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In particle physics, bosons are particles with an integer spin, as opposed to fermions which have half-integer spin. From a behaviour point of view, fermions are particles that obey the Fermi-Dirac statistics while bosons are particles that obey the Bose-Einstein statistics. They may be either elementary, like the photon, or composite, as mesons. All force carrier particles are bosons. They are named after Satyendra Nath Bose. In contrast to fermions, several bosons can occupy the same quantum state. Thus, bosons with the same energy can occupy the same place in space. Thousands of particles explode from the collision point of two relativistic (100 GeV per nucleon) gold ions in the STAR detector of the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider. ... Helium atom (schematic) Showing two protons (red), two neutrons (green) and two electrons (yellow). ... The integers are commonly denoted by the above symbol. ... In physics, spin refers to the angular momentum intrinsic to a body, as opposed to orbital angular momentum, which is the motion of its center of mass about an external point. ... In particle physics, fermions are particles with half-integer spin, such as protons and electrons. ... In mathematics, a half-integer is a number of the form , where is an integer. ... Fermi-Dirac distribution as a function of Îµ/Î¼ plotted for 4 different temperatures. ... In statistical mechanics, Bose-Einstein statistics determines the statistical distribution of identical indistinguishable bosons over the energy states in thermal equilibrium. ... For the novel, see The Elementary Particles. ... In modern physics the photon is the elementary particle responsible for electromagnetic phenomena. ... Elementary particles An elementary particle is a particle with no measurable internal structure, that is, it is not a composite of other particles. ... Mesons of spin 1 form a nonet In particle physics, a meson is a strongly interacting boson, that is, it is a hadron with integral spin. ... In particle physics, the quantum field theory called the Standard Model describes the strong, weak and electromagnetic fundamental forces. ... Satyendra Nath Bose Bengali: ) (January 1, 1894 â€“ February 4, 1974) was an Indian physicist, specializing in mathematical physics. ... In particle physics, fermions are particles with half-integer spin, such as protons and electrons. ... Probability densities for the electron at different quantum numbers (l) In quantum mechanics, the quantum state of a system is a set of numbers that fully describe a quantum system. ...

While most bosons are composite particles, four bosons (the gauge bosons) are elementary particles not known to be composed of other particles. The only boson in the Standard Model that is yet to be discovered experimentally is the Higgs boson.[1] Elementary particles An elementary particle is a particle with no measurable internal structure, that is, it is not a composite of other particles. ... Gauge bosons are bosonic particles which act as carriers of the fundamental forces of Nature. ... In particle physics, an elementary particle is a particle of which other, larger particles are composed. ... The Standard Model of Fundamental Particles and Interactions For the Standard Model in Cryptography, see Standard Model (cryptography). ... The Higgs boson, also known as the God particle, is a hypothetical massive scalar elementary particle predicted to exist by the Standard Model of particle physics. ...

## Contents

In large systems, the difference between bosonic and fermionic statistics is only apparent at large densities—when their wave functions overlap. At low densities, both types of statistics are well approximated by Maxwell-Boltzmann statistics, which is described by classical mechanics. It has been suggested that the section Physical applications of the Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution from the article Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution be merged into this article or section. ... Classical mechanics (commonly confused with Newtonian mechanics, which is a subfield thereof) is used for describing the motion of macroscopic objects, from projectiles to parts of machinery, as well as astronomical objects, such as spacecraft, planets, stars, and galaxies. ...

## Composite bosons

Particles composed of a number of other particles (such as protons, neutrons or nuclei) can be either fermions or bosons, depending on their total spin. Hence, many nuclei are bosons. For instance, consider 3He. It is made of 2 protons, a neutron and 2 electrons. Since the spins of these five fermions must add to a half integer, 3He is a fermion. On the other hand 4He, which is made of six fermions, is a boson. Likewise, the deuteron (2H+), which is composed of a proton and a neutron, is a boson, however the neutral deuterium atom, which also has an electron, is a fermion. For other uses, see Proton (disambiguation). ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The nucleus of an atom is the very small dense region, of positive charge, in its centre consisting of nucleons (protons and neutrons). ... Deuterium (symbol 2H) is a stable isotope of hydrogen with a natural abundance of one atom in 6500 of hydrogen. ...

Composite bosons exhibit bosonic behavior only at distances large compared to their structure size. At a small distance they behave according to properties of their constituent particles. For example, despite the fact that an alpha particle is a boson, at high energy it interacts with another alpha particle not as a boson but as an ensemble of fermions. An alpha particle is deflected by a magnetic field Alpha radiation consists of helium-4 nuclei and is readily stopped by a sheet of paper. ...

## Examples of bosons

This is a list of particles in particle physics, including currently known and hypothetical elementary particles, as well as the composite particles that can be built up from them. ... In modern physics the photon is the elementary particle responsible for electromagnetic phenomena. ... In physics, the W and Z bosons are the elementary particles that mediate the weak nuclear force. ... In particle physics, gluons are subatomic particles that cause quarks to interact, and are indirectly responsible for the binding of protons and neutrons together in atomic nuclei. ... The Higgs boson, also known as the God particle, is a hypothetical massive scalar elementary particle predicted to exist by the Standard Model of particle physics. ... Normal modes of vibration progression through a crystal. ... A Cooper pair is the name given to electrons that are bound together in a certain manner first described by Leon Cooper. ...

In quantum field theory, bosonic fields are quantum fields whose quanta are bosons; that is, they obey Bose-Einstein statistics. ... An ideal Bose gas is a quantum-mechanical version of a classical ideal gas. ... Fermions, named after Enrico Fermi, are particles which form totally-antisymmetric composite quantum states. ... Identical particles, or indistinguishable particles, are particles that cannot be distinguished from one another, even in principle. ... This is a list of particles in particle physics, including currently known and hypothetical elementary particles, as well as the composite particles that can be built up from them. ... In quantum mechanics, despite what many textbooks and articles erronously claim, the Bose-Einstein and Fermi-Dirac statistics (and Maxwell-Boltzmann statistics) are NOT the only alternatives. ... In physics, a Tonks-Girardeau gas is a Bose-Einstein Condensate in which the repulsive interactions between bosonic particles confined to one dimension dominate the physics of the system. ... The Standard Model of Fundamental Particles and Interactions For the Standard Model in Cryptography, see Standard Model (cryptography). ... A magnet levitating above a high-temperature superconductor, cooled with liquid nitrogen. ...

## References

1. ^ Standard Model of Particle Physics at Standford Linear Collider
• Sakurai, J.J. (1994). Modern Quantum Mechanics (Revised Edition), pp 361-363. Addison-Wesley Publishing Company. ISBN 0-201-53929-2.

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