FACTOID # 10: The total number of state executions in 2005 was 60: 19 in Texas and 41 elsewhere. The racial split was 19 Black and 41 White.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Bosnian War
Bosnian War/War in Bosnia and Herzegovina
Part of the Yugoslav Wars

The parliament building burns after being hit by artillery fire in Sarajevo May 1992.; Ratko Mladić with Bosnian Serb soldiers; a Norwegian UN soldier in Sarajevo. Photos by Mikhail Evstafiev
Date April 1, 1992December 14, 1995
Location Bosnia and Herzegovina
Result Dayton Accords
Belligerents
Flag of Bosnia and Herzegovina Bosnia and Herzegovina Croatian Community of Herzeg-Bosnia
Flag of Croatia Croatia
Flag of Republika Srpska Republika Srpska
Flag of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia Yugoslavia
Commanders
Alija Izetbegović (President of Bosnia and Herzegovina)

Sefer Halilović (Army chief of staff 1992-1993)
Rasim Delić (Army chief of Staff 1993-1995) Belligerents Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Kosovo Liberation Army, NATO, UCPMB SFR Yugoslavia, Republic of Srpska Serbian Krajina FR Yugoslavia, Paramilitary forces from Serbia Commanders Milan Kučan Janez JanÅ¡a, Franjo TuÄ‘man, Mate Boban Janko Bobetko, Alija Izetbegović, Sefer Halilović, Hashim Thaci, Wesley Clark, Javier Solana Bill Clinton... Image File history File links Bosnian_war_header. ... Map of Bosnia and Herzegovina (Sarajevo) Coordinates: , Country Entity Canton Sarajevo Canton Government  - Mayor Semiha Borovac (SDA) Area [1]  - City 141. ... Ratko Mladić General Ratko Mladić during UN-mediated talks at Sarajevo airport in 1993. ... is the 91st day of the year (92nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1992 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 348th day of the year (349th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1995 (MCMXCV) was a common year starting on Sunday. ... The Dayton Agreement or Dayton Accords is the name given to the agreement at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base in Dayton, Ohio to end the war in the former Yugoslavia that had gone on for the previous three years, in particular the future of Bosnia and Herzegovina. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Bosnia_and_Herzegovina_(1992-1998). ... Flag Self-proclaimed Croatian entity in Bosnia and Herzegovina Republic of Herzeg-Bosnia show in dark blue Capital Mostar Government Republic Governors (1992-1994)  - Croatian zone of Bosnia and Herzegovina Mate Boban Historical era Yugoslav wars  - Breakup of Yugoslavia June 25, 1991  - Secessions June 25, 1991 - April 27, 1992  - Proclamation... Image File history File links Flag_of_Croatia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Republika_Srpska. ... Not to be confused with Serbia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_FR_Yugoslavia. ... Capital Belgrade Language(s) Serbian Government Republic President  - 1992 - 1993 Dobrica Ćosić  - 1993 - 1997 Zoran Lilić  - 1997 – 2000 Slobodan MiloÅ¡ević  - 2000 - 2003 Vojislav KoÅ¡tunica Prime Minister  - 1992 - 1993 Milan Panić  - 1993 - 1998 Radoje Kontić  - 1998 - 2000 Momir Bulatović  - 2000 - 2001 Zoran Žižić  - 2001 - 2003 DragiÅ¡a Pe... Alija Izetbegović (August 8, 1925 – October 19, 2003) was a Bosniak activist, lawyer, author, philosopher and politician, who, in 1990, became the first president of Bosnia and Herzegovina. ... The Presidency of Bosnia and Herzegovina (PredsjedniÅ¡tvo Bosne i Hercegovine/Предсједништво Босне и Херцеговине) is the head of state of Bosnia and Herzegovina. ... Sefer Halilović (born January 6, 1952) is a high-ranked general from Bosnia and Herzegovina, currently a war crimes suspect. ... Rasim Delić (Born 4 Februaryn 1949 in ÄŒelić, Bosnia Herzegovina). ...

Franjo Tuđman (President of Croatia)

Mate Boban (President of the Croatian Republic of Herzeg-Bosnia)
Milivoj Petković (HVO Chief of staff) Dario Kordić (political leader of Croats in Central Bosnia) ‹ The template below (Foreignchar) is being considered for deletion. ... Mate Boban Mate Boban (1940 - July 7, 1997) was a Herzegovian Croat politician and leader of the Bosnian-Herzegovinian Croats during the Bosnian-Herzegovinian War. ... Milivoj Petković at the ICTY Milivoj Petković is a Croatian army officer who is amoung six defendants charged by the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia (ICTY), in relation to the Croatian Republic of Herzeg-Bosnia. ... The Croatian Defence Council (Croatian Hrvatsko vijeće obrane, HVO) was the main military formation of the Croats during the Bosnian War charged with achieving the military objectives of the Croatian Republic of Herzeg-Bosnia. ... Dario Kordić was a Bosnian Croat politician and military commander of the HVO forces during 1991-1995. ...

Slobodan Milošević(President of Serbia) (1989-1997)

Radovan Karadžić (President of the Republika Srpska)
Ratko Mladić (Commander of the Army of Republika Srpska) MiloÅ¡ević redirects here. ... Radovan Karadžić during a visit to Moscow in 1994. ... Ratko Mladić General Ratko Mladić during UN-mediated talks at Sarajevo airport in 1993. ...

Strength
tanks ~(unknown)[dubious ]
infantry ~ (unknown, extreme shortage of arms reduced the amount to a couple of thousand in the beginning of the conflict)
~200 tanks
~70,000 infantry
750 tanks
120,000 infantry
Casualties and losses
34,270 soldiers killed
32,723 civilians killed (of whom ~30 per cent were women and children)
6,439 soldiers killed
1,899 civilians killed
20,649 soldiers killed
3,555 civilians killed

The War in Bosnia and Herzegovina, commonly known as the Bosnian War, was an international armed conflict that took place between March 1992 and November 1995. The war involved several sides. According to numerous ICTY judgments the conflict involved Bosnia and the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (later Serbia and Montenegro) [1] as well as Croatia.[2] According to ICJ judgment, Serbia gave military and financial support to Serb forces which consisted of the Yugoslav People's Army (later Army of Serbia and Montenegro), the Army of Republika Srpska, the Serbian Ministry of the Interior, the Ministry of the Interior of Republika Srpska and Serb Territorial Defense Forces. Croatia gave military support to Croat forces of self-proclaimed Croatian Community of Herzeg-Bosnia. Bosnian government forces were led by the Army of Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina.[3] These factions changed objectives and allegiances several times at various stages of the war. The International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia is a body of the United Nations established to prosecute war crimes in the former Yugoslavia. ... This article is about the country of Bosnia and Herzegovina. ... Capital Belgrade Language(s) Serbian Government Republic President  - 1992 - 1993 Dobrica Ćosić  - 1993 - 1997 Zoran Lilić  - 1997 – 2000 Slobodan MiloÅ¡ević  - 2000 - 2003 Vojislav KoÅ¡tunica Prime Minister  - 1992 - 1993 Milan Panić  - 1993 - 1998 Radoje Kontić  - 1998 - 2000 Momir Bulatović  - 2000 - 2001 Zoran Žižić  - 2001 - 2003 DragiÅ¡a Pe... The International Court of Justice (known colloquially as the World Court) is the principal judicial organ of the United Nations. ... Anthem:  Serbia() on the European continent()  —  [] Capital (and largest city) Belgrade Official languages Serbian Recognised regional languages Hungarian, Slovak, Romanian, Croatian, Rusyn 1 Albanian 2 Demonym Serbian Government Parliamentary Democracy  -  President Boris Tadić  -  Prime Minister Vojislav KoÅ¡tunica    -  First state 7th century   -  Serbian Kingdom3 1217   -  Serbian Empire 1345   -  Independence lost... Serbs (in the Serbian language Срби, Srbi) are a south Slavic people living chiefly in Serbia and Montenegro and Bosnia and Herzegovina. ... The Yugoslav Peoples Army (YPA) (Serbo-Croatian: Jugoslovenska narodna armija or Jugoslavenska narodna armija; Serbian and Macedonian: Југословенска народна армија—JHA; Macedonian and Serbian Latin forms: Jugoslovenska narodna armija; Croatian and Bosnian: Jugoslavenska narodna armija—JNA; Slovene: Jugoslovanska ljudska armada—JLA) was the military force of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. ... The military of Serbia and Montenegro includes the Army of Serbia and Montenegro (Vojska Srbije i Crne Gore - VSCG), which includes ground forces with internal and border troops, naval forces, air and air defense forces, and civil defense. ... Bosnian Serb Army, officially Army of the Republika Srpska (Serbian Војска Републике Српске/Vojska Republike Srpske, ВРС/VRS) is the military of the Bosnian Serb political entity of Republika Srpska. ... MUP or Serbian Ministry of the Interior (Ministarstvo UnutraÅ¡njih Polsova/Mинистарство Uиутрашњих Послова) is the Serbian Ministry of the Interior bureau that deals with internal security of the Republic of Serbia and the apprehension of dangerous criminals. ... Not to be confused with Serbia. ... Croats (Croatian: Hrvati) are a south Slavic people mostly living in Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina (where theyre one of the constitutive nations). ... Flag Self-proclaimed Croatian entity in Bosnia and Herzegovina Republic of Herzeg-Bosnia show in dark blue Capital Mostar Government Republic Governors (1992-1994)  - Croatian zone of Bosnia and Herzegovina Mate Boban Historical era Yugoslav wars  - Breakup of Yugoslavia June 25, 1991  - Secessions June 25, 1991 - April 27, 1992  - Proclamation... now. ...


Because the war in Bosnia and Herzegovina was a consequence of the instability in the wider region of the former Yugoslavia, and due to the involvement of neighboring countries Croatia and Serbia and Montenegro, there was long-standing debate as to whether the conflict was a civil war or a war of aggression. Most Bosniaks and many Croats claimed that the war was a war of Serbian and Croatian aggression, while Serbs often considered it a civil war. A trial took place before the International Court of Justice, following a 1993 suit by Bosnia and Herzegovina against Serbia and Montenegro alleging genocide (see Bosnian genocide case at the International Court of Justice). The International Court of Justice (ICJ) ruling of 26 February 2007 effectively determined the war's nature to be international, though exonerating Serbia of responsibility for the genocide committed by Serb forces of Republika Srpska. The ICJ concluded, however, that Serbia failed to prevent genocide committed by Serb forces and failed to punish those who carried out the genocide, especially general Ratko Mladić, and bring them to justice. This article is about the definition of the specific type of war. ... In international law, a war of aggression is generally considered to be any war for which the purpose is not to repel an invasion, or respond to an attack on the territory of a sovereign nation. ... Language(s) Bosnian Religion(s) Predominantly Sunni Islam Related ethnic groups Slavs (South Slavs) The Bosniaks or Bosniacs[1] (Bosnian: BoÅ¡njaci, IPA: ) are a South Slavic people, living mainly in Bosnia and Herzegovina (Bosnia) and the Sandžak region of Serbia and Montenegro, with a smaller autochthonous population also... Languages Croatian Religions Predominantly Roman Catholic Related ethnic groups Slavs South Slavs Croats (Croatian: Hrvati) are a South Slavic people mostly living in Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina and nearby countries. ... Languages Serbian Religions Predominantly Serbian Orthodox Christian Related ethnic groups Other Slavic peoples, especially South Slavs See Cognate peoples below (* many Serbs opted for Yugoslav ethnicity) [27] Serbs (Serbian: Срби or Srbi) are a South Slavic people who live mainly in Serbia, Montenegro, Bosnia-Herzegovina, and, to a lesser extent, in... See also International Commission of Jurists Peace Palace, seat of the ICJ. Org type Principal Organ Acronyms ICJ, CIJ Head President of the ICJ Dame Rosalyn Higgins DBE Status Active Established 1945 Website www. ... For other uses, see Genocide (disambiguation). ... Peace Palace at the Hague The Bosnian genocide case at the International Court of Justice (also known as Bosnia and Herzegovina v. ... See also International Commission of Jurists Peace Palace, seat of the ICJ. Org type Principal Organ Acronyms ICJ, CIJ Head President of the ICJ Dame Rosalyn Higgins DBE Status Active Established 1945 Website www. ... is the 57th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... Not to be confused with Serbia. ... Ratko Mladić General Ratko Mladić during UN-mediated talks at Sarajevo airport in 1993. ...


Despite the evidence of widespread killings, the siege of towns, mass rape, ethnic cleansing and torture in camps and detention centers conducted by different Serb forces including JNA (VJ), especially in Prijedor, Zvornik, Banja Luka and Foča, the judges ruled that the criteria for genocide with the specific intent (dolus specialis) to destroy Bosnian Muslims were met only in Srebrenica or Eastern Bosnia in 1995.[4] The court concluded that the crimes committed during the 1992-1995 war, may amount to crimes against humanity according to the international law, but that these acts did not, in themselves, constitute genocide per se.[5] The Court further decided that, following Montenegro's declaration of independence in May 2006, Serbia was the only respondent party in the case, but that "any responsibility for past events involved at the relevant time the composite State of Serbia and Montenegro".[6] For the video game, see Ethnic Cleansing (computer game). ... It has been suggested that Internment be merged into this article or section. ... The Yugoslav Peoples Army (Jugoslavenska/Jugoslovenska narodna armija, JNA, Slovene Jugoslovanska ljudska armada, JLA) was the army of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia prior to its dissolution. ... Prijedor (Serbian Cyrillic: Приједор) is a town and municipality in northwestern Bosnia and Herzegovina, located in the Republika Srpska entity. ... Zvornik Monument in Zvornik dedicated to the Serbian soldiers and civilians of the 1992-95 war Zvornik (Cyrillic: Зворник) is a city on the Drina river in northeastern Republika Srpska, Bosnia and Herzegovina, located south of Bijeljina. ... Location of Banja Luka within Bosnia and Herzegovina. ... Foča massacres were crimes against humanity committed by Serb military, police and paramilitary forces on Bosniak civilians in Foča region including Gacko and Kalinovik from April 7, 1992 to January 1994. ... Look up Category:Latin derivations in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The Srebrenica genocide occured in July of 1995, which resulted in the killing of more than eight thousand Bosniak men and boys, ranging in age from teenagers to the elderly, in the region of Srebrenica by the Serb army of general Ratko Mladić and the Serbian army from Yugoslavia. ... This article is in need of attention. ...


The involvement of NATO, during the 1995 Operation Deliberate Force against the positions of the Army of Republika Srpska internationalized the conflict, but only in its final stages. This article is about the military alliance. ... “Operation Deliberate Force” was a sustained air campaign conducted by NATO to undermine the military capability of Bosnian Serb who threatened or attacked UN designated safe areas in Bosnia. ... Bosnian Serb Army, officially Army of the Republika Srpska (Serbian Војска Републике Српске/Vojska Republike Srpske, ВРС/VRS) is the military of the Bosnian Serb political entity of Republika Srpska. ...


The war was brought to an end after the signing of the General Framework Agreement for Peace in Bosnia and Herzegovina in Paris on 14 December 1995.[7] Peace negotiations were held in Dayton, Ohio, and were finalized on 21 December 1995. The accords are known as the Dayton Agreement. This article is about the capital of France. ... is the 348th day of the year (349th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1995 (MCMXCV) was a common year starting on Sunday. ... : Gem City : Birthplace of Aviation United States Ohio Montgomery 56. ... is the 355th day of the year (356th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1995 (MCMXCV) was a common year starting on Sunday. ... The General Framework Agreement for Peace in Bosnia and Herzegovina, also known as the Dayton Agreement, Dayton Accords, Paris Protocol or Dayton-Paris Agreement, is the peace agreement reached at the Wright-Patterson Air Force Base near Dayton, Ohio in November 1995, and formally signed in Paris on December 14...


While wartime figures were propagandized to reflect current political interests of involved parties, the most recent research places the number of victims at around 100,000–110,000 killed (civilians and military), and 1.8 million displaced (see Casualties).[8][9][10] Recent research have shown that most of the 97,207 documented casualties (soldiers and civilians) during Bosnian War were Bosniaks (65%), with Serbs in second (25%) and Croats (8%) in third place.[11] However, 83 percent of civilian victims were Bosniaks, 10 percent were Serbs and more than 5 percent were Croats, followed by a small number of others such as Albanians or Romani people. Some 30 per cent of the Bosniak victims were women and children. The percentage of Bosniak victims would be higher had survivors of Srebrenica not reported 1,800 of their loved-ones as soldiers to access social services and other government benefits. The total figure of dead could rise by a maximum of another 10,000 for the entire country due to ongoing research. [12] [13] [14] [15] Language(s) Bosnian Religion(s) Predominantly Sunni Islam Related ethnic groups Slavs (South Slavs) The Bosniaks or Bosniacs[1] (Bosnian: BoÅ¡njaci, IPA: ) are a South Slavic people, living mainly in Bosnia and Herzegovina (Bosnia) and the Sandžak region of Serbia and Montenegro, with a smaller autochthonous population also... Languages Serbian Religions Predominantly Serbian Orthodox Christian Related ethnic groups Other Slavic peoples, especially South Slavs See Cognate peoples below (* many Serbs opted for Yugoslav ethnicity) [27] Serbs (Serbian: Срби or Srbi) are a South Slavic people who live mainly in Serbia, Montenegro, Bosnia-Herzegovina, and, to a lesser extent, in... Languages Croatian Religions Predominantly Roman Catholic Related ethnic groups Slavs South Slavs Croats (Croatian: Hrvati) are a South Slavic people mostly living in Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina and nearby countries. ... Languages Romani, languages of native region Religions Christianity, Islam Related ethnic groups South Asians (Desi) The Romani people (as a noun, singular Rom, plural Roma; sometimes Rrom, Rroma) or Romanies are an ethnic group living in many communities all over the world. ...


According to a detailed 1995 report about the war made by the Central Intelligence Agency, 90% of the war crimes of the Bosnian War were committed by Serbs.[16] CIA redirects here. ...

Contents

Breakup of Yugoslavia

Main article: Breakup of Yugoslavia

The war in Bosnia and Herzegovina came about as a result of the breakup of Yugoslavia. In 1989 Slobodan Milošević became President of Serbia (later indicted by the ICTY of the war crimes including genocide in Bosnia, Croatia and Kosovo). Crisis emerged in Yugoslavia with the weakening of the Communist system at the end of the Cold War. In Yugoslavia, the national Communist party, officially called Alliance or League of Communists of Yugoslavia, was losing its ideological potency, while the nationalist and separatist ideologies were on the rise in the late 1980s. This was particularly noticeable in Serbia, Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina, and to a lesser extent in Slovenia and Macedonia. An animated series of maps showing the breakup of the second Yugoslavia; The different colors represent the areas of control. ... General location of the political entities known as Yugoslavia. ... MiloÅ¡ević redirects here. ... The International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia is a body of the United Nations established to prosecute war crimes in the former Yugoslavia. ... For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ... SKJ flag in Serbo-Croat, with Latin script SKJ flag in Albanian SKJ flag in Hungarian SKJ flag in Italian SKJ flag in Macedonian SKJ flag in Slovenian League of Communists of Yugoslavia (Savez komunista Jugoslavije), before 1952 the Communist Party of Yugoslavia (Komunistička partija Jugoslavije), was a major... Nationalism is an ideology that creates and sustains a nation as a concept of a common identity for groups of humans. ... Political separatism is a movement to obtain sovereignty and split a territory or group of people (usually a people with a distinctive national consciousness) from one another (or one nation from another; a colony from the metropolis). ... Anthem:  Serbia() on the European continent()  —  [] Capital (and largest city) Belgrade Official languages Serbian Recognised regional languages Hungarian, Slovak, Romanian, Croatian, Rusyn 1 Albanian 2 Demonym Serbian Government Parliamentary Democracy  -  President Boris Tadić  -  Prime Minister Vojislav KoÅ¡tunica    -  First state 7th century   -  Serbian Kingdom3 1217   -  Serbian Empire 1345   -  Independence lost...


In March 1989, the crisis in Yugoslavia deepened after adoption of amendments to the Serbian constitution which allowed the Serbian republic's government to impose effective power over the autonomous provinces of Kosovo and Vojvodina. Until that point, their decision-making had been independent. Each also had a vote on the Yugoslav federal level. Serbia, under president Slobodan Milošević, thus gained control over three out of eight votes in the Yugoslav presidency. With additional votes from Montenegro, Serbia was thus able to heavily influence decisions of the federal government. This situation led to objections in other republics and calls for reform of the Yugoslav Federation. For other uses, see Kosovo (disambiguation). ... Vojvodina (red) is one of Serbias two autonomous provinces Capital (and largest city) Novi Sad Official languages Ethnic groups  2. ... MiloÅ¡ević redirects here. ... Motto Brotherhood and Unity Anthem Hey, Slavs Capital Belgrade Language(s) Serbo-Croatian (spoken throughout the territory), Slovenian, Macedonian, Albanian, Hungarian (all official), and languages of other nationalities. ... This article is about the country in Europe. ...


At the 14th Extraordinary Congress of the League of Communists of Yugoslavia, on 20 January 1990, the delegations of the republics could not agree on the main issues in the Yugoslav federation. As a result, the Slovenian and Croatian delegates left the Congress. The Slovenian delegation, headed by Milan Kučan demanded democratic changes and a looser federation, while the Serbian delegation, headed by Milošević, opposed this. This is considered the beginning of the end of Yugoslavia. Milan Kučan Milan Kučan (born January 14, 1941) Slovene politician and statesman. ... General location of the political entities known as Yugoslavia. ...


Moreover, nationalist parties attained power in other republics. Among them, the Croatian Franjo Tuđman's Croatian Democratic Union was the most prominent. On December 22, 1990, the Parliament of Croatia adopted the new Constitution, taking away some of the rights from the Serbs granted by the previous Socialist constitution. This created ground for nationalist action among the indigenous Serbs of Croatia. Furthermore, Slovenia and Croatia shortly after began the process towards independence, which led to a short armed conflict in Slovenia, and all-out war in Croatia, in the areas that had a substantial Serb population. ‹ The template below (Foreignchar) is being considered for deletion. ... The Croatian Democratic Union (Croatian: Hrvatska demokratska zajednica, HDZ), is a major Croatian political party. ... The word Sabor redirects here. ... Socialism is a social and economic system (or the political philosophy advocating such a system) in which the economic means of production are owned and controlled collectively by the people. ... Belligerents Slovenia Territorial Defense SFR Yugoslavia Yugoslav Peoples Army Commanders Janez JanÅ¡a Veljko Kadijević Strength 16,000 Territorial Defence, 10,000 police 35,200 Yugoslav National Army personnel Casualties and losses 18 killed, 182 wounded (official casualties) 44 killed, 146 wounded 5,000 prisoners (Slovenian estimates) The Ten... Combatants Croatian military Paramilitary organisations Republic of Serb Krajina Army Yugoslav Peoples Army Bosnian Serb Army Republic of Serbia Paramilitary organisations Commanders Franjo TuÄ‘man (President of Croatia) Anton Tus (Chief of Staff of Croatian Army 1991-1992) Janko Bobetko (Chief of Staff of Croatian Army 1992-1995) Atif...


Karađorđevo agreement

Main article: Karađorđevo agreement

Secret discussions between Franjo Tuđman and Slobodan Milošević on the division of Bosnia and Herzegovina between Serbia and Croatia were held as early as March 1991 known as Karađorđevo agreement. Following the declaration of independence of Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina, the Serbs attacked different parts of the country. The state administration of Bosnia and Herzegovina effectively ceased to function having lost control over the entire territory. The Serbs wanted all lands where Serbs had a majority, eastern and western Bosnia. The Croats and their leader Franjo Tuđman also aimed at securing parts of Bosnia and Herzegovina as Croatian. The policies of the Republic of Croatia and its leader Franjo Tuđman towards Bosnia and Herzegovina were never totally transparent and always included Franjo Tuđman’s ultimate aim of expanding Croatia’s borders. Bosnian Muslims, the only ethnic group loyal to the Bosnian government, were an easy target, because the Bosnian government forces were poorly equipped and unprepared for the war.[17] TuÄ‘man and MiloÅ¡ević discussing the carving up of Croatia and Bosnia- Herzegovina The KaraÄ‘orÄ‘evo agreement was an agreement between Croatian President Franjo TuÄ‘man and Serbian President Slobodan MiloÅ¡ević to redistribute Bosnia and Herzegovina between Croatia and Serbia. ... ‹ The template below (Foreignchar) is being considered for deletion. ... MiloÅ¡ević redirects here. ... Anthem:  Serbia() on the European continent()  —  [] Capital (and largest city) Belgrade Official languages Serbian Recognised regional languages Hungarian, Slovak, Romanian, Croatian, Rusyn 1 Albanian 2 Demonym Serbian Government Parliamentary Democracy  -  President Boris Tadić  -  Prime Minister Vojislav KoÅ¡tunica    -  First state 7th century   -  Serbian Kingdom3 1217   -  Serbian Empire 1345   -  Independence lost... TuÄ‘man and MiloÅ¡ević discussing the carving up of Croatia and Bosnia- Herzegovina The KaraÄ‘orÄ‘evo agreement was an agreement between Croatian President Franjo TuÄ‘man and Serbian President Slobodan MiloÅ¡ević to redistribute Bosnia and Herzegovina between Croatia and Serbia. ... ‹ The template below (Foreignchar) is being considered for deletion. ...


The pre-war situation in Bosnia and Herzegovina

Ethnic map based on the 1991 census. The different colors show absolute majority in every settlement:      Serbs      Bosniaks      Croats      others      unknown or uninhabited      no majority
The distribution of the three main ethnic groups in Bosnia and Herzegovina in 1991 by municipalities. Bosnian Serbs are shown in red, Bosniaks in green, and Bosnian Croats in blue. The post-Dayton Inter-Entity Boundary Line is shown in white.

Bosnia and Herzegovina has historically been a multi-ethnic state. In 1990, its population included approximately 43% of Bosniaks, 31% of Serbs, and 17% of Croats. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 649 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (800 × 739 pixel, file size: 215 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg)BiH ethnic map my communinies in 1991 before the war File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 649 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (800 × 739 pixel, file size: 215 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg)BiH ethnic map my communinies in 1991 before the war File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... 1991 Bosnia and Herzegovina Population Census was the last census of the population of Bosnia and Herzegovina taken before the Bosnian War. ... Languages Serbian Religions Predominantly Serbian Orthodox Christian Related ethnic groups Other Slavic peoples, especially South Slavs See Cognate peoples below (* many Serbs opted for Yugoslav ethnicity) [27] Serbs (Serbian: Срби or Srbi) are a South Slavic people who live mainly in Serbia, Montenegro, Bosnia-Herzegovina, and, to a lesser extent, in... Languages Croatian Religions Predominantly Roman Catholic Related ethnic groups Slavs South Slavs Croats (Croatian: Hrvati) are a South Slavic people mostly living in Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina and nearby countries. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1213x1467, 155 KB) Summary Relationships between Bosnian constitutive nationalities, by census of 1991. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1213x1467, 155 KB) Summary Relationships between Bosnian constitutive nationalities, by census of 1991. ... Language(s) Bosnian Religion(s) Predominantly Sunni Islam Related ethnic groups Slavs (South Slavs) The Bosniaks or Bosniacs[1] (Bosnian: Bošnjaci, IPA: ) are a South Slavic people, living mainly in Bosnia and Herzegovina (Bosnia) and the Sandžak region of Serbia and Montenegro, with a smaller autochthonous population also... Languages Serbian Religions Predominantly Serbian Orthodox Christian Related ethnic groups Other Slavic peoples, especially South Slavs See Cognate peoples below (* many Serbs opted for Yugoslav ethnicity) [27] Serbs (Serbian: Срби or Srbi) are a South Slavic people who live mainly in Serbia, Montenegro, Bosnia-Herzegovina, and, to a lesser extent, in... Languages Croatian Religions Predominantly Roman Catholic Related ethnic groups Slavs South Slavs Croats (Croatian: Hrvati) are a South Slavic people mostly living in Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina and nearby countries. ...


On the first multi-party elections that took place in November 1990 in Bosnia and Herzegovina, the three largest ethnic parties in the country won: the Bosniak Party of Democratic Action, the Serbian Democratic Party and the Croatian Democratic Union.[citation needed]. The Party of Democratic Action (Stranka Demokratske Akcije) is a Bosniak nationalist political party in Bosnia and Herzegovina. ... The Serbian Democratic Party (Serbian: Srpska Demokratska Stranka, SDS) is a Serbian nationalist political party in Bosnia and Herzegovina. ... The Croatian Democratic Union (Croatian: Hrvatska demokratska zajednica, HDZ), is a major Croatian political party. ...


Parties divided the power along the ethnic lines so that the President of the Presidency of the Socialist Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina was a Bosniak, president of the Parliament was a Serb and the prime minister a Croat. Socialist Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina (Serbo-Croat: Socijalistička Republika Bosna i Hercegovina/Социјалистичка Pепублика Босна и Херцеговина) was a republic in the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. ... Serbs (in the Serbian language Срби, Srbi) are a south Slavic people living chiefly in Serbia and Montenegro and Bosnia and Herzegovina. ... Croats (Croatian: Hrvati) are a south Slavic people mostly living in Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina (where theyre one of the constitutive nations). ...


Establishment of the "Serb Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina"

The Serb members of parliament, consisting mainly of the Serb Democratic Party members, but also including some other party representatives (which would form the "Independent Members of Parliament Caucus"), abandoned the central parliament in Sarajevo, and formed the Assembly of the Serb People of Bosnia and Herzegovina on October 24, 1991, which marked the end of the tri-ethnic coalition that governed after the elections in 1990. This Assembly established the Serbian Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina on January 9, 1992, which became Republika Srpska in August 1992. The official aim of this act, stated in the original text of the Constitution of Republika Srpska, later amended, was to preserve the Yugoslav federation. Serbs (in the Serbian language Срби, Srbi) are a south Slavic people living chiefly in Serbia and Montenegro and Bosnia and Herzegovina. ... The Serb Democratic Party (Serbian: Srpska Demokratska Stranka, SDS) is a political party for Serbs in Bosnia and Herzegovina. ... Independent Members of Parliament Caucus (IMPC) was a group of members of the National Assembly of the Republika Srpska from 1992-1996, lead by Milorad Dodik, which later evolved into the Party of Independent Social Democrats. ... The National Assembly (Serbian Cyrillic: Народна Скупштина Републике Српске, Serbian Latin: Narodna SkupÅ¡tina Republike Srpske) is the legislative body of the Serb Republic. ... is the 297th day of the year (298th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar. ... Official language Serbian, Bosnian and Croatian Note: The Constitution of Republika Srpska avoids naming the languages, and lists the languages of Serbs, Bosniaks, and Croats. ... is the 9th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1992 Gregorian calendar). ... Not to be confused with Serbia. ... Please wikify (format) this article as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ...


Establishment of the "Croat Community of Herzeg-Bosnia"

The objectives of nationalists from Croatia were shared by Croat nationalists in Bosnia and Herzegovina. [18] The ruling party in the Republic of Croatia, the Croatian Democratic Union (HDZ), organized and controlled the branch of the party in Bosnia and Herzegovina. By the latter part of 1991, the more extreme elements of the party, under the leadership of Mate Boban, Dario Kordić, Jadranko Prlić, Ignac Koštroman and local leaders such as Anto Valenta[18], and with the support of Franjo Tuđman and Gojko Šušak, had taken effective control of the party. On November 18, 1991, the party branch in Bosnia and Herzegovina, proclaimed the existence of the Croatian Community of Herzeg-Bosnia, as a separate "political, cultural, economic and territorial whole," on the territory of Bosnia and Herzegovina. [19] Nationalism is an ideology that creates and sustains a nation as a concept of a common identity for groups of humans. ... The Republic of Croatia is a crescent-shaped country in Europe bordering the Mediterranean, Central Europe and the Balkans. ... The Croatian Democratic Union (Croatian: Hrvatska demokratska zajednica, HDZ), is a major Croatian political party. ... Mate Boban Mate Boban (1940 - July 7, 1997) was a Herzegovian Croat politician and leader of the Bosnian-Herzegovinian Croats during the Bosnian-Herzegovinian War. ... Dario Kordić was a Bosnian Croat politician and military commander of the HVO forces during 1991-1995. ... Jadranko Prlić is a Croatian politican who is among six defendants charged by the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia (ICTY), in relation to the Croatian Republic of Herceg-Bosna. ... ‹ The template below (Foreignchar) is being considered for deletion. ... Gojko Å uÅ¡ak (April 16, 1945 – May 3, 1998) was Croatian Minister of Defence from 1991 to 1998 and President Franjo TuÄ‘mans closest associate and confidant. ... is the 322nd day of the year (323rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar. ... Flag Self-proclaimed Croatian entity in Bosnia and Herzegovina Republic of Herzeg-Bosnia show in dark blue Capital Mostar Government Republic Governors (1992-1994)  - Croatian zone of Bosnia and Herzegovina Mate Boban Historical era Yugoslav wars  - Breakup of Yugoslavia June 25, 1991  - Secessions June 25, 1991 - April 27, 1992  - Proclamation...


Independence referendum in Bosnia and Herzegovina

After Slovenia and Croatia declared independence from the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia in 1991, Bosnia and Herzegovina organized a referendum on independence as well. The decision of the Parliament of the Socialist Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina on holding the referendum was taken after the majority of Serb members had left the assembly in protest. Motto Brotherhood and Unity Anthem Hey, Slavs Capital Belgrade Language(s) Serbo-Croatian (spoken throughout the territory), Slovenian, Macedonian, Albanian, Hungarian (all official), and languages of other nationalities. ... Serbs (in the Serbian language Срби, Srbi) are a south Slavic people living chiefly in Serbia and Montenegro and Bosnia and Herzegovina. ...


These Bosnian Serb assembly members invited the Serb population to boycott the referendum held on February 29 and March 1, 1992. The turnout in the referendum was 67% and the vote was 99.43% in favor of independence. [20] Independence was declared on March 5, 1992 by the parliament. The referendum were utilized by the Serb political leadership as a reason to start road blockades in protest. Serbs (in the Serbian language Срби, Srbi) are a south Slavic people living chiefly in Serbia and Montenegro and Bosnia and Herzegovina. ...


Cutileiro-Carrington Plan

The Carrington-Cutileiro plan, named for its creators Lord Peter Carrington and Portuguese Ambassador José Cutileiro, resulted from the EEC-hosted conference held in September 1991 in an attempt to prevent Bosnia and Herzegovina sliding into war. It proposed ethnic power-sharing on all administrative levels and the devolution of central government to local ethnic communities. However, all Bosnia and Herzegovina's districts would be classified as Bosniak, Serb or Croat under the plan, even where ethnic majority was not evident. Initially the plan was accepted by all three sides but eventually President Alija Izetbegović decided not to accept ethnic division of the country and withdrew his consent. Peter Alexander Rupert Carington, 6th Baron Carrington, KG, GCMG, CH, MC, PC, JP, DL (born June 6, 1919), was British Foreign Secretary (1979–1982) and Secretary-General of NATO (1984–1988). ... Possible meanings: European Economic Community, the former name of the European Community European Energy Community Extended Error Correction, see RAM parity Energy Efficiency Centre Energy Efficiency in Construction Engineering Education Centre Eurocontrol Experimental Centre European Egg Consortium Ford Electronic Engine Control Eurasian Economic Community English Electric Computers English Electric Company... Alija Izetbegović (August 8, 1925 – October 19, 2003) was a Bosniak activist, lawyer, author, philosopher and politician, who, in 1990, became the first president of Bosnia and Herzegovina. ...


Arms embargo

On September 25, 1991 the United Nations Security Council passed UNSC Resolution 713 imposing an arms embargo on all of former Yugoslavia. The embargo hurt the Army of Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina the most because Serbia inherited the lion's share of the former JNA arsenal and the Croatian army could smuggle weapons through its coast. Over 55% of the armories and barracks of the former Yugoslavia were located in Bosnia owing to its mountainous terrain, in anticipation of a guerrilla war, but many of those factories were under Serbian control (such as the UNIS PRETIS factory in Vogošća), and others were inoperable due to a lack of electricity and raw materials. The Bosnian government lobbied to have the embargo lifted but that was opposed by the United Kingdom, France and Russia. US proposals to pursue this policy were known as lift and strike. The US congress passed two resolutions calling for the embargo to be lifted but both were vetoed by President Bill Clinton for fear of creating a rift between the US and the aforementioned countries. Nonetheless, the United States used both "black" C-130 transports and back channels including Islamist groups to smuggle weapons to the Bosnian government forces via Croatia. [21] is the 268th day of the year (269th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar. ... “Security Council” redirects here. ... Anthem:  Serbia() on the European continent()  —  [] Capital (and largest city) Belgrade Official languages Serbian Recognised regional languages Hungarian, Slovak, Romanian, Croatian, Rusyn 1 Albanian 2 Demonym Serbian Government Parliamentary Democracy  -  President Boris Tadić  -  Prime Minister Vojislav KoÅ¡tunica    -  First state 7th century   -  Serbian Kingdom3 1217   -  Serbian Empire 1345   -  Independence lost... Municipality of Bosnia and Herzegovina General Information Entity {{{entity}}} Land area 72 km² Population (2002 census) 19,894 Population density Coordinates Area code +387 33 Mayor Asim Sarajlić (SDA) Website http://www. ... William Jefferson Bill Clinton (born William Jefferson Blythe III[1] on August 19, 1946) was the 42nd President of the United States, serving from 1993 to 2001. ... A black op is a black operation, a term used in political, military, intelligence, and business circles to refer to operations that are either secret (which may also be called a covert operation) or of questionable ethics or legality. ... // In telecommunications It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Return channel. ... Islamism is a political ideology derived from the conservative religious views of Muslim fundamentalism. ...


The war

General information

Alija Izetbegović during his visit to the United States in 1997.
Alija Izetbegović during his visit to the United States in 1997.

The Yugoslav People's Army (JNA) officially left Bosnia and Herzegovina on May 12, 1992 shortly after independence was declared in April 1992. However, most of the command chain, weaponry, and higher ranked military personnel, including general Ratko Mladić, remained in Bosnia and Herzegovina in the Army of Republika Srpska. The Croats organized a defensive military formation of their own called the Croatian Defense Council (Hrvatsko Vijeće Obrane, HVO) as the armed forces of the self-proclaimed Herzeg-Bosnia. The Bosniaks mostly organized into the Army of Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina (Armija Republike Bosne i Hercegovine, Armija RBiH). This army had a number of non-Bosniaks (around 25%), especially in the 1st Corps in Sarajevo. The deputy commander of the Bosnian Army's Headquarters, was general Jovan Divjak, the highest ranking ethnic Serb in the Bosnian Army. General Stjepan Šiber, an ethnic Croat was the second deputy commander. President Izetbegović also appointed colonel Blaž Kraljević, commander of the Croatian Defence Forces in Herzegovina, to be a member of Bosnian Army's Headquarters, seven days before his assassination, in order to assemble multi-ethnic pro-Bosnian defence front.[22] Image File history File links Size of this preview: 437 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1810 × 2480 pixel, file size: 899 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Uploaded first to German Wikipedia [3] by St. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 437 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1810 × 2480 pixel, file size: 899 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Uploaded first to German Wikipedia [3] by St. ... Motto: (traditional) In God We Trust (official, 1956–present) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City Official language(s) None at the federal level; English de facto Government Federal Republic  - President George W. Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence - Declared - Recognized... The Yugoslav Peoples Army (YPA) (Serbo-Croatian: Jugoslovenska narodna armija or Jugoslavenska narodna armija; Serbian and Macedonian: Југословенска народна армија—JHA; Macedonian and Serbian Latin forms: Jugoslovenska narodna armija; Croatian and Bosnian: Jugoslavenska narodna armija—JNA; Slovene: Jugoslovanska ljudska armada—JLA) was the military force of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. ... is the 132nd day of the year (133rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1992 Gregorian calendar). ... Ratko Mladić General Ratko Mladić during UN-mediated talks at Sarajevo airport in 1993. ... Bosnian Serb Army, officially Army of the Republika Srpska (Serbian Војска Републике Српске/Vojska Republike Srpske, ВРС/VRS) is the military of the Bosnian Serb political entity of Republika Srpska. ... The Croatian Defence Council (Croatian Hrvatsko vijeće obrane, HVO) was the main military unit of the Croats during the Bosnian War charged with achieving the military objectives of the Croatian Republic of Herzeg-Bosnia. ... Coat of Arms of Herzeg-Bosnia Flag of Herzeg-Bosnia The Croatian Republic of Herzeg-Bosnia (locally Hrvatska Republika Herceg-Bosna) was an unrecognized entity in present day Bosnia and Herzegovina existing between 1991 and 1994 as a result of secessionist politics during the Bosnian War. ... now. ... Jovan Divjak (Born March 11, 1937 in Belgrade, Serbia) was a general in the Bosnian army during the 1992-1995 Bosnian War. ... Alija Izetbegović (August 8, 1925 – October 19, 2003) was a Bosniak activist, lawyer, author, philosopher and politician, who, in 1990, became the first president of Bosnia and Herzegovina. ... For other uses, see Colonel (disambiguation). ... Blaž Kraljević (Born June 17, 1947 in LjubuÅ¡ki, Bosnia-Herzegovina -August 9, 1992 near Mostar, Bosnia-Herzegovina) was a Bosnian Croat paramilitary leader during the first few months of the Bosnian War. ... The Croatian Defence Forces (Croatian Hrvatska obrambene snage or HOS) was one of the first armed forces assembled by the Croats during the Croatian Homeland War and the War in Bosnia and Herzegovina. ... This article is about the geographic area of Herzegovina. ...


Various paramilitary units were operating in Bosnian war: the Serb "White Eagles" (Beli Orlovi), Arkan's "Tigers", "Serbian Volunteer Guard" (Srpska Dobrovoljačka Garda), Bosniak "Patriotic League" (Patriotska Liga) and "Green Berets" (Zelene Beretke), and Croatian "Croatian Defense Forces" (Hrvatske Obrambene Snage), etc. The Serb and Croat paramilitaries involved volunteers from Serbia and Croatia, and were supported by nationalist political parties in those countries. Allegations exist about the involvement of the Serbian and Croatian secret police in the conflict. Forces of the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina were divided in 5 corps'. 1st Corps operated at the region of Sarajevo and Gorazde while a stronger 5th Corps was positioned in the western Bosanska Krajina pocket which cooperated with the HVO units in and around the city of Bihac. The Serbs received support from Christian Slavic fighters from countries including Russia. Greek volunteers are also reported to have taken part in the Srebrenica Massacre, with the Greek flag being hoisted in Srebrenica when the town fell to the Serbs.[23] Sholder patch of the paramilitary group the White Eagles. ... Sholder patch of the paramilitary group the White Eagles. ... Željko Ražnatović or in Serbian Cyrillic writing Жељко Ражњатовић, (April 17, 1952 - January 15, 2000), widely known as Arkan or Аркан, was a Serbian paramilitary leader, nationalistic politician, assembly representative, folk hero, owner of a soccer club, shady businessman, mafia boss and war profiteer. ... Arkan and his Tigers in Croatia, 1991. ... The Patriotic League was the first military unit of Bosnia formed after the Bosnian TO was gained by the SDS party. ... For other uses of the phrase, see Green Berets. ... Bosanska Krajina Region Bosanska Krajina (lit Bosnian Frontier) is a geographical region of Bosnia and Herzegovina enclosed by three rivers - Sava, Una and Vrbas. ... Bihać is a town on the Una river in the north-western part of Bosnia and Herzegovina, center of the Una-Sana Canton of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina. ... Distribution of Slavic people by language The Slavic peoples are a linguistic and ethnic branch of Indo-European peoples, living mainly in Europe, where they constitute roughly a third of the population. ... Burial of 465 identified Bosniak civilians (July 11, 2007) Gravestone of a thirteen year old boy (July 11, 2007) A memorial to the victims of Srebrenica and other towns in Eastern Bosnia The Srebrenica Massacre, also known as Srebrenica Genocide,[1][2] was the July 1995 killing of an estimated... Flag ratio: 7:12 The Flag of Greece is based on nine equal horizontal stripes of blue alternating with white. ...

Russian soldier and politician Dmitry Rogozin discussing the role of Russian volunteers with Bosnian Serb Army leader Ratko Mladić in besieged Sarajevo, January 1996
Russian soldier and politician Dmitry Rogozin discussing the role of Russian volunteers with Bosnian Serb Army leader Ratko Mladić in besieged Sarajevo, January 1996

The Bosniaks received support from Islamic groups commonly known as "holy warriors" (Mujahideen). There were also several hundred Iranian Revolutionary Guards assisting the Bosnian government during the war.[24] Dmitry Rogozin Dmitry Olegovich Rogozin or Dmitri Rogozin (Russian: Дмитрий Олегович Рогозин) is a Russian politician of Jewish ancestry. ... Bosnian Serb Army, officially Army of the Republika Srpska (Serbian Војска Републике Српске/Vojska Republike Srpske, ВРС/VRS) is the military of the Bosnian Serb political entity of Republika Srpska. ... Ratko Mladić General Ratko Mladić during UN-mediated talks at Sarajevo airport in 1993. ... Language(s) Bosnian Religion(s) Predominantly Sunni Islam Related ethnic groups Slavs (South Slavs) The Bosniaks or Bosniacs[1] (Bosnian: BoÅ¡njaci, IPA: ) are a South Slavic people, living mainly in Bosnia and Herzegovina (Bosnia) and the Sandžak region of Serbia and Montenegro, with a smaller autochthonous population also... Mujahideen (Arabic: ‎, , literally strugglers) is a term for Muslims fighting in a war or involved in any other struggle. ... The Islamic Revolutions Guards Corps (IRGC) (Persian: , Sepáh e Pásdárán e Enqeláb e Eslámi; literally: Army of the Guardians of the Islamic Revolution), more commonly known in Iran as Sepah (Corps), also known as the Revolutions Guards (Pásdárán e...


At the outset of the Bosnian war, Serb forces attacked the Bosnian Muslim civilian population in eastern Bosnia. Once towns and villages were securely in their hands, the Serb forces - military, police, the paramilitaries and, sometimes, even Serb villagers – applied the same pattern: houses and apartments were systematically ransacked or burnt down, civilians were rounded up or captured, and sometimes beaten or killed in the process. Men and women were separated, with many of the men detained in the camps. The women were kept in various detention centres where they had to live in intolerably unhygienic conditions, where they were mistreated in many ways including being raped repeatedly. Serb soldiers or policemen would come to these detention centres, select one or more women, take them out and rape them.[25] The Serbs had the upper hand due to heavier weaponry (despite less manpower) that was given to them by the Yugoslav People's Army and established control over most areas where Serbs had relative majority but also in areas where they were a significant minority in both rural and urban regions excluding the larger towns of Sarajevo and Mostar. The Serb military and political leaders, from ICTY received the most accusations of war crimes many of which have been confirmed after the war in ICTY trials. Serbs (in the Serbian language Срби, Srbi) are a south Slavic people living chiefly in Serbia and Montenegro and Bosnia and Herzegovina. ... Language(s) Bosnian Religion(s) Predominantly Sunni Islam Related ethnic groups Slavs (South Slavs) The Bosniaks or Bosniacs[1] (Bosnian: BoÅ¡njaci, IPA: ) are a South Slavic people, living mainly in Bosnia and Herzegovina (Bosnia) and the Sandžak region of Serbia and Montenegro, with a smaller autochthonous population also... This article is about the country of Bosnia and Herzegovina. ... Mostar (Мостар) is a city and municipality in Bosnia and Herzegovina, the center of the Herzegovina-Neretva Canton of the Federation. ... Serbs (in the Serbian language Срби, Srbi) are a south Slavic people living chiefly in Serbia and Montenegro and Bosnia and Herzegovina. ... In the context of war, a war crime is a punishable offense under International Law, for violations of the laws of war by any person or persons, military or civilian. ...


Most of the capital Sarajevo was predominantly held by the Bosniaks although the official Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina government continued to function in its relative multiethnic capacity. In the 44 months of the siege, the terror against Sarajevo and its residents varied in its intensity, but the purpose remained the same: to inflict the greatest possible suffering on the civilians in order to force the Bosnian authorities to accept the Serb demands.[26] The Army of Republika Srpska surrounded it (alternatively, the Serb forces situated themselves in the areas surrounding Sarajevo the so-called Ring around Sarajevo), deploying troops and artillery in the surrounding hills in what would become the longest siege in the history of modern warfare lasting nearly 4 years. See Siege of Sarajevo. Map of Bosnia and Herzegovina (Sarajevo) Coordinates: , Country Entity Canton Sarajevo Canton Government  - Mayor Semiha Borovac (SDA) Area [1]  - City 141. ... Bosnian Serb Army, officially Army of the Republika Srpska (Serbian Војска Републике Српске/Vojska Republike Srpske, ВРС/VRS) is the military of the Bosnian Serb political entity of Republika Srpska. ... Combatants ARBiH (1992-95)  NATO (1995) JNA (1992) VRS (1992-95) Commanders Jovan Divjak Mustafa Hajrulahović Vahid Karavelić Nedžad Ajnadžić Stanislav Galić (1992-94) Dragomir MiloÅ¡ević (1994-95) Strength 40,000 (1992) 30,000 (1992) The Siege of Sarajevo was the longest siege in the history of...


Numerous cease-fire agreements were signed, and breached again when one of the sides felt it was to their advantage. The United Nations repeatedly, but unsuccessfully attempted to stop the war and the much-touted Vance-Owen Peace Plan made little impact. UN redirects here. ... Three major peace plans were offered before and during the Bosnian War by European Community (EC) and United Nations (UN) diplomats before the conflict was settled by the Dayton Agreement in 1995. ...


Chronology

1992

fronts of bosnian war
fronts of bosnian war

The first casualty in Bosnia is a point of contention between Serbs and Bosniaks. Serbs consider Nikola Gardović, a groom's father who was killed at a Serb wedding procession on the second day of the referendum, on March 1, 1992 in Sarajevo's old town Baščaršija, to be the first victim of the war. Bosniaks and Croats meanwhile consider the first casualties of the war before the independence to be Croat civilians massacred by the Yugoslav People's Army (later transformed in Army of Republika Srpska and Army of Serbia and Montenegro) in Ravno village located in Herzegovina on September 30, 1991 during the course of its siege of the city of Dubrovnik (which was on the territory of Croatia itself). Bosniaks also consider the first individual casualty of the war after the independence of Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina to be Suada Dilberović, who was shot during a peace march by unidentified gunmen on April 5 from a Serb sniper nest in a Holiday Inn hotel. Basčarsija Basčarsija is the old town part of Sarajevo. ... The Yugoslav Peoples Army (YPA) (Serbo-Croatian: Jugoslovenska narodna armija or Jugoslavenska narodna armija; Serbian and Macedonian: Југословенска народна армија—JHA; Macedonian and Serbian Latin forms: Jugoslovenska narodna armija; Croatian and Bosnian: Jugoslavenska narodna armija—JNA; Slovene: Jugoslovanska ljudska armada—JLA) was the military force of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. ... Bosnian Serb Army, officially Army of the Republika Srpska (Serbian Војска Републике Српске/Vojska Republike Srpske, ВРС/VRS) is the military of the Bosnian Serb political entity of Republika Srpska. ... The military of Serbia and Montenegro includes the Army of Serbia and Montenegro (Vojska Srbije i Crne Gore - VSCG), which includes ground forces with internal and border troops, naval forces, air and air defense forces, and civil defense. ... Municipality of Bosnia and Herzegovina General Information Entity {{{entity}}} Land area 447km² Population (1991 census) 527 Population density Coordinates Area code +387 36 Mayor Andrija Å imunović (HDZ) Website Ravno is a town and the seat of its municipality in Bosnia and Herzegovina. ... Look up Dubrovnik in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Suada Dilberović (born 1968 in Dubrovnik, Croatia - died April 5, 1992 in Sarajevo, Bosnia-Herzegovina) was a Bosniak medical student at the University of Sarajevo who became the first person in Sarajevo to be killed during the Bosnian War. ...


On September 19, the Yugoslav People's Army (JNA) moved some extra troops to the area around the city of Mostar, which was publicly protested by the local government. On October 13, 1991 future president of Republika Srpska, Radovan Karadžić expressed his view about future of Bosnia and Bosnian Muslims: "In just a couple of days, Sarajevo will be gone and there will be five hundred thousand dead, in one month Muslims will be annihilated in Bosnia and Herzegovina". [27] Mostar (Мостар) is a city and municipality in Bosnia and Herzegovina, the center of the Herzegovina-Neretva Canton of the Federation. ... Radovan Karadžić during a visit to Moscow in 1994. ...

fall of posavina
Vedran Smailovic playing in the destroyed building of the National Library in Sarajevo, 1992. Photo by Mikhail Evstafiev
Vedran Smailovic playing in the destroyed building of the National Library in Sarajevo, 1992. Photo by Mikhail Evstafiev
Manjača camp detainees in 1992

At the session on January 7, 1992, two days prior to the proclamation of the Republic of Serbian People of B&H, the Serb members of the Prijedor Municipal Assembly and the presidents of the local Municipal Boards of the SDS implemented Instructions for the Organisation and Activity of Organs of the Serbian People in Bosnia and Herzegovina in Extraordinary Circumstances adopted earlier on December 19, 1991 and proclaimed the Assembly of the Serbian People of the Municipality of Prijedor. Milomir Stakić, later convicted by ICTY of mass crimes against humanity against Bosniak and Croat civilians, was elected President of this Assembly. Ten days later, on January 17, 1992, the Assembly endorsed joining the Serbian territories of the Municipality of Prijedor to the Autonomous Region of Bosnian Krajina in order to implement creation of a separate Serbian state on ethnic Serbian territories.[28] Image File history File links Evstafiev-bosnia-cello. ... Image File history File links Evstafiev-bosnia-cello. ... The sky over the city where we were happy by Mikhail Evstafiev, oil on canvas, 2006 Mikhail Aleksandrovich Evstafiev (Russian: Михаил Александрович Евстафьев; born in 1963), is a Russian artist, photographer, writer. ... Image File history File links Manjaca_camp. ... Image File history File links Manjaca_camp. ... Manjača camp detainees in 1992 Manjača camp (pronounced:Mañacha) was a detention camp (also refered to as prison and concentration camp) on mountain Manjača near the city of Banja Luka in northern Bosnia and Herzegovina during the Bosnian War from 1992 to 1995. ... is the 7th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1992 Gregorian calendar). ... Prijedor (Serbian Cyrillic: Приједор) is a town and municipality in northwestern Bosnia and Herzegovina, located in the Republika Srpska entity. ... The initialism SDS can abbreviate: Safety Data Sheet Samsung SDS: SI Company of Republic of Korea Satellite Data System Scientific Data Systems, a mainframe computer vendor from the 1960s Secondary database server Speech dialog system (RNS-E) Secure DTD2000 System Serb Democratic Party Shwachman-Diamond syndrome Slovenian Democratic Party Social... is the 353rd day of the year (354th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar. ... Milomir Stakić (born 1962 in Marićka, Bosnia and Herzegovina) is a Bosnian Serb who was charged with genocide, complicity in genocide, violations of the customs of war and crimes against humanity by the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia (ICTY) for his actions in the Prijedor region during... The International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia is a body of the United Nations established to prosecute war crimes in the former Yugoslavia. ... This article is in need of attention. ... In times of armed conflict a civilian is any person who is not a combatant. ... is the 17th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1992 Gregorian calendar). ...


During the months of March-April-May 1992 fierce attacks raged in eastern Bosnia as well as the northwestern part of the country. In March attacks by the SDS leaders, together with field officers of the Second Military Command of former JNA, were conducted in eastern part of the country with the objective to take strategically relevant positions and carry out a communication and information blockade. Attacks carried out resulted in a large number of dead and wounded civilians.[29]


1992 ethnic cleansing campaign in Eastern Bosnia
Main article: Foča massacre

Initially, the Serb forces attacked the non-Serb civilian population in Eastern Bosnia. Once towns and villages were securely in their hands, the Serb forces - military, police, the paramilitaries and, sometimes, even Serb villagers – applied the same pattern: Bosniak houses and apartments were systematically ransacked or burnt down, Bosniak civilians were rounded up or captured, and sometimes beaten or killed in the process. Men and women were separated, with many of the men detained in the camps.[25] A street in Ynysybwl, Wales, relatively stereotypical of a small town A town is usually an urban area which is not considered to rank as a city. ...


Bosnian Muslim women were specifically targeted as the rapes against the Bosniak women were one of the many ways in which the Serbs could assert their superiority and victory over the Bosniaks. [25] Women were kept in various detention centres known as rape camps where they had to live in intolerably unhygienic conditions and were mistreated in many ways including being repeatedly raped. Serb soldiers or policemen would come to these detention centres, select one or more women, take them out and rape them. All this was done in full view, in complete knowledge and sometimes with the direct involvement of the Serb local authorities, particularly the police forces. The head of Foča police forces, Dragan Gagović, was personally identified as one of the men who came to these detention centres to take women out and rape them. There were numerous rape camps in Foča. Karaman’s house was one of the most notable rape camps. While kept in this house, the girls were constantly raped. Among the women held in "Karaman's house" there were minors as young as 15 years of age. [25][30] So far, there are no exact figures on how many women and children were systematically raped by the Serb forces in various camps[31][32][33], but estimates range from 20,000[34] to 50,000.[35] This article is about a military rank. ... For the band, see The Police. ... Serbs (in the Serbian language Срби, Srbi) are a south Slavic people living chiefly in Serbia and Montenegro and Bosnia and Herzegovina. ... Local governments are administrative offices of an area smaller than a state. ...


Prijedor region
Main article: Prijedor massacre

On April 23, 1992, the SDS decided inter alia that all Serb units immediately start working on the takeover of the Prijedor municipality in co-ordination with JNA. By the end of April 1992, a number of clandestine Serb police stations were created in the municipality and more than 1,500 armed Serbs were ready to take part in the takeover.[28] is the 113th day of the year (114th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1992 Gregorian calendar). ... The initialism SDS can abbreviate: Safety Data Sheet Samsung SDS: SI Company of Republic of Korea Satellite Data System Scientific Data Systems, a mainframe computer vendor from the 1960s Secondary database server Speech dialog system (RNS-E) Secure DTD2000 System Serb Democratic Party Shwachman-Diamond syndrome Slovenian Democratic Party Social... This page includes English translations of several Latin phrases and abbreviations such as . ...


A declaration on the takeover prepared by the Serb politicians from SDS was read out on Radio Prijedor the day after the takeover and was repeated throughout the day. In the night of the April 29/30, 1992, the takeover of power took place. Employees of the public security station and reserve police gathered in Cirkin Polje, part of the town of Prijedor. Only Serbs were present and some of them were wearing military uniforms. The people there were given the task of taking over power in the municipality and were broadly divided into five groups. Each group of about twenty had a leader and each was ordered to gain control of certain buildings. One group was responsible for the Assembly building, one for the main police building, one for the courts, one for the bank and the last for the post-office.[36] A declaration is a form of statement, which expresses (or declares) some idea; declarations attempt to argue that something is true. ... A takeover in business refers to one company (the acquirer, or bidder) purchasing another (the target). ... The initialism SDS can abbreviate: Safety Data Sheet Samsung SDS: SI Company of Republic of Korea Satellite Data System Scientific Data Systems, a mainframe computer vendor from the 1960s Secondary database server Speech dialog system (RNS-E) Secure DTD2000 System Serb Democratic Party Shwachman-Diamond syndrome Slovenian Democratic Party Social...


Serb authorities set up concentration camps and determined who should be responsible for the running of those camps. [37] Keraterm factory was set up as a camp on or around May 23/24, 1992. [38] The Omarska mines complex was located about 20km from the town of Prijedor. The first detainees were taken to the camp sometime in late May 1992 (between 26 and 30 May). According to the Serb authorities documents from Prijedor, there were a total of 3,334 persons held in the camp from May 27 to August 16 1992. 3,197 of them were Bosniaks (i.e. Bosnian Muslims), 125 were Croats.[39] The Trnoplje camp was set up in the village of Trnoplje on May 24, 1992. The camp was guarded on all sides by the Serb army. There were machine-gun nests and well-armed posts pointing their guns towards the camp. There were several thousand people detained in the camp, the vast majority of whom were Bosnian Muslim and some of them were Croats. [40][41] A concentration camp is a large detention centre created for political opponents, aliens, specific ethnic or religious groups, civilians of a critical war-zone, or other groups of people, often during a war. ... Keraterm camp was a detention camp (also refered to as prison and concentration camp) near the town of Prijedor in northern Bosnia and Herzegovina during the Bosnian War from 1992 to 1995. ... Omarska camp detainees Omarska camp was a detention camp (also refered to as prison and concentration camp) in Omarska mining town near Prijedor in northern Bosnia and Herzegovina during the Bosnian War from 1992 to 1995. ... This article is about mineral extractions. ... A . ... This article is about the video game. ...


ICTY concluded that the takeover by the Serb politicians was as an illegal coup d'état, which was planned and coordinated a long time in advance with the ultimate aim of creating a pure Serbian municipality. These plans were never hidden and they were implemented in a coordinated action by the Serb police, army and politicians. One of the leading figures was Milomir Stakić, who came to play the dominant role in the political life of the Municipality. [36] The International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia is a body of the United Nations established to prosecute war crimes in the former Yugoslavia. ... Coup redirects here. ... For other uses, see Army (disambiguation). ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A politician is an individual who is a formally recognized and active member of a government, or a person who influences the way a society is governed through an understanding of political power and group dynamics. ... Milomir Stakić (born 1962 in Marićka, Bosnia and Herzegovina) is a Bosnian Serb who was charged with genocide, complicity in genocide, violations of the customs of war and crimes against humanity by the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia (ICTY) for his actions in the Prijedor region during...


JNA under control of Serbia was able to take over at least 60% of the country during before 19 May official withdrawn all officers and troops which are not from Bosnia [42]. Much of this is due to the fact that they were much better armed and organized than the Bosniak and Bosnian Croat forces. Attacks also included areas of mixed ethnic composition. Doboj, Foča, Rogatica, Vlasenica, Bratunac, Zvornik, Prijedor, Sanski Most, Kljuc, Brcko, Derventa, Modrica, Bosanska Krupa, Bosanski Brod, Bosanski Novi, Glamoc, Bosanski Petrovac, Cajnice, Bijeljina, Višegrad, and parts of Sarajevo are all areas where Serbs established control and expelled Bosniaks and Croats. Also areas in which were more ethnically homogeneous and were spared from major fighting such as Banja Luka, Bosanska Dubica, Bosanska Gradiska, Bileca, Gacko, Han Pijesak, Kalinovik, Nevesinje, Trebinje, Rudo saw their non-Serb populations expelled. Similarly, the regions of central Bosnia and Herzegovina (Sarajevo, Zenica, Maglaj, Zavidovici, Bugojno, Mostar, Konjic, etc.) saw the flight of its Serb population, migrating to the Serb-held areas of Bosnia and Herzegovina. The Yugoslav Peoples Army (Jugoslavenska/Jugoslovenska narodna armija, JNA, Slovene Jugoslovanska ljudska armada, JLA) was the army of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia prior to its dissolution. ... View of Doboj from the fortress 14th Century Doboj Fortress, reconstructed in 2006, with a wooden stage added during reconstruction Doboj (Cyrillic: Добој) is a city and a municipality in Republika Srpska, Bosnia and Herzegovina, situated on the river Bosna. ... Location of Foča within Bosnia and Herzegovina Coordinates: , Country Government  - Mayor Zdravko Krsmanović (SPRS) [1] Area  - Total 1,180 km² (455. ... Ja živim u Rogatica. ... Location of Vlasenica within Bosnia and Herzegovina Country Government  - Mayor Dragomir Stupar (SNSD) [1] Population (1991)  - Total 33,817  - Municipality ? Time zone CET (UTC+1)  - Summer (DST) CEST (UTC+2) Area code(s) 56 Serbian Orthodox church Vlasenica (Cyrillic: Власеница) is a municipality and town in the northeastern part of Republika... Coat of Arms Bratunac (Братунац) is a town located at the east border of Bosnia, southwest of the Drina river and north of Srebrenica. ... Zvornik Monument in Zvornik dedicated to the Serbian soldiers and civilians of the 1992-95 war Zvornik (Cyrillic: Зворник) is a city on the Drina river in northeastern Republika Srpska, Bosnia and Herzegovina, located south of Bijeljina. ... Prijedor (Serbian Cyrillic: Приједор) is a town and municipality in northwestern Bosnia and Herzegovina, located in the Republika Srpska entity. ... Municipality of Bosnia and Herzegovina General Information Entity {{{entity}}} Land area 781 km2 Population (1991 census) 60,307 Population density Coordinates Area code +387 37 Mayor Sanjin Halimović (SDA) Website http://www. ... Ključ is a town and municipality by the same name in western Bosnia and Herzegovina. ... Map showing the location of the Brčko District within Bosnia and Herzegovina (in red, upper right corner) Brcko District map Brčko or Брчко (in Serbian Cyrillic) is a city in northern Bosnia and Herzegovina. ... Derventa (Cyrillic: Дервента) is a town and municipality in the northern part of Republika Srpska which is part of Bosnia-Herzegovina, located just northwest of Doboj, in the Posavina region. ... The title given to this article lacks diacritics because of certain technical limitations. ... Municipality of Bosnia and Herzegovina General Information Entity {{{entity}}} Land area Population (1991 census) 58,320 Population density Coordinates Area code +387 35 Mayor Hamdija GroÅ¡ić (SDA) Website http://www. ... Bosanski Brod (Serbian: Босански Брод or Bosanski Brod; Bosnian: Bosanski Brod; Croatian: Bosanski Brod) also known as Brod (Брод), formerly known as Srpski Brod (Српски Брод), is a town and municipality located on the right bank of the river Sava in the north of Republika Srpska, Bosnia and Herzegovina. ... ... Location of Glamoc in BiH Glamoč Glamoč is a town and municipality of the same name in western Bosnia and Herzegovina. ... Municipality of Bosnia and Herzegovina General Information Entity {{{entity}}} Land area Population (1991 census) 15,621 Population density Coordinates Area code +387 37 Mayor Dragan Kecman (SNSD) Website A post-war postcard from Bosanski Petrovac Bosanski Petrovac (Босански Петровац) is a town in western Bosnia and Herzegovina. ... Location in Bosnia and Herzegovina General Information Municipality president VukaÅ¡in Tadić (SDS) Land area Population (1991 census) 8,919 Population density Coordinates Area code +387 58 Subdivisions Website ÄŒajniče (Serbian Cyrillic: Чајниче) is a town and municipality in Republika Srpska, Bosnia and Herzegovina. ... Bijeljina (Serbian Cyrillic: Бијељина) is a town and municipality in northeastern Republika Srpska, Bosnia and Herzegovina. ... Not to be confused with VyÅ¡ehrad, Visegrád, or Visegrad. ... Map of Bosnia and Herzegovina (Sarajevo) Coordinates: , Country Entity Canton Sarajevo Canton Government  - Mayor Semiha Borovac (SDA) Area [1]  - City 141. ... Location of Banja Luka within Bosnia and Herzegovina. ... Bosanska Dubica, Kozarska Dubica, or simply Dubica (called Bosanska Dubica by Bosnians, Козарска Дубицa by Serbians, and once again Bosanska Dubica by Croatians) is a town located in Republika Srpska, Bosnia and Herzegovina. ... Bosanska Gradiška. ... Bileća (Билећа) is a town and municipality in the southeast of Bosnia and Herzegovina. ... Gacko (Cyrillic: Гацко) is a town and municipality by the same name in southeastern Republika Srpska, Bosnia and Herzegovina. ... Han Pijesak (Хан Пијесак) is a town and municipality in Republika Srpska, Bosnia and Herzegovina. ... Kalinovik (Калиновик) is a town and municipality in Republika Srpska, Bosnia and Herzegovina. ... Shield of Nevesinje Nevesinje (Serbian Cyrillic: Невесиње) is a town and municipality in Bosnia and Herzegovina, located in eastern Herzegovina between Mostar and Gacko. ... Trebinje (Cyrillic: Требиње) is the southern-most municipality and town in Republika Srpska, Bosnia and Herzegovina. ... Rudo is a municipality in eastern Bosnia and Herzegovina near the border of Sandžak, Serbia. ... Map of Bosnia and Herzegovina (Sarajevo) Coordinates: , Country Entity Canton Sarajevo Canton Government  - Mayor Semiha Borovac (SDA) Area [1]  - City 141. ... Coat of arms [[Image:{{{image_coat_of_arms}}}|100px|Coat of arms]] Municipality of Bosnia and Herzegovina [[Image:{{{image_map}}}|150px|center|Map of Bosnia and Herzegovina highlighting the town or municipality location]] General Information Entity Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina Land area 499,7 km² Population 170,000 (estimate) Population density 293/km... Municipality of Bosnia and Herzegovina General Information Entity {{{entity}}} Land area Population Population density Coordinates Area code +387 32 Mayor Mehmed MustabaÅ¡ić (SDA) Website http://www. ... . Zavidovići is a town in Bosnia and Herzegovina. ... Bugojno Bugojno (Cyrillic: Бугојно) is a town and municipality of the same name in central Bosnia and Herzegovina on the river Vrbas. ... Mostar (Мостар) is a city and municipality in Bosnia and Herzegovina, the center of the Herzegovina-Neretva Canton of the Federation. ... Shield of Konjic with the Neretva river Municipality of Konjic (marked green) Konjic is a town and municipality in Bosnia and Herzegovina situated on the Neretva river. ...


In June 1992, the United Nations Protection Force which had originally been deployed in Croatia had its mandate extended into Bosnia and Herzegovina, initially to protect the Sarajevo International Airport. In September, the role of the UNPROFOR was expanded in order to protect humanitarian aid and assist in the delivery of the relief in the whole Bosnia and Herzegovina, as well as aid in the protection of civilian refugees when required by the Red Cross. Pocket badge of the UNPROFOR The United Nations Protection Force, UNPROFOR, were the primary UN peacekeeping troops in Croatia and in Bosnia and Herzegovina during the Yugoslav wars. ... Sarajevo International Airport (IATA: SJJ, ICAO: LQSA) is the main international airport in Bosnia and Herzegovina, located just a few kilometers southwest of the capital city of Sarajevo. ... The International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) is historically a committee of Swiss nationals, although non-Swiss nationals have recently been allowed (the committee appoints new members to itself to replace those who resign or die) which leads the international Red Cross movement (often simply known after its symbol...


The Croat Defence Council take-overs in Central Bosnia

In June 1992 the focus switched to Novi Travnik and Gornji Vakuf where the Croat Defence Council (HVO) efforts to gain control were resisted. On June 18, 1992 the Bosnian Territorial Defence in Novi Travnik received an ultimatum from the HVO which included demands to abolish existing Bosnia and Herzegovina institutions, establish the authority of the Croatian Community of Herzeg-Bosnia and pledge allegiance to it, subordinate the Territorial Defense to the HVO and expel Muslim refugees, all within 24 hours. The attack was launched on June 19. The elementary school and the Post Office were attacked and damaged.[43] Gornji Vakuf was initially attacked by Croats on June 20, 1992, but the attack failed. The Graz agreement caused deep division inside the Croat community and strengthened the separation group, which led to the conflict with Bosniaks. One of the primary pro-union Croat leaders, Blaž Kraljević (leader of the HOS armed group) was killed by HVO soldiers in August 1992, which severely weakened the moderate group who hoped to keep the Bosnian Croat alliance alive[44]. The situation became more serious in October 1992 when Croat forces attacked Bosniak civilian population in Prozor burning their homes and killing civilians. According to Jadranko Prlić indictment, HVO forces cleansed most of the Muslims from the town of Prozor and several surrounding villages.[19] Novi Travnik is a town in Bosnia and Herzegovina. ... Municipality of Bosnia and Herzegovina General Information Entity {{{entity}}} Land area 402,7 km² Population (1991 census) 25,130 Population density (1991 census) 6. ... is the 169th day of the year (170th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... An ultimatum (Latin: ) is a demand whose fulfillment is requested in a specified period of time and which is backed up by a threat to be followed through in case of noncompliance. ... is the 170th day of the year (171st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 171st day of the year (172nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1992 Gregorian calendar). ... The Graz agreement was a military pact signed between Croatian President Franjo TuÄ‘man and Serbian President Slobodan MiloÅ¡ević on April 27th , 1992 in the town of Graz, Austria. ... Blaž Kraljević (Born June 17, 1947 in LjubuÅ¡ki, Bosnia-Herzegovina -August 9, 1992 near Mostar, Bosnia-Herzegovina) was a Bosnian Croat paramilitary leader during the first few months of the Bosnian War. ... The Croatian Defence Forces (Croatian Hrvatska obrambene snage or HOS) was one of the first armed forces assembled by the Croats during the Croatian Homeland War and the War in Bosnia and Herzegovina. ... For other uses, see October (disambiguation). ... Prozor is a town in Rama, Bosnia and Herzegovina. ... Jadranko Prlić is a Croatian politican who is among six defendants charged by the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia (ICTY), in relation to the Croatian Republic of Herceg-Bosna. ...


In October of 1992 the Serbs captured the town of Jajce and expelled the Croat and Bosniak population. The fall of the town was largely due to a lack of Bosniak-Croat cooperation and rising tensions, especially over the previous four months. Municipality of Bosnia and Herzegovina General Information Entity {{{entity}}} Land area Population (1991 census) 45,007 Population density Area code +387 30 Mayor Nisvet Hrnjić (SDA) Website http://www. ...


1993

Vance-Owen Peace PlanSerb - redCroat - blueBosniak - greenSplit control - white
Vance-Owen Peace Plan
Serb - red
Croat - blue
Bosniak - green
Split control - white

On January 8, 1993 the Serbs killed the deputy prime minister of Bosnia Hakija Turajlić after stopping the UN convoy which was taking him from the airport. On May 15-16 96% of Serbs voted to reject the Vance-Owen plan. After the failure of the Vance-Owen peace plan, which practically intended to divide the country into three ethnic parts, an armed conflict sprung between Bosniaks and Croats over the 30 percent of Bosnia they held. The peace plan was one of the factors leading to the escalation of the conflict, as Lord Owen avoided moderate Croat authorities (pro-unified Bosnia) and negotiated directly with more extreme elements (which were for separation).[45] Image File history File links Map_of_Vance-Owen_peace_plan. ... Image File history File links Map_of_Vance-Owen_peace_plan. ... Three major peace plans were offered before and during the Bosnian War by European Community (EC) and United Nations (UN) diplomats before the conflict was settled by the Dayton Agreement in 1995. ... is the 8th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1993 (MCMXCIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1993 Gregorian calendar). ... A prime minister is the most senior minister of cabinet in the executive branch of government in a parliamentary system. ... Hakija Turajlić (1937 - January 8, 1993) was a Bosnian politician and businessman who served as the deputy Prime Minister of Bosnia and Herzegovina until he was murdered in 1993. ... Escalation is the phenomenon of something getting worse step by step, for example a quarrel, or, notably, military presence and nuclear armament during the Cold War. ... David Anthony Llewellyn Owen, Baron Owen, PC (born July 2, 1938), is a British politician. ...

Map of Bosniak-Croat conflict; green Bosniaks, blue croats
Map of Bosniak-Croat conflict; green Bosniaks, blue croats

Much of 1993 was dominated by the Croat-Bosniak war. On January 1993 Croat forces attacked Gornji Vakuf again in order to connect Herzegovina with Central Bosnia.[19] Belligerents Bosnia and Herzegovina Croatian Community of Herzeg-Bosnia Croatia Commanders Alija Izetbegović (President of Bosnia and Herzegovina) Sefer Halilović (Army chief of staff 1992-1993) Rasim Delić (Army chief of Staff 1993-1995) Arif Pašalić (Commander of the 4th Corps of ARBIH Franjo Tuđman (President of Croatia...


Gornji Vakuf shelling

Gornji Vakuf is a town to the south of the Lašva Valley and of strategic importance at a crossroads en route to Central Bosnia. It is 48 kilometres from Novi Travnik and about one hour’s drive from Vitez in an armoured vehicle. For Croats it was a very important connection between the Lašva Valley and Herzegovina, two territories included in the self-proclaimed Croatian Community of Herzeg-Bosnia. The Croat forces shelling reduced much of the historical oriental center of the town of Gornji Vakuf to rubble. [46] Ronda, Spain Main street in Bastrop, Texas, United States, a small town A town is a community of people ranging from a few hundred to several thousands, although it may be applied loosely even to huge metropolitan areas. ... A crossroads (the word rarely appears in singular) is another word for road junction, where two or more roads meet (there are three or more arms). ... En Route (Unterwegs) is a 2004 German film written and directed by Jan Krüger. ... Novi Travnik is a town in Bosnia and Herzegovina. ... Shield of Vitez Vitez (Serbian: Витез) is a town in central Bosnia and Herzegovina. ... This article is about the geographic area of Herzegovina. ... Flag Self-proclaimed Croatian entity in Bosnia and Herzegovina Republic of Herzeg-Bosnia show in dark blue Capital Mostar Government Republic Governors (1992-1994)  - Croatian zone of Bosnia and Herzegovina Mate Boban Historical era Yugoslav wars  - Breakup of Yugoslavia June 25, 1991  - Secessions June 25, 1991 - April 27, 1992  - Proclamation...


On January 10, 1993, just before the outbreak of hostilities in Gornji Vakuf, the Croat Defence Council (HVO) commander Luka Šekerija, sent a "Military – Top Secret" request to Colonel Tihomir Blaškić and Dario Kordić, (later convicted by ICTY of war crimes and crimes against humanity i.e. ethnic cleansing) for rounds of mortar shells available at the ammunition factory in Vitez. [47] Fighting then broke out in Gornji Vakuf on January 11, 1993, sparked by a bomb which had been placed by Croats in a Bosniak-owned hotel that had been used as a military headquarters. A general outbreak of fighting followed and there was heavy shelling of the town that night by Croat artillery. [46] is the 10th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Tihomir BlaÅ¡kić (born November 2, 1960) was a Bosnian Croat army officer who had been sentenced for war crimes at the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia. ... Dario Kordić was a Bosnian Croat politician and military commander of the HVO forces during 1991-1995. ... The International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia is a body of the United Nations established to prosecute war crimes in the former Yugoslavia. ... In the context of war, a war crime is a punishable offense under International Law, for violations of the laws of war by any person or persons, military or civilian. ... This article is in need of attention. ... For the video game, see Ethnic Cleansing (computer game). ... US soldier loading a M224 60-mm mortar. ... Shells of WWI. From left to right: 90 mm fragmentation shell - 120 mm pig iron incendiary shell 77/14 model - 75 mm high explosive shell model 16 - 75 mm fragmentation shell A shell is a payload-carrying projectile, which, as opposed to a bullet, contains an explosive or other filling... Ammunition, often referred to as ammo, is a generic term meaning (the assembly of) a projectile and its propellant. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Shield of Vitez Vitez (Serbian: Витез) is a town in central Bosnia and Herzegovina. ... is the 11th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Headquarters denotes the location where most, if not all, of the important functions of an organization are concentrated. ... For other uses, see Artillery (disambiguation). ...


During cease-fire negotiations at the Britbat HQ in Gornji Vakuf, colonel Andrić, representing the HVO, demanded that the Bosnian forces lay down their arms and accept HVO control of the town, threatening that if they did not agree he would flatten Gornji Vakuf to the ground. [46] [48] The HVO demands were not accepted by the Bosnian Army and the attack continued, followed by massacres on Bosnian Muslim civilians in the neighbouring villages of Bistrica, Uzričje, Duša, Ždrimci and Hrasnica.[49] [50] During the Lašva Valley ethnic cleansing it was surrounded by Croatian Army and Croatian Defence Council for seven months and attacked with heavy artillery and other weapons (tanks and snipers). Although Croats often cited it as a major reason for the attack on Gornji Vakuf, the commander of the British Britbat company claimed that there were no Muslim holy worriors in Gornji Vakuf (commonly known as Mujahideen) and that his soldiers did not see any. The shelling campaign and the attackes during the war resulted in hundreds of injured and killed, mostly Bosnian Muslim civilians. [46] An armistice is the effective end of a war, when the warring parties agree to stop fighting. ... For other uses, see Negotiation (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Colonel (disambiguation). ... Crest of Army of The Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina. ... The LaÅ¡va Valley ethnic cleansing, also known as the LaÅ¡va Valley case, refers to numerous war crimes committed during the Bosnian war by the Croatian Community of Herzeg-Bosnias political and military leadership on Bosnian Muslim (Bosniak) civilians in the LaÅ¡va Valley region of Bosnia-Herzegovina. ... Croatian Ground Army (Croatian: Hrvatska kopnena vojska), commonly referred as Croatian Army (Hrvatska vojska) is a branch of the Armed Forces of the Republic of Croatia. ... The Croatian Defence Council (Croatian Hrvatsko vijeće obrane, HVO) was the main military unit of the Croats during the Bosnian War charged with achieving the military objectives of the Croatian Republic of Herzeg-Bosnia. ... Historically, artillery refers to any engine used for the discharge of projectiles during war. ...


Lasva Valley ethnic cleansing
Main article: Lasva Valley ethnic cleansing

The Lašva Valley ethnic cleansing campaign against Bosniak civilians planned by the Croatian Community of Herzeg-Bosnia's political and military leadership from May 1992 to March 1993 and erupting the following April, was meant to implement objectives set forth by Croat nationalists in November of 1991.[18] The Lašva Valley's Bosniaks were subjected to persecution on political, racial and religious grounds[51], deliberately discriminated against in the context of a widespread attack on the region's civilian population[52] and suffered mass murder, rape, imprisonment in camps, as well as the destruction of cultural sites and private property. This was often followed by anti-Bosniak propaganda, particularly in the municipalities of Vitez, Busovača, Novi Travnik and Kiseljak. Ahmići massacre in April 1993, was the culmination of the Lašva Valley ethnic cleansing, resulting in mass killing of Bosnian Muslim civilians just in a few hours. An estimate puts the death toll at 120. The youngest was a three-month-old baby, who was machine-gunned to death in his crib, and the oldest was a 96-year-old woman. It is the biggest massacre committed during the conflict between Croats and the Bosnian government (dominated by Bosniaks). The LaÅ¡va Valley ethnic cleansing, also known as the LaÅ¡va Valley case, refers to numerous war crimes committed during the Bosnian war by the Croatian Community of Herzeg-Bosnias political and military leadership on Bosnian Muslim (Bosniak) civilians in the LaÅ¡va Valley region of Bosnia-Herzegovina. ... Flag Self-proclaimed Croatian entity in Bosnia and Herzegovina Republic of Herzeg-Bosnia show in dark blue Capital Mostar Government Republic Governors (1992-1994)  - Croatian zone of Bosnia and Herzegovina Mate Boban Historical era Yugoslav wars  - Breakup of Yugoslavia June 25, 1991  - Secessions June 25, 1991 - April 27, 1992  - Proclamation... Politics is the process by which decisions are made within groups. ... Leader redirects here. ... For other uses, see May (disambiguation). ... Year 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1992 Gregorian calendar). ... Year 1993 (MCMXCIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1993 Gregorian calendar). ... This article or section needs additional references or sources to improve its verifiability. ... Nationalism is an ideology that creates and sustains a nation as a concept of a common identity for groups of humans. ... For other uses, see November (disambiguation). ... Year 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar. ... For other uses, see Race. ... Religious is a term with both a technical definition and folk use. ... Mass murder (massacre) is the act of murdering a large number of people, typically at the same time, or over a relatively short period of time. ... A prison is a place in which people are confined and deprived of a range of liberties. ... Camp may mean: Gatherings of people: Campsite Temporary settlement of a band of foragers. ... For other uses, see Propaganda (disambiguation). ... Shield of Vitez Vitez (Serbian: Витез) is a town in central Bosnia and Herzegovina. ... Busovača is a small town in the heart of Bosnia and Herzegovina. ... Novi Travnik is a town in Bosnia and Herzegovina. ... Municipality of Bosnia and Herzegovina General Information Entity {{{entity}}} Land area 164 km² Population (1991 census) 24,426 Population density Area code +387 30 Mayor Mladen MiÅ¡urić (HDZ) Website http://www. ... Ahmići massacre occurred in 1993 during the Bosnian War. ... This article or section needs additional references or sources to improve its verifiability. ... In astronomy, the culmination, at a given point, of a planet, star, constellation, etc. ... Languages Croatian Religions Predominantly Roman Catholic Related ethnic groups Slavs South Slavs Croats (Croatian: Hrvati) are a South Slavic people mostly living in Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina and nearby countries. ... Language(s) Bosnian Religion(s) Predominantly Sunni Islam Related ethnic groups Slavs (South Slavs) The Bosniaks or Bosniacs[1] (Bosnian: BoÅ¡njaci, IPA: ) are a South Slavic people, living mainly in Bosnia and Herzegovina (Bosnia) and the Sandžak region of Serbia and Montenegro, with a smaller autochthonous population also...


The International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia (ICTY) has ruled that these crimes amounted to crimes against humanity in numerous verdicts against Croat political and military leaders and soldiers, most notably Dario Kordić. [53] Based on the evidence of numerous HVO attacks at that time, the ICTY Trial Chamber concluded in the Kordić and Čerkez case that by April 1993 Croat leadership had a common design or plan conceived and executed to ethnically cleanse Bosniaks from the Lašva Valley. Dario Kordić, as the local political leader, was found to be the planner and instigator of this plan. [54] According to the Sarajevo-based Research and Documentation Center (IDC), around 2,000 Bosniaks from the Lašva Valley are missing or were killed during this period.[55] The International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia is a body of the United Nations established to prosecute war crimes in the former Yugoslavia. ... This article is in need of attention. ... Dario Kordić was a Bosnian Croat politician and military commander of the HVO forces during 1991-1995. ...


War in Herzegovina

The Croatian Community of Herzeg-Bosnia took control of many municipal governments and services in Herzegovina as well, removing or marginalising local Bosniak leaders. Herzeg-Bosnia took control of the media and imposed Croatian ideas and propaganda. Croatian symbols and currency were introduced, and Croatian curricula and the Croatian language were introduced in schools. Many Bosniaks and Serbs were removed from positions in government and private business; humanitarian aid was managed and distributed to the Bosniaks' and Serbs' disadvantage; and Bosniaks in general were increasingly harassed. Many of them were deported into concentration camps: Heliodrom, Dretelj, Gabela, Vojno and Šunje. Flag Self-proclaimed Croatian entity in Bosnia and Herzegovina Republic of Herzeg-Bosnia show in dark blue Capital Mostar Government Republic Governors (1992-1994)  - Croatian zone of Bosnia and Herzegovina Mate Boban Historical era Yugoslav wars  - Breakup of Yugoslavia June 25, 1991  - Secessions June 25, 1991 - April 27, 1992  - Proclamation... This article is about the geographic area of Herzegovina. ... IDEA may refer to: Electronic Directory of the European Institutions IDEA League Improvement and Development Agency Individuals with Disabilities Education Act Indian Distance Education Association Integrated Data Environments Australia Intelligent Database Environment for Advanced Applications IntelliJ IDEA - a Java IDE Interactive Database for Energy-efficient Architecture International IDEA (International Institute... For other uses, see Propaganda (disambiguation). ... It has been suggested that Internment be merged into this article or section. ... Heliodrom Camp was Croat run concentration camp during the Bosnian War. ...


Up till 1993 the Croatian Defence Council (HVO) and Army of Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina (ARBiH) had been fighting side by side against the superior forces of the Army of Republika Srpska (VRS) in some areas of Bosnia and Herzegovina. Even though armed confrontation and events like the Totic kidnappings strained the relationship between the HVO and ARBiH the Croat-Bosniak alliance held in Bihać pocket (northwest Bosnia) and the Bosanska Posavina (north), where both were heavily outmatched by Serb forces. The Croatian Defence Council (Croatian Hrvatsko vijeće obrane, HVO) was the main military unit of the Croats during the Bosnian War charged with achieving the military objectives of the Croatian Republic of Herzeg-Bosnia. ... now. ... Bosnian Serb Army, officially Army of the Republika Srpska (Serbian Војска Републике Српске/Vojska Republike Srpske, ВРС/VRS) is the military of the Bosnian Serb political entity of Republika Srpska. ...


According to ICTY judgment in Naletilić-Martinović case Croat forces attacked the villages of Sovici and Doljani, about 50 kilometers north of Mostar in the morning on April 17, 1993. The attack was part of a larger HVO offensive aimed at taking Jablanica, the main Bosnian Muslim dominated town in the area. The HVO commanders had calculated that they needed two days to take Jablanica. The location of Sovici was of strategic significance for the HVO as it was on the way to Jablanica. For the Bosnian Army it was a gateway to the plateau of Risovac, which could create conditions for further progression towards the Adriatic coast. The larger HVO offensive on Jablanica had already started on April 15, 1993. The artillery destroyed the upper part of Sovici. The Bosnian Army was fighting back, but at about five p.m. the Bosnian Army commander in Sovici, surrendered. Approximately 70 to 75 soldiers surrendered. In total, at least 400 Bosnian Muslim civilians were detained. The HVO advance towards Jablanica was halted after a cease-fire agreement had been negotiated. [56] Jablanica is a town in Bosnia and Herzegovina. ... is the 105th day of the year (106th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Siege of Mostar

Mostar was surrounded by the Croat forces for nine months, and much of its historic city was severely destroyed in shelling including the famous Stari Most bridge.[57] Mostar (Мостар) is a city and municipality in Bosnia and Herzegovina, the center of the Herzegovina-Neretva Canton of the Federation. ... Shells of WWI. From left to right: 90 mm fragmentation shell - 120 mm pig iron incendiary shell 77/14 model - 75 mm high explosive shell model 16 - 75 mm fragmentation shell A shell is a payload-carrying projectile, which, as opposed to a bullet, contains an explosive or other filling... Panorama of Old Bridge in Mostar, June 2006 Stari Most (English translation: The Old Bridge) is a 16th century bridge in the city of Mostar, Bosnia and Herzegovina that crosses the river Neretva and connects two parts of the city. ...


Mostar was divided into a Western part, which was dominated by the Croat forces and an Eastern part where the Army of Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina was largely concentrated. However, the Bosnian Army had its headquarters in West Mostar in the basement of a building complex referred to as Vranica. In the early hours of May 9, 1993, the Croatian Defence Council attacked Mostar using artillery, mortars, heavy weapons and small arms. The HVO controlled all roads leading into Mostar and international organisations were denied access. Radio Mostar announced that all Bosniaks should hang out a white flag from their windows. The HVO attack had been well prepared and planned.[58] now. ... is the 129th day of the year (130th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1993 (MCMXCIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1993 Gregorian calendar). ...


The Croats took over the west side of the city and expelled thousands[57] Bosniaks from the west side into the east side of the city. The HVO shelling reduced much of the east side of Mostar to rubble. The JNA (Yugoslav Army) demolished Carinski Bridge, Titov Bridge and Lucki Bridge over the river excluding the Stari Most. HVO forces (and its smaller divisions) engaged in a mass execution, ethnic cleansing and rape on the Bosniak people of the West Mostar and its surrounds and a fierce siege and shelling campaign on the Bosnian Government run East Mostar. HVO campaign resulted in thousands of injured and killed.[57] Panorama of Old Bridge in Mostar, June 2006 Stari Most (English translation: The Old Bridge) is a 16th century bridge in the city of Mostar, Bosnia and Herzegovina that crosses the river Neretva and connects two parts of the city. ...


Bosnian Army launched an operation known as Neretva 93 against the Croatian Defence Council and Croatian Army in September 1993 in order to end the siege of Mostar and to recapture areas of Herzegovina, which were included in self-proclaimed Croatian Republic of Herzeg-Bosnia. The operation was stopped by Bosnian authorities after it received the information about the massacre against Croat civilians and POWs in the villages of Grabovica and Uzdol. Crest of Army of The Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina. ... The Croatian Defence Council (Croatian Hrvatsko vijeće obrane, HVO) was the main military unit of the Croats during the Bosnian War charged with achieving the military objectives of the Croatian Republic of Herzeg-Bosnia. ... Croatian Ground Army (Croatian: Hrvatska kopnena vojska), commonly referred as Croatian Army (Hrvatska vojska) is a branch of the Armed Forces of the Republic of Croatia. ... For other uses, see September (disambiguation). ... Year 1993 (MCMXCIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1993 Gregorian calendar). ... Mostar (Мостар) is a city and municipality in Bosnia and Herzegovina, the center of the Herzegovina-Neretva Canton of the Federation. ... Flag Self-proclaimed Croatian entity in Bosnia and Herzegovina Republic of Herzeg-Bosnia show in dark blue Capital Mostar Government Republic Governors (1992-1994)  - Croatian zone of Bosnia and Herzegovina Mate Boban Historical era Yugoslav wars  - Breakup of Yugoslavia June 25, 1991  - Secessions June 25, 1991 - April 27, 1992  - Proclamation...


The Croat leadership (Jadranko Prlić, Bruno Stojić, Slobodan Praljak, Milivoj Petković, Valentin Ćorić and Berislav Pušić) is presently on trial at the ICTY on charges including crimes against humanity, grave breaches of the Geneva conventions and violations of the laws or customs of war. Dario Kordić, political leader of Croats in Central Bosnia was convicted of the crimes against humanity in Central Bosnia i.e. ethnic cleansing and sentenced to 25 years in prison. [53] Bosnian commander Sefer Halilović was charged with one count of violation of the laws and customs of war on the basis of superior criminal responsibility of the incidents during Neretva 93 and found not guilty. Jadranko Prlić is a Croatian politican who is among six defendants charged by the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia (ICTY), in relation to the Croatian Republic of Herceg-Bosna. ... Bruno Stojić at the ICTY Bruno Stojić is a Bosnian-Croat politician who is among six defendants charged by the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia (ICTY) Bruno Stojić was born on 8 April, 1955 in the village of Hamzići in the then Socialist Republic of Bosnia and... Slobodan Praljak at the ICTY Slobodan Praljak is a Croatian politican who is amoung six defendants charged by the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia (ICTY), in relation to the Croatian Republic of Herzeg-Bosnia. ... Milivoj Petković at the ICTY Milivoj Petković is a Croatian army officer who is amoung six defendants charged by the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia (ICTY), in relation to the Croatian Republic of Herzeg-Bosnia. ... Valentin Coric at the ICTY Valentin Corić is a Croatian politican who is among six defendants charged by the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia (ICTY) Background Valentin Corić was born on 23 June, 1956 in the village of Paoca, near ÄŒitluk, in Bosnia and Herzegovina. ... Berislav PuÅ¡ić at the ICTY Berislav PuÅ¡ić is a Croatian politician who was among 6 Croatian defendants charged by the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia (ICTY) Berislav PuÅ¡ić aka Berto or Berko was born on 8 June 1952 in the village of Krivodol, in Mostar. ... The International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia is a body of the United Nations established to prosecute war crimes in the former Yugoslavia. ... This article is in need of attention. ... Dario Kordić was a Bosnian Croat politician and military commander of the HVO forces during 1991-1995. ... This article is in need of attention. ... For the video game, see Ethnic Cleansing (computer game). ... Sefer Halilović (born January 6, 1952) is a high-ranked general from Bosnia and Herzegovina, currently a war crimes suspect. ...


In an attempt to protect the civilians, UNPROFOR's role was further extended in 1993 to protect the "safe havens" that it had declared around Sarajevo, Goražde, Srebrenica, Tuzla, Žepa and Bihać. Municipality of Bosnia and Herzegovina General Information Entity Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina Canton Bosnian Podrinje Canton Land area 252 km² Population 1999 36496 Population density 144,8/km² Coordinates Area code +387 38 Mayor Mustafa Kurtović (SDA) Website http://www. ... Location of Srebrenica within the Bosnia and Herzegovina Country Settlements 81 Government  - Mayor Abdurahman Malkić (SDA) [1] Area  - Total 527 km² (203. ... For other uses, see Tuzla (disambiguation). ... Žepa (Cyrillic: Жепа) is a town in the east of Bosnia and Herzegovina in the Republika Srpska entity, on the Drina river. ... Municipality of Bosnia and Herzegovina General Information Entity {{{entity}}} Land area 900 km2 Population (est. ...


1994

In 1994, NATO became actively involved, when its jets shot down four Serb aircraft over central Bosnia on February 28 1994 violating the UN no-fly zone. This article is about the military alliance. ... Combatants Bosnian Serb Army USAF Strength 6 G-4 Super Galeb 4+ F-16 Casualties 4 aircraft destroyed, pilots fate unknown none The Banja Luka incident, February 28, 1994, was an incident in which six Bosnian Serb Army-owned G-4 Super Galeb fighter jets were engaged four of them... is the 59th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...


The Croat-Bosniak war officially ended on February 23, 1994 when the Commander of HVO, general Ante Roso and commander of Bosnian Army, general Rasim Delić, signed a ceasefire agreement in Zagreb. In March 1994 a peace agreement mediated by the USA between the warring Croats (represented by the Republic of Croatia) and the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina was signed in Washington and Vienna which is known as the Washington Agreement. Under the agreement, the combined territory held by the Croat and Bosnian government forces was divided into ten autonomous cantons, establishing the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina. This effectively ended the war between Croats and Bosniaks, and narrowed the warring parties down to two. is the 54th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Location of Zagreb within Croatia Coordinates: , Country RC diocese 1094 Free royal city 1242 Unified 1850 Government  - Mayor Milan Bandić Area [1]  - Total 641. ... Motto: (traditional) In God We Trust (official, 1956–present) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City Official language(s) None at the federal level; English de facto Government Federal Republic  - President George W. Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence - Declared - Recognized... In March and May 1994, a peace agreement was mediated between the warring Bosnian Croats and the government of Bosnia and Herzegovina, and signed in Washington and Vienna. ... The location of the FBiH entity as part of the state of Bosnia and Herzegovina in Europe. ...


1995

The war continued through most of 1995.


In July 1995. Serb troops under general Ratko Mladić, occupied the UN "safe area" of Srebrenica in eastern Bosnia where around 8,000 men were killed (most women were expelled to Bosniak-held territory and some of them were killed and raped).[59] The ICTY ruled this event as genocide in the case Prosecutor vs. Krstić. Location of Srebrenica within the Bosnia and Herzegovina Country Settlements 81 Government  - Mayor Abdurahman Malkić (SDA) [1] Area  - Total 527 km² (203. ... Burial of 465 identified Bosniak civilians (July 11, 2007) Gravestone of a thirteen year old boy (July 11, 2007) A memorial to the victims of Srebrenica and other towns in Eastern Bosnia The Srebrenica Massacre, also known as Srebrenica Genocide,[1][2] was the July 1995 killing of an estimated... The Tribunal building in The Hague. ...

Standing, from left to right: Felipe Gonzalez, Bill Clinton, Jacques Chirac, Helmut Kohl, John Major, Viktor Chernomyrdin. Seated from left to right: Slobodan Milošević, Franjo Tuđman, Alija Izetbegovic signing the final peace agreement in Paris on December 14, 1995.

In line with the Croat-Bosniak agreement, Croatian forces operated in western Bosnia (Operation Summer '95) and in early August launched Operation Storm, taking over the Serb Krajina in Croatia. With this, the Bosniak-Croat alliance gained the initiative in the war, taking much of western Bosnia from the Serbs in several operations, including: Mistral and Sana. These forces now came to threaten the Bosnian Serb capital Banja Luka with direct ground attack. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2023x1409, 221 KB) Summary NATO press Service Licensing File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2023x1409, 221 KB) Summary NATO press Service Licensing File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Felipe González Márquez (March 5, 1942). ... William Jefferson Bill Clinton (born William Jefferson Blythe III[1] on August 19, 1946) was the 42nd President of the United States, serving from 1993 to 2001. ... “Chirac” redirects here. ... Helmut Josef Michael Kohl (born April 3, 1930) is a German conservative politician and statesman. ... For other persons named John Major, see John Major (disambiguation). ... Viktor Stepanovich Chernomyrdin (Russian: Ви́ктор Степа́нович Черномы́рдин) (born April 9, 1938) is a Russian politician. ... MiloÅ¡ević redirects here. ... ‹ The template below (Foreignchar) is being considered for deletion. ... Alija Izetbegović, former president of Bosnia and Herzegovina Alija Izetbegović (August 8, 1925 - October 19, 2003) was a Bosnian Muslim activist, philosopher, and politician, president of Bosnia and Herzegovina from 1990 to 1996 and member of the Presidency of Bosnia and Herzegovina from 1996 to 2000, and author of several... Combatants Croatia (HV, HVO) Republika Srpska (VRS) Commanders General Ante Gotovina (HV) Strength Two HV Guard Brigades (4th Motorized, 7th Mechanized) Two HVO Guard Brigades (1st, 3rd Motorized) Other units Units of the 2nd Krajina Corps of the VRS (3 motorized brigades, 5 infantry brigades, 5 light brigades and support... This article is about a 1995 Croatian army operation. ... Self-proclaimed Serbian entity in Croatia Republic of Serbian Krajina show in red Capital Knin Government Republic Governors (1990-1995) Milan Babić Goran Hadžić  - Serbian zone of Croatia Milan Martić Historical era Yugoslav wars  - Breakup of Yugoslavia 1990-June 25, 1991  - Creation of SAO Krajina December 21, 1990  - Secession... Combatants Croatia (HV, HVO) Republika Srpska (VRS) Commanders General Ante Gotovina (HV) Strength Two HV Guard Brigades (4th Motorized, 7th Mechanized) Two HVO Guard Brigades (1st, 3rd Motorized) Other units Units of the 2nd Krajina Corps of the VRS (3 motorized brigades, 5 infantry brigades, 5 light brigades and support... Combatants ARBiH VRS Commanders Atif Dudakovic Zeljko Raznatovic Strength 25,000 20,000-30,000 est. ... Location of Banja Luka within Bosnia and Herzegovina. ...


The second Markale massacre occurred and NATO responded by opening wide air strikes against Bosnian Serb infrastructure and units in September. The Markale massacres were two massacres[1][2] on civilians during the Siege of Sarajevo in the Bosnian War. ... This article is about the military alliance. ... “Operation Deliberate Force” was a sustained air campaign conducted by NATO to undermine the military capability of Bosnian Serb who threatened or attacked UN designated safe areas in Bosnia. ...

Military actions in western bosnia which caused end of Bosnian war; blue Croats, green Bosniaks, red Serbs, light green West Bosnia

At that point, the international community pressured Milošević, Tuđman and Izetbegović to the negotiation table and finally the war ended with the Dayton Peace Agreement signed on November 21, 1995. The final version of the peace agreement was signed December 14, 1995 in Paris. The General Framework Agreement for Peace in Bosnia and Herzegovina, also known as the Dayton Agreement, Dayton Accords, Paris Protocol or Dayton-Paris Agreement, is the peace agreement reached at the Wright-Patterson Air Force Base near Dayton, Ohio in November 1995, and formally signed in Paris on December 14... is the 325th day of the year (326th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 348th day of the year (349th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Casualties

The death toll after the war was originally estimated at around 200,000 by the Bosnian government. They also recorded around 1,326,000 refugees and exiles. What is Refugees? Refugees is a simple internet community that was created as a homeland and haven for the members of the message board MegaMassMedia. ...


Research done by Tibeau and Bijak in 2004 determined a number of 102,000 deaths and estimated the following breakdown: 55,261 were civilians and 47,360 were soldiers. Of the civilians: 16,700 were Serbs while 38,000 were Bosniaks and Croats. Of the soldiers, 14,000 were Serbs, 6,000 were Croats, and 28,000 were Bosniaks.[60]


Another research was conducted by the Sarajevo-based Research and Documentation Center (RDC) that was based on creating lists and databases, rather than providing estimates. ICTY's Demographic Unit in the Hague, provide a similar total death toll, but a somewhat different ethnic distribution.[61] As of October 2006 the count of the number of casualties has reached 97,884.[62] Further research is ongoing. Map of Bosnia and Herzegovina (Sarajevo) Coordinates: , Country Entity Canton Sarajevo Canton Government  - Mayor Semiha Borovac (SDA) Area [1]  - City 141. ... The Research and Documentation Center (RDC) is an independent, non-governmental, non-profit, professional and non-partisan institution. ... The International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia is a body of the United Nations established to prosecute war crimes in the former Yugoslavia. ... Arms of The Hague The Hague (with capital T; Dutch: Den Haag, or officially s-Gravenhage) is the administrative capital of the Netherlands, located in the west of the country, in the province South Holland of which it is also the capital. ...


On June 21 2007, the Research and Documentation Center in Sarajevo published the most extensive research on Bosnia-Herzegovina's war casualties titled: The Bosnian Book of the Dead - a database that reveals 97,207 names of Bosnia and Herzegovina's citizens killed and missing during the 1992-1995 war. An international team of experts evaluated the findings before they were released. More than 240,000 pieces of data have been collected, processed, checked, compared and evaluated by international team of experts in order to get the final number of more than 97,000 of names of victims, belonging to all nationalities. Recent research have shown that most of the 97,207 documented casualties (soldiers and civilians) during Bosnian War were Bosniaks (65%), with Serbs in second (25%) and Croats (8%) in third place. However, 83 percent of civilian victims were Bosniaks, 10 percent were Serbs and more than 5 percent were Croats, followed by a small number of others such as Albanians or Romani people. The percentage of Bosniak victims would be higher had survivors of Srebrenica not reported their loved-ones as 'soldiers' to access social services and other government benefits. The total figure of dead could rise by a maximum of another 10,000 for the entire country due to ongoing research. [63] [64] is the 172nd day of the year (173rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Research and Documentation Center (RDC) is an independent, non-governmental, non-profit, professional and non-partisan institution. ...


There are no precise statistics dealing with the casualties of the Croat-Bosniak conflict along ethnic lines. The RDC's data on human losses in the regions caught in the Croat-Bosniak conflict as part of the wider Bosnian War, however, can serve as a rough approximation. According to this data, in Central Bosnia most of the 10,448 documented casualties (soldiers and civilians) were Bosniaks (62%), with Croats in second (24%) and Serbs (13%) in third place. It should be noted that the municipalities of Gornji Vakuf and Bugojno also geographically located in Central Bosnia (known as Gornje Povrbasje region), with the 1,337 documented casualties are not included in Central Bosnia statistics, but in Vrbas region. Anyway, around 80% of the casualties from Gornje Povrbasje were Bosniaks. In the region of Neretva river of 6,717 casualties, 54% were Bosniaks, 24% Serbs and 21% Croats. The casualties in those regions were mostly but not exclusively the consequence of Croat-Bosniak conflict. To a lesser extent the conflict with the Serbs also resulted in a number of casualties included in the statistics. For instance, a number of Serbs were massacred by Croat forces in June 1992 in the village of Čipuljić located in Bugojno municipality.[65] Belligerents Bosnia and Herzegovina Croatian Community of Herzeg-Bosnia Croatia Commanders Alija Izetbegović (President of Bosnia and Herzegovina) Sefer Halilović (Army chief of staff 1992-1993) Rasim Delić (Army chief of Staff 1993-1995) Arif PaÅ¡alić (Commander of the 4th Corps of ARBIH Franjo TuÄ‘man (President of Croatia... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with estimation. ... Language(s) Bosnian Religion(s) Predominantly Sunni Islam Related ethnic groups Slavs (South Slavs) The Bosniaks or Bosniacs[1] (Bosnian: BoÅ¡njaci, IPA: ) are a South Slavic people, living mainly in Bosnia and Herzegovina (Bosnia) and the Sandžak region of Serbia and Montenegro, with a smaller autochthonous population also... Languages Croatian Religions Predominantly Roman Catholic Related ethnic groups Slavs South Slavs Croats (Croatian: Hrvati) are a South Slavic people mostly living in Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina and nearby countries. ... Languages Serbian Religions Predominantly Serbian Orthodox Christian Related ethnic groups Other Slavic peoples, especially South Slavs See Cognate peoples below (* many Serbs opted for Yugoslav ethnicity) [27] Serbs (Serbian: Срби or Srbi) are a South Slavic people who live mainly in Serbia, Montenegro, Bosnia-Herzegovina, and, to a lesser extent, in... Municipality of Bosnia and Herzegovina General Information Entity {{{entity}}} Land area 402,7 km² Population (1991 census) 25,130 Population density (1991 census) 6. ... Bugojno Bugojno (Cyrillic: Бугојно) is a town and municipality of the same name in central Bosnia and Herzegovina on the river Vrbas. ... Vrbas may refer to: Vrbas, a river in Bosnia and Herzegovina Vrbas, a town in Serbia and Montenegro This is a disambiguation page — a list of pages that otherwise might share the same title. ... River Neretva in Mostar, 2004 Neretva is a river in Bosnia and Herzegovina and Croatia. ... Year 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1992 Gregorian calendar). ...


Large discrepancies in all these estimates are generally due to the inconsistent definitions of who can be considered victims of the war. Some research calculated only direct casualties of the military activity while other also calculated indirect casualties, such as those who died from harsh living conditions, hunger, cold, illnesses or other accidents indirectly caused by the war conditions. Original higher numbers were also used as many victims were listed twice or three times both in civilian and military columns as little or no communication and systematic coordination of these lists could take place in wartime conditions. Manipulation with numbers is today most often used by historical revisionist to change the character and the scope of the war in Bosnia and Herzegovina. However, most of above independent studies have not been accredited by either government involved in the conflict and there are no single official results that are acceptable to all sides.


It should not be discounted that there were also significant casualties on the part of International Troops in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Some 320 soldiers of UNPROFOR were killed during this conflict in Bosnia. Pocket badge of the UNPROFOR The United Nations Protection Force, UNPROFOR, were the primary UN peacekeeping troops in Croatia and in Bosnia and Herzegovina during the Yugoslav wars. ...

Casualty figures according to the Demographic Unit at the ICTY
Total
102,622
Bosniaks & Croats c. 72,000
Serbs c. 30,700
Total civilians
55,261
Bosniaks & Croats c. 38,000
Serbs c. 16,700
Total soldiers
47,360
Bosniaks c. 28,000
Serbs c. 14,000
Croats c. 6,000
Casualty figures according to RDC
(as reported in March 2006)
Total
96,175
Bosniaks 63,994 66.5%
Serbs 24,206 25.2%
Croats 7,338 7.6%
other 637 0.7%
Total civilians
38,645
Bosniaks 32,723 84.7%
Serbs 3,555 9.2%
Croats 1,899 4.9%
others 466 1.2%
Total soldiers
57,529
Bosniaks 31,270 54.4%
Serbs 20,649 35.9%
Croats 5,439 9.5%
others 171 0.3%
unconfirmed 4,000

War crimes

Ethnic cleansing

Ethnic cleansing was a common phenomenon in the war. This typically entailed intimidation, forced expulsion and/or killing of the undesired ethnic group as well as the destruction or removal of the physical vestiges of the ethnic group, such as places of worship, cemeteries and cultural and historical buildings. As well as the frequent use of torture, rape and ritualistic killing, most commonly throat slitting by the Serbs: The murderer binds the victim's hands behind his or her back and forces the victim to kneel on the ground. The murderer then jabs his knee into the center of the victim's back, grabs the top of the victim's head by the hair, pulls the victims head back, and slits the victims throat with his knife.[66] According to numerous ICTY verdicts, Serb[67] and Croat[53] forces performed ethnic cleansing of their territories planned by their political leadership in order to create ethnically pure states (Republika Srpska and Herzeg-Bosnia). Furthermore, Serb forces committed genocide in Srebrenica at the end of the war.[68] For the video game, see Ethnic Cleansing (computer game). ... Not to be confused with Serbia. ... Coat of Arms of Herzeg-Bosnia Flag of Herzeg-Bosnia The Croatian Republic of Herzeg-Bosnia (locally Hrvatska Republika Herceg-Bosna) was an unrecognized entity in present day Bosnia and Herzegovina existing between 1991 and 1994 as a result of secessionist politics during the Bosnian War. ... The Srebrenica genocide occured in July of 1995, which resulted in the killing of more than eight thousand Bosniak men and boys, ranging in age from teenagers to the elderly, in the region of Srebrenica by the Serb army of general Ratko Mladić and the Serbian army from Yugoslavia. ...


Based on the evidence of numerous HVO attacks, the ICTY Trial Chamber concluded in the Kordić and Čerkez case that by April 1993 Croat leadership had a common design or plan conceived and executed to ethnically cleanse Bosniaks from the Lašva Valley in Central Bosnia. Dario Kordić, as the local political leader, was found to be the planner and instigator of this plan. [54] The LaÅ¡va Valley ethnic cleansing, also known as the LaÅ¡va Valley case, refers to numerous war crimes committed during the Bosnian war by the Croatian Community of Herzeg-Bosnias political and military leadership on Bosnian Muslim (Bosniak) civilians in the LaÅ¡va Valley region of Bosnia-Herzegovina. ... Dario Kordić was a Bosnian Croat politician and military commander of the HVO forces during 1991-1995. ...


Mass rape

Main article: Mass rape in the Bosnian War

During the Bosnian war, Serb forces conducted sexual abuse strategy on Bosnian Muslim girls and women which will later be known as mass rape phenomenon. Between 20,000 and 44,000 women were systematically raped by the Serb forces.[69] In accordance with the Muslim society, most of the girls not married were virgins at the time of rape; further traumatizing the situation. Mass rapes were mostly done in Eastern Bosnia (during Foča massacres), and in Grbavica during the Siege of Sarajevo. Women and girls were kept in various detention centres where they had to live in intolerably unhygienic conditions and were mistreated in many ways including being repeatedly raped. Serb soldiers or policemen would come to these detention centres, select one or more women, take them out and rape them. All this was done in full view, in complete knowledge and sometimes with the direct involvement of the Serb local authorities, particularly the police forces. The head of Foča police forces, Dragan Gagović, was personally identified as one of the men who came to these detention centres to take women out and rape them. There were numerous rape camps in Foča. "Karaman's house" was one of the most notable rape camps. While kept in this house, the girls were constantly raped. Among the women held in "Karaman's house" there were minors as young as 12 and 14 years of age. [25][30][70] Bad Touch redirects here. ... Foča massacres were crimes against humanity committed by Serb military, police and paramilitary forces on Bosniak civilians in Foča region including Gacko and Kalinovik from April 7, 1992 to January 1994. ... Combatants ARBiH (1992-95)  NATO (1995) JNA (1992) VRS (1992-95) Commanders Jovan Divjak Mustafa Hajrulahović Vahid Karavelić Nedžad Ajnadžić Stanislav Galić (1992-94) Dragomir MiloÅ¡ević (1994-95) Strength 40,000 (1992) 30,000 (1992) The Siege of Sarajevo was the longest siege in the history of... This article is about a military rank. ... For the band, see The Police. ... Serbs (in the Serbian language Срби, Srbi) are a south Slavic people living chiefly in Serbia and Montenegro and Bosnia and Herzegovina. ... Local governments are administrative offices of an area smaller than a state. ...


Muslim women were specifically targeted as the rapes against them were one of the many ways in which the Serbs could assert their superiority and victory over the Bosniaks. For instance, the girls and women, who were selected by convicted war criminal Dragoljub Kunarac or by his men, were systematically taken to the soldiers’ base, a house located in Osmana Đikić street no 16. There, the girls and women, who Kunarac knew were civilians, were raped by his men or by the convicted himself. Some of the girls were just 14. Serb soldiers demonstrated a total disregard for Bosniak in general, and Bosniak women in particular. Serb soldiers removed many Muslim girls from various detention centres and kept some of them for various periods of time for him or his soldiers to rape.[25] A war crime is a punishable offense, under international (criminal) law, for violations of the law of war by any person or persons, military or civilian. ...


The other example includes Radomir Kovač,convicted also by ICTY. While four girls were kept in his apartment, the convicted Radomir Kovač abused them and raped three of them many times, thereby perpetuating the attack upon the Bosnian Muslim civilian population. Kovač would also invite his friends to his apartment, and he sometimes allowed them to rape one of the girls. Kovač also sold three of the girls. Prior to their being sold, Kovač had given two of these girls, to other Serb soldiers who abused them for more than three weeks before taking them back to Kovač, who proceeded to sell one and give the other away to acquaintances of his.[25] The International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia is a body of the United Nations established to prosecute war crimes in the former Yugoslavia. ...


Case study - an insight into the moral decline of the perpetrator

Among the most appalling and deplorable accounts of inhuman treatment and cruelty brought upon young Muslim females of Bosnia is that of the 12-year-old Almira Bektovic, a helpless war victim for whom virtually no compassion was shown whatsoever. Born in the town of Mostar in the year 1980, she lived in Miljevina in the municipality of Foca, the birth village of her father, Ramiz Bektovic, at the time of the Serb attack on these areas in the summer of 1992. Her father was taken away by the Serbs in june 1992 and was never seen again. Almira and her mother were instead detained in the Partizan Sports Hall with hundreds of other Bosniak women and girls under inhuman conditions and with lack of food or water. In mid-August 1992, Almira Bektovic among other girls was brought to 'Karaman's house' by Radovan Stankovic, this lasted for ten days until she was returned to her mother whom she told that "she had worked as a waitress, washed clothes, cleaned and cooked, and that there were many other girls there who did chores and things for the Serb soldiers". Afterwards in mid-september 1992 deportation busses were prepared for elderly Muslim women and young children that were to take them to Bosnian-government-controlled areas for exchange; in a bus were Almira and her mother and two sisters, however suddenly the bus was stopped at the Drina bridge, and entered did men sent by Radovan Stankovic, who called out the name of the girl and snatched Almira Bektovic from her mother's arms, who then screamed repeatedly "Give me back my child!" before losing consciousness, Almira was heard screaming and crying "Don't take me, I'm only twelve!". One of the surviving witnesses from Karaman's house reported that Almira was brought to the house holding her doll tightly to her chest, apparently not knowing what was awaiting her. Soon thereafter Nedo Samardzic raped Almira Bektovic and reportedly bragged about "having taken her virginity" and "having fooled soldier Pero Elez (who was always looking for virgins) in who was to be the first to take her virginity". Almira was found crying and vomiting after the assault (as part of rape trauma syndrome), by one the surviving girls from the house. Over the next three months Almira Bekotvic was forced into much the same pattern as all the other women and girls detained in the house; she had to do household chores, cook for the soldiers and sexually please these, at the age of merely 12. Almira's status however was even more vulnerable than that of the other girls who (in contrast to Almira) were 'assigned' to specific soldiers who got to rape them only, Almira thus not being assigned to any specific soldier was free to be raped by any soldier that was granted entrance to Karaman's house. Radomir kovac detained, between or about 31 October 1992 until December 1992 Almira Bektovic (and other girls). During their detention they were also beaten, threatened, psychologically oppressed, and kept in constant fear. During this period Almira was moved between various locations and apartments in Foca in order to 'serve' Serb soldiers and friends of Radomir Kovac. On about 25 December 1992, Radomir Kovac sold Almira Bektovic to a Montenegrin soldier (who were known among the detained women as "more aggressive") for 200 DM (100 Euro), and from there on the tracks of her are lost (probably murdered shortly thereafter).[71][72][73][74][75][76][77][78][79][80] This page meets Wikipedias criteria for speedy deletion. ...

  • Cases like these were especially repulsive considering the fact that they also constituted pedophilia. One could somehow grasp this inhuman act [of loading such a large mental and sexual burden on a child] if it were such that lonesome individuals had preyed on a child in the opportunities of war. But rather these crimes were played out with a large consent among the Serb military and police leadership as well community in Foca [and other parts of Bosnia]. It was much a coordinated attack against the Bosnian Muslim women and girls on basis of harming them regardless of age or state; evident by the fact that many of the perpetrators probably were not pedophiles as such, but were driven by hatred. It should however also be noticed that the soldiers and local Serbs made a business and economic profit out of the enslaved girls by selling and renting them to customers.
  • After being 'sufficiently' raped and used for the pleasure of the local perpetrator, the younger and more helpless girls were often sold on to other soldiers or people. Often to Montenegro where they had to work as slaves in cafés and similiar (as the patterns of sexual abuse continued). Due to widespread disbelief between Serbs/Montenegrins (Orthodoxs) and Bosniaks (Muslims), especially at the time of war, the girls couldn't simply appeal to locals or even the police station for help (they were almost always sent back).

The patterns of abuse was evident: day and night, soldiers came to the house taking two to three women at a time. They were four to five guards at all times, all local Foca Serbs. The woman knew the rapes would begin when 'Mars na Drinu' was played over the loudspeaker of the main mosque. ('Mars na Drinu,' or 'March on the Drina', is reportedly a former Chetnik fighting song that was banned during the Tito years.)[81] Not to be confused with Ephebophilia. ... Pedophilia (American English) or paedophilia / pædophilia (British English), from the Greek παιδοφιλια (paidophilia) < παις (pais) boy, child and φιλια (philia) friendship, (ICD-10 F65. ...

Bosnian government troops reach out towards a Muslim woman who sits mute with shock by a roadside in Travnik, central Bosnia, in the summer of 1993. The woman was part of a group of Muslim detainees held captive by Bosnian Serbs. They had been deported across the frontline to the government-controlled area only minutes before this photograph was taken. Detainees who were with her said she had been raped.[82]

While 'Mars na Drinu' was playing, the women were ordered to strip and soldiers entered the homes taking the ones they wanted. The age of women taken ranged from 12 to 60. Frequently the soldiers would seek out mother and daughter combinations. Many of the women were severely beaten during the rapes.[83]


The first time, soldiers had entered and grabbed an 18-year-old girl, asking her if she were a virgin. She said she was. Licking his knife, one of the soldiers said that if they found she was not, he would butcher her. Another woman pleaded with them not [to] take the girl but to take her instead. "We'll take you too," they said. While this woman was being raped, her rapist told her, "You should have already left this town. We'll make you have Serbian babies who will be Christians." Two soldiers raped the woman that time; five soldiers raped the 18-year-old girl in full view of the woman.[84]

  • These assaults were not only for the physical but also mental pleasure of the perpetrator. The assaults were used in combinations that would maximally humiliate the Muslim women on basis of their religion and historical rivarly. There was a strong sense among the pepetrators to construct horrorful scenarios (as with the mosque speaker) and constantly pointing out that "they will impregnate the women of the Muslim enemies with Christian Serb children" or "that they had killed relatives of the women and girls".

A 28-year-old woman was taken by Serbian soldiers around midnight on August 12 to the outdoor sport stadium in Foca. There she was raped by 28 soldiers before loosing consciousness. In addition the soldiers burned her body with cigarettes and cigarette lighters.[85]


Mass rape was a well-spread instrument of war by the Serbs in all of the areas they held; a 55-year-old Bosnian Muslim from Brcko was a prisoner at Luka camp during which he saw teen-aged girls being brought, eight to ten at a time, into the camp commander's office building on Wednesdays and Saturdays, between about 2 and 6 pm. The teenagers came only those 2 days of the week.[86]


Monika, a Serbian woman in her early 20s, would say "We've brought them." The camp commander would take his time selecting a girl, who would then be escorted upstairs. Once the commander had made his choice, three or four guards would select another girl, and so on. Only the commander had a girl to himself.[87]


The witness identified Monika as the well known daughter of Brcko's leading prostitute. She bragged about her job of going around town to "buy and prepare" the girls, and she was assisted by three men who participated in the "delivery service," as well as serving as "police" at Luka camp. The witness identified all of the aforementioned people and provided names of girls known to be dead and presumed to have died from being gang-raped at Luka camp. Monika brought a nurse to Luka to "prepare the girls and make them calm." The girls apparently have no idea what was going to happen to them, because they were only slightly frightened. The witness implied that the nurse was coerced into "treating" the girls. The witness observed Monika beating young men on the genitals repeatedly and for extended periods of time.[88]

  • In many instances Serb women of the community were aware and actively participiated in organizing the rapes, further elevating the fact that the rapes were used as a 'historical revenge of the Serbs for the past', since these women had no pure sexual use of the detainees. Also significant are those cases in which medical personel was used to calm the girls and treat gyneocological and psychological complications resulting from the rapes in order to 'prolong their sexual capablilty'.

Another woman and likewise mother testified: "One night they took away my daughter. She had recently turned eleven. There was nothing I could do. I watched them take away my daughter, and ran after her, but other women stopped me. I screamed "why children!?", "leave the children alone!", "if you have to rape, rape us then, but leave the children alone!"


Nothing helped. I watched them take away my daughter, my big wound. From the surrounding premises I could hear her scream as they raped her. All in the camp were sickened, head between our knees, hands on our ears so that we would not hear the scream of my little girl which until then never had the thought of anything like this happening to her. Some of the girls were so young that they really didn't understand why this was done to them."[89]

  • Rapes were many times not hidden from large amounts of detainees, nor men or women. Presumably to cause fear, stress and state of shock among large populations of detainees, as well as to show en masse the Serb preponderance over the Bosniaks.

The mass-rape events in Bosnia inspired the Golden Bear winner at the 56th Berlin International Film Festival in 2006, called Grbavica. The 56th Berlin International Film Festival was held from February 9 to February 19 2006. ... Grbavica is a movie by Jasmila Žbanić. It was a Golden Bear winner at the Berlin Film Festival 2006. ...


Genocide

Main article: Bosnian genocide

A trial took place before the International Court of Justice, following a 1993 suit by Bosnia and Herzegovina against Serbia and Montenegro alleging genocide (see Bosnian genocide case at the International Court of Justice). The International Court of Justice (ICJ) ruling of 26 February 2007 determined that Serbia had no responsibility for the genocide committed by Bosnian Serb forces in Srebrenica massacre in 1995. The ICJ concluded, however, that Serbia failed to act to prevent the Srebrenica massacre and failed to punish those believed to be responsible, especially general Ratko Mladić. Finally, the court concluded that there was not sufficient evidence to find that there had been a wider genocide committed against the Bosniak population, as alleged by the Bosnian government. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Srebrenica massacre. ... See also International Commission of Jurists Peace Palace, seat of the ICJ. Org type Principal Organ Acronyms ICJ, CIJ Head President of the ICJ Dame Rosalyn Higgins DBE Status Active Established 1945 Website www. ... For other uses, see Genocide (disambiguation). ... Peace Palace at the Hague The Bosnian genocide case at the International Court of Justice (also known as Bosnia and Herzegovina v. ... See also International Commission of Jurists Peace Palace, seat of the ICJ. Org type Principal Organ Acronyms ICJ, CIJ Head President of the ICJ Dame Rosalyn Higgins DBE Status Active Established 1945 Website www. ... is the 57th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... Burial of 465 identified Bosniak civilians (July 11, 2007) Gravestone of a thirteen year old boy (July 11, 2007) A memorial to the victims of Srebrenica and other towns in Eastern Bosnia The Srebrenica Massacre, also known as Srebrenica Genocide,[1][2] was the July 1995 killing of an estimated... Ratko Mladić General Ratko Mladić during UN-mediated talks at Sarajevo airport in 1993. ...


In popular culture

The Bosnian War has been depicted in a number of films including Hollywood movies such as The Hunting Party, about an attempt at catching the accused war criminal and fugitive Radovan Karadžić, Behind Enemy Lines and Savior, a number of British movies such as Welcome to Sarajevo, which is about the life of Sarajevo citizens during the siege and an award-winning British television drama, Warriors, aired on BBC One in 1999 about the Lašva Valley ethnic cleansing. The Polish film "Demony wojny" ("Demons of War", 1998), set during the Bosnian conflict, portrays a Polish group of IFOR soldiers who accidentally come to help a pair of journalist tracked by a local warlord whose crimes they had taped. Bosnian director Danis Tanović's No Man's Land won the Best Foreign Language Film awards at the 2001 Academy Awards and the 2002 Golden Globes. Grbavica, about the life of a single mother in contemporary Sarajevo in the aftermath of systematic rape of Bosniak women by Serbian troops during the war, won the Golden Bear at the Berlin International Film Festival. Documentaries include Bernard-Henri Lévy's Bosna! about Bosnian resistance against well equipped Serbian troops at the beginning of the war, Slovenian documentary Tunel upanja (A Tunnel of Hope) about the Sarajevo Tunnel constructed by the besieged citizens of Sarajevo in order to link the city of Sarajevo, which was entirely cut-off by Serbian forces, with the Bosnian government territory and British documentary A Cry from the Grave about the Srebrenica massacre, as well as BBC's lengthy series "The Death of Yugoslavia", documenting the outbreak of the war from the earliest roots of the conflict, in the 1980s. A number of Western films made the Bosnian conflict the background of their stories - some of those include "Avenger", based on Frederick Forsyth's novel in which a mercenary tracks down a Serbian warlord responsible for war crimes, and "The Peacemaker", in which a Serbian activist emotionally devastated by the losses of war plots to take revenge on the United Nations by exploding a nuclear bomb in New York. A thriller with dark comedy scheduled to be released in 2007, starring Richard Gere, Terrence Howard, Diane Kruger, Joy Bryant, and Jesse Eisenberg. ... Radovan Karadžić during a visit to Moscow in 1994. ... Behind Enemy Lines is a 2001 thriller war film directed by John Moore and starring Gene Hackman and Owen Wilson. ... Savior is a 1998 film starring Dennis Quaid, Stellan SkarsgÃ¥rd, Nastassja Kinski, and Natasa Ninkovic. ... Welcome to Sarajevo is a British war movie from 1997. ... Combatants ARBiH (1992-95)  NATO (1995) JNA (1992) VRS (1992-95) Commanders Jovan Divjak Mustafa Hajrulahović Vahid Karavelić Nedžad Ajnadžić Stanislav Galić (1992-94) Dragomir MiloÅ¡ević (1994-95) Strength 40,000 (1992) 30,000 (1992) The Siege of Sarajevo was the longest siege in the history of... Warriors (1999) is a British television drama serial, written by Peter Kosminsky. ... For the BBC radio station, see BBC Radio 1. ... The LaÅ¡va Valley ethnic cleansing, also known as the LaÅ¡va Valley case, refers to numerous war crimes committed during the Bosnian war by the Croatian Community of Herzeg-Bosnias political and military leadership on Bosnian Muslim (Bosniak) civilians in the LaÅ¡va Valley region of Bosnia-Herzegovina. ... The acronym IFOR may also refer to the International Fellowship of Reconciliation. ... Danis Tanović as a member of the jury at the 2003 Cannes Film Festival Danis Tanović (born February 20, 1969) is an acclaimed Bosnian film director and screenwriter. ... No Mans Land (Bosnian: Ničija zemlja) is a war drama that is set in the midst of the Bosnian war in 1993. ... The 74th Academy Awards ceremony was significant for a number of reasons. ... 59th Golden Globe Awards January 20, 2002 at the Beverly Hilton Hotel in Beverly Hills, California Picture, Drama: Picture, Musical or Comedy: Series, Drama: Series, Musical or Comedy: The 59th Golden Globe Awards, honoring the best in film and television for 2001, were held in 2002. ... Grbavica is a movie by Jasmila Žbanić. It was a Golden Bear winner at the Berlin Film Festival 2006. ... Map of Bosnia and Herzegovina (Sarajevo) Coordinates: , Country Entity Canton Sarajevo Canton Government  - Mayor Semiha Borovac (SDA) Area [1]  - City 141. ... One of the A festivals in Europe. ... Bernard-Henri Lévy (born November 5, 1948 in Béni-Saf, Algeria) is a French intellectual and businessman. ... This page is a candidate for speedy deletion, because: page blanked by its creator If you disagree with its speedy deletion, please explain why on its talk page or at Wikipedia:Speedy deletions. ... Burial of 465 identified Bosniak civilians (July 11, 2007) Gravestone of a thirteen year old boy (July 11, 2007) A memorial to the victims of Srebrenica and other towns in Eastern Bosnia The Srebrenica Massacre, also known as Srebrenica Genocide,[1][2] was the July 1995 killing of an estimated...


Plays about the war include Necessary Targets, written by Eve Ensler. Eve Ensler. ...


Trans Siberian Orchestra has a song entitled "Christmas Eve in Sarajevo". Cover of Trans-Siberian Orchestras Beethovens Last Night album Trans-Siberian Orchestra is a rock orchestra founded by Paul ONeill, Robert Kinkel, and Jon Oliva in 1996. ...


In the video game Grand Theft Auto 4, the protagonist Niko Belić is a Bosnian Serb veteran of the Bosnian War. Grand Theft Auto 4 is a computer game that is expected to be released by Rockstar Games at October 16, 2007 [1]. Speculation and rumours about the game are rife. ... Niko Bellic is a fictional character in the Grand Theft Auto video game series, serving as the anti-heroic protagonist and player-controlled character in Grand Theft Auto IV. He is 30 years of age and a Bosnian War veteran from Eastern Europe[1], between 511 and 6’2...


Dampyr is an Italian comic book, created by Mauro Boselli and Maurizio Colombo and published in Italy by Sergio Bonelli Editore about Harlan Draka, half human, half vampire, who wages war on the multifaceted forces of Evil. The first two episodes are located in Sarajevo during the Bosnian war. The war in Eastern Bosnia is a subject of Joe Sacco's comic book Safe Area Goražde. A comic book is a magazine or book containing the art form of comics. ... Sergio Bonelli Editore is a publishing house of Italian comics. ... Cover of Saccos Palestine (2001) Joe Sacco (born 1960) is a Maltese comics artist and journalist. ... Safe Area Goražde is a journalistic comic about the Bosnian War, written by Joe Sacco. ...


Galleries

Gallery of maps

Notes

  1. ^ "ICTY: Conflict between Bosnia and Herzegovina and the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia".
  2. ^ "ICTY: Conflict between Bosnia and Croatia".
  3. ^ "ICJ: The genocide case: Bosnia v. Serbia - See Part VI - Entities involved in the events 235-241".
  4. ^ "Courte: Serbia failed to prevent genocide, UN court rules". Associated Press (2007-02-26).
  5. ^ "Sense Tribunal: SERBIA FOUND GUILTY OF FAILURE TO PREVENT AND PUNISH GENOCIDE".
  6. ^ Statement of the President of the Court
  7. ^ "Dayton Peace Accords on Bosnia". US Department of State (1996-03-30). Retrieved on 2006-03-19.
  8. ^ "War-related Deaths in the 1992–1995 Armed Conflicts in Bosnia and Herzegovina: A Critique of Previous Estimates and Recent Results", European Journal of Population (June 2005). 
  9. ^ "Research halves Bosnia war death toll to 100,000", Reuters (November 23, 2005). 
  10. ^ "Review of European Security Issues", U.S. Department of State (28 April 2006). 
  11. ^ Bosnia’s “Book of the Dead”, Institute for War and Peace Reporting, June 23, 2007
  12. ^ Research shows estimates of B&H death toll inflated - IHT: The Bosnian Book of Dead
  13. ^ Bosnia's Book of Dead - BIRN Report
  14. ^ [1] - RFE: Svaka žrvat ima svoje ime
  15. ^ Bosnia's Book of Dead - BIRN Report
  16. ^ C.I.A. Report on Bosnia Blames Serbs for 90% of the War Crimes by Roger Cohen, The New York Times, March 9, 1995
  17. ^ "ICTY: Naletilić and Martinović verdict - A. Historical background".
  18. ^ a b c "ICTY: Blaškić verdict - A. The Lasva Valley: May 1992 – January 1993t".
  19. ^ a b c "ICTY: Prlić et al. (IT-04-74)".
  20. ^ "VOA: U Federaciji BiH obilježen Dan nezavisnosti BiH".
  21. ^ UK Guardian: America used Islamists to arm the Bosnian Muslims
  22. ^ Vjesnik: Je li Tuta platio atentatorima po pet tisuća maraka[2]
  23. ^ Helena Smith, Greece faces shame of role in Serb massacre, The Observer, 5 January 2003, accessed 25 November 2006
  24. ^ United States Institute of Peace, Dayton Implementation: The Train and Equip Program, September 1997 | Special Report No. 25
  25. ^ a b c d e f g "ICTY: The attack against the civilian population and related requirements".
  26. ^ "ICTY: Greatest suffering at least risk".
  27. ^ HRW-[3]
  28. ^ a b "ICTY: Milomir Stakić judgement - Political developments in the Municipality of Prijedor before the 30 April 1992 takeover".
  29. ^ CCPR Human Rights Committee. "Bosnia and Herzegovina Report". United Nations. 30 October 1992 [4]
  30. ^ a b "The Society for Threatened Peoples (GfbV): Documentation about war crimes - Tilman Zülch".
  31. ^ Odjek - revija za umjetnost i nauku - Zločin silovanja u BiH - [5]
  32. ^ Grbavica (film) - [6]
  33. ^ ICTY: Krnojelac verdict - [7]
  34. ^ Massachusetts Institute of Tehnology-short time line of Yugoslav war with number of rapes
  35. ^ The Independent (London): Film award forces Serbs to face spectre of Bosnia's rape babies - [8]
  36. ^ a b "ICTY: Milomir Stakić judgement - The takeover of power by Serbs in the Municipality of Prijedor on 29/ 30 April 1992".
  37. ^ "ICTY: Milomir Stakić judgement - The camps: Keraterm, Omarska and Trnopolje".
  38. ^ "ICTY: Milomir Stakić judgement - Keraterm".
  39. ^ "ICTY: Milomir Stakić judgement - Omarska".
  40. ^ "ICTY: Milomir Stakić judgement - Trnopolje".
  41. ^ "ICTY: Milomir Stakić judgement - 4. Interrogations, beatings and sexual assaults in the camps- Trnopolje".
  42. ^ Pessimism Is Overshadowing Hope In Effort to End Yugoslav Fighting
  43. ^ ICTY - Kordic and Cerkez judgment - II. PERSECUTION: THE HVO TAKE-OVERS B. Novi Travnik - [9]
  44. ^ Sarajevo, i poslije, Erich Rathfelder, München 1998 [10]
  45. ^ Angus Macqueen and Paul Mitchell, The Death of Yugoslavia, [11]
  46. ^ a b c d "ICTY: Kordić and Čerkez verdict - IV. Attacks on towns and villages: killings - 2. The Conflict in Gornji Vakuf".
  47. ^ "ICTY: Kordić and Čerkez verdict - IV. Attacks on towns and villages: killings - 4. Role of Dario Kordić".
  48. ^ "SENSE Tribunal: Poziv na predaju".
  49. ^ "SENSE Tribunal: Ko je počeo rat u Gornjem Vakufu".
  50. ^ "SENSE Tribunal: "James Dean" u Gornjem Vakufu".
  51. ^ "ICTY (1995): Initial indictment for the ethnic cleansing of the Lasva Valley area - Part II".
  52. ^ "ICTY: Summary of sentencing judgement for Miroslav Bralo".
  53. ^ a b c "ICTY: Kordić and Čerkez verdict".
  54. ^ a b "ICTY: Kordić and Čerkez verdict - IV. Attacks on towns and villages: killings - C. The April 1993 Conflagration in Vitez and the Lašva Valley - 3. The Attack on Ahmići (Paragraph 642)".
  55. ^ "IDC: Victim statistics in Novi Travnik, Vitez, Kiseljak and Busovača".
  56. ^ ICTY (Naletilic-Matinovic): 1. Sovici and Doljani- the attack on 17 April 1993 and the following days [12]
  57. ^ a b c "ICTY: Prlić et al. (IT-04-74)".
  58. ^ "ICTY: Naletilić and Martinović verdict - Mostar attack".
  59. ^ "ICTY: Krstić verdict".
  60. ^ Nilsen, Av Kjell Arild; "Death toll in Bosnian war was 102,000" - Norwegian News Agency
  61. ^ Krsman, Natasa; "Mirsad Tokača: Samo fizički me mogu spriječiti da radim" (Bosnian only); Nezavisne novine; 18 March 2006 [13]
  62. ^ Research and Documentation Center; "The Status of Database by the Centers"; current [14]
  63. ^ Research shows estimates of B&H death toll inflated - IHT: The Bosnian Book of Dead
  64. ^ Bosnia's Book of Dead - BIRN Report
  65. ^ RDC - Research results (2007) - Human Losses in Bosnia and Herzegovina 1991-1995 [15]
  66. ^ [16]
  67. ^ "ICTY: Radoslav Brđanin judgement".
  68. ^ ICTY; "Address by ICTY President Theodor Meron, at Potočari Memorial Cemetery" The Hague, 23 June 2004 [17]
  69. ^ [18]
  70. ^ [19]
  71. ^ [20]
  72. ^ [21]
  73. ^ [22]
  74. ^ [23]
  75. ^ [24]
  76. ^ [25]
  77. ^ [26]
  78. ^ [27]
  79. ^ [28]
  80. ^ [29]
  81. ^ [30]
  82. ^ http://www.fifcj-ifwlc.net/Docs/A%20colocar%20no%20site/WPS/IRIN-TheShameofWar-fullreport-Mar07.pdf
  83. ^ [31]
  84. ^ [32]
  85. ^ [33]
  86. ^ [34]
  87. ^ [35]
  88. ^ [36]
  89. ^ [37]

The Associated Press, or AP, is an American news agency, the worlds largest such organization. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 57th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1996 (MCMXCVI) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display full 1996 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 89th day of the year (90th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 78th day of the year (79th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Institute for War and Peace Reporting is an international media development charity, established in 1991. ... Roger Cohen is a biweekly columnist for the International Herald Tribune, which is itself a publication of The New York Times. ... The New York Times is a daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed internationally. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Munich: Frauenkirche and Town Hall steeple Munich (German: München (pronounced listen) is the state capital of the German Bundesland of Bavaria. ... Year 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1998 Gregorian calendar). ...

Bibliography

  • Howard, Les "Winter Warriors - Across Bosnia with the PBI", ISBN 978-1846240775 Critical account of a Peacekeeper's contribution to the end of the war
  • Gutman, Roy, A Witness to Genocide: The 1993 Pulitzer Prize-Winning Dispatches on the "Ethnic Cleansing" of Bosnia, ISBN 978-0020329954
  • Macqueen, Angus; Mitchell, Paul, The Death of Yugoslavia, [38]
  • Hoare, Marko Attila, How Bosnia Armed Saqi Books, 2004, ISBN 978-0863563676
  • Cigar, Norman, Genocide in Bosnia: The Politics of Ethnic Cleansing, Texas A&M University Press, 1995, ISBN 978-1585440047
  • Shrader, Charles R. The Muslim-Croat Civil War in Central Bosnia Texas A&M University Press, 2003 ISBN 1-58544-261-5
  • Simms, Brendan. Unfinest Hour: Britain and the Destruction of Bosnia. Penguin, 2003. ISBN 0-14-028983-6
  • Raguz, Vitomir Miles. Who Saved Bosnia Naklada Stih, 2005 ISBN 953-6959-28-3
  • Beloff, Nora. Yugoslavia: An Avoidable War. New European Publications, 1997. ISBN 1-872410-08-1
  • Loyd, Anthony. "My War Gone By, I Miss It So." Penguin, 1999. ISBN 0-14-029854-1
  • Maas, Peter. Love Thy Neighbor: A Story of War. Vintage Books, 1996. ISBN 0-679-76389-9
  • Dr. R. Craig Nation. "War in the Balkans 1991-2002." Strategic Studies Institute, 2002, ISBN 1-58487-134-2 [39]
  • Srebrenica, Potocari, [40]

See also

Belligerents Bosnia and Herzegovina Croatian Community of Herzeg-Bosnia Croatia Commanders Alija Izetbegović (President of Bosnia and Herzegovina) Sefer Halilović (Army chief of staff 1992-1993) Rasim Delić (Army chief of Staff 1993-1995) Arif PaÅ¡alić (Commander of the 4th Corps of ARBIH Franjo TuÄ‘man (President of Croatia... Map of the Cvetković-Maček Agreement The Cvetković-Maček Agreement (Croatian: Sporazum Cvetković-Maček) was a political agreement on the internal divisions in the Kingdom of Yugoslavia which was settled on August 26, 1939 by Yugoslav prime minister DragiÅ¡a Cvetković and Vladko Maček, a Croat... 1991 Bosnia and Herzegovina Population Census was the last census of the population of Bosnia and Herzegovina to be taken before the outbreak of the 1992-1995 war in Bosnia and Herzegovina. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Srebrenica massacre. ... Peace Palace in The Hague Command responsibility, sometimes referred to as the Yamashita standard, or the Medina standard is the doctrine of hierarchical accountability in cases of war crimes. ... The High Representative for Bosnia and Herzegovina, with the Office of the High Representative (OHR) in Bosnia and Herzegovina, was created in 1995 immediately after the Dayton Peace Agreement to oversee the civilian implementation of this agreement. ... Keraterm camp was a detention camp (also refered to as prison and concentration camp) near the town of Prijedor in northern Bosnia and Herzegovina during the Bosnian War from 1992 to 1995. ... Manjača camp detainees in 1992 Manjača camp (pronounced:Mañacha) was a detention camp (also refered to as prison and concentration camp) on mountain Manjača near the city of Banja Luka in northern Bosnia and Herzegovina during the Bosnian War from 1992 to 1995. ... The Markale massacres were two massacres[1][2] on civilians during the Siege of Sarajevo in the Bosnian War. ... The Memorandum of the Serbian Academy of Sciences and Arts was a draft document produced by a committee of the Serbian Academy from 1985 to 1986. ... Omarska camp detainees Omarska camp was a detention camp (also refered to as prison and concentration camp) in Omarska mining town near Prijedor in northern Bosnia and Herzegovina during the Bosnian War from 1992 to 1995. ... Combatants NATO Republika Srpska Commanders Willy Claes Ratko Mladić Strength 2 F-16C, 1 Mirage aircraft 2 SAMs Casualties 1 Mirage aircraft 2 pilots POW 1 F-16C Undisclosed The 1995 NATO bombing in Bosnia and Herzegovina (code-named by NATO Operation Deliberate Force) was a sustained air campaign conducted... Three major peace plans were offered before and during the Bosnian War by European Community (EC) and United Nations (UN) diplomats before the conflict was settled by the Dayton Agreement in 1995. ... For other uses of the term, see Holy War. ... The Serb propaganda is the term used before, during and after the Bosnian war to describe efforts made by Serbian media to justify, revise or deny mass war crimes committed by Serb forces during the Bosnian war on Bosniaks. ... Combatants ARBiH (1992-95)  NATO (1995) JNA (1992) VRS (1992-95) Commanders Jovan Divjak Mustafa Hajrulahović Vahid Karavelić Nedžad Ajnadžić Stanislav Galić (1992-94) Dragomir MiloÅ¡ević (1994-95) Strength 40,000 (1992) 30,000 (1992) The Siege of Sarajevo was the longest siege in the history of... Burial of 465 identified Bosniak civilians (July 11, 2007) Gravestone of a thirteen year old boy (July 11, 2007) A memorial to the victims of Srebrenica and other towns in Eastern Bosnia The Srebrenica Massacre, also known as Srebrenica Genocide,[1][2] was the July 1995 killing of an estimated... Starved detainees at the Trnopolje camp, ITN pictures that went around the world Trnopolje camp was a detention camp (also refered to as ghetto, prison and concentration camp) in the village of Trnopolje near the city of Prijedor in northern Bosnia and Herzegovina during the Bosnian War from 1992-1995. ... The War in Bosnia and Herzegovina between Bosniaks, Croats, and Serbs attracted large numbers of foreign fighters and mercenaries from various countries. ... Combatants Bosnian Serb Army USAF Strength SA-6 missiles 2 F-16s Casualties none 1 aircraft destroyed The Mrkonjić Grad incident, June 2, 1995, was an incident in which a Bosnian Serb Army SA-6 surface-to-air missile shot down a USAF F-16 near Mrkonjić Grad, Bosnia. ... Combatants Bosnian Serb Army USAF Strength 6 J-21 Jastreb 4+ F-16 Casualties 4 aircraft destroyed, pilots fate unknown none The Banja Luka incident, February 28, 1994, was an incident in which six Bosnian Serb Army-owned J-21 Jastreb light attack jets were engaged and four of them... Belligerents Army of Republika Srpska Danish military (as part of UNPROFOR forces) Commanders Unknown Lt. ... Combatants Army of Republika Srpska Danish military (as part of UNPROFOR forces) Commanders Unknown Lt. ... Combatants ARBiH VRS Commanders Atif Dudakovic Zeljko Raznatovic Strength 25,000 20,000-30,000 est. ...

External links

  • English documentary on the Bosnian War (The resistance of Bosnia was heard up to the skies)
  • Summary of the ICTY verdicts related to the conflict between Bosnia and Herzegovina and the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia
  • Summary of the ICTY verdicts related to the conflict between Bosnia and Herzegovina and the Croatia
  • List of people missing from the war
  • Stanislav Galic judgement
  • Research and Documentation Center Sarajevo
  • Srebrenica 1994
  • The Death of Yugoslavia Part I (Bosnian/Croatian/Serbian)
  • The Death of Yugoslavia Part II (Bosnian/Croatian/Serbian)
  • UN report on prison camps during the war
  • Open UN document on Serb attrocities towards non-Serbs
  • Guardian Unlimited special report on Serb soldier crimes (Guardian Unlimited)
  • Genocide in Yugoslavia
  • Serbian War Crime Testimonies
  • hWeb - Convoy to Sarajevo, a personal account of relief work during Bosnian War
  • Interview with Haris Silajdzic
  • WAR IN THE BALKANS, 1991-2002 - 4. The Land of Hate: Bosnia-Herzegovina, 1992-95, R. Craig Nation (2003)

Capital Belgrade Language(s) Serbian Government Republic President  - 1992 - 1993 Dobrica Ćosić  - 1993 - 1997 Zoran Lilić  - 1997 – 2000 Slobodan MiloÅ¡ević  - 2000 - 2003 Vojislav KoÅ¡tunica Prime Minister  - 1992 - 1993 Milan Panić  - 1993 - 1998 Radoje Kontić  - 1998 - 2000 Momir Bulatović  - 2000 - 2001 Zoran Žižić  - 2001 - 2003 DragiÅ¡a Pe... Guardian Unlimited is a British website owned by the Guardian Media Group. ...

Related films

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Yugoslav Wars
Wesley Kanne Clark (born December 23, 1944) is a retired four-star general of the United States Army. ... William Jefferson Bill Clinton (born William Jefferson Blythe III[1] on August 19, 1946) was the 42nd President of the United States, serving from 1993 to 2001. ... Helmut Josef Michael Kohl (born April 3, 1930) is a German conservative politician and statesman. ... “Yeltsin” redirects here. ... For other people of the same name, see Tony Blair (disambiguation) Anthony Charles Lynton Blair (born May 6, 1953)[1] is the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, First Lord of the Treasury, Minister for the Civil Service, Leader of the Labour Party, and Member of Parliament for the constituency...   IPA: (October 26, 1916 – January 8, 1996) served as President of France from 1981 to 1995, elected as representative of the Socialist Party (PS). ... Boutros Boutros-Ghali (Arabic: بطرس بطرس غالي, Coptic: Î’OΥΤΡΟC BOYTPOC ΓΑΛΗ) (born November 14, 1922) is an Egyptian diplomat who was the sixth Secretary-General of the United Nations from January 1992 to December 1996. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Bosnian War - New World Encyclopedia (4901 words)
Since the war in Bosnia is a consequence of events in the wider region of former Yugoslavia, and due to the involvement of neighboring countries Croatia and Serbia and Montenegro, there is an ongoing debate about whether the conflict was a civil war or an aggression.
Bosnian Croats were able to break the embargo across the Croatian border; the Bosniaks had no allies as near neighbors and so were the least well equipped of all sides.
The Bosnian Serbs expelled the Muslim population from northern and eastern Bosnia to create a 300 km corridor between Serb ethnic areas in the west of Bosnia and Serbia proper.
History of Bosnia and Herzegovina - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (3255 words)
Bosnian history from then until the early 14th century was marked by the power struggle between the Šubić and Kotromanić families.
The Bosnian Franciscans (and the Catholic population as a whole) were protected by official imperial decree, although on the ground these guarantees were often disregarded and their numbers dwindled.
Bosnian soldiers formed a large component of the Ottoman ranks in the battles of Mohács and Krbava field, two decisive military victories, while numerous other Bosnians rose through the ranks of the Ottoman military bureaucracy to occupy the highest positions of power in the Empire, including admirals, generals, and grand viziers.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m