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Encyclopedia > Bosnians

This is page about Bosnians (as citizens of Bosnia and Herzegovina).

Bosnians
Total population: 4.5 million (est.)
Significant populations in: Bosnia and Herzegovina:
   4,000,000
Primary ethnic groups: Bosniaks (Bosnian Muslims), Serbs (Bosnian Orthodox Christians), Croats (Bosnian Catholics), Jews
Primary languages: Bosnian, Serbian, Croatian, Ladino
Primary religions: Islam, Orthodox Christians and Catholics

Bosnians (Bosnian, Serbian, and Croatian:Bosanci / Босанци; sing. Bosanac / Босанац) are people who live in, or come from, Bosnia and Herzegovina. By the modern state definition a Bosnian can be anyone who holds a citizenship in the state including members of the constituent ethnic groups of Bosnia and Herzegovina: Bosniaks, Serbs and Croats. Additionally, ethnic minorities such as Jews, Roma, Albanians, Montenegrins, and others may consider themselves Bosnians. Some Bosnians consider themselves to be ethnic Bosnians. Bosnians can refer to: Bosnians, people with a citizenship in Bosnia and Herzegovina Bosniaks, ethnic Bosniaks who consider Bosnia as their only ethnic state. ... Languages Bosnian Religions Predominantly Islam Related ethnic groups Slavs (South Slavs) The Bosniaks or Bosniacs[1] (Bosnian: BoÅ¡njaci, IPA: ) are a South Slavic people, living mainly in Bosnia and Herzegovina (Bosnia) and the Sandžak region of Serbia and Montenegro, with a smaller autochthonous population also present in Croatia... Languages Serbian Religions Predominantly Serbian Orthodox Christian Related ethnic groups Other Slavic peoples, especially South Slavs See Cognate peoples below (* many Serbs opted for Yugoslav ethnicity) [28] Serbs (Serbian: Срби or Srbi) are a South Slavic people who live mainly in Serbia, Montenegro, Bosnia-Herzegovina, and, to a lesser extent, in... Languages Croatian Religions Predominantly Roman Catholic Related ethnic groups Slavs South Slavs Croats (Croatian: Hrvati) are a South Slavic people mostly living in Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina and nearby countries. ... Serbian (; ) is one of the standard versions of the Shtokavian dialect, used primarily in Serbia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Montenegro, Croatia, and by Serbs in the Serbian diaspora. ... Not to be confused with Ladin. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... Eastern Orthodoxy (also called Greek Orthodoxy and Russian Orthodoxy) is a Christian tradition which represents the majority of Eastern Christianity. ... Serbian (; ) is one of the standard versions of the Shtokavian dialect, used primarily in Serbia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Montenegro, Croatia, and by Serbs in the Serbian diaspora. ... “Citizen” redirects here. ... Languages Bosnian Religions Predominantly Islam Related ethnic groups Slavs (South Slavs) The Bosniaks or Bosniacs[1] (Bosnian: BoÅ¡njaci, IPA: ) are a South Slavic people, living mainly in Bosnia and Herzegovina (Bosnia) and the Sandžak region of Serbia and Montenegro, with a smaller autochthonous population also present in Croatia... Languages Serbian Religions Predominantly Serbian Orthodox Christian Related ethnic groups Other Slavic peoples, especially South Slavs See Cognate peoples below (* many Serbs opted for Yugoslav ethnicity) [28] Serbs (Serbian: Срби or Srbi) are a South Slavic people who live mainly in Serbia, Montenegro, Bosnia-Herzegovina, and, to a lesser extent, in... Languages Croatian Religions Predominantly Roman Catholic Related ethnic groups Slavs South Slavs Croats (Croatian: Hrvati) are a South Slavic people mostly living in Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina and nearby countries. ... Languages Romani, languages of native region Religions Christianity, Islam Related ethnic groups South Asians (Desi) The Roma (singular Rom; sometimes Rroma, Rrom) or Romanies are an ethnic group living in many communities all over the world. ... Montenegrins (Serbian/Montenegrin: Црногорци/Crnogorci) are a South Slavic people who are primarily associated with the Republic of Montenegro. ...


In addition, there is a sizable population in Bosnia and Herzegovina who believe that Bosnians are a nation holding a distinct collective cultural identity. By this usage, a Bosnian would be an individual who belonged to this culture. They assert that this collective identity is capable of diminishing or overcoming existing political and ethnic divisions [1]. Cultural identity is the (feeling of) identity of a group or culture, or of an individual as far as he is influenced by his belonging to a group or culture. ...


In the July 2007 survey[2] conducted by UNDP, 57% of surveyed identified an ethnic designation as the primary one, while 43% opted for "being a citizen of BiH". However, 75% of the surveyors answered positively to the question "As well as thinking of yourself as a [Bosniak, Croat, Serb], do you also think of yourself as being a citizen of the whole of BiH?". In the same survey, 43% opted for Bosnian- Herzegovinian as the primary identity, 14% identified themselves solely with their specific ethnic or religious group, while 41% expressed the dual identity.[3] The United Nations Development Programe (UNDP), the United Nations global development network, is the largest multilateral source of development assistance in the world. ...

Contents

History

The earliest cultural and linguistic roots of Bosnian history can be traced back to the Migration Period of the Early Middle Ages. It was then that the Slavs, a people from northeastern Europe, invaded the Eastern Roman Empire with their Avar overlords and settled the Balkan peninsula. There, they mixed with the indigenous paleo-Balkan peoples known collectively as the Illyrians. Centuries later, the Croatian and Serbian kingdoms emerged from the chaos of the Dark Ages, contrasted by their subjects' adherence to Catholic and Orthodox Christianity. The Croats to the West swore allegiance to Rome, influenced by neighboring Catholic kingdoms, while the Serbs to the East fell under Byzantine influence and embraced Orthodoxy. Between these kingdoms an independent Bosnian state arose, marked by its weak religious structure and unclear ethnic affiliation. Inhabitants of the Bosnian kingdom called themselves Bošnjani, a regional name derived from the river Bosna which flows through the heart of the country. Before the collapse of the Roman Empire, the river was called the Bosona by the native Illyrians, and some scholars speculate that the name Bosnia itself derives from this term. Human migration denotes any movement of groups of people from one locality to another, rather than of individual wanderers. ... Justinians wife Theodora and her retinue, in a 6th century mosaic from the Basilica of San Vitale in Ravenna. ... Distribution of Slavic people by language The Slavic peoples are a linguistic and ethnic branch of Indo-European peoples, living mainly in Europe, where they constitute roughly a third of the population. ... “Byzantine” redirects here. ... Late Avar period Map showing the location of Avar Khaganate, c. ... The Balkans is the historic and geographic name used to describe southeastern Europe (see the Definitions and boundaries section below). ... Illyria (disambiguation) Illyrians has come to refer to a broad, ill-defined Indo-European[1] group of peoples who inhabited the western Balkans (Illyria, roughly from northern Epirus to southern Pannonia) and even perhaps parts of Southern Italy in classical times into the Common era, and spoke Illyrian languages. ... Languages Serbian Religions Predominantly Serbian Orthodox Christian Related ethnic groups Other Slavic peoples, especially South Slavs See Cognate peoples below (* many Serbs opted for Yugoslav ethnicity) [28] Serbs (Serbian: Срби or Srbi) are a South Slavic people who live mainly in Serbia, Montenegro, Bosnia-Herzegovina, and, to a lesser extent, in... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... The term Orthodox Christianity may refer to: The Oriental Orthodox Churches: the Eastern Christian churches adhering to the teachings of only the first three Ecumenical Councils (plus the Second Council of Ephesus). ... Nickname: Motto: SPQR: Senatus Populusque Romanus Location of the city of Rome (yellow) within the Province of Rome (red) and region of Lazio (grey) Coordinates: Region Lazio Province Province of Rome Founded 21 April 753 BC Government  - Mayor Walter Veltroni Area  - City 1,285 km²  (580 sq mi)  - Urban 5... The Byzantine Empire is the term conventionally used to describe the Roman Empire during the Middle Ages, centered at its capital in Constantinople. ... The Bosnian Kingdom was a medieval Bosnian monarchy. ... BoÅ¡njani (sing. ... The Bosna (Cyrillic: Босна) is the third longest river in Bosnia and Herzegovina, and is considered one of the countrys three major internal rivers, along with the Neretva and Vrbas Rivers; the other three major rivers of Bosnia and Herzegovina are the Una River, to the northwest, the Sava River... For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... Illyria (disambiguation) Illyrians has come to refer to a broad, ill-defined Indo-European[1] group of peoples who inhabited the western Balkans (Illyria, roughly from northern Epirus to southern Pannonia) and even perhaps parts of Southern Italy in classical times into the Common era, and spoke Illyrian languages. ...


The Bosnian kingdom grew and expanded under the Kotromanic dynasty to include Croatian and Serbian territories. As such, Roman Catholics and Orthodox Christians alike dwelt within its borders, along with adherents of a native Bosnian Church whose origins and nature are a subject of continued debate among scholars. Those belonging to this sect simply called themselves Krstjani ("Christians"). Many scholars have argued that these Bosnian Krstjani were Manichaean dualists related to the Bogomils of Bulgaria, while others question this theory, citing lack of historical evidence. Both Catholic and Orthodox Church authorities considered the Bosnian Church heretical, and launched vigorous proselytizing campaigns to stem its influence. As a result of these divisions, no coherent religious identity developed in medieval Bosnia as it had in Croatia and Serbia. The Kotromanić dynasty ruled various regions in Bosnia and the surroundings from the 13th century as Bans until the crowning with the Bosnian and Serbian crown in 1377 and then as Kings until the Ottoman conquest of Bosnia in 1463. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Manichaeism was one of the major ancient religions. ... Bogomils was the name of a defunct Gnostic social-religious movement and doctrine which originated in Macedonia in X century at the time of Peter I of Bulgaria (927-969) as a reaction of the state and clerical oppression. ...


As the centuries passed the Bosnian kingdom slowly began to decline, fractured by increased political and religious disunity. By then, the Ottoman Turks had already gained a foothold in the Balkans. First defeating the Serbs at the Battle of Kosovo and expanding westward, the Turks eventually conquered all of Bosnia and portions of neighboring Croatia. These developments would alter Bosnian history forever, introducing an Islamic component into the already confounded Bosnian ethno-religious identity. The Bosnian Church would forever disappear, although the circumstances under which it did are as hotly debated as its nature and origins. Some historians contend that the Bosnian Krstjani converted en masse to Islam, seeking refuge from Catholic and Orthodox persecution, while others argue that the Bosnian Church had already ceased to operate many decades before the Turkish conquest. Whatever the case, a distinct Slavic Muslim community developed under Turkish rule in Bosnia, giving rise to the modern Bosniaks. The Ottoman Turks were the ethnic subdivision of the Turkish people who dominated the ruling class of the Ottoman Empire. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Combatants Ottoman Empire Serbia Commanders Murad I †, Bayezid I, Yakub † Lazar Hrebeljanović †, Vuk Branković, Vlatko Vuković Strength ~ 10,000[4][5][6] ~ 12,000-30,000[4][5][6][7] Casualties Low Extremely high The Battle of Kosovo (or Battle of Amselfeld; Serbian Cyrillic: Косовски бој or Бој на Косову; Turkish: Kosova Meydan Muharebesi; see... Slavic Muslims are Slavs who observe the Islamic faith. ... Languages Bosnian Religions Predominantly Islam Related ethnic groups Slavs (South Slavs) The Bosniaks or Bosniacs[1] (Bosnian: Bošnjaci, IPA: ) are a South Slavic people, living mainly in Bosnia and Herzegovina (Bosnia) and the Sandžak region of Serbia and Montenegro, with a smaller autochthonous population also present in Croatia...


About one hundred years ago, the term "Bosniak" had a similar meaning to the one "Bosnian" has today, in addition to being ethnic as well. In fact many of the people who lived in Bosnia and Herzegovina once considered themselves to be a part of the "Bosniak people", not exclusively Muslim Bosniaks (as today) but also the Bosnian Catholics and Orthodox Christians. Serbs (in the Serbian language Срби, Srbi) are a south Slavic people living chiefly in Serbia and Montenegro and Bosnia and Herzegovina. ...


During the Austro-Hungarian occupation of Bosnia and Herzegovina from 1878 to 1918, the administration of Benjamin Kallay, the Austro-Hungarian governor of Bosnia and Herzegovina, enforced the idea of a strengthened unitary Bosnian nation (Bosanci) that would incorporate Muslim Bosnians as well as the Bosnian Catholics and Bosnian Orthodox Christians, who at that time were slowly beginning to separate into distinct peoples which threatened to distabilize Bosnia. Kallay symbolized the new nation with a structured, modern introduction of an official Bosnian flag, Bosnian language and coat of arms. In this way the Bosnian distinctiveness was strengthened and more importantly underlined and distanced from Serbian and Croatian nationalist interests in Bosnia and Herzegovina.[4] Austria-Hungary, also known as the Dual monarchy (or: the k. ... Benjamin von Kállay (1839-1903), Austro-Hungarian statesman, was born at Budapest on the 22nd of December 1839. ...


The idea was fiercely opposed by Croats and Serbs, as it came at a time when neighboring Serbia and Croatia were reinforcing their national and ethnic identity in the process of building their own nation states. Unlike Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatian and Serbian understanding of nationhood in late 19th century was more deeply rooted in religion as in bringing people of same religion together into a single nation. This may very well explain their interests and obvious success in assimilating Catholic and Christian Orthodox Bosnians into unified Croatian and Serbian national identities. This policy further clouded the Bosnian national issue and the official use of the name, and essentially only Muslim Bosnians continued to exist in an ethnic Bosnian awareness. Famous contemporary Bosniak writer Safvet-beg Basagic tells in his own words: Don't you know Bosniak, there was a time not long ago - at most 15 summers, when in our proud Bosnia and heroic land Herzegovina, from Trebinje (south) to Bosanski brod (north), a single Serb or Croat didn't walk. But today, through their whims, strangers spread from both directions (Serbia and Croatia). [...] Both guests have arrived, in a gentle false way, to take the most holy away from us - our proud and dear name (Bosniaks). Languages Croatian Religions Predominantly Roman Catholic Related ethnic groups Slavs South Slavs Croats (Croatian: Hrvati) are a South Slavic people mostly living in Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina and nearby countries. ... Languages Serbian Religions Predominantly Serbian Orthodox Christian Related ethnic groups Other Slavic peoples, especially South Slavs See Cognate peoples below (* many Serbs opted for Yugoslav ethnicity) [28] Serbs (Serbian: Срби or Srbi) are a South Slavic people who live mainly in Serbia, Montenegro, Bosnia-Herzegovina, and, to a lesser extent, in... Anthem Serbia() on the European continent() Capital (and largest city) Belgrade Official languages Serbian 1 Recognised regional languages Hungarian, Croatian, Slovak, Romanian, Rusyn 2 Albanian 3 Government Semi-presidential republic  -  President Boris Tadić  -  Prime Minister Vojislav KoÅ¡tunica Establishment  -  Formation 812   -  Kingdom established 1217   -  Empire established 1346   -  Independence lost to... A nation-state is a specific form of state, which exists to provide a sovereign territory for a particular nation, and which derives its legitimacy from that function. ... Dr Savet-beg BaÅ¡agić, also known as Mirza born May 6, 1870, in Nevesinje - died April 9, 1934, in Sarajevo. ... Trebinje (Cyrillic: Требиње) is the southern-most municipality and town in Republika Srpska, Bosnia and Herzegovina. ... Bosanski Brod (Serbian: Босански Брод or Bosanski Brod; Bosnian: Bosanski Brod; Croatian: Bosanski Brod) also known as Brod (Брод), formerly known as Srpski Brod (Српски Брод), is a town and municipality located on the right bank of the river Sava in the north of Republika Srpska, Bosnia and Herzegovina. ...


During the time when Bosnia and Herzegovina was part of Yugoslavia and heavily influenced by Croat and Serb politics neither of the two terms Bosnian or Bosniak were recognized as a nation. Thus, Bosnian Muslims and anyone who confessed themselves to Bosnian ethnicity were listed under the category "regional affiliation" by the Yugoslavian statistics. This also applied to the last census in Bosnia and Herzegovina from 1991. However, because of this, census format in former Yugoslavia was often subject of political manipulation. As a matter of fact, Muslim Bosnians requested the option Bosnian in the constitutional amendments of 1947 and 1973, but instead they had to declare themselves either as Serbs or Croats until 1963, "undecideds" or "Muslim in a national sense" (with lower case m) until 1973, and Muslims (with capital M) until 1993. Yugoslavia (Jugoslavija in the Latin alphabet, Југославија in Cyrillic; English: South Slavia, or literary The Land of South Slavs) describes three political entities that existed one at a time on the Balkan Peninsula in Europe, during most of the 20th century. ... Languages Serbo-Croat(Serbian, Bosnian, Croatian) Macedonian Religions Predominantly Islam Related ethnic groups South Slavs Muslims by nationality (Muslimani, Муслимани) was a term used in Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia to describe mainly native Slavic Muslims. ...


In 1992 a referendum was held for the independence of Bosnia and Herzegovina which was to be founded on a principle of a single Bosnian nation which would once again unite Muslim, Catholic and Orthodox Bosnians as one people. The referendum was however followed by a bloody ethnic war, with the interference of neighbouring Croatia and Serbia. Combatants Army of the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina (Predominantly Bosniak) Army of Republika Srpska, Yugoslav Peoples Army, various paramilitary units from Serbia and Montenegro (Serbian) Croatian Defence Council, Croatian Army (Croatian) Commanders Alija Izetbegović (President of Bosnia and Herzegovina) Sefer Halilović (Army chief of staff 1992-1993) Rasim...


When in 1990 the name Bosniaks was re-introduced to replace the term Muslim it was too late for that term to be realistically accepted by non-Muslim Bosnians, as they were already naturalized into Serb and Croat nations and further radicalized by the ethnic animosities among all three ethnic groups. Languages Bosnian Religions Predominantly Islam Related ethnic groups Slavs (South Slavs) The Bosniaks or Bosniacs[1] (Bosnian: Bošnjaci, IPA: ) are a South Slavic people, living mainly in Bosnia and Herzegovina (Bosnia) and the Sandžak region of Serbia and Montenegro, with a smaller autochthonous population also present in Croatia...


This resulted in Bosniak, or even Muslim, as terms being (re)coined recently as a political compromise. Peculiarly enough, in the present day Bosnia it is practically impossible for a citizen to declare her/himself as Bosnian. It can be tedious to argue this point as one inevitably has to take a lot of flak from Croat, Serb, or even Bosniak nationalists in the process. It is often forgotten, or rather ignored, that the unfortunate division in Bosnia-Herzegovina along the ethnic lines has its origins in the 19th century, and that distinctive ethnic prefixes didn't even exist before. Due to the wide-spread practice in the Ottoman empire the distinction (for taxation purposes, military service etc.) was made based on religion and this heritage only contributed to the ethnic chaos in the Balkans that followed in the wake of its retreat from Europe, followed by the Croatian and Serbian nationalist policy in Bosnia.


Bosnians in respect to religion

Bosnians are a multi-religious as much as multi-ethnic society but this is not to say that its component religions and ethnicities are homogeneous and independent from each other.


According to Tone Bringa, an author and anthropologist, in respect to Bosnia and Bosnians she states that "Neither Bosniak, nor Croat, nor Serb identities can be fully understood with reference only to Islam or Christianity respectively but have to be considered in a specific Bosnian context that has resulted in a shared history and locality among Bosnians of Islamic as well as Christian backgrounds." According to Bringa, in Bosnia there is a singular, “trans-ethnic culture” that encompassed each ethnicity and makes different faiths, including Christianity and Islam, “synergistically interdependent”. [5] Languages Bosnian Religions Predominantly Islam Related ethnic groups Slavs (South Slavs) The Bosniaks or Bosniacs[1] (Bosnian: BoÅ¡njaci, IPA: ) are a South Slavic people, living mainly in Bosnia and Herzegovina (Bosnia) and the Sandžak region of Serbia and Montenegro, with a smaller autochthonous population also present in Croatia... Croats (Croatian: Hrvati) are a south Slavic people mostly living in Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina (where theyre one of the constitutive nations). ... Serbs (in the Serbian language Срби, Srbi) are a south Slavic people living chiefly in Serbia and Montenegro and Bosnia and Herzegovina. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is... Synergy (from the Greek synergos, συνεργός meaning working together, circa 1660) refers to the phenomenon in which two or more discrete influences or agents acting together create an effect greater than that predicted by knowing only the separate effects of the individual agents. ... Not to be confused with interconnectivity. ...


A common anthropological trait present among many Bosnians that resulted from influence of religion on history in Bosnia and Herzegovina and which was continually evident among some Bosnians even today is also a preference for mythological method of knowledge transfer. Knowledge transfer was very much dependent on oral tradition given that early Bosnian Church was not well organised, and even where it was, there were not many written testaments left to the posterity to learn from. As a result collective memory of many historical events among Bosnians in absence of factual information have become the “facts” of collective memory which are not always in line with historical facts. This article does not cite its references or sources. ...


Still large numbers of Bosnians are secular which is a trend that has more profoundly found root in last 60 years in Bosnia and Herzegovina as they were part of the Communist system that rejected, but tolerated, religion. Communism is an ideology that seeks to establish a classless, stateless social organization based on common ownership of the means of production. ...


Bosnians today

Recently, the denial of Bosnian nationhood, as a unifying trait of those who stem from Bosnia and Herzegovina, has generally been used by some political factions to drive the constituent ethnicities of Bosnia and Herzegovina further apart.


Because of this pressure and because of its complex history Bosnian national identity today remains a complex issue among its adherents. Variably members of the Bosnian nation, of various ethnic and religious backgrounds who live or stem from Bosnia and Herzegovina, define themselves Bosnians primarily as they feel they belong to the same geographical region which characterizes them with particular cultural and historical traits. However, many choose to declare themselves as Bosnian as a method for overcoming ethnic animosities aroused by the recent war. Due to more recent war and massive relocations of Bosnians they have experienced a significant internationalization of their identity with many considering themselves as having dual identity (one as Bosnians and another of the country where they currently live). As a result in diaspora Bosnians have shown tendencies towards more or less successful organizing into viable Bosnian communities.


Given heavy involvement of the European community in political integration of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bosnian nationalization issue is viewed by some as a contemporary European experiment strikingly similar to modern Europeanism movement. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


Maps and demographic illustrations

See also

Languages Bosnian Religions Predominantly Islam Related ethnic groups Slavs (South Slavs) The Bosniaks or Bosniacs[1] (Bosnian: Bošnjaci, IPA: ) are a South Slavic people, living mainly in Bosnia and Herzegovina (Bosnia) and the Sandžak region of Serbia and Montenegro, with a smaller autochthonous population also present in Croatia... Languages Serbian Religions Predominantly Serbian Orthodox Christian Related ethnic groups Other Slavic peoples, especially South Slavs See Cognate peoples below (* many Serbs opted for Yugoslav ethnicity) [28] Serbs (Serbian: Срби or Srbi) are a South Slavic people who live mainly in Serbia, Montenegro, Bosnia-Herzegovina, and, to a lesser extent, in... Languages Croatian Religions Predominantly Roman Catholic Related ethnic groups Slavs South Slavs Croats (Croatian: Hrvati) are a South Slavic people mostly living in Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina and nearby countries. ... The Herzegovinians (Hercegovci; sing. ... Combatants Army of the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina (Predominantly Bosniak) Army of Republika Srpska, Yugoslav Peoples Army, various paramilitary units from Serbia and Montenegro (Serbian) Croatian Defence Council, Croatian Army (Croatian) Commanders Alija Izetbegović (President of Bosnia and Herzegovina) Sefer Halilović (Army chief of staff 1992-1993) Rasim... This is a history of Bosnia and Herzegovina. ... This is a list of prominent Bosnians (including Bosnian Serbs, Bosnian Croats, and Bosnian Muslims also known as Bosniaks): // Arts Literature Novelists and Writers Ivo Andrić - Nobel Laureate Mula Mustafa Bašeskija - travel writer Branko Ćopić - writer, poet Svetozar Ćorović - writer Zija Dizdarević - author Dario Džamonja - writer Zuko D... Yugoslavs (Bosnian: Jugosloveni; Macedonian, Serbian Cyrillic: Југословени; Latinic: Jugosloveni; Croatian: Jugoslaveni, Slovenian: Jugoslovani) is an ethnic designation used by some people in former Yugoslavia, which continues to be used in some of its successor countries. ... Meša Selimović Mehmedalija Meša Selimović (Cyrillic: Мехмедалија Меша Селимовић) was a Yugoslavian writer of Bosnian ethnicity, and one of the greatest 20th century novelists of Bosnian and Serbian literature. ...

External links

  • Bosnia-Hercegovina: An Interdisciplinary Study

References

  1. ^ [1], from Party for Bosnia and Herzegovina website
  2. ^ UNDP Published a Major Research on Return, Identity, Politics and Social Trust. United Nations Development Programme for Bosnia and Herzegovina (2007-07-07). Retrieved on 2007-07-27.
  3. ^ Pulse of the citizenry 19-20. United Nations Development Programme for Bosnia and Herzegovina (2007-07-07). Retrieved on 2007-07-27. (Internet Explorer-only link)
  4. ^ Plut, Dijana; (2002) “What is Democracy in Textbooks?” pg. 117-118
  5. ^ Bringa, Tone; Being Muslim the Bosnian Way ISBN 0-691-00175-8

  Results from FactBites:
 
Bosnian (1249 words)
Bosnian belongs to the South Slavic group of the Slavic branch of the Indo-European language family.
Bosnian is the language of the Bosniaks, or the Bosnian Muslims.
Bosnian is considered to be a Category II language in terms of difficulty for speakers of English.
BBC Education - Languages (115 words)
One of the Southern Slavonic languages, Bosnian is most closely related to Serbian, Croatian and Slovene.
Due to the Balkan conflict, the different national groups established their own official languages, and the term Bosnian is used to describe the official language of Bosnia-Hercegovina.
Bosnian is written in Latin script, but it can also be seen written in the Cyrillic alphabet.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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