FACTOID # 6: Michigan is ranked 22nd in land area, but since 41.27% of the state is composed of water, it jumps to 11th place in total area.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
RELATED ARTICLES
People who viewed "Bosniaks" also viewed:
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Bosniaks
Bosniaks
Bošnjaci
Gazi Husrev-beg, Husein Gradaščević, Safvet-beg Bašagić, Džemal Bijedić, and Alija Izetbegović
Total population

estimated 2.4 million Image File history File links Bosniaks. ... The tomb of Gazi Husrev-Beg, Eastern Sarajevo. ... Coin featuring Husein Gradaščević from the 19th century Husein-kapetan Gradaščević (1802 – August 17, 1834) was a Bosniak general who fought for Bosnian autonomy in the Ottoman Empire. ... Dr Safvet-beg Bašagić, (born May 6, 1870 in Nevesinje - died April 9, 1934 in Sarajevo, also known as Mirza Safvet) is considered the father of Bosnian Renaissance, and one of Bosnias most cherished poets at the turn of the 20th century. ... Džemal Bijedić (Џемал Биједић) (born April 22, 1917, Mostar – died January 18, 1977) was a Yugoslav Communist leader from Bosnia and Herzegovina. ... Alija Izetbegović (August 8, 1925 – October 19, 2003) was a Bosniak activist, lawyer, author, philosopher and politician, who, in 1990, became the first president of Bosnia and Herzegovina. ...

Regions with significant populations
Flag of Bosnia and Herzegovina Bosnia/Herz. 1,805,910 (1996) [1]
Flag of Serbia Serbia ca. 150,000 (2002)
(+ca. 20,000 Muslims)
[2] [3]
Flag of Montenegro Montenegro 48,184 (2003)
(+28,714 Muslims)
[4]
Flag of Slovenia Slovenia 21,542 (2002)
(+10,467 Muslims)
(+8,062 Bosnians)
[5]
Flag of Croatia Croatia 20,755 (2001)
(+19,677 Muslims)
[6]
Flag of the Republic of Macedonia Rep. Macedonia 17,018 (2002) [7]
Flag of Germany Germany c.80,000 (2005) [8]
Flag of the United States United States 98,766 [9]
Flag of Austria Austria 95,007 (2006)
Flag of Sweden Sweden 53,918 (2004) [10]
Flag of Australia Australia 18,000 (2001)
Flag of Norway Norway 15,216 (2006)
Flag of Switzerland Switzerland 23,457 (2000) [11]
Flag of Canada Canada 12,185 (2001)
Flag of Belgium Belgium 4,000 (2002) [12]
Flag of Spain Spain 2,038 (2006) [13]
Flag of Malaysia Malaysia 2,000 (2006)
Language(s)
Bosnian
Religion(s)
Predominantly Sunni Islam
Related ethnic groups
Slavs (South Slavs)

The Bosniaks or Bosniacs[1] (Bosnian: Bošnjaci, IPA: [bɔ'ʃɲaːt͡si]) are a South Slavic people, living mainly in Bosnia and Herzegovina ("Bosnia") and the Sandžak region of Serbia and Montenegro, with a smaller autochthonous population also present in Croatia, Kosovo and the Republic of Macedonia. Bosniaks are typically characterized by their tie to the Bosnian historical region, traditional adherence to Islam, and common culture and language. Image File history File links Flag_of_Bosnia_and_Herzegovina. ... This article is about the country of Bosnia and Herzegovina. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Serbia. ... Anthem:  Serbia() on the European continent()  —  [] Capital (and largest city) Belgrade Official languages Serbian Recognised regional languages Hungarian, Slovak, Romanian, Croatian, Rusyn 1 Albanian 2 Demonym Serbian Government Parliamentary Democracy  -  President Boris Tadić  -  Prime Minister Vojislav KoÅ¡tunica    -  First state 7th century   -  Serbian Kingdom3 1217   -  Serbian Empire 1345   -  Independence lost... Languages Serbo-Croat(Serbian, Bosnian, Croatian) Macedonian Religions Predominantly Islam Related ethnic groups South Slavs Muslims by nationality (Muslimani, Муслимани) was a term used in Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia to describe mainly native Slavic Muslims. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Montenegro. ... This article is about the country in Europe. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Slovenia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Croatia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Macedonia. ... For an explanation of terms related to Macedonia, see Macedonia (terminology). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Germany. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Austria. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Sweden. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Norway. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Switzerland. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Belgium_(civil). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Spain. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Malaysia. ... Sunni Islam (Arabic سنّة) is the largest denomination of Islam. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... The Slavic peoples are the most numerous ethnic and linguistic body of peoples in Europe. ...  Countries where a South Slavic language is the national language The South Slavs are a southern branch of the Slavic peoples that live in the Balkans mainly in former Yugoslavia which actually translates Yugo: South - Slavia: Slavs (Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovens), which is situated in the southern Pannonian... South Slavic languages is one of the three groups of Slavic languages (besides West and East Slavic). ... Map of Sandžak RaÅ¡ka (Serbian: Рашка, RaÅ¡ka, Bosnian: Sandžak, Albanian: Sanxhak or Sanxhaku, Turkish: Sancak) is a geographical region in central Balkans. ... Anthem:  Serbia() on the European continent()  —  [] Capital (and largest city) Belgrade Official languages Serbian Recognised regional languages Hungarian, Slovak, Romanian, Croatian, Rusyn 1 Albanian 2 Demonym Serbian Government Parliamentary Democracy  -  President Boris Tadić  -  Prime Minister Vojislav KoÅ¡tunica    -  First state 7th century   -  Serbian Kingdom3 1217   -  Serbian Empire 1345   -  Independence lost... This article is about the country in Europe. ... Indigenous peoples are: Peoples living in an area prior to colonization by a state Peoples living in an area within a nation-state, prior to the formation of a nation-state, but who do not identify with the dominant nation. ... For other uses, see Kosovo (disambiguation). ... For an explanation of terms related to Macedonia, see Macedonia (terminology). ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ...


In the English-speaking world, Bosniaks are most commonly known as Bosnian Muslims. Using information from the CIA World Fact Book, it can be seen that Bosnian Muslim is an imprecise synonym for Bosniak, because in Bosnia, Bosniaks make up 48% of the population, but only 40% of the population is Muslim.[2] Bosniaks are also referred to as Bosnians,[3] but this is also imprecise, as Bosnians can also be used to denote all inhabitants of Bosnia regardless of ethnic origin (i.e. not only Bosniaks, but also Bosnian Serbs, Bosnian Croats or any other group in the country). Definitions of the Anglosphere vary: Countries in which English is the first language of a large fraction of the population are shown in blue. ... The CIA Seal The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) is an American intelligence agency, responsible for obtaining and analyzing information about foreign governments, corporations, and individuals, and reporting such information to the various branches of the U.S. Government. ... The World Factbook (ISSN 1553-8133; also known as the CIA World Factbook)[2] is an annual publication of the Central Intelligence Agency of the United States with almanac-style information about the countries of the world. ... There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ... Synonyms (in ancient Greek, συν (syn) = plus and όνομα (onoma) = name) are different words with similar or identical meanings. ... The term Ethnicity redirects here. ... Serbs (in the Serbian language Срби, Srbi) are a south Slavic people living chiefly in Serbia and Montenegro and Bosnia and Herzegovina. ... Croats (Croatian: Hrvati) are a south Slavic people mostly living in Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina (where theyre one of the constitutive nations). ...

Contents

Overview

Bosniaks belong to the Slavic ethnic group, but nevertheless their 'genetic roots' are a mixture of Slav settlers and descendants of pre-Slavic indigenous Balkan peoples, mainly of Illyrian tribes. [4][5]. For example, anthropologist John J. Wilkes regards Bosniaks (and Bosnians in general) as a possible descendant of the Illyrians and places Bosnia as once the centre of the Illyrian kingdom [6]. The Slavic peoples are the most numerous ethnic and linguistic body of peoples in Europe. ... The Slavic peoples are the most numerous ethnic and linguistic body of peoples in Europe. ... Illyria (disambiguation) Illyrians has come to refer to a broad, ill-defined Indo-European[1] group of peoples who inhabited the western Balkans (Illyria, roughly from northern Epirus to southern Pannonia) and even perhaps parts of Southern Italy in classical times into the Common era, and spoke Illyrian languages. ... This article is about the ancient region in the south of Europe. ...


There are around 2 million Bosniaks living in the Balkans today. Once spread throughout the regions they inhabited, various instances of ethnic cleansing and genocide have had a tremendous effect on the territorial distribution of their population. Partially due to this, a notable Bosniak Diaspora exists in a number of countries, including Austria, Germany, Sweden, Turkey and the United States. Both within the region and the outside world, Bosniaks are often noted for their unique culture, which has been influenced by both eastern and western civilizations and schools of thought over the course of their history. Balkan redirects here. ... For the video game, see Ethnic Cleansing (computer game). ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Srebrenica massacre. ... For other uses, see Diaspora (disambiguation). ...


Etymology and definition

According to the "bosniac" entry in the Oxford English Dictionary, the first known use of "bosniak" in English was in "1836 Penny Cycl. V. 231/1 The inhabitants of Bosnia are composed of Bosniaks, a race of Sclavonian origin." and it arrived in English either via the French "Bosniaque", or the German "Bosniake", or the Russian "Bosnyak". The Oxford English Dictionary print set The Oxford English Dictionary (OED) is a dictionary published by the Oxford University Press (OUP), and is the most successful dictionary of the English language, (not to be confused with the one-volume Oxford Dictionary of English, formerly New Oxford Dictionary of English, of...


The earliest Bosnian "name" was the historical term "Bošnjanin" (Latin: Bosniensis), which signified any inhabitant of the medieval Bosnian kingdom. By the early days of Ottoman rule, the word had been replaced by "Bosniak" (Bošnjak). No consensus exists as to whether the word Bosniak emerged as a Turkified variation of the old Slavic Bošnjanin or as a local linguistic progression where the suffix "-iak" replaced the traditional "-anin". The Bosniaks derive their ethnic name from Bosona (Bosnia), which has been proposed to have an Illyrian origin.[7] [8] BoÅ¡njani (sing. ... The Byzantines restored control over Bosnia at the end of 10th century, but not for long as it was soon taken by the Czar of Bulgarians Samuil. ... Motto دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1683, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299–1326) Bursa (1326–1365) Edirne (1365–1453) Ä°stanbul (1453–1922) Government Monarchy Sultans  - 1281–1326 (first) Osman I  - 1918–22 (last) Mehmed VI Grand Viziers  - 1320... Turkish ( IPA ) is a language spoken by 65–73 million people worldwide, making it the most commonly spoken of the Turkic languages. ...


For the duration of Ottoman rule, the word Bosniak came to refer to all inhabitants of Bosnia; Turkish terms such as "Bosniak-milleti", "Bosniak-kavmi", and "Bosniak-taifesi", were used in the Empire to describe Bosnians in an ethnic or "tribal" sense. However, the concept of nationhood was foreign to the Ottomans at that time - not to mention the idea that Muslims and Christians of some military province could foster any common sur-confessional sense of identity. The inhabitants of Bosnia called themselves various names: from Bosniak, in the full spectrum of the word's meaning with a foundation as a territorial designation, through a series of regional and confessional names, all the way to modern-day national ones. For other uses, see Nation (disambiguation). ...

Bosniaks
Lilium Bosniacum" - the national emblem of the Bosniaks
"Lilium Bosniacum"
the national emblem of the Bosniaks

Bosniak culture Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ...

Religion
Islam For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ...

Bosniaks by region or country
Bosnia and Herzegovina
Serbia (Kosovo)
Montenegro · Slovenia
Macedonia · Croatia
Albania This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Logo of Bosniaks of Sandžak Bosniaks are an ethnic group in Serbia. ... Logo of Bosniaks of Sandžak Bosniaks are an ethnic group in Montenegro. ...

Bosnian Genocide
Anti-Bosniak sentiment
Bosnian War · Srebrenica massacre It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Srebrenica massacre. ... Combatants  Bosnia and Herzegovina Volunteers from Islamic countries Croatian Community of Herzeg-Bosnia  Croatia Volunteers from Western Europe  Republika Srpska  Yugoslavia Various paramilitary units from FR Yugoslavia Volunteers from Eastern Europe Commanders Alija Izetbegović (President of Bosnia and Herzegovina) Sefer Halilović (Army chief of staff 1992-1993) Rasim Delić (Army... Burial of 465 identified Bosniak civilians (July 11, 2007) Gravestone of a thirteen year old boy (July 11, 2007) A memorial to the victims of Srebrenica and other towns in Eastern Bosnia The Srebrenica Massacre, also known as Srebrenica Genocide,[1] was the July 1995 killing of an estimated 8...

Bosniak diaspora

Closely related peoples
Croats · Gorani · Montenegrins
Muslims by nationality · Serbs
South Slavs · Užičans · Yugoslavs Languages Croatian Religions Predominantly Roman Catholic Related ethnic groups Slavs South Slavs Croats (Croatian: Hrvati) are a South Slavic people mostly living in Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina and nearby countries. ... Gorani could be the name of: Gorani, (a. ... Montenegrins (Serbian/Montenegrin: Црногорци/Crnogorci) are a South Slavic people who are primarily associated with the Republic of Montenegro. ... Languages Serbo-Croat(Serbian, Bosnian, Croatian) Macedonian Religions Predominantly Islam Related ethnic groups South Slavs Muslims by nationality (Muslimani, Муслимани) was a term used in Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia to describe mainly native Slavic Muslims. ... Languages Serbian Religions Predominantly Serbian Orthodox Christian Related ethnic groups Other Slavic peoples, especially South Slavs See Cognate peoples below (* many Serbs opted for Yugoslav ethnicity) [27] Serbs (Serbian: Срби or Srbi) are a South Slavic people who live mainly in Serbia, Montenegro, Bosnia-Herzegovina, and, to a lesser extent, in...  Countries where a South Slavic language is the national language The South Slavs are a southern branch of the Slavic peoples that live in the Balkans mainly in former Yugoslavia which actually translates Yugo: South - Slavia: Slavs (Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovens), which is situated in the southern Pannonian... Užičans (Serbian: ) generally refers to the locals of the western Serbian city of Užice, its local discrict and the surrounding area. ... Yugoslavs (Bosnian: Jugosloveni; Macedonian, Serbian Cyrillic: Југословени; Latinic: Jugosloveni; Croatian: Jugoslaveni, Slovenian: Jugoslovani) is an ethnic designation used by some people in former Yugoslavia, which continues to be used in some of its successor countries. ...

Bosniak language Bosnian language (Latin script: bosanski jezik) is a South Slavic language native to the Bosniak people and Ethnic Bosnians. ...

History of Bosniaks · Rulers This does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... This is the list of rulers of Bosnia. ...

v  d  e

Rebirth of a national name and consciousness among Bosniaks

The generally accepted definition (and the one used in this article) holds that Bosniaks are the Slavic Muslims on the territory of the former Yugoslavia who identify themselves with Bosnia and Herzegovina as their ethnic state and are part of such a common nation. However, individuals may hold their own personal interpretations as well. For instance, some, such as prominent Bosniak intellectuals Muhamed Filipović and Adil Zulfikarpašić, hold the view that all Bosnians, including Catholics and Orthodox Christians, were Bosniaks regardless of religion, but assimilated into Croats and Serbs influenced by national movements in Croatia and Serbia in the second half of the 19th century.[9] Some others, such as Montenegrin Abdul Kurpejović, recognize an Islamic component in the Bosniak identity but see it as referring exclusively to Slavic Muslims in Bosnia.[9] Still others consider all Slavic Muslims in the former Yugoslavia (i.e. including the Gorani) to be Bosniaks. [10] Slavic Muslims are Slavs who observe the Islamic faith. ... Dr. Adil Zulfikarpasic or Adil-beg ZulfikarpaÅ¡ić was a prominent and respected intellectual from Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina. ... Gorani or Gorançe or Goranska are a Slavic ethnic group living in Gora region, just south of Prizren in the territory of Kosovo, Serbia and Montenegro, north-western Macedonia in the Å ar-planina region near Tetovo, as well as in north-eastern Albania, most notably in the village os...


In communist Yugoslavia, unlike the preceding Austro-Hungarian Empire, Bosniaks were not allowed to declare themselves as Bosniaks. As a compromise, the Constitution of Yugoslavia was amended in 1968 to list Muslims by nationality recognizing a nation, but not the Bosniak name. The Yugoslav "Muslim by nationality" policy was considered by Bosniaks to be neglecting and opposing their Bosnian identity because the term tried to describe Bosniaks as a religious group not an ethnic one. When Bosnia declared independence from Yugoslavia, most people who used to declare as Muslims began to declare themselves as Bosniaks. In September 1993, the Second Bosniak Congress (Bosnian: Drugi bošnjački sabor) officially re-introduced the historical ethnic name Bosniaks instead of the previously used Muslim in former Yugoslavia. [8] Today, the election law of Bosnia and Herzegovina as well as the Constitution of Bosnia and Herzegovina, recognizes the results from 1991 population census as results referring to Bosniaks. Yugoslavia (Jugoslavija in the Latin alphabet, Југославија in Cyrillic; English: South Slavia, or literary The Land of South Slavs) describes three political entities that existed one at a time on the Balkan Peninsula in Europe, during most of the 20th century. ... Official languages Latin, German, Hungarian Established church Roman Catholic Capital & Largest City Vienna pop. ... Year 1968 (MCMLXVIII) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


In other countries with significant Bosniak populations that constituted former Yugoslavia it is not the case. The effects of this phenomenon can best be seen in the censuses. For instance, the 2003 Montenegrin census recorded 48,184 people who registered as Bosniaks and 28,714 who registered as Muslim by nationality. Although Montenegro's Slavic Muslims form one ethnic community with a shared culture and history, this community is divided on whether to register as Bosniaks (i.e. adopt Bosniak national identity) or as Muslims by nationality.[9] Similarly, the 2002 Slovenian census recorded 8,062 people who registered as Bosnians, presumably highlighting (in large part) the decision of many secular Bosniaks to primarily identify themselves in that way (a situation somewhat comparable to the Yugoslav option during the socialist period). That said, it is important to note that such people represent a minority (even in countries such as Montenegro where it is a significant issue), and that the great majority of Slavic Muslims in the former Yugoslavia have adopted the Bosniak national name. Yugoslavs (Bosnian: Jugosloveni; Macedonian, Serbian Cyrillic: Југословени; Latinic: Jugosloveni; Croatian: Jugoslaveni, Slovenian: Jugoslovani) is an ethnic designation used by some people in former Yugoslavia, which continues to be used in some of its successor countries. ... Because of its central geographic position within the Yugoslavian federation, post-war Bosnia was strategically selected as a base for the development of the military defense industry. ...


History

Main article: History of Bosniaks

Bosniak is a term that was sometimes used by the rulers of the medieval Bosnian state, to describe their subjects (although they also used other terms). The Muslim Slavs of Bosnia emerged as a culturo-religious denomination during the Ottoman occupation of south-eastern Europe, from the 15th century. Recently, with the emergence of the independent state, Bosniak has been adopted by the country's Muslim populace to refer to themselves[8]. In response, other ethnic groups (ie Bosnian Serbs and Croats) have rejected this term, since the term Bosniak was actually associated with the Christian Slavic inhabitants of Medieval Bosnia. This does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


The earliest cultural and linguistic roots of all Bosnian people can be traced back to the Migration Period of the Early Middle Ages. It was then that Slavs from northeastern Europe gradually but steadily settled much of the Balkans, at the territorial expense of the Eastern Roman Empire. Here, they mixed with the indigenous paleo-Balkan peoples known collectively as the Illyrians, forming the western branch of South Slavs (formerly called Serbo-Croats). Although ethnically very similar, they remained separated into many petty tribes amidst the chaos of the Dark Ages. Possibly by way of influence from external powers such as the Franks and the Byzantine Empire, from 800 AD tribes began to coalesce into more organized polities - primitive principalities of sorts. Amongst these, the Croat and Serb tribes (or clans) became rather prominent, expanding territorially by gaining allegiance or subjugation of their neighbours. They later evolved into centralized Kingdoms; and cemented their cultural identities by way of aligning with different branches of Christianity. The Croats swore allegiance to Rome, influenced by neighboring Catholic kingdoms, while the Serbs to the east fell under Byzantine influence and embraced Orthodoxy. Human migration denotes any movement of groups of people from one locality to another, rather than of individual wanderers. ... Justinians wife Theodora and her retinue, in a 6th century mosaic from the Basilica of San Vitale in Ravenna. ...  Countries where a South Slavic language is the national language The South Slavs are a southern branch of the Slavic peoples that live in the Balkans mainly in former Yugoslavia which actually translates Yugo: South - Slavia: Slavs (Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovens), which is situated in the southern Pannonian... Byzantine redirects here. ... Illyria (disambiguation) Illyrians has come to refer to a broad, ill-defined Indo-European[1] group of peoples who inhabited the western Balkans (Illyria, roughly from northern Epirus to southern Pannonia) and even perhaps parts of Southern Italy in classical times into the Common era, and spoke Illyrian languages. ... Petrarch, who conceived the idea of a European Dark Age. From Cycle of Famous Men and Women, Andrea di Bartolo di Bargillac, c. ... A principality is a monarchical feudatory or sovereign state, ruled or reigned over by a Monarch with the title of prince or princess (a synonym is princedom) or (in the widest sense) a Monarch with another title within the generic use of the term prince. ... Croats (Croatian: Hrvati) are a south Slavic people mostly living in Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina (where theyre one of the constitutive nations). ... Serbs (in the Serbian language Срби, Srbi) are a south Slavic people living chiefly in Serbia and Montenegro and Bosnia and Herzegovina. ... For other uses, see Rome (disambiguation). ... The Byzantine Empire is the term conventionally used to describe the Roman Empire during the Middle Ages, centered at its capital in Constantinople. ...


Roughly speaking, what is present-day western Bosnia was part of medieval Croatia, whilst eastern segments were part of Serbia, although the exact borders were changing nrealy constantly. As part of a series of political events involving the entire Balkan region, a semi-independent Bosnian banovina emerged in the twelfth century. It rose to become a powerful kingdom in the fourteenth century, when the designation Bošnjani was first used to sometimes describe the kingdom's inhabitants. However, despite its growing prestige, it was marked by a weak religious structure and unclear ethnic affiliation. Bosnjani was probably a regional designation for the Slavs of Bosnia, derived from the river Bosna which flows through the heart of the country. Before the collapse of the Roman Empire, the river was called the Bosona by the native Illyrians, and some scholars speculate that the name Bosnia itself derives from this term. The Bosnian Kingdom was a medieval Bosnian monarchy. ... BoÅ¡njani (sing. ... The Bosna (Cyrillic: Босна) is the third longest river in Bosnia and Herzegovina, and is considered one of the countrys three major internal rivers, along with the Neretva and Vrbas Rivers; the other three major rivers of Bosnia and Herzegovina are the Una River, to the northwest, the Sava River... For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... Illyria (disambiguation) Illyrians has come to refer to a broad, ill-defined Indo-European[1] group of peoples who inhabited the western Balkans (Illyria, roughly from northern Epirus to southern Pannonia) and even perhaps parts of Southern Italy in classical times into the Common era, and spoke Illyrian languages. ...


The Bosnian kingdom grew and expanded under the Kotromanic dynasty to include Croatian and Serbian territories. As a consequence, even more Roman Catholics and Orthodox Christians dwelt within its borders, along with adherents of a native Bosnian Church whose origins and nature are a subject of continued debate among scholars. Those belonging to this sect simply called themselves Krstjani ("Christians"). Many scholars have argued that these Bosnian Krstjani were Manichaean dualists related to the Bogomils of Bulgaria, while others question this theory, citing lack of historical evidence. Both Catholic and Orthodox Church authorities considered the Bosnian Church heretical, and launched vigorous proselytizing campaigns to stem its influence. As a result of these divisions, no coherent religious identity developed in medieval Bosnia as it had in Croatia and Serbia. The Kotromanić dynasty ruled various regions in Bosnia and the surroundings from the 13th century as Bans until the crowning with the Bosnian and Serbian crown in 1377 and then as Kings until the Ottoman conquest of Bosnia in 1463. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Manichaeism was one of the major ancient religions. ... Bogomils was the name of a defunct Gnostic social-religious movement and doctrine which originated in Macedonia in X century at the time of Peter I of Bulgaria (927-969) as a reaction of the state and clerical oppression. ...


As the centuries passed, the Bosnian kingdom slowly began to decline. It had become fractured by increased political and religious disunity. By then, the Ottoman Turks had already gained a foothold in the Balkans; first defeating the Serbs at the Battle of Kosovo and expanding westward, the Turks eventually conquered all of Bosnia and portions of neighboring Croatia. These developments would alter Bosnian history forever, introducing an Islamic component into the already confounded Bosnian ethno-religious identity. The Bosnian Church would forever disappear, although the circumstances under which it did are as hotly debated as its nature and origins. Some historians contend that the Bosnian Krstjani converted en masse to Islam, seeking refuge from Catholic and Orthodox persecution, while others argue that the Bosnian Church had already ceased to operate many decades before the Turkish conquest. Whatever the case, a distinct Slavic Muslim community developed under Turkish rule in Bosnia, giving rise to the modern Bosniaks. The Ottoman Turks were the ethnic subdivision of the Turkish people who dominated the ruling class of the Ottoman Empire. ... Balkan redirects here. ... This page is about the Battle of Kosovo of 1389; for other battles, see Battle of Kosovo (disambiguation). ... Slavic Muslims are Slavs who observe the Islamic faith. ...


During the Austro-Hungarian occupation of Bosnia and Herzegovina from 1878 to 1918, the administration of Benjamin Kallay, the Austro-Hungarian governor of Bosnia and Herzegovina, enforced the idea of a strengthened unitary Bosnian nation (Bosanci) that would incorporate Muslim Bosnians as well as the Bosnian Catholics and Bosnian Orthodox Christians, who at that time were slowly beginning to separate into distinct peoples which threatened to destabilize Bosnia. Kallay symbolized the new nation with a structured, modern introduction of an official Bosnian flag, Bosnian language and coat of arms. In this way the Bosnian distinctiveness was strengthened and more importantly underlined and distanced from Serbian and Croatian nationalist interests in Bosnia and Herzegovina.[11]. However, another view is that rather than being a reflection of reality or a concern for Bosnian people, the Austrian actions were merely self-serving. As Serbia grew into a regional power and possible focus of a united South Slavic state, Austria's interests were threatened- those being: to preserve its multi-ethnic empire and further expand its influence in the Balkans. She aimed to this by keeping the South Slavic people separate via embedding ideas within them that they are distinct peoples, as is the old axiom "divide and conquer". Some Bosnian Muslim notables jumped at the idea of a Bosnia independent from Serbia or Croatia, no doubt because they saw an opportunity to increase their own power[12]. Austria-Hungary, also known as the Dual monarchy (or: the k. ... Benjamin von Kállay (1839-1903), Austro-Hungarian statesman, was born at Budapest on the 22nd of December 1839. ...


The idea of a separate Bosnia was fiercely opposed by both Croats and Serbs, as it came at a time when neighboring Serbia and Croatia were reinforcing their national and ethnic identity in the process of building their own nation states; and saw Bosnia as "historically" theirs. Nevertheless, Bosnia was made a constituent republic of Yugoslavia. Heavily influenced by Croat and Serb politics, neither of the two terms Bosnian or Bosniak were recognized as a nation (because they simply saw Bosnian Muslims as Islamized Serbs and Croats). Thus, Bosnian Muslims and anyone who confessed themselves to Bosnian ethnicity were listed under the category "regional affiliation" by the Yugoslavian statistics. Muslim Bosnians requested the option Bosnian be introduced in the constitutional amendments of 1947 and 1973, but instead they had to declare themselves either as Serbs or Croats until 1963, "undecideds" or "Muslim in a national sense" (with lower case m) until 1973, and Muslims (with capital M) until 1993. Languages Croatian Religions Predominantly Roman Catholic Related ethnic groups Slavs South Slavs Croats (Croatian: Hrvati) are a South Slavic people mostly living in Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina and nearby countries. ... Languages Serbian Religions Predominantly Serbian Orthodox Christian Related ethnic groups Other Slavic peoples, especially South Slavs See Cognate peoples below (* many Serbs opted for Yugoslav ethnicity) [27] Serbs (Serbian: Срби or Srbi) are a South Slavic people who live mainly in Serbia, Montenegro, Bosnia-Herzegovina, and, to a lesser extent, in... Anthem:  Serbia() on the European continent()  —  [] Capital (and largest city) Belgrade Official languages Serbian Recognised regional languages Hungarian, Slovak, Romanian, Croatian, Rusyn 1 Albanian 2 Demonym Serbian Government Parliamentary Democracy  -  President Boris Tadić  -  Prime Minister Vojislav KoÅ¡tunica    -  First state 7th century   -  Serbian Kingdom3 1217   -  Serbian Empire 1345   -  Independence lost... A nation-state is a specific form of state, which exists to provide a sovereign territory for a particular nation, and which derives its legitimacy from that function. ... Yugoslavia (Jugoslavija in the Latin alphabet, Југославија in Cyrillic; English: South Slavia, or literary The Land of South Slavs) describes three political entities that existed one at a time on the Balkan Peninsula in Europe, during most of the 20th century. ... Languages Serbo-Croat(Serbian, Bosnian, Croatian) Macedonian Religions Predominantly Islam Related ethnic groups South Slavs Muslims by nationality (Muslimani, Муслимани) was a term used in Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia to describe mainly native Slavic Muslims. ...


In 1990 the name Bosniaks was re-introduced to replace the term Muslim, but (some would say) it was too late for that term to be realistically accepted by non-Muslim ethnic groups in Bosnia.


Culture

Folklore

Millennium Ancient Bosnian tomb (stecci)
Millennium Ancient Bosnian tomb (stecci)
Millennium Ancient Bosnian tomb. Note the Bosnian lily motif on top of the monument.
Millennium Ancient Bosnian tomb. Note the Bosnian lily motif on top of the monument.
Liberation of Jajce in WWII - Ismet Mujezinović
Liberation of Jajce in WWII - Ismet Mujezinović
14th century Bosnian king Tvrtko Kotromanic with the Bosnian lily on his Crown
14th century Bosnian king Tvrtko Kotromanic with the Bosnian lily on his Crown
18th century Bosniaks on a day trip to mount Vranduk at the Bosna river, Painting by Carl Ebert.
The tomb of Gazi Husrev-beg.
Old flag of Bosnia and Herzegovina and the flag of medieval Bosnia, a national symbol for Bosniaks
Old flag of Bosnia and Herzegovina and the flag of medieval Bosnia, a national symbol for Bosniaks
Bosnian medieval queen Katarina Kosača-Kotromanić with the Bosnian fleur-de-lys on her royal crown, as can be seen on the traditional Bosnian flag above

Bosniak folklore has a long tradition dating back to the 15th century. Like many other elements of Bosniak culture, their folklore is a mix of Slavic and Oriental influences, typically taking place prior to the 19th century. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 495 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (580 × 703 pixel, file size: 199 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Millenium Anicent Bosnian tomb (stecci). ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 495 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (580 × 703 pixel, file size: 199 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Millenium Anicent Bosnian tomb (stecci). ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... The Bosna (Cyrillic: Босна) is the third longest river in Bosnia and Herzegovina, and is considered one of the countrys three major internal rivers, along with the Neretva and Vrbas Rivers; the other three major rivers of Bosnia and Herzegovina are the Una River, to the northwest, the Sava River... Carl Ebert (1887 – 1980) was a German theatre and opera producer and administrator. ... Download high resolution version (1109x1709, 1494 KB) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Download high resolution version (1109x1709, 1494 KB) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... The tomb of Gazi Husrev-Beg, Eastern Sarajevo. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Bosnia_and_Herzegovina_(1992-1998). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Bosnia_and_Herzegovina_(1992-1998). ... Image File history File links Katarina-1-.JPG Summary photo of the painting of Katarina Kosaca from Kraljeva Sutjeska Franciscan monastery Licensing This is a copyrighted image that has been released by a company or organization to promote their work or product in the media, such as advertising material or... Image File history File links Katarina-1-.JPG Summary photo of the painting of Katarina Kosaca from Kraljeva Sutjeska Franciscan monastery Licensing This is a copyrighted image that has been released by a company or organization to promote their work or product in the media, such as advertising material or... Katarina Kosača Katarina Kosača Kotromanić was a Bosnian queen as the wife of Stjepan Tomaš. She was a daughter of Stjepan Vukčić Kosača, duke of Hum, and Jelena Balšić, grand-daughter of Serbian Prince Lazar. ... Fleur de Lys is a Canadian superheroine created in 1984 by Mark Shainblum and Gabriel Morrissette. ... The Slavic peoples are the most numerous ethnic and linguistic body of peoples in Europe. ...


Two popular characters seen often in Bosniak folklore are the trickster and the Hero. Probably the most famous example of the first is that of Nasrudin Hodža, where local folklore has him taking part in various episodes in a Bosnian setting. Other tricksters include an old wise man in the legend behind the old Orthodox church in Mostar. Supposedly, a local official demanded that the church be built on land no bigger than an animal hide. The wise man then cut the hide into thin strips and laying them end to end was able to demarcate enough land to build a reasonably sized church. For other uses, see Trickster (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Hero (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Nasreddin (disambiguation). ...


National heroes are typically historical figures, whose life and skill in battle are emphasised. These include figures such as Gazi Husrev-beg, the second Ottoman governor of Bosnia who conquered many territories in Dalmatia, Northern Bosnia, and Croatia, and Gerz Eljaz Đerzelez Alija, an almost mythic character who even the Ottoman Sultan was said to have called "A Hero". The tomb of Gazi Husrev-Beg, Eastern Sarajevo. ... Dalmatia, highlighted, on a map of Croatia. ...


Old Slavic influences can also be seen. Ban Kulin has acquired legendary status. "Even today," wrote the historian William Miller in 1921 "the people regard him as a favorite of the fairies, and his reign as a golden age." Characters such as fairies, Vila, are also present. Pre-Slavic influences are far less common but nonetheless present. Certain elements of Illyrian, and Celtic belief have been found. Ban Kulin (1163 – 1204) was a powerful Bosnian Ban who ruled from 1180 to 1204 first as a vassal of the Byzantine Empire and then of the Kingdom of Hungary. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Illyria (disambiguation) Illyrians has come to refer to a broad, ill-defined Indo-European[1] group of peoples who inhabited the western Balkans (Illyria, roughly from northern Epirus to southern Pannonia) and even perhaps parts of Southern Italy in classical times into the Common era, and spoke Illyrian languages. ... Celts, normally pronounced //, is a modern term used to describe any of the European peoples who spoke, or speak, a Celtic language. ...


Generally, folklore also varies from region to region and city to city. Cities like Sarajevo and Mostar have a rich tradition all by themselves. Many man-made structures such as bridges and fountains, as well as natural sites, play a significant role as well. Map of Bosnia and Herzegovina (Sarajevo) Coordinates: , Country Entity Canton Sarajevo Canton Government  - Mayor Semiha Borovac (SDA) Area [1]  - City 141. ... Mostar (Мостар) is a city and municipality in Bosnia and Herzegovina, the center of the Herzegovina-Neretva Canton of the Federation. ...


Language

Bosniaks speak the Bosnian language. This language only has minor differences with the Serbian language or Croatian language in writing and grammar, but its speakers are, on the level of colloquial idiom, more linguistically homogeneous than either Serbs or Croats. The Bosnian language has a number of orientalisms as well as Germanisms not often used in the neighboring languages. Bosnian language (Latin script: bosanski jezik) is a South Slavic language native to the Bosniak people and Ethnic Bosnians. ... Write redirects here. ... For the rules of the English language, see English grammar. ... An idiom is an expression (i. ...


Bosniaks have also had two of their own unique scripts. The first was the Begovica (also called Bosančica), a descendant of local Cyrillic script that remained in use among the region's nobility. The second was the Arabica, a version of the Arabic alphabet modified for Bosnian that was in use among nearly all literate Bosniaks until the 20th century (compare with Morisco Aljamiado). Both alphabets have almost died out, as the number of people literate in them today is undoubtedly minuscule. Bosnian Cyrillic is an extinct Cyrillic script, that was used in Bosnia and Herzegovina and Croatia (Dalmatia and Dubrovnik). ... The Cyrillic alphabet (or azbuka, from the old name of the first two letters) is an alphabet used for several East and South Slavic languages; (Belarusian, Bulgarian, Macedonian, Russian, Rusyn, Serbian, and Ukrainian) and many other languages of the former Soviet Union, Asia and Eastern Europe. ... Aljamiado text by mancebo de Arévalo. ...


Religion

Most Bosniaks are Muslim, but some number of them are Atheist, Agnostic and Deist. This is due to the secular humanist world view that was prevalent during the times of Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. Today, in Bosnia-Herzegovina most Bosniaks belong to the Sunni branch of Islam, with a strong history of Sufism. There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ... For information about the band, see Atheist (band). ... The term agnosticism and the related agnostic were coined by Thomas Henry Huxley in 1869. ... Deism is belief in a God or first cause based on reason, rather than on faith or revelation, and thus a form of theism in opposition to fideism. ... Secular humanism is a humanist philosophy that upholds reason, ethics, and justice, and specifically rejects the supernatural and the spiritual as warrants of moral reflection and decision-making. ... A world view (or worldview) is a term calqued from the German word Weltanschauung ( ) Welt is the German word for world, and Anschauung is the German word for view or outlook. It is a concept fundamental to German philosophy and epistemology and refers to a wide world perception. ... Motto Brotherhood and Unity Anthem Hey, Slavs Capital Belgrade Language(s) Serbo-Croatian (spoken throughout the territory), Slovenian, Macedonian, Albanian, Hungarian (all official), and languages of other nationalities. ... Sunni Islam (Arabic سنّة) is the largest denomination of Islam. ...


Surnames and names

Bosniak surnames, as is typical among the South Slavs, often end with "ić" or "ović". This is a patronymic which basically translates to "son of" in English and plays the same role as "son" in English surnames such as Johnson or Wilson. What comes prior to this can often tell a lot about the history of a certain family. Look up patronymic in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Look up Johnson, johnson in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... As a surname, Wilson is derived from William, an old Germanic name. ...


Most Bosniak surnames follow a familiar pattern dating from the period of time that surnames in Bosnia and Herzegovina were standardized. Some Bosniak Muslim names have the name of the founder of the family first, followed by an islamic profession or title, and ending with ić. Examples of this include Izetbegović (Son of Izet bey), and Hadžiosmanović ("son of Osman Hajji"). Other variations of this pattern can include surnames that only mention the name, such as Osmanović ("son of Osman"), and surnames that only mention profession, such as Imamović ("son of the Imam"). Islam (Arabic: ; ( â–¶ (help· info)), the submission to God) is a monotheistic faith, one of the Abrahamic religions and the worlds second-largest religion. ... Bey is originally a Turkish[1][2] word for chieftain, traditionally applied to the leaders of small tribal groups. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Some Bosniak names have nothing islamic about them, but end in ić. These names have probably stayed the same since medieval times, and typically come from old Bosnian nobility, or come from the last wave of converts to Islam. Examples of such names include Tvrtković and Kulenović.


Yet some Bosniaks have surnames that do not end in ić at all. These surnames are typically derived from place of origin, occupations, or various others such factors in the family's history. Examples of such surnames include Zlatar ("goldsmith"), Fočo or Tuco.


Many Bosniak national names are of foreign origin, indicating that the founder of the family came from a place outside of Bosnia and Herzegovina. Many such Bosniak surnames have Hungarian, Vlach or Turkish origins. Examples of such surnames include Vlasić and Arapović. For the American magazine, see Foreign Policy. ... Hungarian may refer to: Hungary or the Kingdom of Hungary. ... Vlachs (also called Vallachians, Wallachians, Wlachs, Wallachs, Vlahs, Olahs or Ulahs; (Albanian: Vllehë; Czech: ; Greek: ; Polish: ; South Slavic: Власи Vlasi; Turkish: ; Ukrainian: ) is a blanket term covering several modern Latin peoples descending from the Latinised population in Central, Eastern and Southeastern Europe. ...


Many Bosniak surnames are also common as Croatian and Serbian surnames which are likely to have been the names these families had before conversion to Islam examples include: Puškar, Sučić, Subašić, Begić, Hadžić


First names among Bosniaks have mostly Arabic, Turkish, or Persian roots. South Slavic names such as "Zlatan" are also popular primarily among non-religious Bosniaks. What is notable however is that due to the structure of the Bosnian language, many of the muslim names have been altered to create uniquely Bosniak names. Some of the Arabic names have been shortened. Languages Arabic other minority languages Religions Predominantly Sunni Islam, as well as Shia Islam, Greek Orthodoxy, Greek Catholicism, Roman Catholicism, Alawite Islam, Druzism, Ibadi Islam, and Judaism Footnotes a Mainly in Antakya. ... The Persians of Iran (officially named Persia by West until 1935 while still referred to as Persia by some) are an Iranian people who speak Persian (locally named Fârsi by native speakers) and often refer to themselves as ethnic Iranians as well. ...


The most famous example of this is that of the stereotypical Bosniak characters Mujo and Suljo, whose names are actually Bosniak short forms of Mustafa and Suleyman. More popular still is the transformation of names that in Arabic or Turkish are confined to one gender to apply to the other sex. In Bosnian, simply taking away the letter "a" changes the traditionally feminine "Jasmina" into the popular male name "Jasmin". Similarly, adding an "a" to the typically male "Mahir" results in the feminine "Mahira". Arabic redirects here. ...


Symbols

Bosniaks have a wide number of historical symbols that are associated with them. Traditional Bosniak colors are green, white, yellow, and blue. The two best known Bosniak national symbols are the crescent moon and the Lillium Bosniacum. For other uses, see Green (disambiguation). ... This article is about the color. ... This article is about the color. ... This article is about the colour. ...


The earliest Bosniak symbol from medieval times and the old flag of the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina and the flag of the Army of the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina are very popular symbols among Bosniaks. They were founded by the first Bosnian king Tvrtko Kotromanić. It was supposed to represent the entire country of Bosnia and Herzegovina, but the flag was not officially accepted by the Serb and Croat leadership, which led to the flag being traditionally associated with Bosniaks. Some Bosnian Croats and Bosnian Serbs today venerate the flag (see Bosnians). Crest of Army of The Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina. ... Tvrtko I (real name Tvrtko Kotromanić, 1338–1391) was the greatest native ruler of medieval kingdom of Bosnia. ... Croats (Croatian: Hrvati) are a south Slavic people mostly living in Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina (where theyre one of the constitutive nations). ... Serbs (in the Serbian language Срби, Srbi) are a south Slavic people living chiefly in Serbia and Montenegro and Bosnia and Herzegovina. ...


The earliest Bosniak flags date from the Ottoman era, and are typically a white crescent moon and star on a green background. The flag was also the symbol of the short lived independent Bosnia in the 19th century and of the resistance against the Turks led by Husein Gradaščević. The flag of the Bosniak Islamic Union is same as the flag just mentioned and is also a traditional flag of Bosniaks. Coin featuring Husein Gradaščević from the 19th century Husein-kapetan Gradaščević (1802 – August 17, 1834) was a Bosniak general who fought for Bosnian autonomy in the Ottoman Empire. ...


Some Bosniak organizations combine the two, adopting symbols with a crescent moon where a Lillium Bosniacum (a fleur-de-lis) replaces the traditional star. Other variations of combining the two exist. A notable one is the seal of the Bosniaks in Sandžak, which is based on the old Bosnian flag but changes one half of the seal so that instead of yellow lilies on a blue background there are yellow crescent moons on a green background. Fleurs-de-lys on the flag of Quebec The fleur-de-lis (also spelled fleur-de-lys; plural fleurs-de-lis or -lys) is used in heraldry, where it is particularly associated with the France monarchy (see King of France). ...


Traditions and customs

The nation takes pride in the melancholic folk songs sevdalinka, the precious medieval filigree manufactured by old Sarajevo craftsmen, and a wide array of traditional wisdoms that are carried down to newer generations by word of mouth, and in recent years written down in numerous books.[citation needed] Another prevalent tradition is "Mustuluk", whereby a gift is owed to any bringer of good news.[citation needed] Sevdalinka is a traditional genre of folk music originating from Bosnia and Herzegovina. ... Filigree (formerly written filigrann or filigrane) is a jewel work of a delicate kind made with twisted threads usually of gold and silver. ... Map of Bosnia and Herzegovina (Sarajevo) Coordinates: , Country Entity Canton Sarajevo Canton Government  - Mayor Semiha Borovac (SDA) Area [1]  - City 141. ... For other uses, see Tradition (disambiguation). ... For the apocryphal book of the Bible, see Book of Wisdom. ...


Important dates to Bosniaks

is the 241st day of the year (242nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events January 21 - Philip II of France and Richard I of England begin to assemble troops to wage the Third Crusade September 3- Richard I of England is crowned as king of England. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... is the 184th day of the year (185th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events April - Paris is recaptured by the French End of the Hussite Wars in Bohemia. ... is the 298th day of the year (299th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events February 18 - George, Duke of Clarence, convicted of treason against his older brother Edward IV of England, is privately executed in the Tower of London. ... Katarina Kosača Katarina Kosača Kotromanić was a Bosnian queen as the wife of Stjepan Tomaš. She was a daughter of Stjepan Vukčić Kosača, duke of Hum, and Jelena Balšić, grand-daughter of Serbian Prince Lazar. ... For other uses, see Rome (disambiguation). ... is the 88th day of the year (89th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Leopold I 1831 (MDCCCXXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... // THE GREAT BOSNIAN UPRISING March 29, 1831 - DAY OF GREAT BOSNIAN UPRISING The road to uprising Sultan Mahmud IIs actions were the catalyst for the Bosnian autonomy movement. ... is the 329th day of the year (330th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 126th day of the year (127th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1950 (MCML) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 122nd day of the year (123rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar. ... is the 60th day of the year (61st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1992 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 105th day of the year (106th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1992 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 127th day of the year (128th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1993 (MCMXCIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1993 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 271st day of the year (272nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1993 (MCMXCIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1993 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 65th day of the year (66th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1995 (MCMXCV) was a common year starting on Sunday. ... is the 192nd day of the year (193rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1995 (MCMXCV) was a common year starting on Sunday. ... is the 348th day of the year (349th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1995 (MCMXCV) was a common year starting on Sunday. ... is the 35th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1998 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 292nd day of the year (293rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Alija Izetbegović (August 8, 1925 – October 19, 2003) was a Bosniak activist, lawyer, author, philosopher and politician, who, in 1990, became the first president of Bosnia and Herzegovina. ...

Bosniaks today

Today, a national consciousness is found in the vast majority of Bosniaks in Bosnia and Herzegovina. In the country, Bosniaks make up a large majority in the Bosna river valley and western Bosnian Krajina, with significant populations found in Herzegovina. Currently, they are estimated to make up 52-55% of the total population. With no official census however, its impossible to know for sure. The Bosna is the third longest river in Bosnia and Herzegovina, and is considered one of the countrys three major internal rivers, along with the Neretva and Vrbas. ... Bosanska Krajina (lit Bosnian Bosnia and Herzegovina enclosed by three rivers - Sava, Una and Vrbas. ... This article is about the geographic area of Herzegovina. ...


National consciousness has also spread to most Bosniaks in the neighboring countries. The largest number of Bosniaks outside of Bosnia and Herzegovina are found in Serbia and Montenegro (specifically in the Sandžak region). The city of Novi Pazar is home to the largest Bosniak population outside of Bosnia. Map of Sandžak RaÅ¡ka (Serbian: Рашка, RaÅ¡ka, Bosnian: Sandžak, Albanian: Sanxhak or Sanxhaku, Turkish: Sancak) is a geographical region in central Balkans. ... Centar,Novi Pazar Novi Pazar (Serbian Cyrillic: Нови Пазар,  ) is a city and municipality located in the RaÅ¡ka District of Serbia at 43. ...


Another 40,000 Bosniaks are found in Croatia and 38,000 in Slovenia. However, some of them still identify themselves as "Muslims" or "Bosnians", according to latest estimates. In Macedonia there are estimated to be about 17,000 Bosniaks.


Due to warfare and ethnic cleansing during the war in Bosnia and Herzegovina, a large part of the world's 2.6+ million (est.) Bosniaks are found in countries outside of the Balkans. The highest Bosniak populations outside of the ex-Yugoslavian states are found in the United States, Sweden, Austria, Germany, Switzerland, Australia, Canada, and Turkey. Prior generations of Bosniak immigrants to some of these countries have by now been mostly integrated. Balkan redirects here. ...


Regarding the Western countries most of the Bosniaks are war refugees that only arrived in these countries during the past 15 years or so. They still speak Bosnian, and maintain a cultural and religious community and visit their mother country regularly.


The United States is home to about 130,000 (est.) Bosniaks, the cities with the highest Bosniak populations are St. Louis and Chicago. The following major American cities, ordered randomly, have notable Bosniak communities: Atlanta, Charlotte, Houston, Jacksonville, Phoenix, Portland, Oregon, San Jose, Salt Lake City, Utah, Tampa, Florida and New York City. Nickname: Location in the state of Missouri Coordinates: , Country State County Independent City Government  - Mayor Francis G. Slay (D) Area  - City  66. ... Flag Seal Nickname: The Windy City Motto: Urbs In Horto (Latin: City in a Garden), I Will Location Location in Chicagoland and northern Illinois Coordinates , Government Country State Counties United States Illinois Cook, DuPage Mayor Richard M. Daley (D) Geographical characteristics Area     City 606. ... Atlanta redirects here. ... Charlotte redirects here. ... Houston redirects here. ... Jacksonville redirects here. ... Nickname: Location in Maricopa County and the state of Arizona Coordinates: , Country State County Maricopa Incorporated February 25, 1881 Government  - Type Council-Manager  - Mayor Phil Gordon (D) Area  - City  515. ... Nickname: Location of Portland in Multnomah County and the state of Oregon Coordinates: , Country State Counties Multnomah, Washington, Clackamas Incorporated February 8, 1851 Government  - Type Commission  - Mayor Tom Potter[1]  - Commissioners Sam Adams Randy Leonard Dan Saltzman Erik Sten  - Auditor Gary Blackmer Area  - City 376. ... For other uses, see San José. Nickname: Location of San Jose within Santa Clara County, California Location of San Jose with the state of California Coordinates: , Country State County Santa Clara Pueblo founded November 29, 1777 Incorporated March 27, 1850 Government  - Type charter city, mayor-council  - Mayor Chuck Reed  - Vice... For ships of the United States Navy of the same name, see USS Salt Lake City. ... Tampa redirects here. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ...


In the United States there are also significant Bosniak communities in the following places, in no specific order: Lawrenceville, Georgia, Utica, New York, Hamtramck, Michigan, Bowling Green, Kentucky, Erie, Pennsylvania, Grand Rapids, Michigan, Hartford, Louisville, Lynnwood, Washington, Northbrook, Illinois, Fort Wayne, Indiana, Palm Beach Gardens, Florida, Clearwater, Florida, and Manchester, New Hampshire. These places do not have as many Bosniaks as those mentioned before but the Bosniaks in these cities make up a considerably larger percentage of the total population. The Historic Lawrenceville Courthouse Lawrenceville is the county seat of Gwinnett County, Georgia, in the United States. ... Utica, New York is a city in the state of New York, and the county seat of Oneida County. ... Hamtramck is a city in Wayne County of the U.S. state of Michigan. ... Neighboring fast food restaurants in Bowling Green, of which the city has many. ... “Erie” redirects here. ... Grand Rapids redirects here. ... Hartford redirects here. ... Louisville redirects here. ... Country United States State Washington County Snohomish Government  - Mayor Don Gough Area  - City 7. ... Incorporated Village in 1901. ... Nickname: Motto: Room for Dreams Location in the state of Indiana, USA Coordinates: , Country United States State Indiana County Allen Founded October 22, 1794 Incorporated February 22, 1840 Government  - Mayor Tom Henry (D)  - City Clerk Sandra Kennedy (D)  - City Council Marty Bender (R) Liz Brown (R) John Shoaff (D) Tom... Palm Beach Gardens is a city located in Palm Beach County, Florida. ... Clearwater is a city located in central Pinellas County, Florida, USA, nearly due west of Tampa. ... Nickname: Location in Hillsborough County, New Hampshire Coordinates: Country United States State New Hampshire County Hillsborough County Incorporated 1751 Government  - Mayor Frank Guinta (R) Area  - City  34. ...


In Canada, the Bosniak communities of Toronto, Vancouver and Hamilton are notable. For other uses, see Vancouver (disambiguation). ... Motto: Together Aspire - Together Achieve Location in the province of Ontario, Canada Coordinates: , Country Province Incorporated June 9, 1846[1] Government  - Mayor Fred Eisenberger  - City Council Hamilton City Council  - MPs List of MPs Dean Allison Chris Charlton David Christopherson Wayne Marston David Sweet  - MPPs List of MPPs Sophia Aggelonitis Andrea...


In Turkey Bosniaks are mostly live in the Marmara Region which is in other words the north-west Turkey. The biggest Bosniak community in Turkey is in Istanbul and also there are notable Bosniak communities in Izmir, Edirne, and Bursa. Istanbul (Turkish: , Greek: , historically Byzantium and later Constantinople; see other names) is Turkeys most populous city, and its cultural and financial center. ...


The highest number of Bosniak immigrants and people descending of Bosniaks are found in Turkey. Today, it is generally accepted that approximately 350,000 Turks descend directly from Bosniaks who immigrated to Turkey mostly in the late 19th and early 20th centuries.[citation needed]


Documents recently found by Turkish historians, however, indicate that Turks having direct and indirect Bosniak ancestry, number as high as 1.5 million.[citation needed]


It is believed that many aspects of Bosniak identity were lost among these people due to Turkish assimilation laws in the late 19th and 20th centuries. Bosniak immigrants to Turkey were required to change their names to Turkish or Turkish sounding ones(under the Law on Family names). As a consequence of this, today some Turks do have somewhat Slavic sounding surnames. However some also have entirely Slavic surnames, the most common one probably being "Kiliç" spelled in Turkish as compared to the Bosnian version which is spelled "Kilić". Atatürks Revolutions (Turkish: Atatürk Devrimleri or Atatürk Ä°nkılapları) were a series of significant political, legal, cultural, social and economic revolutions that were implemented to transform the young Republic of Turkey into a modern, democratic and secular nation-state. ...


See also

This is a history of Bosnia and Herzegovina. ... Pedestrians walk by the Tsars Mosque built in the Ottoman era, the oldest mosque in Sarajevo, the capital and largest city of Bosnia and Herzegovina. ... Bosnian language (Latin script: bosanski jezik) is a South Slavic language native to the Bosniak people and Ethnic Bosnians. ... Ethnic map of BIH, 2006. ... This is a list of famous Bosniaks. ... Logo of Bosniaks of Sandžak Bosniaks are an ethnic group in Serbia. ... Logo of Bosniaks of Sandžak Bosniaks are an ethnic group in Montenegro. ... Bosnian Australian are people who live in Australia of Bosnian Decent, or come from, Bosnia and Herzegovina. ... Bosnian Americans are citizens of the United States who are of Bosnian ancestry. ...

Further reading

  • Bosniak Book written thirteen years after the end of War World I by Hans Fritz, in honor of Bosniak soldiers. Translation into Bosnian language by Zijad Sehic.

References

  1. ^ Bosniac is the spelling used in the OED
  2. ^ CIA World Factbook, Bosnia and Herzegovina:People, CIA - The World Factbook, Accessed: 15 May 2007, "note: Bosniak has replaced Muslim as an ethnic term in part to avoid confusion with the religious term Muslim - an adherent of Islam"
  3. ^ Staff, Guantanamo Bosnians cry 'torture', BBC, 14 April, 2005
  4. ^ Carleton S. Coon, The Origin of Races (New York: Knopf, 1962). Chapter XI, section 17
  5. ^ Marjanović, Damir; et al. "The peopling of modern Bosnia-Herzegovina: Y-chromosome haplogroups in the three main ethnic groups." Institute for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, University of Sarajevo. November, 2005
  6. ^ John J. Wilkes, "The Illyrians" (Wiley; New Ed edition (November 30, 1995)). Chapter 9, Imperial Illyrians, page 254-281
  7. ^ Enver Imamović, Korijeni Bosne i bosanstva, Sarajevo 1995
  8. ^ a b c d Imamović, Mustafa (1996). Historija Bošnjaka. Sarajevo: BZK Preporod. ISBN 9958-815-00-1
  9. ^ a b c Dimitrovova, Bohdana. "Bosniak or Muslim? Dilemma of one Nation with two Names." Southeast European Politics, Vol. II, No. 2. October, 2001.
  10. ^ Bajrami, Kerim. "Reagovanje na članak: Uz 90 godina od slavne Bitke za Čanakkale." Našagora.info.
  11. ^ Plut, Dijana; (2002) “What is Democracy in Textbooks?” pg. 117-118
  12. ^ An Illustrated History of Modern Europe. Denis Richards
  13. ^ Enver Imamović, Korijeni Bosne i bosanstva, Sarajevo 1995
  14. ^ Takvim 2007, Rijaset Islamske zajednice BiH

OED stands for Oxford English Dictionary Office of Enrollment & Discipline This page concerning a three-letter acronym or abbreviation is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... is the 135th day of the year (136th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 104th day of the year (105th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Main building of University of Sarajevo The University of Sarajevo (Bosnian Univerzitet u Sarajevu) is the first university in Bosnia-Herzegovina, established in 1949. ...

External links

  • Congress of North American Bosniaks
  • BAACBH.org - Bosniak American Advisory Council for Bosnia-Herzegovina
  • DNA: Oxford University Genetic studies on Bosnia
  • DNA: PubMed I haplogroup family that Bosniaks belong to
  • DNA: I haplogroup related to Bosniaks
  • Bosniaks - Wiktionary entry for Bosniaks
  • BOSNJACI.net (Bosnian)

  Results from FactBites:
 
Muslim-Bosniaks in Croatia (701 words)
Therefore, only the next official census in the Republic BiH and in Croatia has to determine the number of Muslims that declared themselves for the Bosniak nationality, since it is probable that a certain number of them will declare themselves as Croats, Serbs, or without nationality, as was the case in the previous years.
Since the Muslim believers changed the name of their nationality twice in the period from 1971 to 1991 (and were nationally undeclared until 1970), this shows that their national consciousness has not yet stabilized.
And after the Federation of BiH and the Republic of Srpska were formed on the territory of former Bosnia and Herzegovina by Dayton agreement, it can be expected that on these territories we shall have a new and different national affiliation.
Bosniaks information - Search.com (6440 words)
Bosniaks (Bosnian: Bošnjaci), also, in the English language, simply reffered to as Bosnians, are a South Slavic people living chiefly in Bosnia and Herzegovina and the Sandžak region of Serbia and Montenegro.
Historically, Bosniaks are chiefly associated with the regions of Bosanska Krajina, Bosnia proper, Herzegovina, Podrinje, and Sandžak.
Bosniaks counter by pointing out that Bosniak has been a historical ethnic term for their nation since the 19th century, and that had they truly wanted to "monopolize" Bosnian history it would have been far easier to adopt the name "Bosnian" in itself instead of using the more archaic version.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m