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In particle physics, bosons are particles with an integer spin, as opposed to fermions which have half-integer spin. From a behaviour point of view, fermions are particles that obey the Fermi-Dirac statistics while bosons are particles that obey the Bose-Einstein statistics. They may be either elementary, like the photon, or composite, as mesons. All force carrier particles are bosons. They are named after Satyendra Nath Bose. In contrast to fermions, several bosons can occupy the same quantum state. Thus, bosons with the same energy can occupy the same place in space. Thousands of particles explode from the collision point of two relativistic (100 GeV per nucleon) gold ions in the STAR detector of the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider. ... Helium atom (schematic) Showing two protons (red), two neutrons (green) and two electrons (yellow). ... The integers are commonly denoted by the above symbol. ... In physics, spin refers to the angular momentum intrinsic to a body, as opposed to orbital angular momentum, which is the motion of its center of mass about an external point. ... In particle physics, fermions are particles with half-integer spin, such as protons and electrons. ... In mathematics, a half-integer is a number of the form , where is an integer. ... Fermi-Dirac distribution as a function of ε/μ plotted for 4 different temperatures. ... In statistical mechanics, Bose-Einstein statistics determines the statistical distribution of identical indistinguishable bosons over the energy states in thermal equilibrium. ... For the novel, see The Elementary Particles. ... In modern physics the photon is the elementary particle responsible for electromagnetic phenomena. ... Elementary particles An elementary particle is a particle with no measurable internal structure, that is, it is not a composite of other particles. ... Mesons of spin 1 form a nonet In particle physics, a meson is a strongly interacting boson, that is, it is a hadron with integral spin. ... In particle physics, the quantum field theory called the Standard Model describes the strong, weak and electromagnetic fundamental forces. ... Satyendra Nath Bose Bengali: ) (January 1, 1894 – February 4, 1974) was an Indian physicist, specializing in mathematical physics. ... In particle physics, fermions are particles with half-integer spin, such as protons and electrons. ... Probability densities for the electron at different quantum numbers (l) In quantum mechanics, the quantum state of a system is a set of numbers that fully describe a quantum system. ...


While most bosons are composite particles, four bosons (the gauge bosons) are elementary particles not known to be composed of other particles. The only boson in the Standard Model that is yet to be discovered experimentally is the Higgs boson.[1] Elementary particles An elementary particle is a particle with no measurable internal structure, that is, it is not a composite of other particles. ... Gauge bosons are bosonic particles which act as carriers of the fundamental forces of Nature. ... In particle physics, an elementary particle is a particle of which other, larger particles are composed. ... The Standard Model of Fundamental Particles and Interactions For the Standard Model in Cryptography, see Standard Model (cryptography). ... The Higgs boson, also known as the God particle, is a hypothetical massive scalar elementary particle predicted to exist by the Standard Model of particle physics. ...

Contents

Basic properties

All elementary and composite particles are either bosons or fermions, depending on their spin. Particles with half-integer spin are fermions; particles with integer spin are bosons. The spin-statistics theorem identifies the resulting quantum statistics that differentiate fermions and bosons. Bosons obey Bose–Einstein statistics. Fermions, on the other hand, cannot occupy the same quantum state as each other; they obey the Fermi-Dirac statistics and the Pauli exclusion principle. They "resist" being placed close to each other. So, fermions possess "rigidness" and thus sometimes are considered to be "particles of matter". The properties of lasers and masers, superfluid helium-4 and Bose–Einstein condensates are all consequences of statistics of bosons. Another result is that the spectrum of a photon gas in thermal equilibrium is a Planck spectrum, one example of which is black-body radiation; another is the thermal radiation of the opaque early Universe seen today as microwave background radiation. Interaction of virtual bosons with real fermions are called fundamental interactions, and these result in all forces we know. The bosons involved in these interactions are called gauge bosons. These include the W and Z bosons of the weak force, the gluons of the strong force, the photons of the electromagnetic force, and, in quantum gravity, the yet to be verified graviton of the gravitational force. In physics, spin refers to the angular momentum intrinsic to a body, as opposed to orbital angular momentum, which is the motion of its center of mass about an external point. ... In mathematics, a half-integer is a number of the form , where is an integer. ... Fermions, named after Enrico Fermi, are particles which form totally-antisymmetric composite quantum states. ... The integers are commonly denoted by the above symbol. ... The spin-statistics theorem in quantum mechanics relates the spin of a particle to the statistics obeyed by that particle. ... Statistics of interacting identical particles (=when their wave functions overlap). ... For other topics related to Einstein see Einstein (disambiguation). ... Fermi-Dirac distribution as a function of ε/μ plotted for 4 different temperatures. ... The Pauli exclusion principle is a quantum mechanical principle formulated by Wolfgang Pauli in 1925. ... For alternative meanings see laser (disambiguation). ... The acronym maser stands for Microwave Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation. ... Helium II will creep along surfaces in order to find its own level - after a short while, the levels in the two containers will equalize. ... General Name, symbol, number helium, He, 2 Chemical series noble gases Group, period, block 18, 1, s Appearance colorless Standard atomic weight 4. ... A Bose–Einstein condensate (BEC) is a state of matter formed by a system of bosons confined in an external potential and cooled to temperatures very near to absolute zero (0 kelvin or −273. ... As the temperature decreases, the peak of the black body radiation curve moves to lower intensities and longer wavelengths. ... As the temperature decreases, the peak of the black-body radiation curve moves to lower intensities and longer wavelengths. ... WMAP image of the CMB anisotropy,Cosmic microwave background radiation(June 2003) The cosmic microwave background radiation (CMB) is a form of electromagnetic radiation that fills the whole of the universe. ... In physics, a virtual particle is a particle which exists for such a short time and space that its energy and momentum do not have to obey the usual relationship. ... A fundamental interaction or fundamental force is a mechanism by which particles interact with each other, and which cannot be explained in terms of another interaction. ... For other uses, see Force (disambiguation). ... Gauge bosons are bosonic particles which act as carriers of the fundamental forces of Nature. ... In physics, the W and Z bosons are the elementary particles that mediate the weak nuclear force. ... The weak nuclear force or weak interaction is one of the four fundamental forces of nature. ... In particle physics, gluons are subatomic particles that cause quarks to interact, and are indirectly responsible for the binding of protons and neutrons together in atomic nuclei. ... The strong nuclear force or strong interaction (also called color force or colour force) is a fundamental force of nature which affects only quarks and antiquarks, and is mediated by gluons in a similar fashion to how the electromagnetic force is mediated by photons. ... In modern physics the photon is the elementary particle responsible for electromagnetic phenomena. ... In physics, the electromagnetic force is the force that the electromagnetic field exerts on electrically charged particles. ... Quantum gravity is the field of theoretical physics attempting to unify quantum mechanics, which describes three of the fundamental forces of nature, with general relativity, the theory of the fourth fundamental force: gravity. ... This article is about the hypothetical particle. ... Gravity is a force of attraction that acts between bodies that have mass. ...


In large systems, the difference between bosonic and fermionic statistics is only apparent at large densities—when their wave functions overlap. At low densities, both types of statistics are well approximated by Maxwell-Boltzmann statistics, which is described by classical mechanics. It has been suggested that the section Physical applications of the Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution from the article Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution be merged into this article or section. ... Classical mechanics (commonly confused with Newtonian mechanics, which is a subfield thereof) is used for describing the motion of macroscopic objects, from projectiles to parts of machinery, as well as astronomical objects, such as spacecraft, planets, stars, and galaxies. ...


Composite bosons

Particles composed of a number of other particles (such as protons, neutrons or nuclei) can be either fermions or bosons, depending on their total spin. Hence, many nuclei are bosons. For instance, consider 3He. It is made of 2 protons, a neutron and 2 electrons. Since the spins of these five fermions must add to a half integer, 3He is a fermion. On the other hand 4He, which is made of six fermions, is a boson. Likewise, the deuteron (2H+), which is composed of a proton and a neutron, is a boson, however the neutral deuterium atom, which also has an electron, is a fermion. For other uses, see Proton (disambiguation). ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The nucleus of an atom is the very small dense region, of positive charge, in its centre consisting of nucleons (protons and neutrons). ... Deuterium (symbol 2H) is a stable isotope of hydrogen with a natural abundance of one atom in 6500 of hydrogen. ...


Composite bosons exhibit bosonic behavior only at distances large compared to their structure size. At a small distance they behave according to properties of their constituent particles. For example, despite the fact that an alpha particle is a boson, at high energy it interacts with another alpha particle not as a boson but as an ensemble of fermions. An alpha particle is deflected by a magnetic field Alpha radiation consists of helium-4 nuclei and is readily stopped by a sheet of paper. ...


Examples of bosons

This is a list of particles in particle physics, including currently known and hypothetical elementary particles, as well as the composite particles that can be built up from them. ... In modern physics the photon is the elementary particle responsible for electromagnetic phenomena. ... In physics, the W and Z bosons are the elementary particles that mediate the weak nuclear force. ... In particle physics, gluons are subatomic particles that cause quarks to interact, and are indirectly responsible for the binding of protons and neutrons together in atomic nuclei. ... The Higgs boson, also known as the God particle, is a hypothetical massive scalar elementary particle predicted to exist by the Standard Model of particle physics. ... Normal modes of vibration progression through a crystal. ... A Cooper pair is the name given to electrons that are bound together in a certain manner first described by Leon Cooper. ...

See also

In quantum field theory, bosonic fields are quantum fields whose quanta are bosons; that is, they obey Bose-Einstein statistics. ... An ideal Bose gas is a quantum-mechanical version of a classical ideal gas. ... Fermions, named after Enrico Fermi, are particles which form totally-antisymmetric composite quantum states. ... Identical particles, or indistinguishable particles, are particles that cannot be distinguished from one another, even in principle. ... This is a list of particles in particle physics, including currently known and hypothetical elementary particles, as well as the composite particles that can be built up from them. ... In quantum mechanics, despite what many textbooks and articles erronously claim, the Bose-Einstein and Fermi-Dirac statistics (and Maxwell-Boltzmann statistics) are NOT the only alternatives. ... In physics, a Tonks-Girardeau gas is a Bose-Einstein Condensate in which the repulsive interactions between bosonic particles confined to one dimension dominate the physics of the system. ... The Standard Model of Fundamental Particles and Interactions For the Standard Model in Cryptography, see Standard Model (cryptography). ... A magnet levitating above a high-temperature superconductor, cooled with liquid nitrogen. ...

References

  1. ^ Standard Model of Particle Physics at Standford Linear Collider
  • Sakurai, J.J. (1994). Modern Quantum Mechanics (Revised Edition), pp 361-363. Addison-Wesley Publishing Company. ISBN 0-201-53929-2.
Thousands of particles explode from the collision point of two relativistic (100 GeV per nucleon) gold ions in the STAR detector of the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider. ... For the novel, see The Elementary Particles. ... In particle physics, fermions are particles with half-integer spin, such as protons and electrons. ... For other uses, see Quark (disambiguation). ... The up quark is a first-generation quark with a charge of +(2/3)e. ... The down quark is a first-generation quark with a charge of -(1/3)e. ... The charm quark is a second-generation quark with a charge of +(2/3)e. ... The strange quark is a second-generation quark with a charge of -(1/3)e and a strangeness of −1. ... The top quark is the third-generation up-type quark with a charge of +(2/3)e. ... The bottom quark is a third-generation quark with a charge of -(1/3)e. ... In physics, a lepton is a particle with spin-1/2 (a fermion) that does not experience the strong interaction (that is, the strong nuclear force). ... For other uses, see Electron (disambiguation). ... The first detection of the positron in 1932 by Carl D. Anderson The positron is the antiparticle or the antimatter counterpart of the electron. ... The muon (from the letter mu (μ)--used to represent it) is an elementary particle with negative electric charge and a spin of 1/2. ... The tau lepton (often called the tau, tau particle, or occasionally the tauon, symbol ) is a negatively charged elementary particle with a lifetime of 2. ... For other uses, see Neutrino (disambiguation). ... Gauge bosons are bosonic particles which act as carriers of the fundamental forces of Nature. ... In modern physics the photon is the elementary particle responsible for electromagnetic phenomena. ... In particle physics, gluons are subatomic particles that cause quarks to interact, and are indirectly responsible for the binding of protons and neutrons together in atomic nuclei. ... In physics, the W and Z bosons are the elementary particles that mediate the weak nuclear force. ... In physics, Faddeev-Popov ghost ci is a field that violates the spin-statistics relation. ... In physics, a bound state is a composite of two or more building blocks (particles or bodies) that behaves as a single object. ... A hadron, in particle physics, is a subatomic particle which experiences the nuclear force. ... Combinations of three u, d or s-quarks with a total spin of 3/2 form the so-called baryon decuplet. ... Baryon decuplet: Spin=3/2 Baryon octet: Spin=1/2 This is a list of baryons. ... In particle physics, a hyperon is any subatomic particle which is a baryon (and hence a hadron and a fermion) with non-zero strangeness, but with zero charm and zero bottomness. ... In physics a nucleon is a collective name for two baryons: the neutron and the proton. ... For other uses, see Proton (disambiguation). ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The Delta baryon is a relatively light 1,232 MeV/c² baryon which contains only up (u) and down (d) quarks in a combination whose total spin is 3/2 and its ground state parity is +. All varieties of Δ quickly decay via the strong force into an ordinary nucleon plus... In particle physics, the Lambda particle is any one of a number of baryons containing an up quark, a down quark, and a third quark such as that the resulting particle exhibits a state of bottomness, strangeness, or is charmed. ... Properties Sigma particles are baryons composed of one strange quark and a combination of up and down quarks, arranged in an isospin 1 state. ... In particle physics, Ξ (Xi) is a name given to a range of baryons with one up or down quark and two heavier quarks. ... Properties In particle physics, the omega minus (Ω−) is a type of baryon (more specifically, a hyperon). ... The cascade B baryon particle, also known as Ξ-b, was recently discovered by D0 and CDF experiments at Fermilab. ... Mesons of spin 1 form a nonet In particle physics, a meson is a strongly interacting boson, that is, it is a hadron with integral spin. ... A list of mesons. ... In high energy physics, a quarkonium (pl. ... In particle physics, pion (short for pi meson) is the collective name for three subatomic particles: π0, π+ and π−. Pions are the lightest mesons and play an important role in explaining low-energy properties of the strong nuclear force. ... In particle physics, Kaons (also called K-mesons and denoted K) are a group of four mesons distinguished by the fact that they carry a quantum number called strangeness. ... In particle physics, a rho meson is a short-lived hadronic particle that is an isospin triplet whose three states are denoted as . After the pions and kaons, the rho mesons are the lightest strongly interacting particle with a mass of roughly 770 MeV for all three states. ... The J/ψ is a subatomic particle, namely a flavor-neutral meson consisting of a charm quark and a charm anti-quark. ... The upsilon particle () is a flavorless meson formed from a bottom quark and its antiparticle. ... The nucleus of an atom is the very small dense region, of positive charge, in its centre consisting of nucleons (protons and neutrons). ... For other uses, see Atom (disambiguation). ... An exotic atom is the anologue of a normal atom in which one or more of the electrons are replaced by other negative particles, such as a muon or a pion, or the positively charged nucleus is replaced by other positively charged elementary particles, or both. ... Positronium (Ps) is a system consisting of an electron and its anti-particle, a positron, bound together into an exotic atom. The orbit of the two particles and the set of energy levels is similar to that of the hydrogen atom (electron and proton). ... 3D (left and center) and 2D (right) representations of the terpenoid molecule atisane. ... This is a list of particles in particle physics, including currently known and hypothetical elementary particles, as well as the composite particles that can be built up from them. ... In supersymmetry, it is proposed that every fermion should have a partner boson, known as its Superpartner. ... The axino is a hypothetical elementary particle predicted by some theories of particle physics. ... Dilatino is the superpartner of the dilaton. ... In particle physics, chargino refers to a charged superpartner, i. ... A gluino is a subatomic particle, the fermion superpartner of the gluon predicted by supersymmetry. ... The gravitino is the hypothetical supersymmetric partner of the graviton, as predicted by theories combining general relativity and supersymmetry, i. ... In particle physics, a higgsino is the hypothetical superpartner of the Higgs boson, as predicted by supersymmetry. ... In particle physics, the neutralino is a hypothetical particle and part of the doubling of the menagerie of particles predicted by supersymmetric theories. ... In particle physics, a sfermion is any of the class of spin-0 superpartners of ordinary fermions appearing in supersymmetric extensions to the Standard Model. ... The axion is an exotic subatomic particle postulated by Peccei-Quinn theory to resolve the strong-CP problem in quantum chromodynamics (QCD). ... In theoretical physics, dilaton originally referred to a theoretical scalar field; as a photon refers in one sense to the electromagnetic field. ... In particle and condensed matter physics, Goldstone bosons (also known as Nambu-Goldstone bosons) are bosons that appear in models with spontaneously broken symmetry. ... This article is about the hypothetical particle. ... The Higgs boson, also known as the God particle, is a hypothetical massive scalar elementary particle predicted to exist by the Standard Model of particle physics. ... A tachyon (from the Greek (takhús), meaning swift, fast) is any hypothetical particle that travels at superluminal velocity. ... In particle physics, the X and Y bosons are hypothetical elementary particles analogous to the W and Z bosons, but corresponding to a new type of force, such as the forces predicted by grand unified theory. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Z boson. ... In particle physics, a Z boson (or Z-prime boson) refers to a hypothetical new neutral gauge boson (named in analogy with the Standard Model Z boson). ... A sterile particle does not have any charge known to us. ... A regular meson made from a quark (q) and antiquark (q-bar) with spins s2 and s1 respectively and having an overall angular momentum L Exotic hadrons are subatomic particles made of quarks (and possibly gluons), but which do not fit into the usual schema of hadrons. ... Ordinary baryons are bound states of 3 quarks. ... A pentaquark is a subatomic particle consisting of a group of five quarks (compared to three quarks in normal baryons and two in mesons), or more specifically four quarks and one anti-quark. ... Identities and classification of possible tetraquark mesons. ... In particle physics, a glueball is a particle containing no valence quarks. ... A tetraquark is a subatomic particle composed of four quarks. ... A mesonic molecule is a set of two or more mesons bound together by the strong force. ... In physics, a quasiparticle refers to a particle-like entity arising in certain systems of interacting particles. ... Side view of an α-helix of alanine residues in atomic detail. ... This page is about the quasiparticle. ... There is a place named Magnon (pronunciation: ma-nyon) in Gabon, see Magnon, Gabon A magnon is a collective excitation of the electrons spin structure in a crystal lattice. ... Normal modes of vibration progression through a crystal. ... In physics, the plasmon is the quasiparticle resulting from the quantization of plasma oscillations just as photons and phonons are quantizations of light and sound waves, respectively. ... This article is in need of attention. ... In solid-state physics, a polaron is formed when a moving charge (typically an electron or a hole) in a crystal with some ionic character polarizes (by its electric field) the lattice around it. ...

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