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Encyclopedia > Bosporus

I LOVE BORAT!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!Two bridges cross the Bosporus. The first, the Bosphorus Bridge, is 1074 metres long and was completed in 1973. The second, Fatih Sultan Mehmet (Bosphorus II) bridge, is 1090 metres long, and was completed in 1988 about five kilometres north of the first bridge. A third road bridge is also being planned for one of seven locations designated by the Turkish Government. The location is being kept secret to avoid an early explosion in land prices. volcanic rock. ... View of the Asian side The Bosphorus Bridge, also called the First Bosphorus Bridge (Turkish: BoÄŸaziçi Köprüsü or ) is a bridge in Istanbul, Turkey spanning the Bosphorus strait (Turkish: BoÄŸaziçi). ... For the song by James Blunt, see 1973 (song). ... The Asiatic side of the bridge. ... Year 1988 (MCMLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Friday (link displays 1988 Gregorian calendar). ...


Another crossing, Marmaray, is a 13.7 kilometre-long rail tunnel currently under construction and expected to be completed in 2008. Approximately 1,400 metres of the tunnel will run under the strait, at a depth of about 55 metres. Marmaray is the name for a project to link the European and Anatolian halves of Istanbul by an undersea rail tunnel across the Bosphorus strait. ... French 1912 drawing of typical elements of railways Railway tracks running through Stanhope railway station in North East England, UK A railway yard in Portland, Oregon. ... A disused railway tunnel now converted to pedestrian and bicycle use, near Houyet, Belgium A tunnel is an underground passage. ... 2008 (MMVIII) will be a leap year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Contents

Associations

Panoramic view of the Bosporus from the hills of the Ulus neighbourhood
Panoramic view of the Bosporus from the hills of the Ulus neighbourhood
View of the Bebek neighbourhood from the hills of the Bosporus
View of the Bebek neighbourhood from the hills of the Bosporus
620 historic waterfront houses (yalı) stretch along the coasts of the Bosporus, such as the "yalı" of Kıbrıslı Mehmed Emin Pasha (Mehmed Emin Pasha the Cypriot)
Yalıs in Arnavutköy on the Bosporus

The name comes from the Greek word Bosporos (Βόσπορος).[1] Its etymology is from bous (βοῦς: ox)[2] and poros (πόρος: passage, strait),[3] thus meaning "oxen passage", which could reflect the older history of the region. The Greeks wrongly analysed it as "ox-ford" or "shallow sea ox passage"[1] and associated it with the myth of Io's travels after Zeus turned her into an ox for her protection.[4] It has also been thought to be a Thracian form of Phôsphoros (Φωσφόρος), 'light-bearing', an epithet of the goddess Hecate. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 267 pixelsFull resolution (2420 × 808 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 267 pixelsFull resolution (2420 × 808 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2592 × 1944 pixel, file size: 2. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2592 × 1944 pixel, file size: 2. ... Bebek is a district of the city of Istanbul. ... Image File history File links KibrisliMehmetEminPashaYalisiKandilliIstanbul. ... Image File history File links KibrisliMehmetEminPashaYalisiKandilliIstanbul. ... A Yalı is a waterfront summer mansion and residence, which were established in timber construction method particularly on the bank of the Bosphorus in Istanbul. ... Kıbrıslı Mehmed Emin Pasha mansion (yalı) in Kandilli, BoÄŸaziçi, Ä°stanbul, acquired in 1840 and largely extended by the Pasha and owned today by his descendants Kıbrıslı Mehmed Emin PaÅŸa (Mehmed Emin Pasha the Cypriot) was an Ottoman statesman of Turkish Cypriot origin who... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (800x640, 110 KB) Licensing I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (800x640, 110 KB) Licensing I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... A Yalı is a waterfront summer mansion and residence, which were established in timber construction method particularly on the bank of the Bosphorus in Istanbul. ... Arnavutköy (meaning Albanian village in Turkish) is a historic neighborhood in Istanbul, famous for its wooden Ottoman mansions and fish restaurants as well as the prestigious Robert College campus with its centennial buildings. ... Not to be confused with Entomology, the scientific study of insects. ... A ford, with pedestrian footbridge, on a minor road near Weimar bei Kassel in Germany The ford at Brockenhurst, leading into the village centre, following heavy rain. ... The bust of Zeus found at Otricoli (Sala Rotonda, Museo Pio-Clementino, Vatican) Greek mythology is the body of stories belonging to the Ancient Greeks concerning their gods and heroes, the nature of the world and the origins and significance of their own cult and ritual practices. ... Jupiter and Io, Renaissance masterwork by Antonio da Correggio. ... Binomial name Bos taurus Linnaeus, 1758 Cattle are domesticated ungulates, a member of the subfamily Bovinae of the family Bovidae. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ...


It is also said in myth that floating rocks known as the Symplegades or Clashing Rocks once crushed any ship that attempted passage of the Bosporus until the hero Jason obtained passage, whereupon the rocks became fixed, and Greek access to the Black Sea was opened. In Greek mythology, the Symplegades were a pair of rocks at the Hellespont that clashed together randomly. ... This article is about the hero from Greek mythology. ...


Formation of the Bosporus

Rumelihisarı on the Bosporus
Rumelihisarı on the Bosporus

The exact cause for the formation of the Bosporus remains the subject of vigorous debate among geologists. Thousands of years ago, the Black Sea became disconnected from the Aegean Sea. One recent theory (published in 1997 by William Ryan and Walter Pitman from Columbia University) contends that the Bosporus was formed about 5600 BCE when the rising waters of the Mediterranean/Sea of Marmara breached through to the Black Sea, which at the time (according to the theory) was a low-lying body of fresh water. The Black Sea deluge is a hypothesized prehistoric flood that occurred when the Black Sea rapidly filled, possibly forming the basis for some Great Flood myths. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1188x675, 324 KB) Rumeli Fortress, Istanbul photo by Radomil talk File links The following pages link to this file: Rumelihisari Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to create or digitize it. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1188x675, 324 KB) Rumeli Fortress, Istanbul photo by Radomil talk File links The following pages link to this file: Rumelihisari Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to create or digitize it. ... Rumelihisarı, seen from the Bosporus. ... For other uses, see Black Sea (disambiguation). ... Look up Aegean Sea in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Walter Pitman (born May 18, 1929) is a Canadian educator and former politician. ... Columbia University is a private research university in the United States and a member of the prestigious Ivy League. ... BCE is a TLA that may stand for: Before the Common Era, date notation equivalent to BC (e. ... Map of the Sea of Marmara Satellite view of the Sea of Marmara The Sea of Marmara (Turkish: Marmara Denizi, Modern Greek: Θάλασσα του Μαρμαρά or Προποντίδα) (also known as the Sea of Marmora or the Marmara Sea) is an inland sea that connects the Black Sea to the Aegean Sea, thus separating the... For other uses, see Black Sea (disambiguation). ...


Some have argued[citation needed] that the resulting massive flooding of the inhabited and probably farmed northern shores of the Black Sea is thought to be the historic basis for the flood stories found in the Epic of Gilgamesh and in the Bible in Genesis, Chapters 6-9. On the other hand, there is also evidence for a flood of water going in the opposite direction, from the Black Sea into the Sea of Marmara[citation needed] around 7000 or 8000 BCE. This article is about great floods. ... The Epic of Gilgamesh is an epic poem from Babylonia and is among the earliest known literary works. ... This Gutenberg Bible is displayed by the United States Library. ... Genesis (‎, Greek: Γένεσις, meaning birth, creation, cause, beginning, source or origin) is the first book of the Torah, the Tanakh, and the Old Testament of the Bible. ... Map of the Sea of Marmara Satellite view of the Sea of Marmara The Sea of Marmara (Turkish: Marmara Denizi, Modern Greek: Θάλασσα του Μαρμαρά or Προποντίδα) (also known as the Sea of Marmora or the Marmara Sea) is an inland sea that connects the Black Sea to the Aegean Sea, thus separating the...


Ancient Greece, Rome, the Byzantines and the Ottoman Empire

"The Bosphorus with the Castles of Europe (Rumelihisarı) and Asia (Anadoluhisarı)". 19th century engraving by Thomas Allom.
"The Bosphorus with the Castles of Europe (Rumelihisarı) and Asia (Anadoluhisarı)". 19th century engraving by Thomas Allom.

St. Jerome's Vulgate translates the Hebrew besepharad in Obadiah, 1-20 as "Bosforus",[5] but other translations give it as "Sepharad" (probably Sardis, but later identified with Spain). Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Rumelihisarı, seen from the Bosporus. ... Anadoluhisarı is a fortress located in Istanbul, Turkey on the Anatolian (Asian) side of the Bosporus giving the name of the quarter around it. ... Thomas Allom (13 March 1804 - 21 August 1872) was an English artist, topographical illustrator and architect, and one of the founder members of what eventually became the Royal Institute of British Architects (RIBA). ... “Saint Jerome” redirects here. ... The Vulgate Bible is an early 5th century version in Latin, partly revised and partly translated by Jerome on the orders of Pope Damasus I in 382. ... Sepharad is a Biblical placename of uncertain location. ... A recent view of the ceremonial court of the thermae–gymnasium complex in Sardis, dated to 211—212 AD Sardis, also Sardes (Lydian: Sfard, Greek: Σάρδεις, Persian: Sparda), modern Sart in the Manisa province of Turkey, was the capital of the ancient kingdom of Lydia, the seat of a proconsul under...


As the narrowest point of passage between the Black Sea and the Mediterranean, the Bosporus has always been of great commercial and strategic importance. The Greek city-state of Athens in the 5th century BC, which was dependent on grain imports from Scythia, therefore maintained critical alliances with cities which controlled the straits, such as the Megarian colony Byzantium. Athens is the largest and the capital city of Greece, located in the Attica periphery. ... (2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC - 1st millennium) The 5th century BC started on January 1, 500 BC and ended on December 31, 401 BC. // The Parthenon of Athens seen from the hill of the Pnyx to the west. ... Approximate extent of Scythia and Sarmatia in the 1st century BC (the orange background shows the spread of Eastern Iranian languages, among them Scytho-Sarmatian). ... Megara (Greek: Μέγαρα (Big Houses); see also List of traditional Greek place names) is an ancient city in Attica, Greece. ... Byzantium (Greek: Βυζάντιον) was an ancient Greek city, which, according to legend, was founded by Greek colonists from Megara in 667 BC and named after their king Byzas or Byzantas (Βύζας or Βύζαντας in Greek). ...


The strategic significance of the strait was one of the factors in the decision of the Roman Emperor Constantine the Great to found there in 330 AD his new capital, Constantinople, which came to be known as the capital of the Eastern Roman Empire. On May 29, 1453 it was conquered by the emerging Ottoman Empire. In fact, as the Ottoman Turks closed in on Constantinople, they constructed a fortification on each side of the strait, Anadoluhisarı (1393) and Rumelihisarı (1451). They later renamed the city Istanbul. Flavius Valerius Aurelius Constantinus[2] (27 February c. ... Events May 11 - Constantine I refounds Byzantium, renames it New Rome, and moves the capital of the Roman Empire there from Rome. ... This article is about the city before the Fall of Constantinople (1453). ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Byzantine Empire. ... For other uses, see Ottoman (disambiguation). ... Anadoluhisarı is a fortress located in Istanbul, Turkey on the Anatolian (Asian) side of the Bosporus giving the name of the quarter around it. ... Events Ottoman Turks occupy Veliko Turnovo in north-central Bulgaria. ... Rumelihisarı, seen from the Bosporus. ... // Events February 3 - Murad II, Sultan of the Ottoman Empire dies and is succeeded by his son Mehmed II. April 11 - Celje acquires market-town status and town rights by orders from the Celje count Frederic II. June 30 - French troops under the Comte de Dunois invade Guyenne and capture... Istanbul (Turkish: , Greek: , historically Byzantium and later Constantinople; see other names) is Turkeys most populous city, and its cultural and financial center. ...


Strategic importance

The strategic importance of the Bosporus remains high, and control over it has been an objective of a number of hostilities in modern history, notably the Russo-Turkish War, 1877-1878, as well as of the attack of the Allied Powers on the Dardanelles in 1915 in the course of the First World War. Several international treaties have governed vessels using the waters, including the Montreux Convention Regarding the Regime of the Turkish Straits, signed in 1936. In the conferences during World War II, Soviet leader Josef Stalin openly requested the concession of Soviet military bases on the Turkish Straits, even though Turkey was not involved in the war. This incident, coupled with Stalin's demands for the restitution of the Turkish provinces of Kars, Artvin and Ardahan to the Soviet Union (which were lost by Turkey with the Russo-Turkish War (1877-1878) but were regained with the Treaty of Kars in 1921) was one of the main reasons why Turkey decided to give up its principle of neutrality in foreign affairs and join NATO in 1952.[6][7][8][9] In more recent years, the Turkish Straits have become particularly important for the oil industry. Russian oil, from ports such as Novorossyisk, is exported by tankers to western Europe and the U.S. via the Bosphorus and the Dardanelles straits. Plevna Monument near the walls of Kitai-gorod. ... Map of the World showing the participants in World War I. Those fighting on the Allies side (at one point or another) are depicted in green, the Central Powers in orange, and neutral countries in gray. ... Map of the Dardanelles The Dardanelles (Turkish: Çanakkale Boğazı, Greek: Δαρδανέλλια, Dardanellia), formerly known as the Hellespont (Greek: Eλλήσποντος, Hellespontos), is a narrow strait in northwestern Turkey connecting the Aegean Sea to the Sea of Marmara. ... Year 1915 (MCMXV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday[1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Ypres, 1917, in the vicinity of the Battle of Passchendaele. ... Montreux Convention Regarding the Regime of the Turkish Straits was a 1936 agreement that gives Turkey control over the Bosporus and the Dardanelles. ... 1936 (MCMXXXVI) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... (Russian, in full: Ио́сиф Виссарио́нович Ста́лин [Iosif Vissarionovich Stalin]; December 18 [O.S. December 6] 1878[1] – March 5, 1953) was the leader of the Soviet Union from the mid-1920s to his death in 1953 and General Secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (1922-1953... Bosporus - photo taken from International Space Station. ... Kars (Armenian: Կարս) is a city in northeast Turkey and the capital of the Kars Province, formerly at the head of a sanjak in the Turkish vilayet of Erzurum. ... Artvin is a city in north-eastern Turkey. ... Ardahan ( Ardı han in old Turkish, Արդահան in Armenian) is the capital of Ardahan Province in north-eastern Turkey. ... It has been suggested that Romanian War of Independence be merged into this article or section. ... Soviet-Turkish border as per treaty The Treaty of Kars (Turkish: Kars Antlaşması, Russian: Карсский договор) was a friendship treaty[1] between TBMM, (which was declared Turkey in 1923), and the Soviet Union by the representatives of Russian SFSR, Azerbaijan SSR, Armenian SSR, Georgian SSR. It was signed in Kars on... NATO 2002 Summit in Prague. ... For other uses, see Novorossiysk (disambiguation). ... Map of the Dardanelles The Dardanelles (Turkish: Çanakkale Boğazı, Greek: Δαρδανέλλια, Dardanellia), formerly known as the Hellespont (Greek: Eλλήσποντος, Hellespontos), is a narrow strait in northwestern Turkey connecting the Aegean Sea to the Sea of Marmara. ...


Sightseeing

The cheapest way to experience Bosphorus in Istanbul would be to take one of the public ferries that travel between the Anatolian and Rumelian sides of the city. They depart every 45 minutes, and cost 1.3 YTL (about 0.80 Euros). There are also faster ferries that take off every 10 minutes, but the slower ones will give you more opportunity to see the city. One can also take a ride on a variety of tourist ships, from modern ones to Ottoman style ones. YTL may refer to: The IATA code for Big Trout Lake Airport. ...


See also

  • List of maritime incidents in the Turkish Straits

The list of maritime incidents in the Turkish Straits is a listing of major maritime casualties occurred in the Istanbul and Çanakkale Straits in Turkey. ...

Notes

  1. ^ a b Entry: Βόσπορος at Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, 1940, A Greek-English Lexicon.
  2. ^ Entry: βοῦς at Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, 1940, A Greek-English Lexicon.
  3. ^ Entry: πόρος at Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, 1940, A Greek-English Lexicon.
  4. ^ Aeschylus, Prometheus Bound, 733.
  5. ^ Obadiah, 1-20:
  6. ^ Foreign Policy Research Institute: The Turkish Factor in the Geopolitics of the Post-Soviet Space (Igor Torbakov)
  7. ^ Robert Cutler: Turkish-Soviet Relations
  8. ^ Answers.com: Russia's relations with Turkey
  9. ^ Today's Zaman: Against who and where are we going to stand? (Ali Bulaç)
    • And the captivity of this host of the children of Israel shall possess that of the Canaanites, even unto Zarephath; and the captivity of Jerusalem, which is in Sepharad, shall possess the cities of the south. (KJV)
    • And the captivity of this host of the children of Israel, all the places of the Chanaanites even to Sarepta: and the captivity of Jerusalem that is in Bosphorus, shall possess the cities of the south. (Douay-Rheims)
    • et transmigratio exercitus huius filiorum Israhel omnia Chananeorum usque ad Saraptham et transmigratio Hierusalem quae in Bosforo est possidebit civitates austri. (Vulgate)

Obadiah (עֹבַדְיָה Servant of the LORD, Standard Hebrew ʿOvadya, Tiberian Hebrew ʿŌḇaḏyāh, Vulgate Abdias) is the name of many people mentioned in the Hebrew Bible, the Old Testament. ... The Children of Israel, or Bnei Yisrael (בני ישראל) in Hebrew (also Bnai Yisrael, Bnei Yisroel or Bene Israel) is a Biblical term for the Israelites. ... For other uses, see Canaan (disambiguation). ... Sarepta (modern Sarafand, Lebanon) was a Phoenician city on the Mediterranean coast between Sidon and Tyre. ... This page is about the version of the Bible; for the Harvey Danger album, see King James Version (album). ... The Children of Israel, or Bnei Yisrael (בני ישראל) in Hebrew (also Bnai Yisrael, Bnei Yisroel or Bene Israel) is a Biblical term for the Israelites. ... The Douai Bible, also known as the Rheims-Douai Bible or Douay-Rheims Bible, was a Roman Catholic translation of the Holy Bible from the Latin Vulgate into English. ...

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:

Coordinates: 41°07′10″N, 29°04′31″E Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ...


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