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Encyclopedia > Bosphorus
Bosphorus - photo taken from International Space Station. April 2004
Bosphorus - photo taken from International Space Station. April 2004

The Bosphorus or Bosporus, also known as Istanbul Strait, (Turkish: Boğaziçi, İstanbul Boğazı or just Boğaz) (Greek: Βόσπορος) (English also: Bosphorus) is a strait that forms the boundary between the European part (Rumeli) of Turkey and its Asian part (Anadolu). The world's narrowest strait used for international navigation, it connects the Black Sea with the Sea of Marmara (which is connected by the Dardanelles to the Aegean Sea, and thereby to the Mediterranean Sea). It is approximately 30 km long, with a maximum width of 3,700 metres at the northern entrance, and a minimum width of 700 metres between Kandilli and Aşiyan; and 750 metres between Anadoluhisarı and Rumelihisarı. The depth varies from 36 to 124 metres in midstream. ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (1000x1163, 1721 KB) Istanbul, Turkey: The Crossroads of Europe and Asia Astronaut photograph ISS008-E-21752 was taken April 16, 2004, with a Kodak DCS760 digital camera equipped with an 200-mm lens, and is provided by the Earth Observations Laboratory... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (1000x1163, 1721 KB) Istanbul, Turkey: The Crossroads of Europe and Asia Astronaut photograph ISS008-E-21752 was taken April 16, 2004, with a Kodak DCS760 digital camera equipped with an 200-mm lens, and is provided by the Earth Observations Laboratory... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Simplified diagram A strait is a narrow channel of water that connects two larger bodies of water, and thus lies between two land masses. ... World map showing Europe Political map Europe is one of the seven traditional continents of Earth; the term continent here referring to a cultural and political distinction, rather than a physiographic one, thus leading to various perspectives about Europes precise borders. ... Map of Rumelia as of 1801 Rumelia (turkish: Rum: Roman El: Land Rumeli: Lands of Rome), the area that was the East Roman or Byzantine Empire, a name commonly used, from the 15th century onwards, to denote the part of the Balkan Peninsula subject to the Ottoman Empire. ... World map showing the location of Asia. ... Asia Minor lies east of the Bosporus, between the Black Sea and the Mediterranean. ... The terms international waters or transboundary waters apply where any of the following types of bodies of water (or their drainage basins) transcend international boundaries: oceans, large marine ecosystems, enclosed or semi-enclosed regional seas and estuaries, rivers, lakes, groundwater systems (aquifers), and wetlands [1]. Oceans and seas, waters outside... Map of the Black Sea. ... Map of the Sea of Marmara Satellite view of the Sea of Marmara The Sea of Marmara (Turkish: Marmara Denizi, Modern Greek: Θάλασσα του Μαρμαρά or Προποντίδα) (also known as the Sea of Marmora or the Marmara Sea) is an inland sea that connects the Black Sea to the Aegean Sea, thus separating the... Map of the Dardanelles The Dardanelles (Turkish: Çanakkale BoÄŸazı, Greek: Δαρδανελλια), formerly known as the Hellespont, is a narrow strait in northwestern Turkey connecting the Aegean Sea with the Sea of Marmara. ... The Aegean Sea. ... Satellite image The Mediterranean Sea is a part of the Atlantic Ocean almost completely enclosed by land, on the north by Europe, on the south by Africa, and on the east by Asia. ...


The shores of the strait are heavily populated as the city of Istanbul (in excess of 13 million inhabitants) straddles it. Istanbul (Turkish: , Greek: , see other names) is Turkeys most populous city, and its cultural, and economic centre. ...


Two bridges cross the Istanbul Strait. The first, Bogazici (Bosphorus I) bridge, is 1074 meters long and was completed in 1973. The second, Fatih Sultan Mehmet (Bosphorus II) bridge, is 1090 meters long, and was completed in 1988 about five kilometers north of the first bridge. A third road bridge is also being planned for one of seven locations designated by the Turkish Government. The location is being kept secret to avoid an early explosion in land prices. A log bridge in the French Alps near Vallorcine. ... The bridge seen from a boat in the European side (April 2006) The Bosphorus Bridge also called the First Bosphorus Bridge (Turkish: Boğaziçi Köprüsü or 1. ... 1973 (MCMLXXIII) was a common year starting on Monday. ... The Asiatic side of the bridge. ... 1988 (MCMLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Another crossing, Marmaray, is a 13.7 kilometer-long rail tunnel currently under construction and expected to be completed in 2008. Approximately 1,400 metres of the tunnel will run under the strait, at a depth of about 55 meters. Marmaray is the name for a project to link the European and Anatolian halves of Istanbul by an undersea rail tunnel across the Bosphorus strait. ... Rail transport is the transport of passengers and goods along railways or railroads. ... A disused railway tunnel now converted to pedestrian and bicycle use, near Houyet, Belgium A tunnel is an underground passage. ... 2008 (MMVIII) will be a leap year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Contents


Formation of the Bosphorus

The exact cause for the formation of the Bosphorus remains the subject of vigorous debate among geologists. Thousands of years ago, the Black Sea became disconnected from the Aegean Sea. One recent theory (published in 1997 by William Ryan and Walter Pitman from Columbia University) contends that the Bosphorus was formed about 5600 BC when the rising waters of the Mediterranean/Sea of Marmara breached through to the Black Sea, which at the time (according to the theory) was a low-lying body of fresh water. Some have argued that the resulting massive flooding of the inhabited and probably farmed northern shores of the Black Sea is the historic basis for the flood stories found in the Epic of Gilgamesh and in the Bible in Genesis, Chapters 6-9. On the other hand, there is also evidence for a flood of water going in the opposite direction, from the Black Sea into the Sea of Marmara around 7000 or 8000 BCE. The Black Sea deluge is a hypothesized prehistoric flood that occurred when the Black Sea rapidly filled, possibly forming the basis for some Great Flood myths. ... Map of the Black Sea. ... The Aegean Sea. ... William Fitts Ryan (1922-1972) was an American lawyer and politician. ... Walter Pitman (born May 18, 1929) is a Canadian educator and former politician. ... Columbia University is a private university whose main campus lies in the Morningside Heights neighborhood of the Borough of Manhattan in New York City. ... (7th millennium BC – 6th millennium BC – 5th millennium BC – other millennia) Events c. ... Map of the Black Sea. ... The Deluge by Gustave Doré. The story of a Great Flood sent by God or the gods to destroy civilization as an act of divine retribution is a widespread theme in myths. ... The Epic of Gilgamesh is an epic poem from Babylonia and is arguably the oldest known work of literature. ... For other uses, see Bible (disambiguation). ... Genesis (Greek: Γένεσις, having the meanings of birth, creation, cause, beginning, source and origin) is the first book of the Torah, the first book of the Tanakh and also the first book of the Christian Old Testament. ... BCE is a TLA that may stand for: Before the Common Era, date notation equivalent to BC (e. ...


Ancient Greece, Rome, the Byzatines and the Ottoman Empire

St. Jerome's Vulgate translates the Hebrew besepharad in Obadiah, 1-20 as "Bosforus"[1], but other translations give it as "Sepharad" (probably Sardis, but later identified with Spain). Jerome (ca. ... The Vulgate Bible is an early 5th century translation of the Bible into Latin made by St. ... In the strictest sense, a Sephardi (ספרדי, Standard Hebrew Səfardi, Tiberian Hebrew Səp̄ardî; plural Sephardim: ספרדים, Standard Hebrew Səfardim, Tiberian Hebrew Səp̄ardîm) is a Jew original to the Iberian Peninsula (Spain and Portugal: ספרד, Standard Hebrew Səfárad, Tiberian Hebrew Səp̄áraḏ / Səp̄āraḏ), or whose ancestors were among the Jews expelled from... Sardis, (also Sardes) the capital of the ancient kingdom of Lydia, the seat of a conventus under the Roman Empire, and the metropolis of the province Lydia in later Roman and Byzantine times, was situated in the middle Hermus valley, at the foot of Mt. ...


As the narrowest point of passage between the Black Sea and the Mediterranean, the Bosphorus has always been of great commercial and strategic importance. The Greek city-state of Athens in the 5th century BC, which was dependent on grain imports from Scythia, therefore maintained critical alliances with cities which controlled the straits, such as the Megarian colony Byzantium. Athens (Greek: Αθήνα, Athína IPA: ) is the capital of Greece and one of the most famous cities in the world, named after goddess Athena. ... (2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC - 1st millennium) The 5th century BC started on January 1, 500 BC and ended on December 31, 401 BC. // Overview The Parthenon of Athens seen from the hill of the Pnyx to the west. ... Scythian warriors, drawn after figures on an electrum cup from the KulOba kurgan burial near Kerch. ... Megara (Greek: Μέγαρα; see also List of traditional Greek place names) is an ancient city in Attica, Greece. ... Byzantium was an ancient Greek city-state, which according to legend was founded by Greek colonists from Megara in 667 BC and named after their king Byzas or Byzantas (Βύζας or Βύζαντας in Greek). ...


The strategic significance of the strait was one of the factors in the decision of the Roman Emperor Constantine the Great to found there in 330 AD his new capital, Constantinople, which came to be known as the capital of the Eastern Roman Empire. This city was later renamed Istanbul when, on May 29, 1453, it was conquered by Mehmed II of the Ottoman Turks and became the capital of the Ottoman Empire. In fact, as the Ottoman Turks closed in on Constantinople, they constructed a fortification on each side of the strait, Anadoluhisari (1393) and Rumelihisari (1451). Head of Constantines colossal statue at Musei Capitolini Gaius Flavius Valerius Aurelius Constantinus[1] (February 27, 272–May 22, 337), commonly known as Constantine I, Constantine the Great, or (among Eastern Orthodox and Eastern Catholic[2] Christians) Saint Constantine, was a Roman Emperor, proclaimed Augustus by his troops on... Events May 11 - Constantine I refounds Byzantium, renames it New Rome, and moves the capital of the Roman Empire there from Rome. ... Map of Constantinople. ... Byzantine Empire is the term conventionally used to describe the Roman Empire during the Middle Ages, centered around its capital in Constantinople. ... Istanbul (Turkish: , Greek: , see other names) is Turkeys most populous city, and its cultural, and economic centre. ... May 29 is the 149th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (150th in leap years). ... Events May 29 - Fall of Constantinople to Ottoman Sultan Mehmed II the Conqueror, marking the end of the Byzantine Empire (Eastern Roman Empire). ... Mehmed II (also known as el-Fatih (الفاتح), the Conqueror, in Ottoman Turkish, or, in modern Turkish, Fatih Sultan Mehmet) (March 30, 1432 – May 3, 1481) (Arabic: محمد الثاني) was first the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire for a short time from 1444 to 1446, and later from 1451 to 1481. ... The Ottoman Turks were the ethnic subdivision of the Turkish people who dominated the ruling class of the Ottoman Empire. ... Imperial motto (Ottoman Turkish) دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) The Ottoman Empire at the height of its power (1683) Official language Ottoman Turkish Capital Söğüt (1299-1326), Bursa (1326-1365), Edirne (1365-1453), Constantinople (modern-day Istanbul) (1453-1922) Imperial anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Sovereigns Padishah... Anadoluhisari is a castle in Istanbul Strait, Bosporus. ... Events Ottoman Turks occupy Veliko Turnovo in north-central Bulgaria. ... Rumelihisari, seen from the Bosporus. ... // Events February 3 - Murad II, Sultan of the Ottoman Empire dies and is succeeded by his son Mehmed II. April 11 - Celje acquires market-town status and town rights by orders from the Celje count Frederic II. June 30 - French troops under the Comte de Dunois invade Guyenne and capture...


Strategic Importance Today

The strategic importance of the Bosphorus remains high, and control over it has been an objective of a number of hostilities in modern history, notably the Russo-Turkish War, 1877-1878, as well as of the attack of the Allied Powers on the Dardanelles in 1915 in the course of the First World War. Several international treaties have governed vessels using the waters, including the Montreux Convention Regarding the Regime of the Turkish Straits, signed in 1936. Plevna Monument near the walls of Kitai-gorod. ... In general, allies are people or groups that have joined an alliance and are working together to achieve some common purpose. ... Map of the Dardanelles The Dardanelles (Turkish: Çanakkale Boğazı, Greek: Δαρδανελλια), formerly known as the Hellespont, is a narrow strait in northwestern Turkey connecting the Aegean Sea with the Sea of Marmara. ... 1915 (MCMXV) was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... Ypres, 1917, in the vicinity of the Battle of Passchendaele. ... Montreux Convention Regarding the Regime of the Turkish Straits was a 1936 agreement that gives Turkey control over the Bosporus and the Dardanelles. ... 1936 (MCMXXXVI) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ...


Notes

  1. ^ Obadiah, 1-20:
    • And the captivity of this host of the children of Israel shall possess that of the Canaanites, even unto Zarephath; and the captivity of Jerusalem, which is in Sepharad, shall possess the cities of the south. (KJV)
    • And the captivity of this host of the children of Israel, all the places of the Chanaanites even to Sarepta: and the captivity of Jerusalem that is in Bosphorus, shall possess the cities of the south. (Douay-Rheims)
    • et transmigratio exercitus huius filiorum Israhel omnia Chananeorum usque ad Saraptham et transmigratio Hierusalem quae in Bosforo est possidebit civitates austri. (Vulgate)

  Results from FactBites:
 
Bosphorus - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (837 words)
The exact cause for the formation of the Bosphorus remains the subject of vigorous debate among geologists.
One recent theory (published in 1997 by William Ryan and Walter Pitman from Columbia University) contends that the Bosphorus was formed about 5600 BC when the rising waters of the Mediterranean/Sea of Marmara breached through to the Black Sea, which at the time (according to the theory) was a low-lying body of fresh water.
The strategic importance of the Bosphorus remains high, and control over it has been an objective of a number of hostilities in modern history, notably the Russo-Turkish War, 1877-1878, as well as of the attack of the Allied Powers on the Dardanelles in 1915 in the course of the First World War.
Turkish Odyssey/Places of Interest/Marmara/Bosphorus Cruise (1165 words)
The Bosphorus is a narrow, navigable strait between Europe and Asia connecting the Black Sea (Pontus Euxinus) to the Marmara Sea (Propontis).
The name Bosphorus means "ford of the calf" in ancient Greek and is derived from the myth of the maiden Io.
Due to the heavy traffic in Istanbul, another bridge at the narrowest point on the Bosphorus was constructed between the years 1985 and 1988.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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