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Encyclopedia > Bosnian language
Bosnian
bosanski 
Pronunciation: [ˈbɔsanskiː]
Spoken in: Flag of Bosnia and Herzegovina Bosnia and Herzegovina,
Flag of Serbia Serbia,
Flag of Montenegro Montenegro,
Flag of Kosovo Kosovo,
Flag of Croatia Croatia,
Flag of the Republic of Macedonia Republic of Macedonia,
and by immigrant communities in
Flag of Turkey Turkey,
Flag of Germany Germany,
Flag of Slovenia Slovenia,
Flag of Sweden Sweden,
Flag of Denmark Denmark,
Flag of Austria Austria,
Flag of Canada Canada,
Flag of the United States United States,
Flag of Belgium Belgium,
Flag of Switzerland Switzerland,
Flag of Spain Spain
Total speakers: 3 000 000
Language family: Indo-European
 Slavic
  South Slavic
   Western South Slavic
    Bosnian 
Official status
Official language in: Flag of Bosnia and Herzegovina Bosnia and Herzegovina,
Flag of Montenegro Montenegro,
Flag of Kosovo Kosovo,
Flag of Serbia Serbia (municipial level)
Regulated by: no official regulation
Language codes
ISO 639-1: bs
ISO 639-2: bos
ISO 639-3: bos
South Slavic
languages and dialects
Western South Slavic
Slovene
Central South Slavic diasystem
Bosnian · Bunjevac
Burgenland Croatian · Croatian
Montenegrin · Serbian
Serbo-Croatian · Šokac
Romano-Serbian · Slavoserbian
Differences between Serbian,
Croatian, and Bosnian
Dialects
Chakavian · Molise Croatian
Shtokavian · Užice speech
Eastern South Slavic
Old Church Slavonic
Church Slavonic
Bulgarian · Macedonian
Dialects
Banat Bulgarian · Shopski

Slavic dialects of Greece Image File history File links Flag_of_Bosnia_and_Herzegovina. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Serbia. ... Not to be confused with Republika Srpska. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Montenegro. ... This article is about the country in Europe. ... For other uses, see Kosovo (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Croatia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Macedonia. ... For an explanation of terms related to Macedonia, see Macedonia (terminology). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Turkey. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Germany. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Slovenia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Sweden. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Denmark. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Austria. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Belgium_(civil). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Switzerland. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Spain. ... A language family is a group of languages related by descent from a common proto-language. ... For other uses, see Indo-European. ...  Countries where a West Slavic language is the national language  Countries where an East Slavic language is the national language  Countries where a South Slavic language is the national language The Slavic languages (also called Slavonic languages), a group of closely related languages of the Slavic peoples and a subgroup... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Bosnia_and_Herzegovina. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Montenegro. ... This article is about the country in Europe. ... For other uses, see Kosovo (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Serbia. ... Not to be confused with Republika Srpska. ... ISO 639-1 is the first part of the ISO 639 international-standard language-code family. ... ISO 639-2 is the second part of the ISO 639 standard, which lists codes for the representation of the names of languages. ... ISO 639-3 is an international standard for language codes. ... The Unicode Standard, Version 5. ... Bunjevac language or Bunjevac dialect (Bunjevački jezik or Bunjevački dijalekat) is a language/dialect spoken by Bunjevac ethnic group in Vojvodina province of Serbia and Montenegro. ... Burgenland Croatian language or dialect (gradišćanskohrvatski jezik) belongs to the South Slavic branch of the Slavic languages. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Serbian (; ) is one of the standard versions of the Shtokavian dialect, used primarily in Serbia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Montenegro, Croatia, and by Serbs in the Serbian diaspora. ... Serbo-Croatian or Croato-Serbian (sometimes just Croatian or Serbian) (srpskohrvatski, cрпскохрватски, hrvatskosrpski, hrvatski ili srpski or srpski ili hrvatski), earlier also Serbo-Croat, is a South Slavic language. ... The Å okac language (Å okački jezik) was a language listed in Austro-Hungarian censuses. ... The Romano-Serbian language is a language in the Western group of South Slavic languages. ... The Slavoserbian language (славяносербскій [slavjanoserbskij], словенскій [slovenskij]; in Serbian славеносрпски/slavenosrpski) is a form of the Serbian language which was predominantly used at the end of the 18th century and the beginning of the 19th century by educated Serbian citizens in Vojvodina, and the Serbian diaspora in other parts of the Habsburg Monarchy. ... The standard Bosnian, Croatian, and Serbian languages differ in various aspects as outlined below. ... Chakavian (ÄŒakavian, čakavski) dialect is a dialect of the Croatian language. ... Molise Croatian dialect (also: Molise Slavic, Slavisano, na-naÅ¡o) is spoken in the Campobasso Province in the Molise Region of Italy, in three villages — Montemitro (Mundimitar), Aquaviva Collercroce (Živavoda Kruč) and San Felice del Molise (Å tifilić). These have approximately 3,000 speakers. ... Shtokavian or Å tokavian is the primary dialect of the Central South Slavic languages system: Serbo-Croatian, Serbian, Croatian, Montenegrin and Bosnian languages. ... Užican speech (Serbian: ужички говор or užički govor), also known as Zlatiborian speech (златиборски говор or zlatiborski govor) is a dialect of the Serbian language. ... Old Church Slavonic (also called Old Slavic[1]) is the first literary Slavic language, developed from the Slavic dialect of Thessalonica (modern Thessaloniki) by the 9th century Byzantine Greek missionaries, Saints Cyril and Methodius. ... Page from the Spiridon Psalter in Church Slavic. ... This article is about the Slavic language. ... Banat Bulgarians in Romania (in brown) The Banat Bulgarians (Bulgarian: , banatski balgari, endonym palćene and banátsći balgare) are a Bulgarian minority group living mostly in the Romanian part of the historical region of the Banat. ... The Shopi (шопи, scientific transliteration Å¡opi; singular шоп, Å¡op, with various regional names also existing) are are an ethnic subgroup of the Bulgarian people that inhabits the region of the Shopluk (Шоплук, Å opluk) in central western Bulgaria, around the towns of Botevgrad, Svoge, Elin Pelin, Kostinbrod, Slivnitsa, Dragoman, Samokov, Ihtiman, Dupnitsa, Kyustendil, Tran... Slavic (Greek: σλάβικα slávika, also referred to as εντόπια entópia (meaning local), reported self-identifying names: makedonski, slavomakedonski (Macedonian), pomashki, bugarski, balgarski (Bulgarian) [1]) are terms sometimes used to designate the dialects spoken by the Slavophone (i. ...

Transitional dialects
Eastern-Central
Torlak dialects · Našinski
Western-Central
Kajkavian
Alphabets
Modern
Gaj’s Latin alphabet1
Serbian Cyrillic alphabet
Macedonian Cyrillic
Bulgarian Cyrillic
Slovene alphabet
Historical

Bohoričica · Dajnčica · Metelčica
Arebica · Bosnian Cyrillic
Glagolitic · Early Cyrillic Torlak[1] (Торлачки говор or Torlački govor) is the name used for the Slavic dialects spoken in southern and eastern Serbia, northeast Republic of Macedonia (Kratovo-Kumanovo), northwest Bulgaria (Vidin-Bregovo), and further afield in the CaraÅŸ-Severin County in Romania. ... NaÅ¡inski, Nashinski or Goranian is a Torlakian language (dialect) used by the Gorani in southern Kosovo. ... Location map of Kajkavian Kajkavian (kajkavski) dialect (proper name: kajkavica) is one of the three main dialects of the Croatian. ... The variant of the Latin alphabet devised by Ljudevit Gaj, in his book 1830 Kratka osnova horvatsko-slavenskog pravopisanja (A short primer of Croatian-Slavic orthography), is currently used as the only script of the Bosnian and Croatian standard languages, and as one of the two scripts of the Serbian... Note: This page or section contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ... The modern Macedonian alphabet (as any Slavic Cyrillic alphabet) is ultimately based on the Cyrillic alphabet (кирилица) of Saint Cyril and Saint Methodius; it is an adaptation of Vuk Karadžićs (Serbian) phonetic alphabet. ... Bulgarian or chuvashi language is spoken by around 80. ... Bohorič alphabet (slovene bohoričica) was slovene writing system used in years 1550-1850. ... Dajnko alphabet or dajnčica was a slovenian writing system invented by Peter Dajnko. ... Metelko alphabet (slovene: metelčica) was a slovenian writing system developed by Franc Serafin Metelko. ... Bosancica is a script, that was used in Bosnia and Herzegovina and Croatia (Dalmatia and Dubrovnik). ... The Glagolitic alphabet or Glagolitsa is the oldest known Slavic alphabet. ... The original Cyrillic alphabet was a writing system developed in Macedonia and in the First Bulgarian Empire in the tenth century to write the Old Church Slavonic liturgical language. ...

1 Includes Banat Bulgarian alphabet
which is based on it.
v  d  e

Bosnian language (Latin script: bosanski jezik) is a South Slavic language native to the Bosniak people and Ethnic Bosnians. The language is notably spoken in the areas of Bosnia, the Bosniak-dominated region of Sandžak (in Serbia and Montenegro) and elsewhere. It is one of the standard versions of the Central-South Slavic diasystem which covers the region that was once known as Serbo-Croat from the 19th century until the early 1990s. It should be noted, however, that the Serbian, Croatian, and Bosniak languages are all mutually intelligible. The Latin alphabet, also called the Roman alphabet, is the most widely used alphabetic writing system in the world, the standard script of the English language and most of the languages of western and central Europe, and of those areas settled by Europeans. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Language(s) Bosnian Religion(s) Predominantly Islam Related ethnic groups Slavs (South Slavs) The Bosniaks or Bosniacs[1] (Bosnian: BoÅ¡njaci, IPA: ) are a people, living mainly in Bosnia and Herzegovina (Bosnia) and the Sandžak region of Serbia and Montenegro, with a smaller autochthonous population also present in Croatia... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Ethnic groups in Bosnia and Herzegovina and Bosnians (Discuss) Languages Bosnian Religions Muslims, Orthodox Christians, Catholics, Jews, Atheists, Agnostics Related ethnic groups South Slavs, Bosniaks, Croats, Serbs Ethnic Bosnians - simply called Bosnians - are those who are considered, by... This article is about the country of Bosnia and Herzegovina. ... Language(s) Bosnian Religion(s) Predominantly Islam Related ethnic groups Slavs (South Slavs) The Bosniaks or Bosniacs[1] (Bosnian: BoÅ¡njaci, IPA: ) are a people, living mainly in Bosnia and Herzegovina (Bosnia) and the Sandžak region of Serbia and Montenegro, with a smaller autochthonous population also present in Croatia... Map of Sandžak RaÅ¡ka (Serbian: Рашка, RaÅ¡ka, Bosnian: Sandžak, Albanian: Sanxhak or Sanxhaku, Turkish: Sancak) is a geographical region in central Balkans. ... Not to be confused with Republika Srpska. ... This article is about the country in Europe. ... In linguistics, in the field of structural dialectology, a diasystem is a single genetic language which has two or more standard forms. ... Serbo-Croatian (srpskohrvatski or hrvatskosrpski) is a name for a language of the Western group of the South Slavic languages. ... In linguistics, mutual intelligibility is a property exhibited by a set of languages when speakers of any one of them can readily understand all the others without intentional study or extraordinary effort. ...


The Bosnian alphabet is based on the Latin alphabet. The Cyrillic alphabet is accepted (chiefly to accommodate for its usage in Bosnia in the past, especially in former Yugoslavia), but seldom used in today's practice. The name Bosnian language is the commonly accepted name among Bosniak linguists, and the name used by the ISO-639 standard. There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... Abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz redirects here. ... The Cyrillic alphabet (pronounced also called azbuka, from the old name of the first two letters) is actually a family of alphabets, subsets of which are used by certain Slavic languages — Belarusian, Bulgarian, Macedonian, Russian, Rusyn, Serbian, and Ukrainian—as well as many other languages of the former Soviet Union... The Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia was a Balkan state that existed from 1945 to 1992. ...

Contents

History

The modern Bosnian language is a variant of Serbo-Croatian (now often referred to as BCS for Bosnian-Croatian-Serbian), and uses either the Latin and Cyrillic alphabet. However, scripts other than today's Latin and Cyrillic were used much earlier, most notably the indigenous Bosnian Cyrillic called Bosančica, which is literally translated as Bosnian script and dates back to the 10th/11th century. This script is of the greatest significance to Bosniak/Bosnian history and linguistics, since it is the one script that is purely native to Bosnia and also links Bosnian medieval monarchy (who used it) with medieval Bosnian religion (who used it first)[citation needed], in fact the script is to be found in many royal state documents and as well on old Bosnian tombs (Stećak)[citation needed]. The substantial influence of Bosančica on medieval Bosnia has unfortunately made it a target of controversial debates and propaganda throughout the history of the rivalry between Bosniaks, Serbs and Croats which has led to the tendency of Croats and Serbs to deny it as Bosnian and instead claim it as "theirs" - despite its geographical origin (Bosnia). Other, less important, scripts used include: Begovica (used by Bosniak nobility). Bosniaks have also used an Arabic script adjusted to Bosnian language called Arebica. Bosancica is a script, that was used in Bosnia and Herzegovina and Croatia (Dalmatia and Dubrovnik). ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Stećak tomebstones in Radimlja near Stolac, 13th century. ... Language(s) Bosnian Religion(s) Predominantly Islam Related ethnic groups Slavs (South Slavs) The Bosniaks or Bosniacs[1] (Bosnian: BoÅ¡njaci, IPA: ) are a people, living mainly in Bosnia and Herzegovina (Bosnia) and the Sandžak region of Serbia and Montenegro, with a smaller autochthonous population also present in Croatia...


In addition, one of the oldest South Slavic documents is the Bosnian statehood charter from 1189, written by Bosnian ruler Kulin Ban. Some other early mentionings include one from July 3, 1436, where, in the region of Kotor, a duke bought a girl that is described as: "Bosnian woman, heretic and in Bosnian language called Djevena". To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Events April - Paris is recaptured by the French End of the Hussite Wars in Bohemia. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ...


Probably the most authentic Bosniak writers (the so-called "Bosniak revival" at the turn of the century) wrote in an idiom that is closer to the Croatian form than to the Serbian one (western Štokavian-Ijekavian idiom, Latin script), but which possessed unmistakably recognizable Bosniak traits, primarily lexical ones. The main authors of the "Bosniak renaissance" were the polymath, politician and poet Safvet-beg Bašagić, the "poète maudit" Musa Ćazim Ćatić and the storyteller Edhem Mulabdić. Croatian language (hrvatski jezik) is a South Slavic language which is used primarily by the inhabitants of Croatia and Croats in Bosnia and Herzegovina and parts of the Croatian diaspora. ... Serbian (; ) is one of the standard versions of the Shtokavian dialect, used primarily in Serbia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Montenegro, Croatia, and by Serbs in the Serbian diaspora. ...

A page from Uskufi's Bosnian dictionary

On a formal level, the Bosnian language is beginning to take a distinctive shape: lexically, Islamic-Oriental loan words are becoming more frequent; phonetically and phonologically, the phoneme "h" is reinstated in many words as a distinct feature of Bosniak speech and language tradition; also, there are some changes in grammar, morphology and orthography that reflect the Bosniak pre-World War I literary tradition, mainly that of the Bosniak renaissance at the beginning of the 20th century. Uskufis glossary This image is in the public domain because its copyright has expired in the United States and those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years. ... Uskufis glossary This image is in the public domain because its copyright has expired in the United States and those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ...


Controversy

The name for the language is a controversial issue for neighboring Croats and Serbs. Croats and Serbs call their languages Croatian and Serbian. The constitution of the Republika Srpska, where the language is also official, refers to it as the "Language spoken by Bosniaks" ("Jezik kojim govore Bošnjaci"). The use of the language will remain an issue as the three peoples of Bosnia and Hercegovina will continue to call the spoken language that which identifies their ethnic background. Bosniaks (Bosnian Muslims) choose the language Bosnian, Serbs continue call their language Serbian, and Croats call the language Croatian. The constitutions of RS and FBIH recognize all three languages, it is the people that refuse to settle on a name for what is overall the same language. Languages Croatian Religions Predominantly Roman Catholic Related ethnic groups Slavs South Slavs Croats (Croatian: Hrvati) are a South Slavic people mostly living in Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina and nearby countries. ... Languages Serbian Religions Predominantly Serbian Orthodox Christian Related ethnic groups Other Slavic peoples, especially South Slavs See Cognate peoples below (* many Serbs opted for Yugoslav ethnicity) [27] Serbs (Serbian: Срби or Srbi) are a South Slavic people who live mainly in Serbia, Montenegro, Bosnia-Herzegovina, and, to a lesser extent, in... Serbian (; ) is one of the standard versions of the Shtokavian dialect, used primarily in Serbia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Montenegro, Croatia, and by Serbs in the Serbian diaspora. ... Not to be confused with Serbia. ...


Bosniak language (bošnjački jezik) is the prescribed name of the language in Serbian[1], but the Serbian Ministry of Education recognizes it as Bosnian. Some Croatian linguists (Radoslav Katičić, Dalibor Brozović and Tomislav Ladan) consider the appropriate name to be "Bosniak" rather than "Bosnian". In their opinion, the appellation "Bosnian" refers to the whole country, therefore implying that "Bosnian" is the national standard language of all Bosnians, not only Bosniaks. Some other Croatian linguists (Zvonko Kovač, Ivo Pranjković) recognize it as Bosnian. Bosniak linguists and intellectuals (for instance Muhamed Filipović) consider interpretation of some Croatian and Serbian linguists as nationalistic actions against Bosniaks and their identity, as the situation in Serbia and Croatia was very anti-Bosniak in the light of Bosnian War. In linguistics, prescription is the laying down or prescribing of normative rules for the use of a language. ... Radoslav Katičić (born in Zagreb in 1930) is a Croatian linguist, historian and culturologist. ... Dalibor Brozović (1927) is a Croatian linguist. ... Tomislav Ladan (born 1932, Ivanjica, Serbia) is a Croatian essayist, critic, novelist, and polymath. ... Ivo Pranjković (August 17, 1947) is a Croatian linguist. ... Combatants Army of the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina (Predominantly Bosniak) Army of Republika Srpska, Yugoslav Peoples Army, various paramilitary units from Serbia and Montenegro (Serbian) Croatian Defence Council, Croatian Army (Croatian) Commanders Alija Izetbegović (President of Bosnia and Herzegovina) Sefer Halilović (Army chief of staff 1992-1993) Rasim...


Montenegro doesn't recognize the Bosnian language, but "Bosniak language" rather. It has come so that the majority of the populace of Plav speaks "Bosniak language" according to the 2003 census, while a most peculiar thing could be noticed in Rozaje - most speak "Other languages" (the Bosniaks in majority had to tick "other" and then write down "Bosnian language"). It is so that 19,906 people declared their language "Bosniak language", while only 14,172 "Bosnian language". Recently adopted new constitution of Montenegro recognized the "Bosniac language" as one of the official in usage This article is about the country in Europe. ... This article is about the country in Europe. ...


It is important to observe that the Dayton Peace Accord officially recognizes and specifies the Bosnian language as a distinct language spoken in Bosnia and Herzegovina by Bosniaks. This distinction and official recognition of the Bosnian language is further acknowledged by signatures of the former presidents of Bosnia and Herzegovina (Alija Izetbegović), Croatia (Franjo Tuđman) and Serbia (Slobodan Milošević). As such the Bosnian language is officially recognized by constitution of Bosnia and Herzegovina as well. The General Framework Agreement for Peace in Bosnia and Herzegovina, also known as the Dayton Agreement, Dayton Accords, Paris Protocol or Dayton-Paris Agreement, is the peace agreement reached at the Wright-Patterson Air Force Base near Dayton, Ohio in November 1995, and formally signed in Paris on December 14... Alija Izetbegović (August 8, 1925 – October 19, 2003) was a Bosniak activist, lawyer, author, philosopher and politician, who, in 1990, became the first president of Bosnia and Herzegovina. ... ‹ The template below (Foreignchar) is being considered for deletion. ... Not to be confused with Republika Srpska. ... MiloÅ¡ević redirects here. ...


No Croatian and Serbian linguistic authorities had been contacted when this issue was settled[citation needed]. According to Croatian participant Radoslav Dodig, the renaming of "Bosniak" into "Bosnian" was not a process, but a semi-hidden manoeuvre.[2]


Although the Bosnian language is spoken mostly by Bosniaks, there are also Bosnian Croats and Serbs in Sarajevo, Zenica and Tuzla regions who claim to speak Bosnian. For instance, Željko Komšić, a Croat member of Bosnian Presidency calls his mother tongue, the Bosnian language. Željko KomÅ¡ić (IPA: ) (born January 20, 1964, Sarajevo) is a Bosnian-Herzegovinian politician of Croatian descent. ...


Bosnian, Serbian, and Croatian are examples of ausbauspraches, since they are largely mutually intelligible and many people say that they are all one language formerly known as Serbo-Croatian. The Ausbausprache - Abstandsprache - Dachsprache framework is a tool developed by sociolinguists, e. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


Phonology

Vowels

The Bosnian vowel system is simple, with only five vowels. All vowels are monophthongs. The oral vowels are as follows: Note: This page contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ... A monophthong (in Greek μονόφθογγος = single note) is a pure vowel sound, one whose articulation at both beginning and end is relatively fixed, and which does not glide up or down towards a new position of articulation; compare diphthong. ...

Latin script Cyrillic script IPA Description English approximation
i и /i/ front closed unrounded seek
e е /ɛ/ front half open unrounded ten
a а /a/ central open unrounded father
o о /ɔ/ back half open rounded tote
u у /u/ back closed rounded boom

It should also be mentioned the that letter "R" stands as both a consonant and a vowel. It is considered a vowel when surrounded by two other consonants. For example in the words: brzo (quick), trn (thorn), mrk (dark), vrlo (very).


Consonants

The consonant system is more complicated, and its characteristic features are series of affricate and palatal consonants. As in English and most other Indo-European languages west of India, voicedness is phonemic, but aspiration is not. In articulatory phonetics, a consonant is a sound in spoken language that is characterized by a closure or stricture of the vocal tract sufficient to cause audible turbulence. ... An affricate is a consonant that begins like a stop (most often an alveovelar, such as [t] or [d]) and that doesnt have a release of its own, but opens directly into a fricative (or, in one language, into a trill). ... Palatal consonants are consonants articulated with the body of the tongue raised against the hard palate (the middle part of the roof of the mouth). ... For other uses, see Indo-European. ... In human language, a phoneme is the theoretical representation of a sound. ... In phonetics, aspiration is the strong burst of air that accompanies either the release or, in the case of preaspiration, the closure of some obstruents. ...

Latin script Cyrillic script IPA Description English approximation
trill
r р /r/ alveolar tap rolled r as in Spanish carro
approximants
v в /ʋ/ labiodental approximant vase
j ј /j/ palatal approximant yes
laterals
l л /l/ lateral alveolar approximant lock
lj љ /ʎ/ palatal lateral approximant volume
nasals
m м /m/ bilabial nasal man
n н /n/ alveolar nasal not
nj њ /ɲ/ palatal nasal canyon
fricatives
f ф /f/ voiceless labiodental fricative phase
s с /s/ voiceless alveolar fricative some
z з /z/ voiced alveolar fricative zero
š ш /ʃ/ voiceless postalveolar fricative sheer
ž ж /ʒ/ voiced postalveolar fricative vision
h х /x/ voiceless velar fricative loch (Scottish)
affricates
c ц /ts/ voiceless alveolar affricate pots
џ /dʒ/ voiced postalveolar affricate judge
č ч /tʃ/ voiceless postalveolar affricate chair
đ ђ /dʑ/ voiced alveolo-palatal affricate schedule
ć ћ /tɕ/ voiceless alveolo-palatal affricate nature
plosives
b б /b/ voiced bilabial plosive abuse
p п /p/ voiceless bilabial plosive top
d д /d/ voiced alveolar plosive dog
t т /t/ voiceless alveolar plosive talk
g г /g/ voiced velar plosive god
k к /k/ voiceless velar plosive duck

In consonant clusters all consonants are either voiced or voiceless. All the consonants are voiced (if the last consonant is normally voiced) or voiceless (if the last consonant is normally voiceless). This rule does not apply to approximants — a consonant cluster may contain voiced approximants and voiceless consonants; as well as to foreign words (Washington would be transcribed as VašinGton/ВашинГтон), personal names and when consonants are not inside of one syllable. In music, a trill is a type of ornament; see trill (music) In phonetics, a trill is a type of consonant; see trill consonant In the fictional Star Trek universe, the Trill are two symbiotic races of aliens; see Trill (Star Trek). ... The alveolar tap or flap is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... Approximants are speech sounds that could be regarded as intermediate between vowels and typical consonants. ... The labiodental approximant is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... The palatal approximant is a type of consonantal sound, used in many spoken languages. ... Laterals are L-like consonants pronounced with an occlusion made somewhere along the axis of the tongue, while air from the lungs escapes at one side or both sides of the tongue. ... The alveolar lateral approximant is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... The palatal lateral approximant is a type of consonantal sound used in some spoken languages. ... The nasals are a pair of bones in the skull of many animals. ... The bilabial nasal is a type of consonantal sound used in some spoken languages. ... The alveolar nasal is a type of consonantal sound used in some spoken languages. ... The palatal nasal is a type of consonant, used in some spoken languages. ... Note: This page contains phonetic information presented in the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) using Unicode. ... The voiceless labiodental fricative is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... The voiceless alveolar fricatives are consonantal sounds. ... The voiced alveolar fricatives are consonantal sounds. ... The voiceless palato-alveolar fricative or domed postalveolar fricative is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... The voiced palato-alveolar fricative or domed postalveolar fricative is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... The voiceless velar fricative is a type of consonantal sound used in some spoken languages. ... An affricate is a consonant that begins like a stop (most often an alveovelar, such as [t] or [d]) and that doesnt have a release of its own, but opens directly into a fricative (or, in one language, into a trill). ... The voiceless alveolar affricate is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... The voiced palato-alveolar fricative or domed postalveolar affricate is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... The voiceless palato-alveolar affricate or domed postalveolar affricate is a type of consonantal sound used in some spoken languages. ... The voiced alveolo-palatal affricate is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... The voiceless alveolo-palatal affricate is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... A stop or plosive or occlusive is a consonant sound produced by stopping the airflow in the vocal tract. ... The voiced bilabial plosive is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... The voiceless bilabial plosive is a type of consonantal sound used in many spoken languages. ... The voiced alveolar plosive is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... The voiceless alveolar plosive is a type of consonantal sound used in many spoken languages. ... The voiced velar plosive is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... The voiceless velar plosive is a type of consonantal sound used in many spoken languages. ... In linguistics, a consonant cluster is a group of consonants which have no intervening vowel. ... Approximants are speech sounds that could be regarded as intermediate between vowels and typical consonants. ...


/r/ can be syllabic, playing the role of a vowel in certain words (occasionally, it can even have a long accent). For example, the tongue-twister na vrh brda vrba mrda involves four words with syllabic /r/. A similar feature exists in Serbian, Croatian, Macedonian, Slovene, Czech, and Slovak. In rare instances, /l/ is syllabic (in the name for the river "Vltava", 'l' is syllabic) as well as /ʎ/ and the nasal consonants (especially jargon words). A tongue-twister is a phrase in any language that is designed to be difficult to articulate properly. ... Serbian (; ) is one of the standard versions of the Shtokavian dialect, used primarily in Serbia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Montenegro, Croatia, and by Serbs in the Serbian diaspora. ... For the glossary of hacker slang, see Jargon File. ...


Differences from similar languages

The standard Bosnian, Croatian and Serbian languages differ in various aspects as outlined below. ...

External links

Wikipedia
Bosnian language edition of Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1058x1058, 477 KB) aa Wikipedia logo, version 1058px square, no text Wikipedia logo by Nohat (concept by Paullusmagnus); compare Wikipedia File links The following pages link to this file: Arabic language Talk:Anarcho-capitalism Talk:Algorithm Talk:Anno Domini Talk:The... Wikipedia (IPA: , or ( ) is a multilingual, web-based, free content encyclopedia project, operated by the Wikimedia Foundation, a non-profit organization. ...

References

  1. ^ Board for Standardisation of Serbian Language (February 16 1998). "1", Три питања и три одговора. Decision No. 1. 
  2. ^ Sanoptikum
 Countries where a West Slavic language is the national language  Countries where an East Slavic language is the national language  Countries where a South Slavic language is the national language The Slavic languages (also called Slavonic languages), a group of closely related languages of the Slavic peoples and a subgroup... This article or section should be merged with List of West Slavic languages The West Slavic languages is a subdivision of the Slavic language group (q. ... Kashubian or Cassubian (Kashubian: kaszëbsczi jãzëk, pòmòrsczi jãzëk, kaszëbskò-sÅ‚owiÅ„skô mòwa) is one of the Lechitic languages, which are a group of Slavic languages. ... Knaanic (also called Canaanic, Leshon Knaan or Judeo-Slavic) was a West Slavic language, formerly spoken in the Czech lands, now the Czech Republic. ... Lower Sorbian (dolnoserbšćina) is a Slavic minority language spoken in eastern Germany in the historical province of Lower Lusatia, today part of Brandenburg. ... Pannonian Rusyn or simply Rusyn (Ruthenian) is a Slavic language or dialect spoken in north-western Serbia and eastern Croatia (therefore also called Yugoslavo-Ruthenian, Vojvodina-Ruthenian or Bačka-Ruthenian). ... The Polabian language, which became extinct in the 18th century, was a group of Slavic dialects spoken in present-day northern Germany: Mecklenburg, Brandenburg, Saxony-Anhalt, eastern parts of Lower Saxony, and Schleswig-Holstein. ... Stefan RamuÅ‚ts Dictionary of the Pomeranian (Kashubian) language, published in Kraków, 1893 Pomeranian language edition of Wikipedia Pomeranian is a group of Lechitic dialects which were spoken in the Middle Ages on the territory of Pomerania, between the Oder and Vistula rivers. ... Slovincian is an extinct dialect of the Pomeranian language, spoken between the lakes Gardno and Łebsko in Pomerania. ... Upper Sorbian (hornjoserbšćina) is a minority language of Germany spoken in the historical province of Upper Lusatia, today part of Saxony. ... This article or section should be merged with List of East Slavic languages The East Slavic languages constitute one of three regional subgroups of Slavic languages, currently spoken in Eastern Europe. ... Old East Slavic, traditionally known as Old Russian (Russian: древнерусский), is a name for a vernacular literary language used between the 10th and 14th centuries by East Slavs in Kievan Rus and other states formed by that ethnic group. ... Old Novgorod dialect (Russian древненовгородский диалект, also translated as Old Novgorodian or Ancient Novgorod dialect) is a term introduced by Andrey Zaliznyak (Андрей Анатольевич Зализняк) to account for the astonishingly distinct linguistic features of the East Slavic birch-bark writings from the 11th to 15th centuries excavated in Novgorod and... Rusyn is an East Slavic language (along with Russian, Belarusian and Ukrainian to which it shares a common linguistic ancestry) that is spoken by the Rusyns. ... Ruthenian was a historic East Slavic language, spoken in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and later in the East Slavic territories of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Banat Bulgarians in Romania (in brown) The Banat Bulgarians (Bulgarian: , banatski balgari, endonym palćene and banátsći balgare) are a Bulgarian minority group living mostly in the Romanian part of the historical region of the Banat. ... Page from the Spiridon Psalter in Church Slavic. ... Old Church Slavonic (also called Old Slavic[1]) is the first literary Slavic language, developed from the Slavic dialect of Thessalonica (modern Thessaloniki) by the 9th century Byzantine Greek missionaries, Saints Cyril and Methodius. ... Serbo-Croatian or Croato-Serbian (sometimes just Croatian or Serbian) (srpskohrvatski, cрпскохрватски, hrvatskosrpski, hrvatski ili srpski or srpski ili hrvatski), earlier also Serbo-Croat, is a South Slavic language. ... Bunjevac language or Bunjevac dialect (Bunjevački jezik or Bunjevački dijalekat) is a language/dialect spoken by Bunjevac ethnic group in Vojvodina province of Serbia and Montenegro. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Serbian (; ) is one of the standard versions of the Shtokavian dialect, used primarily in Serbia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Montenegro, Croatia, and by Serbs in the Serbian diaspora. ... The Å okac language (Å okački jezik) was a language listed in Austro-Hungarian censuses. ... Proto-Slavic is the proto-language from which Old Church Slavonic and other Slavic languages later emerged. ... Russenorsk or Russonorsk (Norwegian for Russo-Norwegian) was a pidgin language combining elements of Russian and Norwegian, created by traders and whalers from northern Norway and the Russian Kola peninsula, and also used in Svalbard. ... The Slavoserbian language (славяносербскій [slavjanoserbskij], словенскій [slovenskij]; in Serbian славеносрпски/slavenosrpski) is a form of the Serbian language which was predominantly used at the end of the 18th century and the beginning of the 19th century by educated Serbian citizens in Vojvodina, and the Serbian diaspora in other parts of the Habsburg Monarchy. ... It has been suggested that Moribund language be merged into this article or section. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Bosnian language - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1029 words)
The language is used by Bosniaks in Bosnia and Herzegovina, the region of Sandžak (in Serbia and Montenegro) and elsewhere.
The irony of the Bosnian language is that its speakers are, on the level of colloquial idiom, more linguistically homogenous than either Serbs or Croats, but failed, due to historical reasons, to standardize their language in the crucial 19th century.
This distinction and official recognition of the Bosnian language is further acknowledged by signatures of the former presidents of Bosnia and Herzegovina (Alija Izetbegović), Croatia (Franjo Tuđman) and Serbia (Slobodan Milošević).
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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