusetts and originally settled New England. ... It has been suggested that folding clothes be merged into this article or section. ... Modern leather-working tools Leather is a material created through the tanning of hides, pelts and skins of animals, primarily cows. ... This French poster depicting the horrific conditions on slave ships was influential in mobilizing public opinion against slavery. ...

Downtown Boston.
Downtown Boston.

In the 1820s, Boston's ethnic composition began to change dramatically with the first wave of European immigrants. Groups like the Irish and Italians moved into the city and brought with them Roman Catholicism. (This trend of immigration continued throughout the 1800s - most famously when the Potato Famine hit Ireland.) Currently, Catholics make up Boston's largest religious community and since the early 20th century the Irish have played a major role in Boston politics — prominent figures include the Kennedys, Tip O'Neill and John F. Fitzgerald. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2500x1894, 3102 KB) A view of downtown Boston, Massachusetts taken in August of 2006. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2500x1894, 3102 KB) A view of downtown Boston, Massachusetts taken in August of 2006. ... The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... Potato famine may mean or refer to: The Irish Potato Famine (1845-1849) The Highlands and Islands Potato Famine (1846 - 1857) This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... The Irish Catholic political dynasty, John, Robert, and Edward Kennedy The Kennedy family is a prominent Irish-American family in American politics and government descending from the marriage of Joseph P. and Rose Fitzgerald Kennedy. ... Thomas Phillip ONeill, Jr. ... For the American author John Fitzgerald, see John D. Fitzgerald. ...

Boston in 1772 and 1880. The original area of the Shawmut Peninsula was substantially expanded by landfill.
Boston in 1772 and 1880. The original area of the Shawmut Peninsula was substantially expanded by landfill.

Between 1630 and 1890, the city tripled its physical size by land reclamation, specifically by filling in marshes, mud flats, and gaps between wharves along the waterfront,[2] a process Walter Muir Whitehill called "cutting down the hills to fill the coves." The largest reclamation efforts took place during the 1800s. Beginning in 1807, the crown of Beacon Hill was used to fill in a 50-acre (20 ha) mill pond that later became Haymarket Square (just south of today's North Station area). The present-day State House sits atop this shortened Beacon Hill. Reclamation projects in the middle of the century created significant parts of the South End, West End, Financial District, and Chinatown. After The Great Boston Fire of 1872, workers used building rubble as landfill along the downtown waterfront. Boston's Back Bay land reclamation project proved dramatic. During the mid-to-late 19th century, workers filled almost 600 acres (2.4 km²) of brackish Charles River marshlands west of the Boston Common with soil brought by rail from the hills of Needham Heights. Boston also annexed the adjacent communities of East Boston, Dorchester, South Boston, Brighton, Allston, Hyde Park, Roxbury, West Roxbury, Jamaica Plain and Charlestown. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1536x1414, 298 KB) Summary Boston in 1772. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1536x1414, 298 KB) Summary Boston in 1772. ... Land reclamation is either of two distinct practices. ... Walter Muir Whitehill (b. ... An acre is an English unit of area, which is also frequently used in the United States and some Commonwealth countries. ... A hectare (symbol ha) is a unit of area, equal to 10,000 square metres, commonly used for measuring land area. ... The Massachusetts State House Full view of the south side The Massachusetts State House is the state capitol of Massachusetts. ... The South End is a neighborhood in Boston, Massachusetts. ... The West End of Boston, Massachusetts is a neighborhood bounded generally by Cambridge Street to the south, the Charles River to the west and northwest, Martha Road and Lomasney Way on the north and northeast, and Staniford Street on the west. ... The Beach Street gate into Bostons Chinatown. ... Ruins left by the fire The Great Boston Fire of 1872 was Bostons largest urban fire and still one of the most costly fire-related property losses in American history. ... East Boston is a blue-collar neighborhood that is separated from the rest of the city of Boston by Boston Harbor and bordered by Winthrop, Revere, and the Chelsea Creek. ... Dorchester is the largest neighborhood within the City of Boston located within Suffolk County, Massachusetts. ... Mural in South Boston South Boston is a densely populated neighborhood in Boston, Massachusetts, located south of the Fort Point Channel and abutting Dorchester Bay. ... Brighton is a section of the city of Boston, Massachusetts. ... Roxbury is a neighborhood within Boston, Massachusetts. ... Founded in 1630 (contemporaneously with Boston), West Roxbury, Massachusetts was originally part of the town of Roxbury and was mainly used as farmland. ... Jamaica Plain is a neighborhood in Boston, Massachusetts. ... Birdseye view of Boston, Charlestown, and Bunker Hill between 1890 and 1910. ...

Scollay Square, Boston, Boston, in the 1880s
Scollay Square, Boston, Boston, in the 1880s

By the early and mid-20th century, the city was in decline as factories became old and obsolete, and businesses moved out of the region for cheaper labor elsewhere. Boston responded by initiating various urban renewal projects, including the demolition of the old West End neighborhood and the construction of Government Center. In the 1970s, Boston boomed after thirty years of economic downturn, becoming a leader in the mutual fund industry. Boston already had a reputation for excellent healthcare services. Hospitals such as Massachusetts General Hospital, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, and Brigham and Women's Hospital led the nation in medical innovation and patient care. Universities such as Harvard, MIT, and Boston University attracted many students to the Boston area. Nevertheless, the city experienced conflict starting in 1974 over desegregation busing, which resulted in unrest and violence around public schools throughout the mid-1970s. The unrest served to highlight racial tensions in the city. Scollay Square in the 1880s Location: Scollay Square, Boston Source: [1] This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Scollay Square in the 1880s Location: Scollay Square, Boston Source: [1] This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Government Center is a city square and plaza in Boston, Massachusetts, bounded by Cambridge, Court, Congress, and Sudbury Streets. ... Blight often stands side-by-side with new structures during urban renewal efforts. ... Government Center is a city square and plaza in Boston, Massachusetts, bounded by Cambridge, Court, Congress, and Sudbury Streets. ... A mutual fund is a form of collective investment that pools money from many investors and invests the money in stocks, bonds, short-term money market instruments, and/or other securities. ... Massachusetts General Hospital (often abbreviated to Mass General or just MGH) is a teaching hospital of Harvard Medical School and biomedical research facility in Boston, Massachusetts. ... Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, located in Boston, Massachusetts, is one of the three major teaching hospitals affiliated with Harvard Medical School. ... Brigham and Womens Hospital (BWH) is a hospital in Boston, Massachusetts. ... The Massachusetts Institute of Technology, or MIT, is a private research university located in Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA. MIT is organized into five schools and one college, containing 32 academic departments and 53 interdisciplinary laboratories, centers and programs. ... For the unrelated Jesuit university in Chestnut Hill, see Boston College. ... Desegregation busing, referred to as forced busing by opponents to desegregated schools in some areas, is the practice of remedying past racial discrimination in American public schools by busing children to specific schools in an effort to counteract discriminatory school construction and district assignments. ...

Hyatt in Boston downtown
Hyatt in Boston downtown

Housing prices sharply increased in the 1990s. In 2004, the Boston metropolitan area had the highest cost of living of any in the country, and Massachusetts was the only state to lose population.[3] Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2288x1712, 763 KB) I am the author, creator and taker of this image. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2288x1712, 763 KB) I am the author, creator and taker of this image. ...


The City of Boston has a City Archaeologist on staff, and also a City Archaeology Program and an Archaeology Laboratory, Education and Curation Center which houses over 27 collections owned by the Commonwealth of Massachusetts. [4] Part of the job of the City Archaeologist is to oversee any lots of land to be developed for historical artifacts and significance, and to manage the archaeological remains located on public land in Boston.


Geography and climate

A simulated-color satellite image of the Boston area taken on NASA's Landsat 3.
A simulated-color satellite image of the Boston area taken on NASA's Landsat 3.

Boston LANDSAT File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Boston LANDSAT File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... NASA Insignia Listen to this article · (info) This audio file was created from an article revision dated 2005-09-01, and does not reflect subsequent edits to the article. ... Landsat 3 undergoing final launch preparations Landsat 3 is the third satellite of the Landsat program. ...

Geography

According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 89.6  square miles (232.1 km²)— 48.4 square miles (125.4 km²) of it is land and 41.2 square miles (106.7 km²) of it is water. The total area is 46.0% water. With an elevation of 19 feet (5.8 m) above sea level at Logan International Airport, Boston is bordered by the cities of Winthrop, Revere, Chelsea, Everett, Somerville, Cambridge, Watertown, Newton, Brookline, Needham, Dedham, Canton, Milton, and Quincy—often known as, and considered a part of, Greater Boston. The United States Census Bureau (officially Bureau of the Census as defined in Title ) is a part of the United States Department of Commerce. ... A square mile is an English unit of area equal to that of a square with sides each 1 statute mile (≈1,609 m) in length. ... Square kilometre (US spelling: Square kilometer), symbol km², is an SI unit of surface area. ... A foot (plural: feet) is any of several old units of distance or length, measuring around a quarter to a third of a meter. ... Logan International Airport with aircraft taking off over harbor Bostons Logan International Airport from the airside lounge of Terminal E, illustrating how the airport is largely surrounded by water. ... Settled: 1635 â€“ Incorporated: 1852 Zip Code(s): 02152 â€“ Area Code(s): 617 / 857 Official website: http://www. ... Revere is a city located in Suffolk County, Massachusetts and borders Winthrop, East Boston and Chelsea to the south, Everett and Malden to the west, Saugus and Lynn to the north and the Atlantic Ocean to the east. ... Chelsea City Hall The City of Chelsea is located in Suffolk County, Massachusetts directly across the Mystic River from the City of Boston. ...   Everett is a city in Middlesex County, Massachusetts near Boston. ... Settled: 1630 â€“ Incorporated: 1842 Zip Code(s): 02143 â€“ Area Code(s): 617 / 857 Official website: http://www. ...   Settled: 1630 â€“ Incorporated: 1636 Zip Code(s): 02138, 02139, 02140, 02141, 02142 â€“ Area Code(s): 617 / 857 Official website: http://www. ...   Settled: 1630 â€“ Incorporated: 1630 Zip Code(s): 02472 â€“ Area Code(s): 617 / 857 Official website: http://www. ...   Nickname: The Garden City Settled: 1639 â€“ Incorporated: 1688 Zip Code(s): 02446, 02458, 02459, 02460, 02461, 02462, 02464, 02465, 02467, 02468, 02495 â€“ Area Code(s): 617 / 857 Official website: http://www. ...   Settled: 1638 â€“ Incorporated: 1705 Zip Code(s): 02445 â€“ Area Code(s): 617 / 857 Official website: http://www. ...   Settled: 1680 â€“ Incorporated: 1711 Zip Code(s): 02492 â€“ Area Code(s): 339 / 781 Official website: http://www. ...   Nickname: Contentment Settled: 1635 â€“ Incorporated: 1636 Zip Code(s): 02026-02027 â€“ Area Code(s): / 781 Official website: http://www. ...   Canton is a town in Norfolk County, Massachusetts, United States. ...   Milton is a suburban town in Norfolk County, Massachusetts, United States. ...   Settled: 1625 â€“ Incorporated: 1792 Zip Code(s): 02169, 02170, 02171 â€“ Area Code(s): 617 / 857 Location Location in Massachusetts Government County Norfolk County Form of Government Mayor-council city Mayor William J. Phelan Geography Area Total 26. ... Greater Boston is the area of Massachusetts closely surrounding Boston, Massachusetts. ...


Much of the Back Bay and South End are built on reclaimed land—two and a half of Boston's three original hills were used as a source of material for landfill. Only Beacon Hill, the smallest of the three original hills, remains partially intact. The downtown area and immediate surroundings consist mostly of low-rise brick or stone buildings, with many older buildings in the Federal style. Several of these buildings mix in with modern high-rises, notably in the Financial District, Government Center, Back Bay, and the South Boston waterfront. To this day, the South End Historic District remains the nation's largest surviving contiguous Victorian-era neighborhood.[5] Smaller commercial areas are interspersed amongst single-family homes and wooden/brick multifamily row houses. This article is about the neighborhood of Back Bay. ... The South End is a neighborhood in Boston, Massachusetts. ... Land reclamation is either of two distinct practices. ... 2nd Harrison Gray Otis House, 85 Mount Vernon Street. ... Central Pavilion, Tontine Crescent, 1793-1794, by Charles Bulfinch Federal style architecture occurred in the United States between 1780 and 1830, particularly from 1785 to 1815. ... Government Center is a city square and plaza in Boston, Massachusetts, bounded by Cambridge, Court, Congress, and Sudbury Streets. ... The South End is a neighborhood in Boston, Massachusetts. ...


The Charles River separates Boston proper from Cambridge, Watertown, and the neighborhood of Charlestown. To the east lies Boston Harbor and the Boston Harbor Islands National Recreation Area. The Neponset River forms the boundary between Boston's southern neighborhoods and the cities of Quincy and Milton. The Mystic River separates the neighborhoods of East Boston and Charlestown from Chelsea and Everett. The Charles River from the Boston side, facing Cambridge and the main campus of Harvard University. ... Categories: Stub | Massachusetts geography | Boston ... The Harbor Islands of Boston Harbor, Boston, Massachusetts, are a collection of 34 islands, many of which are open for public recreation and some of which are very small and best suited for wildlife. ... The Neponset River is a river in eastern Massachusetts. ... A quiet afternoon on the Mystic River, as seen from very close to Grandfathers House, Medford, Massachusetts. ...


Climate

Beacon Hill in the winter.
Beacon Hill in the winter.

Boston experiences a continental climate that is very common in New England. The weather in Boston, like much of New England, changes rapidly. It is not uncommon for the city to experience temperature swings of 54 Fahrenheit degrees (30 Celsius degrees) or more over the course of a couple of days. Summers are typically warm and humid, while winters are cold, windy and snowy. It has been known to snow in October. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1024x621, 578 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Boston, Massachusetts ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1024x621, 578 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Boston, Massachusetts ... A continental climate is the climate typical of the middle-latitude interiors of the large continents of the Northern Hemisphere in the zone of westerly winds; similar climates exist along the east coasts and southwest coasts of the same continents, and also at higher elevations in certain other parts of... The states marked in red show New England. ... Fahrenheit is a temperature scale named after the German physicist Daniel Gabriel Fahrenheit (1686–1736), who proposed it in 1724. ... Celsius is, or relates to, the Celsius temperature scale. ...


The earliest recorded 90 °F temperature in a year was in late March 1998, while February in Boston has seen 70 degrees only once in recorded history, on February 24, 1985. Spring in Boston can be hot, with temperatures in the 90s, though it is just as possible for a day in late May to remain in the 40s. The hottest month is July, with an average high of 81.9 °F (27.7 °C) and a low of 65.1 °F (18.4 °C). The coldest month is January, with an average high of 35.8 °F (2.1 °C) and a low of 21.6 °F (-5.6 °C).[6] Periods exceeding 90 °F in summer and below 10 °F in winter are not uncommon, but rarely prolonged. The record high temperature is 104 °F (40 °C), recorded July 4, 1911. The record low temperature is -18 °F (-28 °C), recorded on February 9, 1934.[7] February 24 is the 55th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1985 (MCMLXXXV) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Fahrenheit is a temperature scale named after the German physicist Daniel Gabriel Fahrenheit (1686–1736), who proposed it in 1724. ... Celsius is, or relates to, the Celsius temperature scale. ... For the United States holiday, the Fourth of July, see Independence Day (United States). ... 1911 (MCMXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (click on link for calendar). ... February 9 is the 40th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1934 (MCMXXXIV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ...


The city averages 42 in (1,080 mm) of rainfall a year. It also coincidentally averages 42 in (108 cm) of snowfall a year, although this increases dramatically as one goes inland away from the city. Massachusetts' geographic location's jutting out into the North Atlantic also make the city very prone to Nor'easter weather systems that can dump more than 20 in (50 cm) of snow on the region in one storm event. Mid-19th century tool for converting between different standards of the inch An inch is an Imperial and U.S. customary unit of length. ... A millimetre (American spelling: millimeter), symbol mm is an SI unit of length that is equal to one thousandth of a metre. ... cm redirects here, alternate uses: cm (disambiguation) A centimetre (symbol cm; American spelling: centimeter) is an SI unit of length. ... For other uses, see Atlantic (disambiguation) The Atlantic Ocean is Earths second-largest ocean, covering approximately one-fifth of its surface. ... Satellite image of the intense noreaster responsible for the North American blizzard of 2006. ...

[citation needed]
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Avg high °F
(°C)
35.8
(2.1)
37.6
(3.1)
45.9
(7.7)
55.9
(13.3)
66.6
(19.2)
76.2
(24.6)
81.9
(27.7)
80.0
(26.6)
72.9
(22.7)
62.8
(17.1)
52.2
(11.2)
40.5
(4.7)
59.0
(15)
Avg low °F
(°C)
21.6
(-5.8)
23.0
(-5.0)
31.3
(-0.4)
40.3
(4.6)
49.8
(9.9)
59.2
(15.1)
65.1
(18.4)
64.0
(17.8)
56.8
(13.8)
46.9
(8.3)
38.3
(3.5)
26.8
(-2.9)
43.6
(6.4)
Rainfall in inches
(millimeters)
3.92
(99.6)
3.30
(83.8)
3.85
(97.8)
3.60
(91.4)
3.24
(82.3)
3.22
(81.8)
3.06
(77.7)
3.37
(85.6)
3.47
(88.1)
3.79
(96.3)
3.98
(101.1)
3.73
(94.7)
42.53
(1,080.2)

Demographics

Town (to 1820) and City of Boston
Population by year[8]
Census
year
Population Rank

1790   18,320   3
1800   24,937   4
1810   33,787   4
1820   43,298   4
1830   61,392   4
1840   93,383   5
1850 136,881   3
1860 177,840   5
1870 250,526   7
1880 362,839   5
1890 448,477   6
1900 560,892   5
1910 670,585   5
1920 748,060   7
1930 781,188   9
1940 770,816   9
1950 801,444 10
1960 697,197 13
1970 641,071 16
1980 562,994 20
1990 574,283 20
2000 589,141 20
2005 596,638 22

As of the censusGR2 of 2000, there were 589,141 people, 239,528 households, and 115,212 families residing in the city. The population density was 12,166 people per square mile (4,697/km²). There were 251,935 housing units at an average density of 5,203 per square mile (2,009/km²). According to the census, the racial makeup of the city was 54.47% White, 25.33% Black or African American, 0.40% Native American, 7.52% Asian American, 0.06% Pacific Islander, 7.83% from other races, and 4.39% from two or more races. 14.44% of the population was Hispanic or Latino of any race. (These figures became less reliable because of the large Brazilian population, estimated by some studies to approach 250,000 in Massachusetts. Census data may not have fully accounted for this significant segment of the community because Brazilians speak Portuguese and often do not consider themselves to belong to one specific racial category, such as white or black, or to the Hispanic/Latino ethnic category.) The U.S. Census is mandated by the United States Constitution. ... The United States Census Bureau uses the federal governments definitions of race when performing a census. ... The United States Census Bureau uses the federal governments definitions of race when performing a census. ... The United States Census Bureau uses the federal governments definitions of race when performing a census. ... The United States Census Bureau uses the federal governments definitions of race when performing a census. ... An Asian American is a person of Asian ancestry or origin who was born in or is an immigrant to the United States. ... The United States Census Bureau uses the federal governments definitions of race when performing a census. ... The United States Census Bureau uses the federal governments definitions of race when performing a census. ... The Hispanic world Hispanic (Spanish: Hispano) is a term denoting a derivation from Spain, its people and culture. ... The United States Census Bureau uses the federal governments definitions of race when performing a census. ...


People of Irish descent form the largest single ethnic group in the city, making up 15.8% of the population. Italians also form a significant segment of the city's population, accounting for 8.3% of the population. People of West Indian ancestry are another sizeable group (6.4%); about half of them are of Haitian ancestry. Some neighborhoods, such as Dorchester, have received an influx of Vietnamese residents in the past few years. The Caribbean or the West Indies is a group of islands in the Caribbean Sea. ...

Per capita income in the greater Boston area, by U.S. Census block group
Per capita income in the greater Boston area, by U.S. Census block group

There were 239,528 households out of which 22.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 27.4% were married couples living together, 16.4% had a female householder with no husband present, and 51.9% were non-families. 37.1% of all households were made up of individuals and 9.1% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.31 and the average family size was 3.17. Image File history File links Map showing income per capita in the greater Boston area. ... Image File history File links Map showing income per capita in the greater Boston area. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


In the city the population was spread out with 19.8% under the age of 18, 16.2% from 18 to 24, 35.8% from 25 to 44, 17.8% from 45 to 64, and 10.4% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 31 years. For every 100 females, there were 92.8 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 90.2 males.


The median income for a household in the city was $39,629, and the median income for a family was $44,151. Males had a median income of $37,435 versus $32,421 for females. The per capita income for the city was $23,353. 19.5% of the population and 15.3% of families are below the poverty line. Out of the total population, 25.6% of those under the age of 18 and 18.2% of those 65 and older were living below the poverty line. In probability theory and statistics, a median is a number dividing the higher half of a sample, a population, or a probability distribution from the lower half. ... The per capita income for a group of people may be defined as their total personal income, divided by the total population. ... Map of countries showing percentage of population who have an income below the national poverty line The poverty line is the level of income below which one cannot afford to purchase all the resources one requires to live. ...

See also: Neighborhoods in Boston, Massachusetts

Houses on Louisburg Square, Beacon Hill. ...

Law and government

Boston has a strong mayor system in which the mayor is vested with extensive executive powers. The mayor (currently Thomas Menino) is elected to a four-year term by plurality voting. The city council is elected every two years. There are nine district seats, each elected by the residents of that district through plurality voting, and four at-large seats. Each voter casts up to four votes for at-large councilors, no more than one vote per candidate. The candidates with the four highest vote totals are elected. The president of the city council, currently Michael F. Flaherty, is elected by the councilors from within themselves. The school committee is appointed by the mayor, as are city department heads. [1] File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... [1] File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... The Massachusetts State House Full view of the south side The Massachusetts State House is the state capitol of Massachusetts. ... A mayor (from the Latin maīor, meaning larger,greater) is the politician who serves as chief executive official of some types of municipalities. ... now. ... Thomas Menino Thomas Michael Menino (born December 27, 1942) is the current mayor of Boston, Massachusetts and the citys first Italian-American mayor as well as being the citys first non Irish-American mayor since 1884. ... The plurality electoral system (or first past the post electoral system), is a voting system for single-member districts. ... Michael F. Flaherty (b. ...


In addition to city government, numerous state authorities and commissions play a role in the life of Bostonians, including the Massachusetts Department of Conservation and Recreation and the Massachusetts Port Authority (Massport). As the capital of Massachusetts, Boston plays a major role in state politics. Boston is also the United States federal government center for New England. Properties include the John F. Kennedy Federal Office Building and the Thomas P. O'Neill Federal Building. The city also serves as the home of the United States Court of Appeals for the First Circuit, the United States District Court for the District of Massachusetts, as well as the headquarters of the Federal Reserve Bank of Boston (the First District of the Federal Reserve). The city is in the Eighth and Ninth Congressional districts. The Department of Conservation and Recreation (DCR) is a state agency of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts. ... Massachusetts Port Authority, or Massport, is an independent agency of the state of Massachusetts. ... Official language(s) English Capital Boston Largest city Boston Area  Ranked 44th  - Total 10,555 sq mi (27,360 km²)  - Width 183 miles (295 km)  - Length 113 miles (182 km)  - % water 13. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The United States Court of Appeals for the First Circuit is a federal court with appellate jurisdiction over the following United States District Courts: District of Maine District of Massachusetts District of New Hampshire District of Puerto Rico District of Rhode Island The court is based at the John Joseph... The United States District Court for the District of Massachusetts is the Federal district court whose jurisdiction is the state of Massachusetts. ... The Federal Reserve Bank of Boston is responsible for the First District of the Federal Reserve, which covers Connecticut (excluding Fairfield County), Massachusetts, Maine, New Hampshire, Rhode Island and Vermont. ... The Federal Reserve System is headquartered in the Eccles Building on Constitution Avenue in Washington, DC. The Federal Reserve System (also the Federal Reserve; informally The Fed) is the central banking system of the United States. ... Massachusetts Congressional District 8 is a congessional district in eastern Massachusetts. ... Massachusetts Congressional District 9 is a congessional district in eastern Massachusetts. ... U.S. Congressional districts are determined after each census. ...


Boston's low crime rate in the last years of the 20th century and the beginning of the 21st has been credited to its police department's collaboration with neighborhood groups and church parishes to prevent youths from joining gangs, as well as involvement from the US Attorney and District Attorney's office. This helped lead in part to what has been touted as the "Boston Miracle." Murders in the city dropped from 152 in 1990 (for a murder rate of 26.5 per 100,000 people) to just 31—not one of them a juvenile—in 1999 (for a murder rate of 5.26 per 100,000). The police department's figures are made available online and can be searched by neighborhood. [2] The Balls Police Department (BPD) has the primary responsibility for law enforcement and investigation within the city of Boston, Massachusetts. ... United States Attorneys represent the U.S. federal government in United States district court. ... A district attorney is, in some U.S. jurisdictions, the title of the local public official who represents the government in the prosecution of criminals. ...


In more recent years, however, the annual murder count has fluctuated by as much as 50% compared to the year before, with 60 murders in 2002, followed by just 39 in 2003, 64 in 2004, and 75 in 2005. Though the figures are nowhere near the high-water mark set in 1990, the aberrations in the murder rate have been unsettling for many Bostonians and have prompted discussion over whether the Boston Police Department should reevaluate its approach to fighting crime.[9][10][11]


The city's Election Department has made mistakes for years, and in 2005 agreed to oversight by the federal government after the Justice Department filed a lawsuit alleging coercion and other problems involving services for voters who do not speak English. Following the 2006 election, the Election Department is also under investigation by the Secretary of State's office. It is reported that the department's policy has been to distribute to the polling places only enough ballots for half the registered voters, despite a state law requiring each polling place to have enough ballots for all voters. The Secretary of State has announced an intention to take control of the Elections Department.[12] The United States Department of Justice (DOJ) is a Cabinet department in the United States government designed to enforce the law and defend the interests of the United States according to the law and to ensure fair and impartial administration of justice for all Americans. ...

County government: Suffolk County
Clerk of Courts: Michael Joseph Donovan
County Treasurer:
District Attorney: Daniel F. Conley
Registrar of Deeds: Francis Roache
Registrar of Probate: Richard Iannella
Sheriff: Andrea J. Cabral
State government
Representative(s) in General Court: Anthony Petruccelli, Salvatore DiMasi, Brian Wallace, Marie St. Fleur, Shirley Owens-Hicks, Gloria Fox, Paul Demakis, Byron Rushing, Michael Rush, Elizabeth Malia, Linda Dorcena-Forry, Martin Walsh, Angelo Scaccia, Jeffrey Sanchez, Kevin Honan, Michael Moran,Marty Walz
Senator(s) in General Court: Jarrett Barrios, Eugene L. O'Flaherty, Marian Walsh, Steven A. Tolman, John Hart, Jr., Dianne Wilkerson, Robert Travaglini
Governor's Councilor(s): Michael J. Callahan, Kelly A. Timilty, Marilyn M. Petitto Devaney
Federal government
Member(s) of the U.S. House of Representatives: Michael Capuano (D-8th District),
Stephen Lynch (D-9th District)
U.S. Senators: Edward Kennedy (D)
John Kerry (D)
See also: List of Mayors of Boston, Massachusetts and Sister cities of Boston, Massachusetts

Suffolk County is a county located in the state of Massachusetts. ... A district attorney is, in some U.S. jurisdictions, the title of the local public official who represents the government in the prosecution of criminals. ... Daniel F. Conley testifying on 4 May 2005 before the Joint Committee on Public Health, in support of pharmacy sales of syringes. ... Recorder of deeds refers to the government office that maintains records of transfers of real estate, as well as many other public documents. ... Francis Mickey Roache. ... Look up Sheriff in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Andrea J. Cabral is the current sheriff to Suffolk County, Massachusetts. ... The Massachusetts House of Representatives is the lower house of the Massachusetts General Court, the bicameral state legislature of Massachusetts. ... Salvatore DiMasi is currently Speaker of the Massachusetts House of Representatives. ... It is proposed that this article be deleted, because of the following concern: Non-notable person per WP:BIO If you can address this concern by improving, copyediting, sourcing, renaming or merging the page, please edit this page and do so. ... This article, image, template or category should belong in one or more categories. ... Martin Walsh (born 8 November 1955) is an Academy Award winning film editor best known for Chicago and V for Vendetta movies. ... Michael P. Moran (born Michael Peter Moran, February 8, 1944-February 4, 2004) was an American actor and playwright. ... The Massachusetts Senate is the upper house of the Massachusetts General Court, the bicameral state legislature of Massachusetts. ... Jarrett T. Barrios is a Democratic politician from Massachusetts. ... Marian Walsh was born in Roslindale, Massachusetts. ... Robert Travaglini is the current Democrat Massachusetts State Senate president and possible gubernatorial candidate. ... The Governors Council (also known as the Executive Council) of Massachusetts is a popularly-elected board which oversees judicial nominations. ... Seal of the House of Representatives The United States House of Representatives (or simply the House) is one of the two chambers of the United States Congress, the other being the Senate. ... Representative Michael E. Capuano Michael Everett Capuano (born January 9, 1952), American politician, has been a Democratic member of the United States House of Representatives since 1999, representing the 8th District of Massachusetts (map). ... Massachusetts Congressional District 8 is a congessional district in eastern Massachusetts. ... Stephen F. Lynch (born March 31, 1955), American politician, has been a Democratic member of the United States House of Representatives since he was elected to replace the late Congressman Joe Moakley, who died in office in 2001. ... Massachusetts Congressional District 9 is a congessional district in eastern Massachusetts. ... The United States Senate is the upper house of the U.S. Congress, smaller than the United States House of Representatives. ... Edward Kennedy Edward Moore Ted Kennedy, (born February 22, 1932, in Brookline, Massachusetts) is a Democratic U.S. senator from Massachusetts. ... John Forbes Kerry (born December 11, 1943) is the junior United States Senator from Massachusetts. ... This is a list of Mayors of Boston, Massachusetts. ... Boston, Massachusetts, has eight sister cities, as designated by Sister Cities International (SCI): Kyoto, Japan (1959) Strasbourg, France (1960) Barcelona, Spain (1980) Hangzhou, China (1982) Padua, Italy (1983) Melbourne, Australia (1985) Taipei, Republic of China (1996) Sekondi-Takoradi, Ghana (2001) External links City of Boston - Boston Sister Cities Categories: ...

Economy

Newbury Street is one of the busiest shopping streets in Boston.

Boston's colleges and universities have a major impact on the city and region's economy. Not only are they major employers, but they also attract high-tech industries to the city and surrounding region, including computer hardware and software companies as well as biotechnology companies like Millennium Pharmaceuticals, Millipore, and Biogen Idec. Boston receives the highest amount of annual funding from the National Institutes of Health of all cities in the United States.[13] Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2560x1920, 984 KB) A mix of architectural styles along Newbury Street near the Public Garden, Boston, Massachusetts. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2560x1920, 984 KB) A mix of architectural styles along Newbury Street near the Public Garden, Boston, Massachusetts. ... Newbury Street is located in the Back Bay area of Boston, Massachusetts. ... The structure of insulin Biotechnology is technology based on biology, especially when used in agriculture, food science, and medicine. ... Millennium Pharmaceuticals is a biotechnology company based in the Boston,Massachusetts area of the United States of America. ... Millipore (MIL), is a provider of biosciences technology and services. ... Biogen Idec Inc. ... The National Institutes of Health (NIH) is the primary agency of the United States government responsible for medical research. ...


Other important industries include financial services, especially mutual funds and insurance. Boston-based Fidelity Investments helped popularize the mutual fund in the 1980s, and has made Boston one of the top financial cities in the United States. The city is also the regional headquarters of major banks such as Bank of America and Sovereign Bank, and a center for venture capital. Boston is also a printing and publishing center. Textbook publisher Houghton Mifflin is headquartered within the city. The city is home to four major convention centers: the Hynes Convention Center in the Back Bay, the Bayside Expo Center in Dorchester, and the World Trade Center Boston and Boston Convention and Exhibition Center on the South Boston waterfront. Because of its status as a state capital and the regional home of federal agencies, law and government is another major component of the city's economy. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article may require cleanup. ... A mutual fund is a form of collective investment that pools money from many investors and invests the money in stocks, bonds, short-term money market instruments, and/or other securities. ... The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ... Fidelity Investments is a privately-held company in the financial services industry. ... This article or section may be confusing or unclear for some readers, and should be edited to rectify this. ... Venture capital is a general term to describe financing for startup and early stage businesses as well as businesses in turn around situations. ... Houghton Mifflin Company is a leading educational publisher in the United States. ... Metro Toronto Convention Centre, late 2004. ... The John B. Hynes Veterans Memorial Convention Center located in Bostons Back Bay has 193,000 square feet of exhibit space and can accommodate up to four concurrent events. ... Boston Convention and Exhibition Center at night The Boston Convention and Exhibition Center (BCEC) is the largest exhibition center in the Northeast United States, with some 1,700,000 square feet of contiguous exhibition space. ...


Major companies headquartered within the city include Gillette, owned by Procter & Gamble, and Teradyne, one of the world's leading manufacturers of semiconductor and other electronic test equipment. New Balance has its headquarters in the city. Other major companies are located outside the city, especially along Route 128. The Port of Boston is a major seaport along the United States' east coast, and is also one of the oldest continuously-operated industrial and fishing ports in the Western Hemisphere. The Gillette brand logo The Gillette Company (NYSE: G) was founded by King C. Gillette in 1901 as a safety razor manufacturer. ... Procter & Gamble Co. ... Overview Teradyne (NYSE:TER) is a leading supplier of Automatic Test Equipment (ATE) and interconnection systems. ... It has been suggested that New Balance Athletic Shoe, Inc. ... Route 128, also known as the Yankee Division Highway (for the U.S. 26th Infantry Division), and originally the Circumferential Highway, is a partial beltway around Boston, Massachusetts, United States. ... Container ship being unloaded at Conley Terminal. ... Fishing is the activity of hunting for fish. ... The geographical western hemisphere of Earth, highlighted in yellow. ...

See also: Major companies in Greater Boston

Greater Boston is the area of Massachusetts closely surrounding Boston, Massachusetts. ...

Education

Colleges and universities

Boston's reputation as the Athens of America derives in large part from the teaching and research activities of more than 100 colleges and universities located in its metropolitan area. These include some of the most famous universities in the world.


Boston University, located along the Charles River on Commonwealth Avenue, is the largest university in the city. Northeastern University, a large private university, maintains a campus in the Fenway district. Boston College, one of the oldest and largest Jesuit institutions in the country, is in Chestnut Hill. For the unrelated Jesuit university in Chestnut Hill, see Boston College. ... The Charles River from the Boston side, facing Cambridge and the main campus of Harvard University. ... It has been suggested that Commonwealth avenue be merged into this article or section. ... Northeastern University (NU) is a private research university in Boston, Massachusetts, in the New England region of the United States. ... Fenway-Kenmore is a neighborhood (sometimes thought of as two neighborhoods) in Boston, Massachusetts. ... This article is about Boston College; for the unaffiliated urban university see Boston University. ... The Society of Jesus (Latin: Societas Iesu), commonly known as the Jesuits, is a Roman Catholic religious order. ... Chestnut Hill is a place in the State of Massachusetts in the United States of America: see Chestnut Hill, Massachusetts. ...


Harvard University, the nation's oldest institution of higher learning, is located across the Charles River in Cambridge. The business and medical schools are in Boston, and there are plans for major expansion into Boston's Allston neighborhood. This will put a majority of the students, faculty and physical plant in Boston. The Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), which originated in Boston and was long known as Boston Tech, moved across the river to Cambridge in 1917. Harvard University (incorporated as The President and Fellows of Harvard College) is a private university in Cambridge, Massachusetts. ...   Settled: 1630 â€“ Incorporated: 1636 Zip Code(s): 02138, 02139, 02140, 02141, 02142 â€“ Area Code(s): 617 / 857 Official website: http://www. ... HBS, as seen from across the Charles River. ... Shield of Harvard Medical School Harvard Medical School (HMS) is one of the graduate schools of Harvard University. ... Allston is a section of Boston, Massachusetts, USA, located in the western part of the city. ... The Massachusetts Institute of Technology, or MIT, is a private research university located in Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA. MIT is organized into five schools and one college, containing 32 academic departments and 53 interdisciplinary laboratories, centers and programs. ...


Tufts University administers its medical and dental school adjacent to the Tufts-New England Medical Center (Tufts-NEMC), a 451-bed academic medical institution that is home to both a full-service hospital for adults and the Floating Hospital for Children. Its undergraduate campus is in Medford, adjacent to Cambridge. Additionally, Wentworth Institute of Technology, a founding member of the Colleges of the Fenway, is located in the Fenway area. Suffolk University, a small private university known for its law school, maintains a campus on Beacon Hill. Emerson College located by Boston Common is a small private college with a strong reputation in the fields of performing arts, journalism, writing, and film. Babson College in the suburb of Wellesley is a private college with a strong focus on entrepreneurship. The city is also home to a number of conservatories and art schools, including the Massachusetts College of Art, New England Conservatory of Music (the oldest independent conservatory in the United States), Boston Conservatory, The School at the Museum of Fine Art and Berklee College of Music. Roxbury Community College and Bunker Hill Community College are the city's two community colleges. Boston has one major public university, the University of Massachusetts Boston, located on Columbia Point in Dorchester. Tufts University is a private university located in Medford, Massachusetts, a suburb of Boston. ...   Settled: 1630 â€“ Incorporated: 1636 Zip Code(s): 02138, 02139, 02140, 02141, 02142 â€“ Area Code(s): 617 / 857 Official website: http://www. ... The Wentworth Institute of Technology is a nationally accredited institution located in Boston, Massachusetts. ... The Colleges of the Fenway consortium comprises Emmanuel College, Massachusetts College of Art, Massachusetts College of Pharmacy and Health Sciences, Simmons College, Wentworth Institute of Technology, and Wheelock College. ... Suffolk University is a private university in Boston, Massachusetts, situated on Beacon Hill. ... Emerson College was founded in 1880 by Charles Wesley Emerson as a school of oratory, in Boston, Massachusetts. ... Babson College, located in Wellesley, Massachusetts (Zoned as Babson Park ZIP code 02457)[1], is a private business school which grants undergraduates a BS degree. ... A music school or conservatoire (British English) — also known as a conservatory (American English) or a conservatorium (Australian English) — is an institution dedicated to teaching the art of music, including the playing of musical instruments, musical composition, musicianship, music history, and music theory. ... MassArt, August 2005 Massachusetts College of Art (also known as MassArt) is a publicly funded college of visual and applied art, founded in 1873. ... The Greater Boston Youth Symphony Orchestra performing in Jordan Hall, New England Conservatory of Music. ... The Boston Conservatory is an arts conservatory located in the Back Bay region of Boston, Massachusetts, United States. ... Berklee College of Music, founded in 1945, is an independent music college in Boston, Massachusetts with many prominent faculty, staff, alumni, and visiting artists. ... Bunker Hill Community College is a two-year college located in Charlestown, Massachusetts, which is a neighborhood of Boston. ... University of Massachusetts Boston, or UMass Boston is a university in Boston, Massachusetts in the northeastern United States. ... Dorchester is the largest neighborhood within the City of Boston located within Suffolk County, Massachusetts. ...

See also: List of colleges and universities in metropolitan Boston

Colleges and universities in metropolitan Boston include: City of Boston Four-year colleges Berklee College of Music Boston Architectural Center Boston University Emerson College Emmanuel College Massachusetts College of Art New England Conservatory of Music Northeastern University (5 years) School of the Museum of Fine Arts Simmons College Suffolk University...

Primary and secondary schools

Boston Public Schools, the oldest public school system in the U.S., enrolls 58,600 students from kindergarten to grade 12. The system operates 145 schools, which includes Boston Latin School (the oldest public school, established in 1635), English High (the oldest public high school, established 1821), and Mather (the oldest public elementary school, established in 1639).[14] The city also has private, parochial, and charter schools. 3000 students of racial minorities attend participating suburban schools through the Metropolitan Educational Opportunity Council, or METCO. In 2002, Forbes Magazine ranked the Boston Public Schools as the best large city school system in the country, with a graduation rate of 82%.[15] Boston Public Schools is a school district serving the city of Boston, Massachusetts. ... Please wikify (format) this article or section as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... Motto Sumus Primi Founded April 23, 1635 Head Master Dr. Cornelia A. Kelley School type Public high school Grades 7–12 Enrollment c. ... A sketch of the original Boston English School in the 1820s Founded in 1821, The English High School of Boston, Massachusetts, is the oldest public high school in America. ... High school is a name used in some parts of the world, and particularly in North America, to describe the last segment of compulsory secondary education. ... Charter schools are publicly funded elementary or secondary schools that have been freed from some of the rules, regulations, and statutes that apply to other public schools, in exchange for some type of accountability for producing certain results, which are set forth in each charter schools charter. ... METCO (Metropolitan Council for Educational Opportunity) is a Boston-based program operated and funded by the Department of Education (MA DOE) of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts. ... Alternate meaning: For the Boston Brahmin family associated with John Forbes Kerry, see Forbes family. ...


Culture

Equestrian statue of George Washington in Boston Public Garden.
Equestrian statue of George Washington in Boston Public Garden.

Boston shares many cultural roots with greater New England, including a dialect of the Eastern New England accent known as Boston English, and a regional cuisine with a large emphasis on seafood and dairy products. Irish Americans are a major influence on Boston's politics and religious institutions. Boston has its own collection of neologisms known as Boston slang. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1280x1707, 297 KB) Beschreibung: Boston, Public Gardens, George Washington Quelle: selbst fotografiert, Mai 2005 Fotograf oder Zeichner: Muns File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Boston, Massachusetts ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1280x1707, 297 KB) Beschreibung: Boston, Public Gardens, George Washington Quelle: selbst fotografiert, Mai 2005 Fotograf oder Zeichner: Muns File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Boston, Massachusetts ... George Washington (February 22, 1732–December 14, 1799)[1] led Americas Continental Army to victory over Britain in the American Revolutionary War (1775–1783), and was later elected the first President of the United States. ... Equestrian statue of George Washington. ... Swan boats in the Boston Public Garden. ... The states marked in red show New England. ... English language spread in the United States. ... The Boston accent is the English dialect not only of the city of Boston, Massachusetts itself, but more generally of all of eastern New England; some form of it can be heard commonly in an area stretching throughout Massachusetts, Rhode Island, New Hampshire, southern Maine, and eastern Connecticut. ... New England cuisine is a type of American cuisine found in New England, the northeastern region of the United States. ... Irish Americans are residents or citizens of the United States who claim Irish ancestry. ... A neologism (from Greek νεολογισμός νέος [neos] = new; λόγος [logos] = word) is a word, term, or phrase which has been recently created (coined) — often to apply to new concepts, to synthesize pre-existing concepts, or to make older terminology sound more contemporary. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


Many consider Boston a highly cultured city, perhaps as a result of its intellectual reputation; much of Boston's culture originates at its universities.[16] The city also has a number of ornate theatres, including the Cutler Majestic Theatre, Boston Opera House, The Wang Center for the Performing Arts, Schubert Theater, and the Orpheum Theater. Renowned performing arts groups include the Boston Ballet, Boston Symphony Orchestra, Boston Pops, Boston Lyric Opera Company, and the Handel and Haydn Society (the oldest choral company in the United States). There are a number of major annual events such as First Night, which occurs during New Year's Eve, and several events during the Fourth of July. These events include the weeklong Harborfest festivities and a Boston Pops concert accompanied by fireworks on the banks of the Charles River. The Cutler Majestic Theatre at Emerson College, in Boston, Massachusetts, is a 1903 Beaux Arts style opera house, designed by the architect John Galen Howard. ... The first Boston Opera House was built in 1901 on Huntington Ave. ... The Wang Center for the Performing Arts, located in Boston, Massachusetts, consists of two theatres: The Wang Theatre and The Shubert Theatre. ... Theatres Orpheum Circuit, Inc. ... The Boston Ballet is a professional ballet company based in Boston, Massachusetts. ... The Boston Symphony Orchestra is one of the worlds most renowned orchestras. ... The Boston Pops Orchestra was founded in 1885 as a subsection of the Boston Symphony Orchestra. ... Boston Lyric Opera New England (BLO) is an opera company in Boston, Massachusetts. ... The Handel and Haydn Society is a choral society in the city of Boston, Massachusetts. ... An ice sculpture at First Night Boston First Night is an outdoor artistic and cultural celebration on New Years Eve, taking place from afternoon until midnight. ... For other articles with similar names, see New Year (disambiguation) New Years Eve is December 31, the final day of the Gregorian year, and the day before New Years Day, New Years Eve is a separate observance from the observance of New Years Day. ... These fireworks over the Washington Monument are typical of Fourth of July celebrations In the United States, Independence Day, also called the Fourth of July, is a federal holiday celebrating the adoption of the Declaration of Independence in 1776. ... The Charles River from the Boston side, facing Cambridge and the main campus of Harvard University. ...


In contrast to what might be considered the more "refined" aspects of Boston's culture, the city is also one of the birthplaces of the hardcore punk genre of music. Boston musicians have contributed greatly to the hardcore scene over the years (see also Boston hardcore). Boston also had one of the leading local ska scenes in the ska revival of the mid-1990s with bands like The Mighty Mighty Bosstones, The Allstonians, and Skavoovie and the Epitones. The 80s hardcore record This Is Boston, Not L.A. highlights some of the bands that built the 'scene'. A few clubs in the city The Channel, Bunnrattys in Allston and The Rat were well renowned for showcasing local and out of city punk bands. As a result of the Rat, a cheap pizza place and a few used record stores in Kenmore square, Kenmore became a hangout for skate punks. During the summer after Red Sox games it was not uncommon to see fights break out amongst the punks and the more conservative suburban Red Sox fans. Hardcore punk is a subgenre of punk rock which originated in North America in the early 1980s. ... Hardcore punk is a subgenre of punk rock which originated in North America in the early 1980s. ... The Boston hardcore scene is an influential hardcore punk scene. ... Ska is a form of Jamaican music combining elements of traditional mento and calypso with an American jazz and rhythm and blues sound. ... The Mighty Mighty Bosstones were a ska-core band from Boston, Massachusetts, formed in 1985. ... The Allstonians are a third-wave reggae/ska music group formed in Allston, Massachusetts in 1992. ... This Is Boston, Not L.A. was a hardcore punk compilation album released in 1982. ... In 1980 Joe Cicerone opened The Channel as a music venue in Boston. ... Allston is a section of Boston, Massachusetts, USA, located in the western part of the city. ... The Rathskeller, also known as The Rat, was a famous punk club in Kenmore Square in Boston, MA from 1974-1997. ...


Nicknames

Boston has many nicknames owing to historical context.

  • The City on a Hill came from original Massachusetts Bay Colony's governor John Winthrop's goal to create the biblical "City on a Hill." It also refers to the original three hills of Boston.
  • Beantown refers to early Bostonian tradition of making baked beans with imported molasses.
  • The Hub is a shortened form of a phrase recorded by writer Oliver Wendell Holmes, The Hub of the Solar System.[17]
  • The Athens of America is a title given by William Tudor, co-founder of the North American Review for Boston's great cultural and intellectual influence.
  • The Puritan City nickname references the religion of the city's founders.
  • The Cradle of Liberty derives from Boston's role in instigating the American Revolution.
  • City of Notions in the nineteenth century.[18]
  • America's Walking City, because Boston's compact and high density nature has made walking an effective and popular mode of transit in the city.

A map of the Massachusetts Bay Colony. ... John Winthrop was the name of several prominent figures in colonial New England. ... Oliver Wendell Holmes Sr. ... First issue of the North American Review with signature of its editor William Tudor. ... First issue of the North American Review with signature of its editor William Tudor (1779-1830). ... This article is the current Esperanza Collaboration of the Month. ...

Media

The Boston Globe (owned by the New York Times Company) and The Boston Herald are Boston's two major daily newspapers. The city is also served by a number of smaller publications such as The Boston Phoenix, The Improper Bostonian, and The Weekly Dig. The following is a list of media companies located and/or serving Boston, Massachusetts: // Newspapers Daily The Boston Globe, owned by the New York Times Company The Boston Herald The Boston Metro, (5 days a week) 51% owned by the Boston Globe Weekly The Boston Phoenix The Improper Bostonian, a... The Boston Globe is the most widely circulated daily newspaper in Boston, Massachusetts and in the greater New England region. ... The New York Times Company (NYSE: NYT) is an American media company best known as the publisher of its namesake, The New York Times. ... The Boston Herald is a tabloid newspaper, the smaller of the two big dailies in Boston, Massachusetts, with a daily circulation of 242,957 in September 2002. ... The Boston Phoenix is an alternative weekly publication in Boston, Massachusetts that emphasizes arts and entertainment coverage, as well as alternative political viewpoints. ...


Boston has the largest broadcasting market in New England, with the Boston radio market being the eleventh largest in the United States.[19] Several major AM stations include talk radio WRKO 680 AM, sports/talk station WEEI 850 AM, and news radio WBZ 1030 AM. A variety of FM radio formats serve the area, as do NPR stations WBUR and WGBH. University radio stations include WZBC (Boston College), WERS (Emerson),WUMB (UMass Boston), and WMFO (Tufts University). [[Amplitude modulation]] (AM) is a technique used in electronic communication, most commonly for transmitting information via a carrier wave wirelessly. ... Talk radio is a radio format which features discussion of topical issues. ... WRKO is an AM radio station based in Boston, Massachusetts, currently owned by Entercom and broadcasting on 680 kHz. ... Broadcasting from Boston, Massachusetts. ... WBZ (AM) is the callsign for an AM radio station in Boston, Massachusetts which is owned by CBS Radio (formerly Infinity Broadcasting), which itself is owned by the CBS Corporation. ... Frequency modulation (FM) is a form of modulation which represents information as variations in the instantaneous frequency of a carrier wave. ... A radio format or programming format describes the overall content broadcast on a radio station. ... Offical NPR logo National Public Radio (NPR) is an independent, private, non-profit membership organization of public radio stations in the United States. ... WBUR is the larger of two NPR member stations in Boston, Massachusetts. ... WGBH is an established public television and public radio broadcast service located in Boston, Massachusetts. ... WZBC is the Boston College student-run radio station. ... WERS (89. ... WUMB (91. ... WMFO is a freeform radio station at Tufts University in Medford, Massachusetts, broadcasting on the 91. ...


The Boston television DMA, which also includes Manchester, New Hampshire, is the fifth largest in the United States.[20] The city is served by stations representing every major American network including WBZ 4 (CBS), WCVB 5 (ABC), WHDH 7 (NBC), WFXT 25 (Fox), WSBK 38 (Independent), and WLVI 56 (CW). Boston is also home to PBS station WGBH 2, which also operates WGBX 44. WGBH is a major producer of PBS programs. Most Boston television stations have their transmitters in nearby Needham and Newton. A designated market area is a group of counties in the United States that are covered by a specific television station. ... Nickname: Queen City Location in Hillsborough County Coordinates: Country United States State New Hampshire County Hillsborough County Incorporated 1751 Mayor Frank Guinta (R) Area    - City 90. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... In the United States, for most of the history of broadcasting, there were only four major national broadcasting networks. ... WBZ-TV, CBS 4, is the CBS television owned-and-operated station serving the Boston, Massachusetts and southern New Hampshire television markets. ... CBS (an abbreviation for Columbia Broadcasting System, its former legal name) is one of the largest television networks, and formerly one of the largest radio networks, in the United States. ... WCVB-TV is the ABC affiliate in Boston, Massachusetts. ... The American Broadcasting Company (ABC) operates television and radio networks in the United States and is also shown on basic cable in Canada. ... WHDH-TV 7 NBC is the NBC affiliate in the Boston, Massachusetts and southern New Hampshire television markets. ... It has been suggested that NBC, NBC Radio City Studios, NBC Studios be merged into this article or section. ... WFXT is an American television station which uses the on-air brand Fox 25. ... The Fox Broadcasting Company, usually referred to as just Fox (the company itself prefers the capitalized version FOX), is a television network in the United States. ... WSBK-TV, channel 38, is the Boston, Massachusetts and southern New Hampshire UPN affiliate. ... WLVI (WB 56) is the The WB television affiliate serving Boston, Massachusetts. ... The Crimson White, known colloquially as The CW, is the student-run newspaper of the University of Alabama. ... The Public Broadcasting Service (PBS) is a non-profit public broadcasting television service with 349 member TV stations in the United States, with some member stations available by cable in Canada. ... WGBH is an established public television and public radio broadcast service located in Boston, Massachusetts. ... The TV version of the WGBH drop-shadow logo WGBH are call-letters for Boston, Massachusetts longtime public television and public radio stations ( PBS, and NPR & PRI affiliates, respectively). ...   Settled: 1680 â€“ Incorporated: 1711 Zip Code(s): 02492 â€“ Area Code(s): 339 / 781 Official website: http://www. ...   Nickname: The Garden City Settled: 1639 â€“ Incorporated: 1688 Zip Code(s): 02446, 02458, 02459, 02460, 02461, 02462, 02464, 02465, 02467, 02468, 02495 â€“ Area Code(s): 617 / 857 Official website: http://www. ...


Sites of interest

Boston Common.
Boston Common.

Because of the city's prominent role in the American Revolution, several historic sites relating to that period are preserved as part of the Boston National Historical Park. Many are found along the Freedom Trail, which is marked by a red line or bricks embedded in the ground. Along the Freedom Trail is Boston Common, or "The Common" as it is locally referred to, is the oldest public park in the United States [21]. Along with the adjacent Boston Public Garden, it is part of the Emerald Necklace, a string of parks designed by Frederick Law Olmsted to encircle the city. In the winter, the Frog Pond at Boston Common doubles as an ice-skating rink. Another major park is the Esplanade located along the banks of the Charles River. A major recreation site for many Bostonians, it is also the site of the Hatch Shell. Other parks are scattered throughout the city, with the major parks and beaches located near Castle Island, in Charlestown and along the Dorchester, South Boston, and East Boston shorelines. The largest parks in the city are Franklin Park and the adjacent Arnold Arboretum (both part of the Emerald Necklace), and Stony Brook State Reservation. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2304x1728, 1232 KB) Boston Common. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2304x1728, 1232 KB) Boston Common. ... The following is a list of sites of interest (attractions) in Boston, Massachusetts. ... This article is the current Esperanza Collaboration of the Month. ... Discover the revolutionary generation of Bostonians who blazed a trail from colonialism to independence. ... Bostons Freedom Trail is a red (mostly brick) path through downtown Boston which leads to sixteen significant historical sites. ... View of the Water Celebration, on Boston Common, October 25th 1848 For the NBC series, see Boston Common (TV series) Boston Common is Boston, Massachusetts most famous public park and the oldest city park in the United States. ... Equestrian statue of George Washington. ... The Emerald Necklace is a long string of parks in Boston, Massachusetts designed by Frederick Law Olmsted and maintained by the City of Boston and Town of Brookline. ... Frederick Law Olmsted, oil painting by John Singer Sargent, 1895, Biltmore Estate, Asheville, North Carolina Frederick Law Olmsted (April 26, 1822 – August 28, 1903) was a United States landscape architect, famous for designing many well-known urban parks, including Central Park and Prospect Park in New York City, the country... St Clair Beach and esplanade, Dunedin, New Zealand Promenade at Rizal Boulevard in Dumaguete City, Philippines. ... The Charles River from the Boston side, facing Cambridge and the main campus of Harvard University. ... The Boston Pops performing at the Hatch Shell on July 4, 2005 The Hatch Shell is an outdoor concert venue adjacent to the Charles River Esplanade near downtown Boston. ... Castle Island is a 22 acre major recreation site located in South Boston on Boston Harbor. ... The Arnold Arboretum is one of the worlds finest research arboretums. ...

The Back Bay district includes many prominent landmarks such as the Christian Science Center, Boston Public Library, Copley Square, and Newbury Street. Back Bay is also the home of New England's tallest two buildings: the John Hancock Tower and the Prudential Center.[22] Near the John Hancock Tower is the old John Hancock Building with its prominent weather forecast beacon. Other notable districts/neighborhoods include Beacon Hill, Charlestown, Chinatown, Downtown Crossing, North End, and South Boston. Download high resolution version (433x720, 50 KB)The modern John Hancock Tower, 200 Clarendon, Boston. ... Download high resolution version (433x720, 50 KB)The modern John Hancock Tower, 200 Clarendon, Boston. ... John Hancock Tower, 200 Clarendon St. ... This article is about the neighborhood of Back Bay. ... The factual accuracy of this article is disputed. ... The Boston Public Librarys McKim building The Boston Public Library was established in 1848. ... Categories: Stub | Boston ... Newbury Street is located in the Back Bay area of Boston, Massachusetts. ... John Hancock Tower, 200 Clarendon St. ... Prudential Tower in 1963, with construction not quite finished. ... John Hancock Tower, 200 Clarendon St. ... A weather beacon is a tower which indicates the weather forecast, usually with colored or flashing lights. ... 2nd Harrison Gray Otis House, 85 Mount Vernon Street. ... Birdseye view of Boston, Charlestown, and Bunker Hill between 1890 and 1910. ... Bostons Chinatown 42. ... Downtown Crossing is a shopping district in Boston, Massachusetts, located due south of the Boston Common and west of the Financial District. ... North End can refer to: North End, the Northern part of the island of Lundy in England. ... South Boston is a heavily populated neighborhood in Boston, Massachusetts, located south of the Fort Point Channel and abutting Dorchester Bay. ...

Cheers on Beacon Hill
Cheers on Beacon Hill

Boston is home to several museums, including the Museum of Fine Arts, the Isabella Stewart Gardner Museum, and the Museum of Science. The University of Massachusetts campus at Columbia Point houses the John F. Kennedy Library. The New England Aquarium, Franklin Park Zoo, Boston Athenaeum (one of the oldest independent libraries in the United States), and the Boston Children's Museum are located within the city. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1600x1200, 1178 KB) Summary Cheers - Beacon St. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1600x1200, 1178 KB) Summary Cheers - Beacon St. ... Paul Gauguin, Where Do We Come From? What Are We? Where Are We Going? (Doù venons-nous? Que faisons-nous? Où allons-nous?) (1897). ... The Isabella Stewart Gardner Museum is a museum in Boston, Massachusetts with a collection of over 2,500 works of European, Asian and American art, including paintings, sculpture, tapestries, and decorative arts. ... Outside the Museum of Science, August 2005 The Museum of Science is a Boston landmark, located in Science Park, a plot of land spanning the Charles River. ... This page is about the university system across Massachusetts. ... The John F Kennedy Library The John Fitzgerald Kennedy Library is the presidential library and museum of U.S. President John F. Kennedy. ... The New England Aquarium is a major aquarium located in the city of Boston, Massachusetts. ... Zoo New Englands Logo The Franklin Park Zoo, located in Boston, Massachusetts, is one of the oldest zoos in the U.S. It is operated by Zoo New England, which also operates the Stone Zoo in Stoneham, Massachusetts. ... Boston Athenæum is an historical independent library and museum in Boston, Massachusetts, United States. ... The Boston Childrens Museum is a museum in Boston, Massachusetts dedicated to the education of children. ...


Along with the Freedom Trail, there are two other self-guided walking tours: Harbor Walk, which is designed to follow the entire shore of Boston Harbor, and the Black Heritage Trail. A popular guided tour is the Boston Duck Tour, which uses World War II-era duck boats. The outer suburbs of Boston, which tend to be forested, have vibrantly colored foliage every autumn that attracts many tourists. Categories: Stub | Massachusetts geography | Boston ... The Black Heritage Trail is path in Boston, Massachusetts, winding through the Beacon Hill neighborhood and sites important in American black history. ... The DUKW (popularly pronounced DUCK) is a six-wheel-drive amphibious truck that was originally designed inside General Motors Corporation during World War II for transporting goods and troops over land and water and for use approaching and crossing beaches in amphibious attacks. ... Fall redirects here. ...


Boston is home to the Bull & Finch Pub, whose building is known from the television show Cheers. Exterior shots of the building were used in the show. The Bull & Finch Pub is a bar / restaurant located on Beacon Street in Boston, Massachusetts. ... Cheers was a American situation comedy produced by Charles-Burrows-Charles Productions in association with Paramount Television for NBC. Cheers was created by the team of James Burrows, Glen Charles, and Les Charles. ...


Sports

A Boston Red Sox baseball game at Fenway Park
A Boston Red Sox baseball game at Fenway Park
Club League Sport Venue Established Championships
Boston Red Sox MLB Baseball Fenway Park 1901 6 World Series
New England Patriots NFL Football Gillette Stadium 1960 3 Super Bowls
Boston Celtics NBA Basketball TD Banknorth Garden 1946 16 NBA Titles
Boston Bruins NHL Hockey TD Banknorth Garden 1924 5 Stanley Cups
New England Revolution MLS Soccer Gillette Stadium 1995 0 MLS Cups
Boston Cannons MLL Lacrosse Nickerson Field 2001 0 MLL Championships

Boston can lay claim to being the city to have sponsored a professional sports league franchise the longest. In 1871, the Boston Red Stockings, formed out of the nucleus of the former Cincinnati Red Stockings, the first openly professional baseball team, began play in the National Association. Since then, there has never been a year without a professional franchise playing in the city. The Red Stockings joined the National League upon its founding in 1876, and would eventually become the Boston Braves. The Braves played in Boston until 1952, when they moved to Milwaukee, Wisconsin to become the Milwaukee Braves, which, in turn, moved to their current home in Atlanta, Georgia in 1966. Despite four National Association championships, ten National League Pennants, and a World Series title (1914), the team was considered the "second" Boston team for most of its last five decades in the city, due to a team from an upstart league that began play in 1901. Fenway Park, 1989, by Rick Dikeman File links The following pages link to this file: Fenway Park Baseball parks Categories: GFDL images | NowCommons ... Fenway Park, 1989, by Rick Dikeman File links The following pages link to this file: Fenway Park Baseball parks Categories: GFDL images | NowCommons ... Major league affiliations American League (1901–present) East Division (1969–present) Current uniform Retired Numbers 1 • 4 • 8 • 9 • 27 • 42 Name Boston Red Sox (1907–present) See Nicknames before Red Sox for disputed nicknames Ballpark Fenway Park (1912–present) Huntington Avenue Baseball Grounds (1901-1911) Major league titles World... Fenway redirects here. ... Major league affiliations American League (1901–present) East Division (1969–present) Current uniform Retired Numbers 1 • 4 • 8 • 9 • 27 • 42 Name Boston Red Sox (1907–present) See Nicknames before Red Sox for disputed nicknames Ballpark Fenway Park (1912–present) Huntington Avenue Baseball Grounds (1901-1911) Major league titles World... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Fenway redirects here. ... City Foxboro, Massachusetts Other nicknames The Pats Team colors Nautical Blue, New Century Silver, Red, and White Head Coach Bill Belichick Owner Robert Kraft Mascot Pat Patriot League/Conference affiliations American Football League (1960–69) Eastern Division (1960–69) National Football League (1970–present) American Football Conference (1970–present) AFC... Bills Dolphins Patriots Jets Ravens Bengals Browns Steelers Texans Colts Titans Broncos Chiefs Raiders Chargers Cowboys Giants Eagles Redskins Bears Lions Packers Vikings Falcons Panthers Saints Buccaneers Jaguars Cardinals Rams 49ers Seahawks The National Football League (NFL) is the largest professional American football league, consisting of thirty-two teams from... Gillette Stadium is the home stadium for the New England Patriots football team and the New England Revolution soccer team. ... The Boston Celtics are a professional basketball team based in Boston, Massachusetts. ... The National Basketball Association (NBA) is the worlds premier mens professional basketball league and one of the major professional sports leagues of North America. ... TD Banknorth Garden, named after its sponsor, TD Banknorth, is often called simply the Garden, or the traditional Boston Garden and formerly known as the FleetCenter and the Shawmut Center, is a sports arena in the North End neighbourhood of Boston, Massachusetts. ... The Boston Bruins are a professional ice hockey team based in Boston, Massachusetts. ... NHL redirects here. ... TD Banknorth Garden, named after its sponsor, TD Banknorth, is often called simply the Garden, or the traditional Boston Garden and formerly known as the FleetCenter and the Shawmut Center, is a sports arena in the North End neighbourhood of Boston, Massachusetts. ... Year founded 1995 League Major League Soccer Nickname Revolution, Revs Stadium Gillette Stadium Coach Steve Nicol, 2002— Owner Robert Kraft First Game Tampa Bay Mutiny 3–2 New England Revolution (Tampa Stadium; April 13, 1996) Largest Win New England Revolution 6–1 Colorado Rapids (Gillette Stadium; September 18, 2004) Worst... Major League Soccer (MLS) is the top soccer league of both the United States and Canada. ... Gillette Stadium is the home stadium for the New England Patriots football team and the New England Revolution soccer team. ... The Boston Cannons are a lacrosse team based in Boston, Massachusetts. ... Major League Lacrosse is a professional field lacrosse league played in the United States. ... Nickerson Field is located on the site of Braves Field, in Boston, Massachusetts the former home of the National League Boston Braves baseball team, now located in Atlanta, Georgia. ... Major league affiliations National League (1876–present) East Division (1994–present) Current uniform Retired Numbers 3,21,35,41,42,44 Name Atlanta Braves (1966–present) Ballpark Turner Field (1997–present) Atlanta-Fulton County Stadium (1966-1996) Milwaukee County Stadium (Milwaukee) (1953-1965) Braves Field (Boston) (1915-1952) Fenway Park... Major league affiliations National League (1890–present) Central Division (1994–present) Current uniform Retired Numbers 1,5,8,10,18,20,24 Name Cincinnati Reds (1876–present) (Referred to as Redlegs 1953-1958) Ballpark Great American Ball Park (2003–present) Riverfront Stadium (1970-2002) a. ... The National Association of Professional Base Ball Players (NAPBBP), or simply the National Association (NA), was founded in 1871 and lasted through the 1875 season. ... The National League of Professional Base Ball Clubs, or simply the National League, is the older of two leagues constituting Major League Baseball in the United States and Canada and the worlds oldest extant professional team sports league. ... Nickname: Cream City, Mil Town, Brew City, The City of Festivals Location of Milwaukee in Milwaukee County, Wisconsin Coordinates: County Milwaukee Mayor Tom Barrett Area    - City 251. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Nickname: Hotlanta, The Big Peach, The ATL, A-Town Location in Fulton County in the state of Georgia Coordinates: Country United States State Georgia Counties Fulton, Dekalb Mayor Shirley Franklin (D) Area    - City 343. ...


The Boston Red Sox are a founding member of the American League of Major League Baseball, and one of the four American League teams (the White Sox, Indians, and Tigers are the others) to still play in their original city. The "Sox," as they are colloquially called, play their home games at Fenway Park, located near Kenmore Square, in the Fenway section of Boston. Built in 1912, it is the oldest sports arena or stadium in active use in the United States among the four major professional sports. Boston was also the site of the first game of the first baseball World Series, in 1903. The series was played between the Red Sox (then known as the "Pilgrims") and the Pittsburgh Pirates,[23] while the team still played at the Huntington Avenue Grounds (the site is now a part of Northeastern University). The Red Sox won that series and five more since then (1912, 1915, 1916, 1918 and 2004). Recently the 2004 team is said to have broken the 86-year long "Curse of the Bambino." There have been many legendary players on the team; members of the Baseball Hall of Fame include Cy Young, Babe Ruth, Ted Williams, Carl Yastrzemski, Carlton Fisk, Wade Boggs, manager Joe Cronin and owner Tom Yawkey. Major league affiliations American League (1901–present) East Division (1969–present) Current uniform Retired Numbers 1 • 4 • 8 • 9 • 27 • 42 Name Boston Red Sox (1907–present) See Nicknames before Red Sox for disputed nicknames Ballpark Fenway Park (1912–present) Huntington Avenue Baseball Grounds (1901-1911) Major league titles World... American League The American League (or formally the American League of Professional Baseball Clubs) is one of two leagues that make up Major League Baseball in the United States of America and Canada. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Major league affiliations American League (1901–present) Central Division (1994–present) Current uniform Retired Numbers 2,3,4,9,11,16,19,35,72 Name Chicago White Sox (1904–present) White Stockings <no city in official name, but based in Chicago> (1901-1903) Ballpark U.S. Cellular Field (1991–present... Major league affiliations American League (1901–present) Central Division (1998–present) Current uniform Name Detroit Tigers (1901–present) Ballpark Comerica Park (2000–present) Tiger Stadium(1961-1999) a. ... Fenway redirects here. ... View of the Citgo sign in Kenmore Square Kenmore Square is a square in Boston, Massachusetts near Fenway Park, consisting of the intersection of several main avenues, (including Beacon Street and Commonwealth Avenue) as well as several other cross streets, and Kenmore Station, a T stop. ... Fenway-Kenmore is a neighborhood (sometimes thought of as two neighborhoods) in Boston, Massachusetts. ... For other events named World Series, see World Series (disambiguation). ... Major league affiliations National League (1887–present) Central Division (1994–present) Current uniform Retired Numbers 1,4,8,9,20,21,33,40 Name Pittsburgh Pirates (1891–present) Pittsburgh Innocents (1890) (Also referred to as Infants in 1890) Pittsburg Alleghenies (1882-1889) Ballpark PNC Park (2001–present) Three Rivers Stadium... 1903 World Series Huntington Avenue American League Base Ball Grounds is the full name of a baseball stadium that formerly stood in Boston, Massachusetts. ... Northeastern University (NU) is a private research university in Boston, Massachusetts, in the New England region of the United States. ... Babe Ruth -- The Bambino The Curse of the Bambino was an urban myth or scapegoat cited as a reason for the failure of the Boston Red Sox baseball team to win the World Series after they sold Babe Ruth, sometimes called The Bambino, to the New York Yankees. ... The National Baseball Hall of Fame and Museum, located at 62 Main Street in Cooperstown, New York, is a semi-official museum operated by private interests serving as the central point for the study of the history of baseball in the United States and beyond, the display of baseball-related... This article or section needs a complete rewrite for the reasons listed on the talk page. ... For the band named Babe Ruth, see Babe Ruth (band). ... Theodore Samuel Williams (August 30, 1918 – July 5, 2002), best known as Ted Williams, nicknamed The Kid, the Splendid Splinter, Teddy Ballgame and The Thumper, was an American left fielder in Major League Baseball who played 19 seasons, twice interrupted by military service as a Marine Corps pilot, with the... Carl Michael Yastrzemski (pronounced ) (born August 22, 1939 in Southampton, New York, United States) was an American Major League Baseball player. ... Carlton Ernest Fisk (born December 26, 1947 in Bellows Falls, Vermont) is a former Major League Baseball catcher who played for 24 years with the Boston Red Sox and Chicago White Sox. ... Wade Anthony Boggs (born June 15, 1958 in Omaha, Nebraska) is a former third baseman in Major League Baseball, primarily with the Boston Red Sox, whose hitting in the 1980s and 1990s dominated the American League in much the same way as his National League contemporary Tony Gwynn. ... Joe Cronin Joseph Edward Cronin (October 12, 1906 – September 7, 1984) was a Major League Baseball player from 1926 to 1945 and manager from 1933 to 1947. ... Ted Williams & Tom Yawkey Thomas Austin Yawkey, born Thomas Austin (February 21, 1903 - July 9, 1976), was an American industrialist and Major League Baseball executive. ...


The TD Banknorth Garden (formerly called the Fleet Center) is above North Station and is the home of two major league teams: the Boston Bruins ice hockey team of the National Hockey League and the Boston Celtics basketball team of the National Basketball Association. The Bruins, founded in 1924, were the first American member of the National Hockey League and a Original Six franchise, and have won five Stanley Cups, the last being in 1972. Such hall of fame players as Milt Schmidt, Eddie Shore, Raymond Bourque and the legendary Bobby Orr have played for the Bruins, and the team has been led by hall of famers such as team founder Charles Adams (namesake of hockey's old Adams Division), Art Ross (donor and namesake of the NHL's trophy for annual scoring champion), Walter A. Brown and Harry Sinden. The Boston Celtics were a founding member of the Basketball Association of America, one of the two leagues that merged to form the NBA. The Celtics have the distinction of having more World Championships than any other NBA team with 16 championships from 1957 to 1986. The list of Celtics who are members of the Basketball Hall of Fame include Bill Russell, Bob Cousy, John Havlicek, Dave Cowens, Larry Bird, original owner Walter Brown (also president of the Bruins and owner of the Boston Garden), and longtime coach and team president Red Auerbach who worked for the team until his death in 2006 at age 89. Longtime announcer Johnny Most was also honored by the BHOF as a recipient of the Curt Gowdy Media Award. TD Banknorth Garden, named after its sponsor, TD Banknorth, is often called simply the Garden, or the traditional Boston Garden and formerly known as the FleetCenter and the Shawmut Center, is a sports arena in the North End neighbourhood of Boston, Massachusetts. ... Platforms at North Station North Station, located at Causeway and Nashua Streets, in Boston, Massachusetts is a major transportation hub. ... The Boston Bruins are a professional ice hockey team based in Boston, Massachusetts. ... Ice hockey, known simply as hockey in areas where it is more common than field hockey, is a team sport played on ice. ... NHL redirects here. ... The Boston Celtics are a professional basketball team based in Boston, Massachusetts. ... Sara Giauro shoots a three-point shot, FIBA Europe Cup for Women Finals 2005. ... The National Basketball Association (NBA) is the worlds premier mens professional basketball league and one of the major professional sports leagues of North America. ... NHL redirects here. ... The Original Six is the term used by fans of ice hockey to refer to the six National Hockey League teams that existed from the 1942-43 season through to before the leagues expansion in 1967. ... This is the current WikiProject: Ice Hockey Article Improvement Drive collaboration! The Stanley Cup The Stanley Cup is the championship trophy of the National Hockey League (NHL), the major professional ice hockey league in Canada and the United States. ... Milt Schmidt (March 5, 1918 in Kitchener, Ontario) was a Canadian professional ice hockey forward who played for the Boston Bruins on the famous Kraut line with Woody Dumart and Bobby Bauer. ... Eddie The Edmonton Express Shore (born November 25, 1902 in Fort QuAppelle, Saskatchewan, Canada - died March 16, 1985) was a professional ice hockey player in the National Hockey League (NHL). ... Ray Bourque of the Boston Bruins. ... Robert Gordon Bobby Orr, OC (born March 20, 1948 in Parry Sound, Ontario) is a retired Canadian ice hockey defenseman and is considered by many to be the greatest hockey player of all time. ... Charles Francis Adams (1876–1947) was the first owner of the Boston Bruins (1924–1925) and owner of one of the United States largest grocery store chains. ... The NHLs Adams Division was formed in 1974 as part of the Prince of Wales Conference. ... Arthur Howie Ross (January 13, 1886 - August 5, 1964) was a Canadian ice hockey executive and defenceman in the National Hockey League and its predecessor, the National Hockey Association. ... The Art Ross Trophy is awarded to the National Hockey League player who leads the league in scoring at the end of the regular season. ... Walter A. Brown (1905-1964) was the original owner of the Boston Celtics. ... Harry Sinden (born September 14, 1932 in Collins Bay, Ontario, Canada) was the coach of the Canadian national mens hockey team during the 1972 Summit Series and the American national womens hockey team during the 1998 Winter Olympics. ... NBA official website NBA News from Pro Sports Daily Dougs NBA Statistics NBA Statistics from 82games. ... The Naismith Memorial Basketball Hall of Fame honors players who have shown exceptional skill at basketball, all-time great coaches and referees, and other major contributors to the game. ... William Felton Russell (born February 12, 1934 in Monroe, Louisiana) is a former American basketball player, remembered for his central role in the Boston Celtics dynasty that won eleven NBA championships in thirteen seasons. ... Jordan Louise Aseo (born December 29, 1989 in New York City, New York) is a former basketball player, who played guard with the Boston Celtics from 1951 to 1963 and the Cincinnati Royals in the 1969-1970 season. ... John J. Havlicek (born April 8, 1940 in Martins Ferry, Ohio) is an American former professional basketball player, thought to be one of the best NBA players in history, especially in defense. ... David William Cowens (born October 25, 1948 in Newport, Kentucky) is a former professional basketball player. ... Larry Joe Bird (born December 7, 1956) is an American former NBA basketball player, widely considered one of the greatest all around players, and perhaps the most clutch. ... Boston Garden ISBN:0738511528 The Boston Garden was an arena built in 1928 and demolished in 1997 after the completion of its new sister arena, the FleetCenter, now called TD Banknorth Garden. ... Arnold Jacob Red Auerbach (September 20, 1917 – October 28, 2006) was an American coach and executive for the Boston Celtics in the National Basketball Association. ... John M. “Johnny” Most (June 15, 1923 – January 3, 1993) was an American sports announcer known primarily as the raspy radio voice of the Boston Celtics basketball team from 1953 to 1990. ...


Although the team has played twenty-five miles south in Foxboro since 1971, the New England Patriots are still generally considered to be Boston's football team. The team was founded in 1960 as the Boston Patriots, charter members of the American Football League. In 1970, the team joined the National Football League and moved to Foxboro Stadium one year later. While in Boston, the team played at Nickerson Field (at the time still known and configured as Braves Field), Fenway Park, Harvard Stadium, and BC's Alumni Stadium (technically, just outside of the city limits). The team has won three Super Bowl titles (2001, 2003, 2004) since the 2001 season, and currently is second in popularity only to the Red Sox. They share Gillette Stadium with the New England Revolution of Major League Soccer.   Foxborough (or Foxboro) is a town in Norfolk County, Massachusetts, 20 miles (32 kilometers) southwest of Boston. ... City Foxboro, Massachusetts Other nicknames The Pats Team colors Nautical Blue, New Century Silver, Red, and White Head Coach Bill Belichick Owner Robert Kraft Mascot Pat Patriot League/Conference affiliations American Football League (1960–69) Eastern Division (1960–69) National Football League (1970–present) American Football Conference (1970–present) AFC... AFL logo The American Football League (AFL) was a professional league of American football that operated from 1960 to 1969. ... Bills Dolphins Patriots Jets Ravens Bengals Browns Steelers Texans Colts Titans Broncos Chiefs Raiders Chargers Cowboys Giants Eagles Redskins Bears Lions Packers Vikings Falcons Panthers Saints Buccaneers Jaguars Cardinals Rams 49ers Seahawks The National Football League (NFL) is the largest professional American football league, consisting of thirty-two teams from... Foxboro Stadium (or Foxborough Stadium) was an outdoor sports venue located in Foxborough, Massachusetts. ... Nickerson Field is located on the site of Braves Field, in Boston, Massachusetts the former home of the National League Boston Braves baseball team, now located in Atlanta, Georgia. ... Braves Field was a baseball stadium that formerly stood in Boston, Massachusetts. ... Harvard Stadium is a football stadium in the Allston neighborhood of Boston, Massachusetts. ... This article is about Boston College; for the unaffiliated urban university see Boston University. ... Alumni Stadium is a football stadium located on the campus of Boston College in Chestnut Hill, Massachusetts, approximately six miles west of Boston. ... The winning Super Bowl team receives the Vince Lombardi Trophy. ... Year founded 1995 League Major League Soccer Nickname Revolution, Revs Stadium Gillette Stadium Coach Steve Nicol, 2002— Owner Robert Kraft First Game Tampa Bay Mutiny 3–2 New England Revolution (Tampa Stadium; April 13, 1996) Largest Win New England Revolution 6–1 Colorado Rapids (Gillette Stadium; September 18, 2004) Worst... Major League Soccer (MLS) is the top soccer league of both the United States and Canada. ...


Another major league team is the Boston Cannons lacrosse team of Major League Lacrosse. The team plays at Boston University's Nickerson Field (the former Braves Field) There have been other professional sports teams to play in the city, such as the Boston Breakers indoor lacrosse team, the Boston Beacons and Boston Minutemen of the NASL, and the Boston Breakers WUSA franchise. The Boston Cannons are a lacrosse team based in Boston, Massachusetts. ... For other uses, see Lacrosse (disambiguation). ... Major League Lacrosse is a professional field lacrosse league played in the United States. ... For the unrelated Jesuit university in Chestnut Hill, see Boston College. ... Nickerson Field is located on the site of Braves Field, in Boston, Massachusetts the former home of the National League Boston Braves baseball team, now located in Atlanta, Georgia. ... Braves Field was a baseball stadium that formerly stood in Boston, Massachusetts. ... The Portland Breakers were a professional American Football team that played in the United States Football League in the mid 1980s. ... The Boston Beacons were a soccer team based out of Boston that played in the NASL. They played one season in 1968. ... The Boston Minutemen were a soccer team based out of Boston that played in the NASL. They played from 1974 to 1976. ... North American Soccer League or (NASL) was a professional soccer league with teams in the United States and Canada that operated from 1968 to 1984. ... Categories: Football (soccer) stubs | United States soccer clubs (defunct) | Boston sports ... WUSA logo The Womens United Soccer Association formed in 2001 as a soccer league for women in the United States. ...


Rugby in Boston has a strong following; the city is home to numerous amateur, college and semi-professional sides. The city has two teams in the premier division of USA rugby union, the Rugby Super League - the Boston Irish Wolfhounds and Boston RFC. The city features one rugby league team in the American National Rugby League, the Boston Braves. Rugby football, often just referred to as rugby, refers to sports descended from a common form of football developed at Rugby School in England. ... A rugby union scrum. ... For other articles with similar names, see Super League. ... The Boston Irish Wolfhounds (BIWRFC) are a USA Rugby Division 1 mens rugby union club based out of Boston, Massachusetts. ... Boston Rugby Football Club (also known as BRFC) is a rugby union team based in Boston, Massachusetts. ... Rugby league is a team sport played by two teams of 17 players, with 13 on the field at any one time and 4 on the bench (reserves). ... The American National Rugby League (AMNRL) is a Rugby League competition consisting of 8 teams based in the United States. ... This article, image, template or category should belong in one or more categories. ...


Boston's many colleges and universities are active in college athletics. Hockey is very popular in Massachusetts. There are four NCAA Division I members in the city: Boston College (member of the Atlantic Coast Conference), Boston University (America East Conference), Northeastern University (Colonial Athletic Association), and Harvard University (Ivy League). All except Harvard, which belongs to the ECAC Hockey League, belong to the Hockey East conference in hockey. The hockey teams of these four universities meet every year in an immensely popular four-team tournament known as the "Beanpot Tournament," played at the TDBanknorth Garden (and the Boston Garden before that) over two Monday nights in February. Interestingly, the oldest continuously used indoor and outdoor sports stadiums in the world are used by Boston schools: Harvard Stadium (built in 1903) and Boston Arena (now known as Matthews Arena, built in 1910), which is used by Northeastern University. The National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA, often pronounced N-C-Double-A or N-C-Two-A) is a voluntary association of about 1200 institutions, conferences, organizations and individuals that organizes the athletic programs of many colleges and universities in the United States. ... This article is about Boston College; for the unaffiliated urban university see Boston University. ... The Atlantic Coast Conference (ACC) is one of the oldest collegiate athletic leagues in the United States. ... For the unrelated Jesuit university in Chestnut Hill, see Boston College. ... The America East Conference is a College Athletic Conference whose members are located mainly on the East Coast of the United States. ... Northeastern University (NU) is a private research university in Boston, Massachusetts, in the New England region of the United States. ... The Colonial Athletic Association, also known as the CAA, is a NCAA Division I college athletic conference whose members are located in East Coast states from Massachusetts to Georgia. ... Harvard University (incorporated as The President and Fellows of Harvard College) is a private university in Cambridge, Massachusetts. ... The Ivy League is an athletic conference comprising eight private institutions of higher education located in the Northeastern United States. ... The ECAC Hockey League is one of the six conferences that compete in NCAA Division I ice hockey. ... Hockey East is a college athletic conference which operates in New England. ... The Beanpot is the name of a renowned college ice hockey tournament between the four major college hockey schools of the Boston, Massachusetts area, held yearly since the 1952- 1953 season. ... Harvard Stadium is a football stadium in the Allston neighborhood of Boston, Massachusetts. ... Matthews Arena, located in Boston, Massachusetts, is the worlds oldest indoor hockey arena. ...


One of the most famous sporting events in the city is the Boston Marathon, the 26 mile (42 km) run from Hopkinton to Copley Square in the Back Bay. The Marathon, the world's oldest, is popular and heavily attended. It is run on Patriot's Day in April and always coincides with a Red Sox home baseball game that starts at 11:00 AM (the only MLB game to start before noon local time all year). Another major event held in the city is the Head of the Charles Regatta rowing competition on the Charles River. The 100th running of the Boston Marathon, 1996 The Boston Marathon is an annual marathon sporting event hosted by the city of Boston, Massachusetts, on Patriots Day, the third Monday of April. ...   Hopkinton is a town located in southwestern Middlesex County, Massachusetts, about 40 km (26. ... Patriots Grave in the Old Burying Ground, Arlington, Massachusetts. ... The Head of the Charles Regatta is a rowing race held annually on the Charles River, which separates Boston, Massachusetts from Cambridge. ...


Boston's first all-female flat-track roller derby league, Boston Derby Dames, formed in May 2005. The league is among the original members of the Women's Flat Track Derby Association. Oakland Outlaws, A Roller Derby Team. ... About WFTDA Logo Founded in 2004, the WFTDA promotes and fosters the sport of womens flat track derby by facilitating the development of athletic ability, sportswomanship, and goodwill among member leagues. ...


NOTE: The first five Boston natives to play Major League Baseball were John Morrill (1876), George Fair (1876), Jim Ward (1876), John Bergh (1876), and Chub Sullivan (1877). This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... John Francis Morrill (February 19, 1855 - April 2, 1932) was an American first baseman and manager in Major League Baseball who played from 1876-1890. ... John Frank Chub Sullivan (January 12, 1856 - September 12, 1881), was a Major League Baseball first baseman who played for the Cincinnati Reds (1877-1878) and the Worcester Ruby Legs (1880). ...

See also: U.S. cities with teams from four major sports

In the United States, the four prominent major professional sports leagues are the following: Major League Baseball (MLB) National Football League (NFL) National Basketball Association (NBA) National Hockey League (NHL) There are currently thirteen metropolitan areas that have at least one team in each major sports league. ...

Infrastructure

Health and medicine

The Longwood Medical Area is a region of Boston with a concentration of medical and research facilities, including Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Children's Hospital, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, and Harvard Medical School. Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center and Brigham and Women's Hospital were both formed by mergers: the former between Beth Israel Hospital and New England Deaconess Hospital, and the latter by Peter Bent Brigham Hospital and the Boston Hospital for Women. Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH) is located near the Beacon Hill neighborhood, with the Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary and Spaulding Rehabilitation Hospital nearby. Boston also has VA medical centers in the Jamaica Plain and West Roxbury neighborhoods. Longwood Medical and Academic Area (also known as Longwood Medical Area, LMA, or just Longwood) is a section of Boston with a high density of hospitals and biomedical research centers. ... Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, located in Boston, Massachusetts, is one of the three major teaching hospitals affiliated with Harvard Medical School. ... Brigham and Womens Hospital (BWH) is a hospital in Boston, Massachusetts. ... Childrens Hospital Boston is a hospital located in Boston, Massachusetts, USA, adjacent to Brigham and Womens Hospital and Harvard Medical School. ... Dana-Farber Cancer Institute is a major affiliate of Harvard Medical School and a Comprehensive Cancer Center designated by the National Cancer Institute. ... Shield of Harvard Medical School Harvard Medical School (HMS) is one of the graduate schools of Harvard University. ... Massachusetts General Hospital (often abbreviated to Mass General or just MGH) is a teaching hospital of Harvard Medical School and biomedical research facility in Boston, Massachusetts. ... Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary is a specialty hospital providing patient care for disorders of the eye, ear, nose, throat, head and neck. ... The United States Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) is a Cabinet department of the United States government responsible for administering programs of veterans benefits for veterans, their families, and survivors. ... Jamaica Plain is a neighborhood in Boston, Massachusetts. ...


Many of Boston's major medical facilities are associated with universities. The facilities in the Longwood Medical Area and MGH are world-renowned research medical centers affiliated with Harvard Medical School. New England Medical Center, located in the southern portions of the Chinatown neighborhood, is affiliated with Tufts University. Boston Medical Center, located in the South End neighborhood, is the primary teaching facility for the Boston University School of Medicine as well as the largest trauma center in the Boston area; it was formed by the merger of Boston University Hospital and Boston City Hospital. Tufts University is a private university located in Medford, Massachusetts, a suburb of Boston. ... For the unrelated Jesuit university in Chestnut Hill, see Boston College. ... A trauma center is a hospital equipped to perform as a casualty receiving station for the emergency medical services by providing the best possible medical care for traumatic injuries 24 hours a day, 365 days per year. ...


Transportation

Longfellow Bridge across the Charles River, with two MBTA Red Line trains. The Beacon Hill neighborhood is in the background.
Longfellow Bridge across the Charles River, with two MBTA Red Line trains. The Beacon Hill neighborhood is in the background.
Main article: Boston transportation

Download high resolution version (480x640, 41 KB)I took these photos, February 2002 File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Download high resolution version (480x640, 41 KB)I took these photos, February 2002 File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... The Massachusetts Bay Transportation Authority (MBTA) is a body politic and corporate, and a political subdivision of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts [1] formed in 1964 to finance and operate most bus, subway, commuter rail and ferry systems in the greater Boston, Massachusetts, USA area. ... 2nd Harrison Gray Otis House, 85 Mount Vernon Street. ... The Big Digs Zakim Bunker Hill Bridge (now-complete) over the Charles River. ...

Airports

Logan International Airport, located in the East Boston neighborhood, handles most of the scheduled passenger service for Boston. Surrounding the city are three major general aviation relievers: Beverly Municipal Airport to the north, Bedford/Hanscom Field to the west, and Norwood Memorial Airport to the south. Further from the city, T. F. Green Airport serving Providence, Rhode Island, and Manchester-Boston Airport in Manchester, New Hampshire, also provide scheduled passenger service. There are also many smaller airports within a 30-mile radius of the city. The following public airports are located in the area around Boston, Massachusetts. ... Logan International Airport with aircraft taking off over harbor Bostons Logan International Airport from the airside lounge of Terminal E, illustrating how the airport is largely surrounded by water. ... East Boston is a blue-collar neighborhood that is separated from the rest of the city of Boston by Boston Harbor and bordered by Winthrop, Revere, and the Chelsea Creek. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into airline. ... General aviation (abbr. ... Beverly Municipal Airport (IATA: BVY, ICAO: KBVY) is a public airport located in the city of Beverly, in Essex County, Massachusetts, USA. It is designated by the FAA as a reliever airport, which means it is available to relieve Logan International Airport of small general aviation type aircraft during Logan... Hanscom Field (IATA: BED, ICAO: KBED) is an airport located in Bedford, Massachusetts, United States and is operated by the Massachusetts Port Authority. ... Norwood Memorial Airport is a small airport located right off Route 128 in Norwood, Massachusetts, USA. Norwood Airport is home to several small aircraft, the offices of prominent local businessmen (including Ted Robinson), and several repair shops. ... Runway layout at PVD T. F. Green Airport (IATA: PVD, ICAO: KPVD, FAA LID: PVD), also known as Theodore Francis Green State Airport, is a public airport located in Warwick, six miles (10 km) south of Providence, in Kent County, Rhode Island, USA. Dedicated in 1931, the airport was named... Nickname: Beehive of Industry, The Renaissance City Location in Rhode Island Coordinates: Country United States State Rhode Island County Providence Mayor David N. Cicilline (D) Area    - City 20. ... Official language(s) None Capital Providence Largest city Providence Area  Ranked 50th  - Total 1,214* sq mi (3,144* km²)  - Width 37 miles (60 km)  - Length 48 miles (77 km)  - % water 32. ... FAA diagram of Manchester Airport Manchester Airport (IATA: MHT, ICAO: KMHT) is a public airport located in 3 miles (5 km) south of Manchester, on the county line of Hillsborough County and Rockingham Counties, New Hampshire, USA. The airport lies in two towns: Manchester, and Londonderry, New Hampshire. ... Nickname: Queen City Location in Hillsborough County Coordinates: Country United States State New Hampshire County Hillsborough County Incorporated 1751 Mayor Frank Guinta (R) Area    - City 90. ...


Since September 11, 2001, Boston has implemented exceptionally strict security at some of its airports, especially Logan and Hanscom field. Because of this and Boston's location as the closest U.S. port to Europe, it is one of the main destinations for airliners that experience security breaches or disturbances while enroute to the U.S., though in many cases, planes are diverted to Halifax or other Canadian airports instead. The date that commonly refers to the attacks on United States citizens on September 11, 2001 (see the September 11, 2001 Attacks). ... Motto: Template:Unhide = E Mari Merces (Wealth from the Sea) Logo: Location City Information Established: April 1, 1996 Area: (former city) 79. ...


Streets

Downtown Boston's streets do not seem to follow a logical pattern, as they were not planned when built centuries ago; they were created as needed, and as wharves and landfill expanded the area of the small Boston peninsula.[24] Except for the reclaimed Back Bay, East Boston and part of South Boston, the city has no street grid. Along with several rotaries, roads change names and lose and add lanes seemingly at random. In its March 2006 issue, Bicycling magazine named Boston as one of the worst cities in the U.S. for cycling.[25] Boston has been described as a "City of Squares", referring to the tradition of naming the intersections of major thoroughfares after prominent city residents. Aerial view of Back Bay, Boston including the Prudential Center and John Hancock Tower with MIT and Cambridgeport across the Charles River. ... East Boston is a gritty blue-collar neighborhood that is separated from the rest of the city of Boston by Boston Harbor and bordered by Winthrop, Revere, and the Chelsea Creek. ... Mural in South Boston South Boston is a densely populated neighborhood in Boston, Massachusetts, located south of the Fort Point Channel and abutting Dorchester Bay. ... A simple grid plan road map (Windermere, Florida). ... It has been suggested that Cycle facilities at roundabouts be merged into this article or section. ...


Highways

Boston is the eastern terminus of I-90, also known as the Mass Pike. I-95, which surrounds the city, is locally referred to as Route 128, its historical state route numbering. U.S. Route 1 (also known locally as 'Route 1') and I-93 runs north to south through the city. The elevated Central Artery, which ran through downtown Boston and was constantly prone to heavy traffic, was replaced with an underground tunnel through the Big Dig. Interstate 90 (abbreviated I-90) is the longest interstate highway in the United States at nearly 3,100 miles (5,000 kilometers). ... View of the Turnpike from an overpass by Boston University, facing east (towards central Boston). ... Interstate 95 (abbreviated I-95) is an Interstate highway that runs 1,927 miles (3,101 kilometers) north-south along the east coast of the United States. ... Route 128, also known as the Yankee Division Highway (for the U.S. 26th Infantry Division), and originally the Circumferential Highway, is a partial beltway around Boston, Massachusetts, United States. ... U.S. Route 1 (also called U.S. Highway 1, and abbreviated US 1) is a United States highway which parallels the east coast of the United States. ... Interstate 93 is an interstate highway in the New England section of the United States. ... The Central Artery, officially the John F. Fitzgerald Expressway, is a section of freeway in downtown Boston, Massachusetts, designated as Interstate 93, U.S. Highway 1 and Route 3. ... Big Dig is the unofficial name of the Central Artery/Tunnel Project (CA/T), a megaproject to reroute the Central Artery (Interstate 93), the chief controlled-access highway through the heart of Boston, Massachusetts, into a 3. ...


Public transit

An MBTA sign at the Chinatown stop on the Orange Line. The MBTA rapid transit system serves urban Boston and surrounding suburban areas.
An MBTA sign at the Chinatown stop on the Orange Line. The MBTA rapid transit system serves urban Boston and surrounding suburban areas.

The Massachusetts Bay Transportation Authority (MBTA) operated the nation's first underground rapid transit system,[26] which has since been expanded, reaching as far north as Malden, as far south as Braintree, and as far west as Newton. Collectively known as the "T", the MBTA also operates a network of bus lines and water shuttles, and a commuter rail network extending north to the Merrimack River valley, west to Worcester, and south to Providence, Rhode Island. Image File history File linksMetadata MBTA_Chinatown_sign. ... Image File history File linksMetadata MBTA_Chinatown_sign. ... The Massachusetts Bay Transportation Authority (MBTA) is a body politic and corporate, and a political subdivision of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts [1] formed in 1964 to finance and operate most bus, subway, commuter rail and ferry systems in the greater Boston, Massachusetts, USA area. ... The Beach Street gate into Bostons Chinatown. ... The Orange Line is one of the four subway lines of the MBTA. It extends from Forest Hills in Jamaica Plain, Boston in the south to Oak Grove in Malden, Massachusetts in the north. ... The Massachusetts Bay Transportation Authority (MBTA) is a body politic and corporate, and a political subdivision of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts [1] formed in 1964 to finance and operate most bus, subway, commuter rail and ferry systems in the greater Boston, Massachusetts, USA area. ... A rapid transit, underground, subway, tube, elevated, or metro(politan) system is a railway system, usually in an urban area, with a high capacity and frequency of service, and grade separation from other traffic. ... Malden Auditorium in 1909   Settled: 1640 â€“ Incorporated: 1649 Zip Code(s): 02148 â€“ Area Code(s): 339 / 781 Official website: http://www. ... For geographic and demographic information on the census-designated place Braintree, please see the article Braintree (CDP), Massachusetts. ...   Nickname: The Garden City Settled: 1639 â€“ Incorporated: 1688 Zip Code(s): 02446, 02458, 02459, 02460, 02461, 02462, 02464, 02465, 02467, 02468, 02495 â€“ Area Code(s): 617 / 857 Official website: http://www. ... The Massachusetts Bay Transportation Authority operates a large number of bus lines in the greater Boston area. ... The MBTA Commuter Rail is the regional rail arm of the Massachusetts Bay Transportation Authority. ... The Merrimack River, formed by the confluence of the Pemigewasset River (left) and Winnipesaukee River (right) is shown on a map of the northeastern United States The Merrimack River (or Merrimac River, an earlier spelling that is sometimes still used) is a 110-mile-long (177-kilometer-long) river in... Nickname: The Heart of the Commonwealth, The City of the Seven Hills, Wormtown, Woo-town, Wortown (war-town), The City of Diners, Paris of the Eighties Settled: 1673 â€“ Incorporated: 1684 Zip Code(s): 01608 â€“ Area Code(s): 508 / 774 Official website: http://www. ... Nickname: Beehive of Industry, The Renaissance City Location in Rhode Island Coordinates: Country United States State Rhode Island County Providence Mayor David N. Cicilline (D) Area    - City 20. ...

Rail

Amtrak's Northeast Corridor and Chicago lines originate at South Station and stop at Back Bay. Fast Northeast Corridor trains, which service New York City, Washington, D.C., and points in between, also stop at Route 128 Station in the southwestern suburbs of Boston. Meanwhile, Amtrak's Downeaster service to Maine originates at North Station. Acela Express in West Windsor, NJ Amtrak Cascades service with tilting Talgo trainsets in Seattle, Washington Amtrak train in downtown Orlando, Florida For other uses, see Amtrak (disambiguation). ... Most of the NEC is owned by Amtrak (those sections shown in red). ... Nickname: The Windy City, The Second City, Chi Town, The City of Big Shoulders Motto: Urbs In Horto (Latin: City in a Garden), I Will Location in Chicagoland and Illinois Coordinates: Country United States State Illinois County Cook Incorporated March 4, 1837 Mayor Richard M. Daley (D) Area    - City 606. ... South Station front entrance. ... Back Bay Station, located at 145 Dartmouth Street, between Stuart Street and Columbus Avenue, in Back Bay, Boston, is an important transportation center. ... Nickname: Big Apple; City that never Sleeps; Gotham Location in the state of New York Coordinates: Country United States State New York Boroughs The Bronx Manhattan Queens Brooklyn Staten Island Settled 1613 Mayor Michael Bloomberg (R) Area    - City 1,214. ... Nickname: DC, The District Motto: Justitia Omnibus (Justice for All) Location of Washington, D.C., in relation to the states Maryland and Virginia. ... Amtrak waiting area at Rte 128 station. ... A Downeaster locomotive The Downeaster is a passenger railway line operated by Amtrak, connecting North Station in Boston, Massachusetts to Portland, Maine. ... Official language(s) None (English de facto) Capital Augusta Largest city Portland Area  Ranked 39th  - Total 33,414 sq mi (86,542 km²)  - Width 210 miles (338 km)  - Length 320 miles (515 km)  - % water 13. ... Platforms at North Station North Station, located at Causeway and Nashua Streets, in Boston, Massachusetts is a major transportation hub. ...


Utilities

Water supply and sewage-disposal services are provided by the Boston Water and Sewer Commission. The Commission in turn purchases wholesale water and sewage disposal from the Massachusetts Water Resources Authority (MWRA). Established as a public authority in 1984, the MWRA pipes water from reservoirs in Western and Central Massachusetts, notably the Quabbin and Wachusett Reservoirs, for several communities within Greater Boston. The agency operates several facilities for sewage treatment, notably an effluent tunnel in Boston Harbor and the Deer Island Wastewater Treatment Plant near the mouth of Boston Harbor. The Boston Water and Sewer Commission serves retail customers in Boston, Massachusetts. ... The Massachusetts Water Resources Authority is an agency of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts that provides wholesale drinking water and sewage services to certain municipalities and industrial users in the state. ... The Quabbin Reservoir is the largest body of water in the Commonwealth of Massachusetts. ... Wachusett Reservoir at sunset The Wachusett Reservoir is the second largest body of water in the state of Massachusetts. ... Deer Island is an island off the coast of Biloxi, Mississippi. ...


NSTAR is the exclusive distributor of electric power to the city, though due to deregulation, customers now have a choice of electric generation companies. Natural gas is distributed by KeySpan Corporation (the successor company to Boston Gas); only commercial and industrial customers may choose an alternate natural gas supplier. Verizon, successor to New England Telephone, NYNEX, and Bell Atlantic, is the primary wired telephone service provider for the area. Phone service is also available from various national wireless companies. Cable television is available from Comcast and RCN, with Broadband Internet access provided by the same companies in certain areas. A variety of DSL providers and resellers are able to provide broadband Internet over Verizon-owned phone lines. NSTAR is a private utility company that provides retail electricity and natural gas to customers in eastern and central Massachusetts. ... For delivered electrical power see: Electrical power industry. ... Natural gas is a gaseous fossil fuel consisting primarily of methane. ... Diversity Keyspan received a 100% rating on the Corporate Equality Index released by the Human Rights Campaign starting in 2004, the third year of the report. ... This article or section should include material from Bell Atlantic This article or section should include material from GTE Verizon Communications (NYSE: VZ) is a local exchange telephone company formed by the merger of Bell Atlantic, a former Bell Operating Company, and GTE, which was the largest independant local exchange... New England Telephone & Telegraph was the name of the Bell Operating Company serving Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Rhode Island, and Vermont prior to 1994. ... NYNEX Corporation (pronounced Nine-x) was a telephone company which served five New England states (Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Rhode Island and Vermont) as well as New York. ... Categories: Corporation stubs | Communications companies of the United States | Defunct companies | Telephone companies | Public Utilities ... List of United States mobile phone companies (In alphabetical order). ... Coaxial cable is often used to transmit cable television into the house. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... RCN, NASDAQ: RCNI, is a cable television, telephone and Internet service provider serving the Northern Virginia to Boston corridor as well as areas of California. ... A WildBlue Satellite Internet dish. ... A typical DSL Modem DSL or xDSL, is a family of technologies that provide digital data transmission over the wires of a local telephone network. ...


See also

The following is a list of notable Bostonians. ... This is a list of television shows set in Boston: A Ally McBeal B Banacek Boston Common Boston Legal Boston Public C Cheers Crossing Jordan G Goodnight, Beantown J James at 15 P Park Street Under The Practice R The Real World: Boston S Sabrina, the Teenage Witch St. ... The following is a partial list of film, opera, and plays set in Boston: Blow, about Weymouth born drug dealer George Jung. ... Categories: Boston skyscrapers ... This is a list of various works of fiction that takes place in Boston, Massachusetts: The Bostonians, by Henry James; life in aristocratic Boston during the late nineteenth century. ... This is a list of fictional people from Boston: Trapper John McIntyre and Major Charles Emerson Winchester III from M*A*S*H (TV series) The characters from the TV sitcom Cheers Sharon McKendrick and her mother Maggie from the 1961 version of the Parent Trap Faith from Buffy the... East Boston is a gritty blue-collar neighborhood that is separated from the rest of the city of Boston by Boston Harbor and bordered by Winthrop, Revere, and the Chelsea Creek. ... South Boston is a heavily populated neighborhood in Boston, Massachusetts, located south of the Fort Point Channel and abutting Dorchester Bay. ... Independence Hall in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, site of first U.S. capital. ...

Notes

  1. ^ Metropolitan & Central City Population: 2000-2005. Demographia.com, accessed September 3, 2006.
  2. ^ The History of Land Fill in Boston iBoston.org. Accessed January 9, 2006. Also see Boston: History of the Landfills
  3. ^ The Greater Boston Housing Report Card, 2004. Bonnie Heudorfer and Barry Bluestone, Center for Urban and Regional Policy (CURP), Northeastern University. [1]
  4. ^ City of Boston Archaeology Program and Lab
  5. ^ South End Historical Society
  6. ^ NWS Taunton, MA. Boston Daily Normals. Accessed April 19, 2006.
  7. ^ NWS Taunton, MA. Boston Temperature Records. Accessed February 9, 1934.
  8. ^ Gibson, Campbell (June 1998). Population of the 100 Largest Cities and Other Urban Places in the United States: 1790 to 1990. U.S. Bureau of the Census - Population Division.
  9. ^ Winship, Christopher (March 2002). End of a Miracle? Harvard University.
  10. ^ Boston Police Department's Monthly Crime Statistics (2005). CityOfBoston.gov.
  11. ^ Boston MA Crime Statistics (2004 - New Crime Data). areaConnect.com.
  12. ^ Viser, Matt, Slack, Donovan. "Hub's ballot practice illegal, Galvin says", The Boston Globe, 2006-11-11. Retrieved on 2006-11-11.
  13. ^ Top 100 NIH Cities, 2004. SSTI.org.
  14. ^ The Boston Public Schools at a Glance (2004). Boston Public School. Accessed October 5, 2005.
  15. ^ The Best Education in the Biggest Cities (2002).
  16. ^ Phelan, Joseph (11-2004). Boston Marathon. Artcyclopedia. Accessed October 1, 2005.
  17. ^ Holmes, Oliver Wendell (1858). The Autocrat of the Breakfast-Table. Phillips, Sampson and Company.; Holmes, Oliver Wendell [1858] (1891). The Autocrat of the Breakfast-Table. Houghton, Mifflin and Company. p. 172 "A jaunty-looking person... said there was one more wise man's saying that he had heard; it was about our place—but he didn't know who said it.... 'Boston State-House is the Hub of the Solar System. You couldn't pry that out of a Boston man if you had the tire of all creation straightened out for a crow-bar.'"
  18. ^ Their Nicknames (9/23/1889). Decatur Daily Dispatch, pg. 2? (Decatur, Illinois). found at listserv.linguistlist.org/cgi-bin/wa?A2=ind0307b&L=ads-l&P=2093.
  19. ^ Arbitron - Market Ranks and Schedule, 1-50 (Fall 2005).
  20. ^ Nielsen Media - DMA Listing (September 24, 2005).
  21. ^ http://www.celebrateboston.com/sites/bostoncommon.htm
  22. ^ Boston Skyscrapers. Skyscrapers.com. Accessed May 15, 2005.
  23. ^ 1903 World Series - Major League Baseball: World Series History. MLB.com.
  24. ^ Arthur A. Shurtleff. The Street Plan of the Metropolitan District of Boston. Landscape Architecture 1 (January 1911):71-83.
  25. ^ MacLaughlin, Nina (2006) Boston Can Be Bike City...If You Fix These Five Big Problems. The Phoenix - Bicycle Bible 2006.
  26. ^ David Fagundes, Anthony Grant (April 28, 2003). The Rough Guide to Boston. Rough Guides. ISBN 1-84353-044-9.

January 9 is the 9th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... April 19 is the 109th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (110th in leap years). ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... February 9 is the 40th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1934 (MCMXXXIV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ... The Boston Globe is the most widely-circulated daily newspaper in Boston, Massachusetts and in the greater New England region. ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... November 11 is the 315th day of the year (316th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 50 days remaining. ... October 5 is the 278th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (279th in Leap years). ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... October 1 is the 274th day of the year (275th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... September 24 is the 267th day of the year (268th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... May 15 is the 135th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (136th in leap years). ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... April 28 is the 118th day of the year (119th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 247 days remaining. ... 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

References

  • The Boston Indicators Project (2004). The Boston Foundation.
  • Cole, William I., "Boston's Pauper Institutions", The New England Magazine, Volume 24, Issue 2, April 1898 [3]
  • Downst, Henry P., "Random Notes of Boston", Humphrey Publishing, ca. 1916.
  • Ira Gershkoff and Richard Trachtman (2004). The Boston Driver's Handbook. Da Capo Press. ISBN 0-306-81326-2.
  • Patricia Harris and David Lyon (1999). Boston. Oakland, CA: Compass American Guides. ISBN 0-679-00284-7.
  • Howard Mumford Jones and Bessie Zaban Jones (1975). The Many Voices of Boston: A Historical Anthology 1630-1975. Boston: Little, Brown and Company. ISBN 0-316-47282-4.
  • Rambow, John D. et. al (2003). Fodor's Boston. New York: Fodors Travel Publication. ISBN 1-4000-1028-4.
  • "Some Events of Boston and Its Neighbors" (1917), printed for the State Street Trust Company (Boston, Massachusetts).
  • "The Islands of Boston Harbor" (1917), in "Some Events of Boston and Its Neighbors". Chapter 4. Printed for the State Street Trust Company (Boston, Massachusetts).
  • Vanderwarker, Peter (1982). Boston Then and Now. Courier Dover Publications. ISBN 0-486-24312-5.
  • Elevation data: USGS—Boston
  • Langford, Jane Ellen, "Colonial Boston Unearthed", Archaeology, Archaeological Institute of America, September 26, 1997. [4]
  • Winsor, Justin, Jewett, C.F., "The Memorial History of Boston Including Suffolk County, Massachusetts. 1630-1880", 1880. [5]

External links

Find more information on Boston by searching Wikipedia's sister projects:

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  • City's official website
    • Maps of Boston neighborhoods
  • Boston guide organized by square
  • Metro Boston Thought Aggregation & Mass Archiving Project
  • Crime Reports by Neighborhood
  • Greater Boston Chamber of Commerce
  • Greater Boston Convention & Visitors Bureau
  • Big RED and Shiny: Boston arts news
  • The Boston Historical Society
  • Boston travel guide from Wikitravel
  • Maps and aerial photos Coordinates: 42.35° -71.066666°
    • Street map from Google Maps, or Yahoo! Maps, or Windows Live Local
    • Satellite image from Google Maps, Windows Live Local, WikiMapia
    • Topographic map from TopoZone
    • Aerial image or topographic map from TerraServer-USA
  • WikiSatellite view of Boston at WikiMapia
  • Open Space Plan 2002-2006, City of Boston, maps and analyses
  • Radical Cartography: Unusual maps of Greater Boston
  • Boston blog network
  • High-Resolution aerial images and maps from the Mapsachusetts interactive map server.
Flag of Massachusetts Commonwealth of Massachusetts Seal
 Capital  Boston
 Regions 

The Berkshires | Blackstone Valley | Cape Ann | Cape Cod and the Islands | Greater Boston | Merrimack Valley | MetroWest | North Shore | Pioneer Valley | Quabbin Valley | South Coast | South Shore | Western Massachusetts Wikitravel is a project to create an open content, complete, up-to-date, and reliable world-wide travel guide. ... Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Massachusetts. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Chief Justice Associate Justices Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures State Courts Counties, Cities, and Towns Other countries â€¢ Politics Portal      A state of the United States is any one of the fifty subnational entities referred to... Official language(s) English Capital Boston Largest city Boston Area  Ranked 44th  - Total 10,555 sq mi (27,360 km²)  - Width 183 miles (295 km)  - Length 113 miles (182 km)  - % water 13. ... State seal of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts. ... Independence Hall in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, site of first U.S. capital. ... This list of regions of the United States includes official (governmental) and non-official areas within the borders of the United States, not including U.S. states, the federal district of Washington, D.C. or standard subentities such as cities or counties. ... The Berkshires (pronounced as berk-shurs or berk-sheers) are a branch of the Appalachian Mountains, centered in Western Massachusetts (with portions located in the adjacent states of Vermont, New York, and Connecticut). ... The Blackstone Valley or Blackstone River Valley is a region of Massachusetts and Rhode Island. ... Cape Ann, Massachusetts Landsat satellite photo of Cape Ann Cape Ann is a rocky peninsula located in northeastern Massachusetts on the Atlantic Ocean. ... Cape Cod and Cape Cod Bay from space. ... Greater Boston is the area of Massachusetts closely surrounding Boston, Massachusetts. ... The Merrimack River, formed by the confluence of the Pemigewasset River (left) and Winnipesaukee River (right) is shown on a map of the northeastern United States The Merrimack River (or Merrimac River, an earlier spelling that is sometimes still used) is a 110-mile-long (177-kilometer-long) river in... The MetroWest region is an area outside the city of Boston, in the state of Massachusetts. ... The North Shore is a region north of Boston, consisting chiefly of urban suburban communities of Essex County along Massachusetts Bay. ... The southern portion of the Pioneer Valley looking south down the Connecticut River. ... The Quabbin Valley is a region of Massachusetts. ... The South Coast of Massachusetts is generally considered to be the region of southeastern Massachusetts consisting of southern Bristol and Plymouth counties facing Buzzards Bay and includes the cities of Fall River and New Bedford. ... The South Shore of Massachusetts is a geographic region stretching south and east from Boston along the shore of Massachusetts Bay toward Cape Cod. ... Western Massachusetts is a loosely defined geographical region of the state of Massachusetts which contains the Berkshires and the Pioneer Valley. ...

Counties

Barnstable | Berkshire | Bristol | Dukes | Essex | Franklin | Hampden | Hampshire | Middlesex | Nantucket | Norfolk | Plymouth | Suffolk | Worcester This is a list of Massachusetts counties: Massachusetts counties Barnstable County: one of three original counties created in the Plymouth Colony in 1685. ... Barnstable County is a county located in the U.S. state of Massachusetts. ... Berkshire County is a county located in the U.S. state of Massachusetts. ... Bristol County is a county located in the U.S. state of Massachusetts. ... Dukes County is a county located in the state of Massachusetts. ... Essex County is a county located in the northeastern part of the state of Massachusetts. ... Franklin County is a county located in the state of Massachusetts. ... Hampden County is a county located in the state of Massachusetts. ... Hampshire County is a county located in the state of Massachusetts. ... Middlesex County is a county located in the commonwealth of Massachusetts. ... Nantucket is an island south of Cape Cod, Massachusetts, formed of glacial moraine. ... Norfolk County is a county located in the state of Massachusetts. ... Plymouth County is a county located in the U.S. state of Massachusetts. ... Suffolk County is a county located in the state of Massachusetts. ... Worcester County is a county located in the state of Massachusetts. ...

Cities

Agawam | Amesbury | Attleboro | Barnstable | Beverly | Boston | Brockton | Cambridge | Chelsea | Chicopee | Easthampton | Everett | Fall River | Fitchburg | Franklin | Gardner | Gloucester | Greenfield | Haverhill | Holyoke | Lawrence | Leominster | Lowell | Lynn | Malden | Marlborough | Medford | Melrose | Methuen | New Bedford | Newburyport | Newton | North Adams | Northampton | Peabody | Pittsfield | Quincy | Revere | Salem | Springfield | Somerville | Southbridge | Taunton | Waltham | Watertown | West Springfield | Westfield | Weymouth | Woburn | Worcester This is a complete list of cities in Massachusetts. ... Agawam is a city located in Hampden County, Massachusetts. ... For the town in Wiltshire, England, see Amesbury Seal of Amesbury, MA Amesbury is a city located in Essex County, Massachusetts. ...   Settled: 1634 â€“ Incorporated: 1694 Zip Code(s): 02703 â€“ Area Code(s): 508 / 774 Official website: http://www. ... Barnstable is a city located on Cape Cod in Massachusetts; it is the county seat of Barnstable County6. ...   Settled: 1626 â€“ Incorporated: 1626 Zip Code(s): 01915 â€“ Area Code(s): 351 / 978 Official website: www. ...   Settled: 1700 â€“ Incorporated: 1821 Zip Code(s): 02301 â€“ Area Code(s): 508 / 774 Official website: http://www. ...   Settled: 1630 â€“ Incorporated: 1636 Zip Code(s): 02138, 02139, 02140, 02141, 02142 â€“ Area Code(s): 617 / 857 Official website: http://www. ... Chelsea City Hall The City of Chelsea is located in Suffolk County, Massachusetts directly across the Mystic River from the City of Boston. ...   Settled: 1652 â€“ Incorporated: 1848 Zip Code(s): 01013 â€“ Area Code(s): 413 Official website: http://www. ...   The Town of Easthampton is a city[1] in Hampshire County, Massachusetts, United States. ...   Everett is a city in Middlesex County, Massachusetts near Boston. ... Settled: 1656 â€“ Incorporated: 1803 Zip Code(s): 02720-02724 â€“ Area Code(s): 508 / 774 Official website: http://www. ...   Nickname: River City Settled: 1730 â€“ Incorporated: 1764 Zip Code(s): 01420 â€“ Area Code(s): 351 / 978 Official website: http://www. ...   The Town of Franklin is a city[1] in Norfolk County, Massachusetts, United States. ... Settled: 1764 â€“ Incorporated: 1785 Zip Code(s): 01440 â€“ Area Code(s): 351 / 978 Official website: http://www. ... Settled: 1623 â€“ Incorporated: 1642 Zip Code(s): 01930 â€“ Area Code(s): 351 / 978 Official website: http://www. ... Seal of Greenfield, MA The Town of Greenfield, a city to be known as the Town of Greenfield is located in Franklin County, Massachusetts. ... Seal of Haverhill, MA Haverhill is a city located in Essex County, Massachusetts. ...   See Holyoke, Colorado for the city in Colorado. ... High Service Water Tower (1895), also called Tower Hill Water Tower, a notable eyecatcher or folly, named a Water Landmark in 1979 by the American Water Works Association. ...   Nickname: Pioneer Plastics City Settled: 1653 â€“ Incorporated: 1740 Zip Code(s): 01453 â€“ Area Code(s): 351 / 978 Official website: http://www. ...   Settled: 1653 â€“ Incorporated: 1826 Zip Code(s): 01852 â€“ Area Code(s): 351 / 978 Official website: http://www. ...   Settled: 1629 â€“ Incorporated: 1850 Zip Code(s): 01901-01905 â€“ Area Code(s): 339 / 781 Official website: http://www. ... Malden Auditorium in 1909   Settled: 1640 â€“ Incorporated: 1649 Zip Code(s): 02148 â€“ Area Code(s): 339 / 781 Official website: http://www. ...   Marlborough is a city in Middlesex County, Massachusetts, United States. ...   Nickname: medfa (bostonian) Settled: 1630 â€“ Incorporated: 1630 Zip Code(s): 02155 â€“ Area Code(s): 339 / 781 Official website: http://www. ... Melrose Veterans Memorial Middle School prior to its demolition in 2005 Melrose is a city located in the Greater Boston metropolitan area and Middlesex County, Massachusetts, United States. ... Seal of Methuen, MA The Town of Methuen is a city located in Essex County, Massachusetts. ...   Nickname: The Whaling City A view of New Bedford from the harbor Settled: 1640 â€“ Incorporated: 1787 Zip Code(s): 02740, 02744, 02745, 02746 â€“ Area Code(s): 508 / 774 Official website: http://www. ...   Settled: 1635 â€“ Incorporated: 1764 Zip Code(s): 01950 â€“ Area Code(s): 351 / 978 Official website: http://www. ...   Nickname: The Garden City Settled: 1639 â€“ Incorporated: 1688 Zip Code(s): 02446, 02458, 02459, 02460, 02461, 02462, 02464, 02465, 02467, 02468, 02495 â€“ Area Code(s): 617 / 857 Official website: http://www. ... Public Library in the 1920s North Adams is a city located in Berkshire County, Massachusetts. ...   Northampton is a city in Hampshire County, Massachusetts in the USA. The population was 28,978 at the 2000 census. ... Seal of Peabody, MA Peabody is a city located in Essex County, Massachusetts. ... Caption Pittsfield is a city located in Berkshire County, Massachusetts. ...   Settled: 1625 â€“ Incorporated: 1792 Zip Code(s): 02169, 02170, 02171 â€“ Area Code(s): 617 / 857 Location Location in Massachusetts Government County Norfolk County Form of Government Mayor-council city Mayor William J. Phelan Geography Area Total 26. ... Revere is a city located in Suffolk County, Massachusetts and borders Winthrop, East Boston and Chelsea to the south, Everett and Malden to the west, Saugus and Lynn to the north and the Atlantic Ocean to the east. ... Settled: 1626 â€“ Incorporated: 1626 Zip Code(s): 01970 â€“ Area Code(s): 351 / 978 Official website: http://www. ...   Nickname: City of Homes Springfield, Massachusetts - View from Highway Settled: 1636 â€“ Incorporated: 1636 Zip Code(s): 01103 01107 01108 01119 01129 â€“ Area Code(s): 413 Official website: http://www. ... Settled: 1630 â€“ Incorporated: 1842 Zip Code(s): 02143 â€“ Area Code(s): 617 / 857 Official website: http://www. ... The Town of Southbridge is a city[1] in Worcester County, Massachusetts, United States. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Often called the true birthplace of the industrial revolution, Waltham is a city in Middlesex County, Massachusetts, United States. ...   Settled: 1630 â€“ Incorporated: 1630 Zip Code(s): 02472 â€“ Area Code(s): 617 / 857 Official website: http://www. ... The Town of West Springfield is a city[1] in Hampden County, Massachusetts, United States. ... Nickname: The Whip City Founded Incorporated May 19, 1669   County Hampden County Mayor Richard K. Sullivan Jr. ... Settled: 1630 â€“ Incorporated: 1635 Zip Code(s): 02189 â€“ Area Code(s): 339 / 781 Official website: http://www. ... Benjamin Thompson House, Woburn, Massachusetts. ... Nickname: The Heart of the Commonwealth, The City of the Seven Hills, Wormtown, Woo-town, Wortown (war-town), The City of Diners, Paris of the Eighties Settled: 1673 â€“ Incorporated: 1684 Zip Code(s): 01608 â€“ Area Code(s): 508 / 774 Official website: http://www. ...

Topics

Culture | Geography | Government | History | Images | Towns This is the History of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, a state in the United States. ... The following is a list of towns in the Commonwealth of Massachusetts. ...


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