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Encyclopedia > Bossa nova
Bossa Nova
Stylistic origins: Afro-American jazz and Brazilian samba
Cultural origins: Late 1950s Rio de Janeiro's southside
Typical instruments: Acoustic guitar, piano, electronic organ, acoustic bass and drums
Mainstream popularity: Widely known in Brazil, also significant in the United States, Western Europe, Japan and the Philippines.
Subgenres
Tropicalismo (Tropicalism)
Other topics
Bossa Nova (dance)

Bossa Nova (pronunciation ) is a style of Brazilian music created by Vinicius de Moraes, Antônio Carlos Jobim and João Gilberto and was first introduced in Brazil in 1958, with Elizete Cardoso's recording of Chega de Saudade on the Canção do Amor Demais LP. Composed by Vinícius de Moraes (lyrics) and Antonio Carlos Jobim (music). The song was soon after released by Gilberto himself. Jazz is a musical art form that originated in New Orleans, Louisiana, United States around the start of the 20th century. ... Samba is one of the most popular forms of music in Brazil. ... This does not cite any references or sources. ... Location of Rio de Janeiro Coordinates: Country Brazil Region Southeast State Rio de Janeiro Government  - Mayor Cesar Maia (PFL) Area  - City 1,260 km²  (486. ... A musical instrument is a device constructed or modified with the purpose of making music. ... A classical guitar, also called a Spanish guitar, is a musical instrument from the family of musical instruments called chordophones. ... A short grand piano, with the top up. ... Classic Hammond B-3 organ. ... Fender Precision Bass Bass Guitar is a commonly spoken phrase used to refer to the electric bass and horizontal acoustic basses, a stringed instrument similar in design to the electric guitar, but larger in size, commonly fretted and sometimes fretless and with a lower range. ... For other kinds of drums, see drum (disambiguation). ... The borders of Western Europe were largely defined by the Cold War. ... Bossa nova was a fad dance that corresponded to the bossa nova music. ... Bossa Nova may refer to: Bossa nova, a style of music Bossa Nova (dance), a dance form associated with the music Bossanova, an album by the rock band the Pixies Bossa Nova (film), a 2000 film Category: ... Image File history File links Br-BossaNova. ... Strong influences on the music of Brazil come from Africa, India, Portugal and the natives of the Amazon rainforest and of other parts of the country. ... Vinicius de Moraes (October 19, 1913 - July 9, 1980), born Marcus Vinícius da Cruz de Melo Morais in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, was a seminal figure in contemporary Brazilian music. ... Antônio Carlos Brasileiro de Almeida Jobim (January 25, 1927 in Rio de Janeiro – December 8, 1994 in New York City), or Tom Jobim (as he is fondly known in his home country), was a Brazilian composer, arranger, singer, pianist/guitarist and one of the primary forces behind the creation... João Gilberto (born João Gilberto Prado Pereira de Oliveira on June 10, 1931 in the town of Juazeiro, Bahia) is a Brazilian musician and considered one of the co-creators, with Tom Jobim, of bossa nova. ... Year 1958 (MCMLVIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Elizete Moreira Cardoso (often listed as Elizeth Cardoso) (July 16, 1920 – May 7, 1990), was a singer and actress of great renown in Brazil. ... Chega de Saudade is the first bossa nova song. ... Elizete Cardosos 1958 album Canção do Amor Demais is officially considered the first bossa nova album, mostly because it was the first time Joao Gilbertos guitar beat (from then on the official bossa beat) was heard. ... LP or lp may stand for: Look up LP in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


With João Gilberto as "guru", Bossa Nova acquired a large following right away, initially by young musicians and college students. Since then, people of all ages and walks of life have become admirers of the style.

Contents

Origins and history

The musical style evolved from samba but is more complex harmonically and is less percussive. The influence on Bossa Nova of Afro-American jazz styles such as cool jazz is often debated by historians and fans, but a similar "cool sensibility" is apparent. Samba is the most famous of the various forms of music arising from the amalgam of African and Portuguese music in Brazil. ... Jazz is a musical art form that originated in New Orleans, Louisiana, United States around the start of the 20th century. ... CD reissue of Daviss 1957 LP Birth of the Cool, collecting much of his 1949 to 1950 work. ...


The initial releases by Gilberto and the 1959 film Black Orpheus brought huge popularity in Brazil and elsewhere in Latin America, which spread to North America by way of visiting American jazz musicians. The resulting recordings by Charlie Byrd and Stan Getz cemented its popularity and led to a worldwide boom with 1963's Getz/Gilberto, numerous recordings by famous jazz performers such as Ella Fitzgerald (Ella Abraça Jobim) and Frank Sinatra (Francis Albert Sinatra & Antônio Carlos Jobim), and the entrenchment of the Bossa Nova style as a lasting influence in world music for several decades and even up to the present. The first Bossa Nova single was perhaps the most successful of all time: The Getz/Gilberto recording "The Girl From Ipanema" edited to include only the singing of Astrud Gilberto (Gilberto's then-wife). The resulting fad was not unlike the disco craze of the 1970s. The genre would withstand substantial "watering down" by popular artists throughout the next four decades. 1959 (MCMLIX) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Black Orpheus (Orfeu Negro in Portuguese) is a 1959 film made in Brazil by French director Marcel Camus. ... Latin America consists of the countries of South America and some of North America (including Central America and some the islands of the Caribbean) whose inhabitants mostly speak Romance languages, although Native American languages are also spoken. ... Charles L. Byrd (September 16, 1925 - November 30, 1999), better known as Charlie Byrd, was a famous jazz guitarist, born in Suffolk, Virginia. ... Stanley Gayetsky (February 2, 1927 in Philadelphia – June 6, 1991 in Malibu, California), usually known by his stage name Stan Getz, was an American jazz musician. ... Getz/Gilberto, is an album by Stan Getz and João Gilberto, featuring [[Antonio Carlos Jobim], released in 1964. ... Ella Fitzgerald (April 25, 1917 – June 15, 1996), also known as Lady Ella and the First Lady of Song, is considered one of the most influential jazz vocalists of the 20th Century. ... Ella Abraça Jobim or Ella Fitzgerald Sings the Antonio Carlos Jobim Songbook is a 1981 studio album by Ella Fitzgerald, devoted to the songs of Antonio Carlos Jobim. ... Francis Albert Sinatra (December 12, 1915 – May 14, 1998) was a jazz oriented popular singer and Academy Award-winning actor. ... Francis Albert Sinatra & Antonio Carlos Jobim is an 1967 album by Frank Sinatra and featuring Brazilian musician Antonio Carlos Jobim. ... The Girl from Ipanema (Garota de Ipanema) is a well known bossa nova song, and was a worldwide hit in the mid-1960s. ...


An early influence of Bossa Nova was the song "Dans mon île" by French singer Henri Salvador, featured in a 1957 Italian movie distributed in Brazil (Europa di notte by Alessandro Blasetti) and covered later by Brazilian artists Eumir Deodato (Los Danseros en Bolero - 1964) and Caetano himself (Outras Palavras - 1981). In 2005, Henri Salvador was awarded the Brazilian Order of Cultural Merit, which he received from singer and Minister of Culture, Gilberto Gil, in the presence of President Lúiz da Silva for his influence on Brazilian culture. Trancoso 22:20, 14 October 2006 (UTC)Henri Salvador (born July 18, 1917, Cayenne, French Guiana) is a French singer. ... Year 1957 (MCMLVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1957 Gregorian calendar). ... Alessandro Blasetti (3 July 1900, Rome, Latium, Italy, 1 February 1987, Rome, Lazio, Italy was an Italian film director who influenced Italian neorealism. ... Photo insert from the first album (Prelude) - 1972 Eumir Deodato (born on 22 June 1943 in Rio de Janeiro) is a Brazilian artist, producer and arranger primarily based in the jazz realm but who historically has been known for eclectic melding of big band and combo jazz with varied elements... 1964 (MCMLXIV) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (the link is to a full 1964 calendar). ... Year 1981 (MCMLXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link displays the 1981 Gregorian calendar). ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The minister sets the rhythm for Brazils culture policy Gilberto Passos Gil Moreira (born June 26, 1942) is a Brazilian singer, guitarist and songwriter, and the countrys current Minister of Culture. ...


Instruments

Bossa Nova is most commonly performed on the nylon-string classical guitar, played with the fingers rather than with a pick. Its purest form could be considered unaccompanied guitar with vocals, as exemplified by João Gilberto. Even in larger jazz-like arrangements for groups, there is almost always a guitar that plays the underlying rhythm. A classical guitar, also called a Spanish guitar, is a musical instrument from the family of musical instruments called chordophones. ... João Gilberto (born João Gilberto Prado Pereira de Oliveira on June 10, 1931 in the town of Juazeiro, Bahia) is a Brazilian musician and considered one of the co-creators, with Tom Jobim, of bossa nova. ...


Though not as prominent as the guitar, the piano is another important instrument of bossa nova; Jobim wrote for the piano and performed on it for most of his own recordings. The piano has also served as a stylistic bridge between Bossa Nova and jazz, enabling a great deal of cross-pollination between the two. A short grand piano, with the top up. ... Antônio Carlos Brasileiro de Almeida Jobim (January 25, 1927 in Rio de Janeiro – December 8, 1994 in New York City), or Tom Jobim (as he is fondly known in his home country), was a Brazilian composer, arranger, singer, pianist/guitarist and one of the primary forces behind the creation...


Drums and percussion are not considered essential Bossa Nova instruments. Nonetheless, there is a distinctive Bossa Nova drumming style like that of Helcio Milito, characterized by continuous eighths on the high-hat (mimicking the samba tambourine) and tapping of the rim or "rim clicks" in a clave pattern. The bass drum usually mimics the string bass by playing on "1-&3-&1" as the string bass usually does. For other kinds of drums, see drum (disambiguation). ... A percussion instrument is any object which produces a sound by being struck with an implement, shaken, rubbed, scraped, or by any other action which sets the object into vibration. ... Hélcio Pascoal Milito is a Brazilian jazz samba/bossa nova drummer who has worked with some of the biggest names in bossa nova, including musicians like Luiz Bonfa, Joao Gilberto, Astrud Gilberto and Luíz Eça. ... The High Hat album is a US album compiling tracks from Boy Georges two solo albums, Tense Nervous Headache and Boyfriend. ... The tambourine, also known as the Marine, is a musical instrument of the percussion family consisting of a a wooden or plastic frame with pairs of small metal jingles. ... The term clave may refer to Clave, a rhythmic pattern Claves, a percussion instrument This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ...


Lush orchestral accompaniment is often associated with Bossa Nova's North American image as "elevator" or "lounge" music. It is present in much of Jobim's own recordings, and those of Astrud Gilberto. Dusty Springfield would both feature and epitomize this element on her Philips (versus the Phil Ramone version she first recorded) recording of "The Look of Love" (written by Bacharach and David, the song is one of the most respected American pop interpretations of the genre). The unique aural "texture" of Bossa strings, when used, is an important secondary characteristic of the genre. Bossa Nova is at heart a folk genre, and not all Bossa Nova records have strings, but the authentic ones that do have them feature them in a most distinct manner. Elevator music, also known as lift music (in the UK), piped music or muzak, refers to the gentle, bland instrumental arrangements of popular music designed for play in shopping malls, grocery stores, telephone systems (while the caller is on hold), cruise ships, airports, and of course, elevators. ... Lounge music refers to music played in the lounges and bars of hotels and casinos, or at standalone piano bars. ... Astrud Gilberto Astrud Gilberto (born March 29, 1940) is a Brazilian singer best known for her samba and bossa nova music. ... Dusty Springfield OBE (16 April 1939 - 2 March 1999) was a popular English singer whose career spanned four decades. ... Philips Records is a record label that was founded by Dutch electronics giant Philips. ... Phil Ramone is a violinist, composer, recording engineer, and innovative record producer. ... The Look of Love is the sixth album by Canadian jazz pianist and vocalist Diana Krall, released in 2001 (see 2001 in music). ... A string instrument (or stringed instrument) is a musical instrument that produces sound by means of vibrating strings. ...

Further information: Eumir Deodato

Photo insert from the first album (Prelude) - 1972 Eumir Deodato (born on 22 June 1943 in Rio de Janeiro) is a Brazilian artist, producer and arranger primarily based in the jazz realm but who historically has been known for eclectic melding of big band and combo jazz with varied elements...

Structure

Bossa Nova is at its core a rhythm based on samba. Samba combines the rhythmic patterns and feel originating in former African slave communities with elements of European march music. Samba's emphasis on the first beat carries through to Bossa Nova (to the degree that it is often notated in 2/2 time). When played on the guitar, the thumb plays the bass notes on 1 and 3, while the fingers pluck the chords in unison on 1 and 2, delayed on 3. Overall, the rhythm has a swaying rather than swinging (as in jazz) feel. As bossa nova composer Carlos Lyra describes it in his song "Influência do Jazz", the samba rhythm moves "side to side" while jazz moves "front to back". Rhythm (Greek = flow, or in Modern Greek, style) is the variation of the length and accentuation of a series of sounds or other events. ... Samba is one of the most popular forms of music in Brazil. ... World map showing the location of Europe. ... This article is about music. ... See also the beat disambiguation page. ... Carlos Lyra is a Brazilian musician and composer of numerous bossa nova classics. ...


In terms of harmonic structure, Bossa Nova has a great deal in common with jazz, in its sophisticated use of seventh and extended chords. The first Bossa Nova song, "Chega de Saudade," borrowed some structural elements from choro; however, later compositions rarely followed this form. Jobim often used challenging, almost dissonant melody lines, the best-known being in the tunes "Desafinado" ("Off-Key"). Harmony is the use and study of pitch simultaneity, and therefore chords, actual or implied, in music. ... Jazz is a musical art form that originated in New Orleans, Louisiana, United States around the start of the 20th century. ... Extended chords are tertian chords (built from thirds) or triads with notes extended, or added, beyond the seventh, including all the thirds in between the seventh and the extended note. ... Chega de Saudade is the first bossa nova song. ... Choro, also called chorinho, is a Brazilian popular music style. ... Desafinado is a bossa nova song composed by Antonio Carlos Jobim with lyrics by Newton Mendonça. ...


In the early Bossa Nova recordings, in terms of lyrical themes and length of songs (typically two to four minutes), Bossa Nova is very much a "popular music" style. However, the typical structure differs slightly from European and North American rock-based music's standard format of two verses followed by a bridge, and a closing verse; Bossa Nova songs usually have no more than two lyrical verses, and almost never a bridge. Some of João Gilberto's earliest recordings were less than two minutes long, and some had a single lyrical verse that was simply repeated.


Origin of the term "bossa nova"

In Brazil, to do something with "Bossa" is to do it with particular charm and natural flair, as in an innate ability. In 1932, Noel Rosa used the word in a samba...which went O samba, a prontidão e outras bossas / São nossas coisas, são coisas nossas (The samba, the readiness and other bossas / Are our things, are our things.) Noel de Medeiros Rosa (Rio de Janeiro, 11 December 1910 - 4 May 1937) was a brazilian singer, composer and guitar/banjo player. ...


Brazilian author, Ruy Castro, in his book Bossa Nova says that "Bossa" was already in use in the Fifties by musicians as a word to characterize someone's knack for playing or singing idiosyncratically. He cites a claim that the term "Bossa Nova" might have first been used in publicity for a concert given by the Grupo Universitário Hebraico do Brasil (University Hebrew Group of Brazil) in 1958 for a group consisting of Sylvinha Telles, Carlinhos Lyra, Nara Leão, Luizinho Eça, Roberto Menescal, et al.

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As yet, the exact origin of the term "Bossa Nova" remains uncertain. What is certain is that the term "Bossa" was used to refer to any new "trend" or "fashionable wave" within the artistic beach-culture of late 1950's Rio de Janeiro.[citation needed] The term finally became known and widely used to refer to a new music style, a fusion of Samba and Jazz, when the now famous creators of "Bossa Nova" referred to their new style of work as "a Bossa Nova", as in "the new thing".[citation needed] Image File history File links Unbalanced_scales. ... Image File history File links Unbalanced_scales. ...


They were likely using the term "Bossa Nova" then as a generic reference to what they were doing in music at the time, which had no particular name yet. However, the term took hold as the definition of their own specific artistic creation,[citation needed] which became known as "Bossa Nova" then or simply as "Bossa", as we refer to it nowadays.


To this day in Brazil, the word "Bossa" when used alone can still be a reference to "style" or "flair", as it was in the days when "bossa nova" was created.


Later developments

From the mid-nineties, various other European artists reached out to Bossa Nova for inspiration mixing electronic music into it and bringing new creations sometimes referred to as BossaElectrica, TecnoBossa, etc. which still permeates the air of lounge bars of Europe and Asia today (especially in the Philippines).


From this newer crop of artists came new singers like Bebel Gilberto, daughter of Bossa Nova co-creator João Gilberto and singer Miúcha, and new European bands like Nouvelle Vague to name a few, who used both conventional Bossa Nova style and modern views to further interpret this fabulously soothing style of music that originated in Rio de Janeiro-Brazil back in the 1950’s. Bebel Gilberto (born Isabel Gilberto on May 12, 1966 in New York City) is a Brazilian popular singer often associated with bossa nova. ... Nouvelle Vague (French for new wave AND (Portuguese for bossa nova) is a bossa nova group initiated by French musicians Marc Collin and Olivier Libaux. ...


Important bossa nova artists

João Gilberto (born João Gilberto Prado Pereira de Oliveira on June 10, 1931 in the town of Juazeiro, Bahia) is a Brazilian musician and considered one of the co-creators, with Tom Jobim, of bossa nova. ... Antônio Carlos Brasileiro de Almeida Jobim (January 25, 1927 in Rio de Janeiro – December 8, 1994 in New York City), or Tom Jobim (as he is fondly known in his home country), was a Brazilian composer, arranger, singer, pianist/guitarist and one of the primary forces behind the creation... Vinicius de Moraes (October 19, 1913 - July 9, 1980), born Marcus Vinícius da Cruz de Melo Morais in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, was a seminal figure in contemporary Brazilian music. ... Carlos Lyra is a Brazilian musician and composer of numerous bossa nova classics. ... Luiz Bonfá (October 17, 1922 - January 12, 2001) was a Brazilian guitarist and composer most widely known for the compositions he penned for the film Black Orpheus. ... Nara Loffego Leão (January 19, 1942 – June 7, 1989) was a Brazilian bossa nova singer and occasional actress. ... Astrud Gilberto Astrud Gilberto (born March 29, 1940) is a Brazilian singer best known for her samba and bossa nova music. ... Roberto Menescal (born October 25, 1937) is a Brazilian guitarist important to the founding of bossa nova. ... Charles L. Byrd (September 16, 1925 - November 30, 1999), better known as Charlie Byrd, was a famous jazz guitarist, born in Suffolk, Virginia. ... Quarteto em Cy is a quartet of Salvadorean sisters from the Tropicalia musical movement in Brazil. ... Marcos Valle (born September 14, 1943 in Rio de Janeiro) is a Brazilian singer, songwriter and record producer. ... Stanley Gayetsky (February 2, 1927 in Philadelphia – June 6, 1991 in Malibu, California), usually known by his stage name Stan Getz, was an American jazz musician. ... Toquinho is a Brazilian singer and guitarist. ... Milton Banana was one of the seminal drummers of the bossa nova style of jazz. ... Elza Soares is a Brazilian singer. ...

References

  • Castro, Ruy (trans. by Lysa Salsbury). "Bossa Nova: The Story of the Brazilian Music That Seduced the World." 2000. 1st English language edition. A Capella Books, an imprint of Chicago Review Press, Inc. ISBN 1-55652-409-9 First published in Brasil by Companhia das Letras. 1990.
  • McGowan, Chris and Pessanha, Ricardo. "The Brazilian Sound: Samba, Bossa Nova and the Popular Music of Brazil." 1998. 2nd edition. Temple University Press. ISBN 1-56639-545-3
  • Mei, Giancarlo. Canto Latino: Origine, Evoluzione e Protagonisti della Musica Popolare del Brasile. 2004. Stampa Alternativa-Nuovi Equilibri. Preface by Sergio Bardotti and postface by Milton Nascimento.

See also

Samba is one of the most popular forms of music in Brazil. ... Bossa nova was a fad dance that corresponded to the bossa nova music. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Bossa Nova, Samba, Choro & MPB Song Words and Music Authors - Jobim, Gilberto, Vinicius (0 words)
The period of Bossa Nova began in the middle 20th century, also leaning on the existing Brazilian styles.
This music was strongly supported by Ary himself and played by Bonfa, Caymmi and others, but the best known name and probably the greatest Brazilian composers of all times, considered often as the inventor of this music was Antonio Carlos Jobim.
The latter had by the end of his life been devoted to Bossa Nova and is by now probably best known by his bossa interpretations that he did together with Jobim, Bonfa, Gilberto and his wife Astrud.
Bossa Nova Home and Abroad (2696 words)
Bossa Nova altered several stylistic parameters, seeking dynamic integration of melody, harmony and rhythm while de-emphasizing the vocalist as the center of attention.
Emphasizing the links between jazz and Bossa Nova, he argued that the music of Jobim and his associates was a culturally estranged product that contributed to the alienation of the Brazilian public by turning away from the samba, the true tradition of the people, and by encouraging adulation of North American values.
Bossa Nova became a permanent part of the jazz repertory, to judge by the number of compositions by Jobim in the "real book", the collection of lead sheets and charts professional musicians most often consult.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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