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Encyclopedia > Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosna i Hercegovina
Босна и Херцеговина
Bosnia and Herzegovina
Flag of Bosnia and Herzegovina Coat of arms of Bosnia and Herzegovina
Flag Coat of arms
AnthemDržavna himna Bosne i Hercegovine
Location of  Bosnia and Herzegovina  (orange)

on the European continent  (white)  —  [ Legend] Bosnia may refer to: Bosnia and Herzegovina, the state in Europe Bosnia (region), as a historical region Bosnia Province, Ottoman Empire, from the 15th to 19th centuries Bosnia (album), a live album by Grand Funk Railroad Bosnians, people of the Bosnian region See also: Bosnian This is a disambiguation page... Image File history File links Flag_of_Bosnia_and_Herzegovina. ... Image File history File links Bosnia_and_Herzegovina_Coats_of_Arms_modified. ... National flag of Bosnia and Herzegovina. ... The Coat of Arms of Bosnia and Herzegovina The Coat of Arms of Bosnia and Herzegovina was adopted in 1998, replacing an older design that had been used since 1991, when Bosnia gained independence. ... A national anthem is a generally patriotic musical composition that evokes and eulogizes the history, traditions and struggles of its people, recognized either by a countrys government as the official national song, or by convention through use by the people. ... Intermeco is the title of the national anthem of Bosnia and Herzegovina. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1600x1200, 112 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Bosnia and Herzegovina Wikipedia talk:WikiProject Countries Maps of Bosnia and Herzegovina ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ...

Capital
(and largest city)
Sarajevo
43°52′N, 18°25′E
Official languages Bosnian, Serbian,Croatian
Demonym Bosnian, Herzegovinian
Government Federal democratic republic
 -  High Representative Miroslav Lajčák4
 -  Presidency members Haris Silajdžić1
Željko Komšić2
Nebojša Radmanović3
 -  Chairman of the
Council of Ministers
Nikola Špirić
Independence
 -  Formed 29 August 1189 
 -  Kingdom established 26 October 1377 
 -  Independence lost
   to Ottoman Empire
1463 
 -  National Day November 25, 1943 
 -  Independence from SFR Yugoslavia March 1, 1992 
 -  Recognized April 6, 1992 
Area
 -  Total 51,197 km² (127th)
19,767 sq mi 
 -  Water (%) negligible
Population
 -  2007 estimate 3,981,239 (126th5)
 -  1991 census 4,377,053 
 -  Density 76/km² (116th5)
230/sq mi
GDP (PPP) 2008 estimate
 -  Total $42.998 billion (IMF) (94th)
 -  Per capita $10,715 ([1]) (87th)
Gini (2001) 26.2 (low
HDI (2004) 0.803 (high) (66th)
Currency Convertible mark (BAM)
Time zone CET (UTC+1)
 -  Summer (DST) CEST (UTC+2)
Internet TLD .ba
Calling code +387
1 Current presidency Chair; Bosniac.
2 Current presidency member; Croat.
3 Current presidency member; Serb.
4 Not a government member; The High Representative is an international civilian peace implementation overseer with full authority to dismiss elected and non-elected officials and inaugurate legislation
5 Rank based on 2007 UN estimate of de facto population.

Bosnia and Herzegovina (Bosnian/Croatian (Latin script): Bosna i Hercegovina, Serbian (Cyrillic script): Босна и Херцеговина) is a country on the Balkan peninsula of Southern Europe with an area of 51,129 square kilometres (19,741 sq mi). The last official census in 1991 recorded 4.4 million people, which was prior to the 1992-1995 war, while an unofficial census in 1996 by UNHCR recorded a post-war population of 3.9 million. Its 2007 residential population is estimated at approximately 4 million. Not to be confused with capitol. ... // Population pyramid 4,498,976 (July 2006 est. ... Map of Bosnia and Herzegovina (Sarajevo) Coordinates: , Country Entity Canton Sarajevo Canton Government  - Mayor Semiha Borovac (SDA) Area [1]  - City 141. ... An official language is a language that is given a special legal status in the countries, states, and other territories. ... Serbian (; ) is one of the standard versions of the Shtokavian dialect, used primarily in Serbia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Montenegro, Croatia, and by Serbs in the Serbian diaspora. ... A demonym or gentilic is a word that denotes the members of a people or the inhabitants of a place. ... This article is about the geographic area of Herzegovina. ... The Federal Republic of Germany and its sixteen Bundesländer (federal states) A federal republic is a federation of states with a republican form of government. ... The High Representative for Bosnia and Herzegovina, with the Office of the High Representative (OHR) in Bosnia and Herzegovina, was created in 1995 immediately after the Dayton Peace Agreement to oversee the civilian implementation of this agreement. ... Miroslav Lajčák (20 March 1963 in Poprad) is a Slovak diplomat. ... The Presidency of Bosnia and Herzegovina (PredsjedniÅ¡tvo Bosne i Hercegovine/Предсједништво Босне и Херцеговине) is the head of state of Bosnia and Herzegovina. ... Dr. Haris Silajdžić (born on October 1, 1945) is a Bosnian politician and academic. ... Željko KomÅ¡ić (IPA: ) (born January 20, 1964, Sarajevo) is a Bosnian-Herzegovinian politician of Croatian descent. ... NebojÅ¡a Radmanović is a Bosnian Serb politician. ... The Council of Ministers of Bosnia and Herzegovina is the executive branch of the government of Bosnia and Herzegovina. ... Nikola Å pirić (born on September 4, 1956 in Drvar, Bosnia-Herzegovina) is a Bosnian politician and the current Chairman of the Council of Ministers of Bosnia and Herzegovina. ... is the 241st day of the year (242nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events January 21 - Philip II of France and Richard I of England begin to assemble troops to wage the Third Crusade September 3- Richard I of England is crowned as king of England. ... is the 299th day of the year (300th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events January 17 – Pope Gregory XI enters Rome. ... Motto دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1683, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299–1326) Bursa (1326–1365) Edirne (1365–1453) Ä°stanbul (1453–1922) Government Monarchy Sultans  - 1281–1326 (first) Osman I  - 1918–22 (last) Mehmed VI Grand Viziers  - 1320... The Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia was the Yugoslav state that existed from 1945 to 1992. ... is the 60th day of the year (61st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1992 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 96th day of the year (97th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1992 Gregorian calendar). ... This article is about the physical quantity. ... To help compare orders of magnitude of different geographical regions, we list here areas between 10,000 km² and 100,000 km². ... This is a list of the countries of the world sorted by area. ... A square mile is an English unit of area equal to that of a square with sides each 1 statute mile (≈1,609 m) in length. ... Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ... A percentage is a way of expressing a proportion, a ratio or a fraction as a whole number, by using 100 as the denominator. ... Map of countries by population for the year 2007 This is a list of countries ordered according to population. ... Population density per square kilometre by country, 2006 Population density map of the world in 1994. ... Population density by country, 2006 List of countries and dependencies by population density in inhabitants/km². The list includes sovereign states and self-governing dependent territories that are recognized by the United Nations. ... PPP of GDP for the countries of the world (2003). ... There are three lists of countries of the world sorted by their gross domestic product (GDP) (the value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a given year). ... Per capita is a Latin phrase meaning for each head. ... This article includes two lists of countries of the world[1] sorted by their gross domestic product (GDP) at purchasing power parity (PPP) per capita, the value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a given year divided by the average population for the same year. ... Graphical representation of the Gini coefficient The Gini coefficient is a measure of inequality of income distribution or inequality of wealth distribution. ... This page talks about Human Development Index, for other HDIs see HDI (disambiguation) World map indicating Human Development Index (2007). ... This talks about the countries in the Human Development Index, for information on the Human Development Index, please Click Here World map indicating Human Development Index (2007) (Colour-blind compliant map) For red-green color vision problems. ... ISO 4217 Code BAM User(s) Bosnia and Herzegovina Inflation 8. ... ISO 4217 is the international standard describing three letter codes (also known as the currency code) to define the names of currencies established by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO). ... Timezone and TimeZone redirect here. ... Time zones of Europe: Light colours indicate countries that do not observe summer time Central European Time (CET) is one of the names of the time zone that is 1 hour ahead of Coordinated Universal Time. ... UTC redirects here. ... Although DST is common in Europe and North America, most of the worlds people do not use it. ... Time zones of Europe: Light colours indicate countries that do not observe summer time Central European Summer Time (CEST) is one of the names of UTC+2 time zone, 2 hours ahead of Coordinated Universal Time. ... UTC redirects here. ... A country code top-level domain (ccTLD) is a top-level domain used and reserved for a country or a dependent territory. ... .ba is the Internet country code top-level domain (ccTLD) for Bosnia and Herzegovina. ... This is a list of country calling codes defined by ITU-T recommendation E.164. ... This is a list of dialing codes in Bosnia and Herzegovina. ... Language(s) Bosnian Religion(s) Predominantly Islam Related ethnic groups Slavs (South Slavs) The Bosniaks or Bosniacs[1] (Bosnian: BoÅ¡njaci, IPA: ) are a South Slavic people, living mainly in Bosnia and Herzegovina (Bosnia) and the Sandžak region of Serbia and Montenegro, with a smaller autochthonous population also present... Languages Croatian Religions Predominantly Roman Catholic Related ethnic groups Slavs South Slavs Croats (Croatian: Hrvati) are a South Slavic people mostly living in Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina and nearby countries. ... Languages Serbian Religions Predominantly Serbian Orthodox Christian Related ethnic groups Other Slavic peoples, especially South Slavs See Cognate peoples below (* many Serbs opted for Yugoslav ethnicity) [27] Serbs (Serbian: Срби or Srbi) are a South Slavic people who live mainly in Serbia, Montenegro, Bosnia-Herzegovina, and, to a lesser extent, in... De facto is a Latin expression that means in fact or in practice. It is commonly used as opposed to de jure (meaning by law) when referring to matters of law or governance or technique (such as standards), that are found in the common experience as created or developed without... The Latin alphabet, also called the Roman alphabet, is the most widely used alphabetic writing system in the world, the standard script of the English language and most of the languages of western and central Europe, and of those areas settled by Europeans. ... Serbian (; ) is one of the standard versions of the Shtokavian dialect, used primarily in Serbia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Montenegro, Croatia, and by Serbs in the Serbian diaspora. ... The Cyrillic alphabet (or azbuka, from the old name of the first letters) is an alphabet used to write six natural Slavic languages (Belarusian, Bulgarian, Macedonian, Russian, Serbian, and Ukrainian) and many other languages of the former Soviet Union, Asia and Eastern Europe. ... Balkan redirects here. ... The southern half of Europe is shown in shades of red. ... Square kilometre (U.S. spelling: square kilometer), symbol km², is a decimal multiple of SI unit of surface area square metre, one of the SI derived units. ... Headquartered in Geneva, Switzerland, the Office of the UN High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) (established December 14, 1950) protects and supports refugees at the request of a government or the United Nations and assists in their return or resettlement. ...


Formerly one of the six federal units constituting the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, Bosnia and Herzegovina gained its independence during the Yugoslav wars of the 1990s. Bosnia and Herzegovina can be described as a federal democratic republic that is transforming its economy into a market-oriented system, and it is a potential candidate for membership in the European Union and NATO. Motto Brotherhood and Unity Anthem Hey, Slavs Capital Belgrade Language(s) Serbo-Croatian (spoken throughout the territory), Slovenian, Macedonian, Albanian, Hungarian (all official), and languages of other nationalities. ... Belligerents Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Kosovo Liberation Army, NATO, UCPMB SFR Yugoslavia, Serbs of Bosnia and Herzegovina Serbs of Croatia Serb Volunteer Guard, FR Yugoslavia Commanders Janez Janša, Franjo Tuđman, Alija Izetbegović, Hashim Thaci, Wesley Clark, Javier Solana, Muhamet Xhemajli, Ridvan Chazimi-Leshi, Ali Ahmeti Borisav Jovi... The Federal Republic of Germany and its sixteen Bundesländer (federal states) A federal republic is a federation of states with a republican form of government. ... The European Union (EU) was created by six founding states in 1957 (following the earlier establishment by the same six states of the European Coal and Steel Community in 1952) and has grown to 27 member states. ... EU member states and candidates There are currently 25 member states in the European Union. ... NATO 2002 Summit The North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO), sometimes called North Atlantic Alliance, Atlantic Alliance or the Western Alliance, is an international organisation for defence collaboration established in 1949, in support of the North Atlantic Treaty signed in Washington, DC, on April 4, 1949. ...


The country is home to three ethnic "constituent peoples": Bosniaks, Serbs and Croats. Regardless of ethnicity, a citizen of Bosnia and Herzegovina is often identified in English as a Bosnian. In Bosnia, the distinction between a Bosnian and a Herzegovinian is maintained as a regional, rather than an ethnic distinction. The country is politically decentralized and comprised of two governing entities, the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina and Republika Srpska, with District Brčko as a de facto third entity. More than 95% of population of Bosnia and Herzegovina belongs to one of its three constitutive nations: Bosniaks, Croats and Serbs. ... Language(s) Bosnian Religion(s) Predominantly Islam Related ethnic groups Slavs (South Slavs) The Bosniaks or Bosniacs[1] (Bosnian: BoÅ¡njaci, IPA: ) are a South Slavic people, living mainly in Bosnia and Herzegovina (Bosnia) and the Sandžak region of Serbia and Montenegro, with a smaller autochthonous population also present... Languages Serbian Religions Predominantly Serbian Orthodox Christian Related ethnic groups Other Slavic peoples, especially South Slavs See Cognate peoples below (* many Serbs opted for Yugoslav ethnicity) [27] Serbs (Serbian: Срби or Srbi) are a South Slavic people who live mainly in Serbia, Montenegro, Bosnia-Herzegovina, and, to a lesser extent, in... Languages Croatian Religions Predominantly Roman Catholic Related ethnic groups Slavs South Slavs Croats (Croatian: Hrvati) are a South Slavic people mostly living in Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina and nearby countries. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... This article is about the geographic area of Herzegovina. ... The location of the FBiH entity as part of the state of Bosnia and Herzegovina in Europe. ... Not to be confused with Serbia. ... Official language Bosnian, Croatian and Serbian Official script Latin alphabet, Cyrillic alphabet Capital Brčko Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % water  208 km²  n/a Population  â€“ Total  â€“ Density  80,000  ? Ethnic groups (current est. ...


Bordered by Croatia to the north, west and south, Serbia to the east, and Montenegro to the south, Bosnia and Herzegovina is mostly landlocked, except for 26 kilometres of the Adriatic Sea coastline,[1][2] centered around the town of Neum. The interior of the country is mountainous in the center and south, hilly in the northwest, and flat in the northeast. The nation's capital and largest city is Sarajevo. Sarajevo was the host site of the 1984 Winter Olympic Games. Not to be confused with Republika Srpska. ... This article is about the country in Europe. ... A landlocked country is one that has no coastline. ... “km” redirects here. ... A satellite image of the Adriatic Sea. ... Municipality of Bosnia and Herzegovina General Information Entity Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina Land area Population (1991 census) 4,268 Population density Coordinates Area code +387 36 Mayor Đure Obradović (HDZ) Website http://www. ... Map of Bosnia and Herzegovina (Sarajevo) Coordinates: , Country Entity Canton Sarajevo Canton Government  - Mayor Semiha Borovac (SDA) Area [1]  - City 141. ... (Redirected from 1984 Winter Olympic Games) The XIV Olympic Winter Games were held in 1984 in Japan; and Falun/Göteborg, Sweden. ...


The region of Bosnia is the largest geographic region of the modern state with moderate continental climate, marked by hot summers and cold, snowy winters. Smaller Herzegovina is the southern tip of the country, with Mediterranean climate and topography. Bosnia and Herzegovina's natural resources are highly abundant. This article is about a geographic region of Bosnia. ... Regions containing a continental climate exist in portions of Northern Hemisphere continents, and also at higher elevations in certain other parts of the world. ... This article is about the geographic area of Herzegovina. ...  Areas with Mediterranean climate A Mediterranean climate is one that resembles the climate of the lands in the Mediterranean Basin, which includes over half of the area with this climate type world-wide. ...

Contents

History

This article is part of the series on the:

History of Bosnia and Herzegovina This is a history of Bosnia and Herzegovina. ...

Chronology

Until 958
958–1463
1463–1878
1878–1918
1918–1941
1941–1945
1945–1992
1992–1995
1995–present
The vase from Butmir near Sarajevo, early Neolithic In the boundaries of today’s Bosnia and Herzegovina there have been many layers of prehistory cultures and their creation and disappearance is linked to migrations of unidentified ethnic groups. ... The Byzantines restored control over Bosnia at the end of 10th century, but not for long as it was soon taken by the Czar of Bulgarians Samuil. ... The arrival of the Ottoman Turks marked a new era in Bosnian history. ... The assassination in Sarajevo sparked the first World War. ... Following the war, Bosnia was incorporated into the South Slav kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes (soon renamed Yugoslavia). ... A Monument commemorating the Battle of Sutjeska in eastern B&H. Once the kingdom of Yugoslavia was conquered by Nazi forces in World War II, all of Bosnia was ceded to the Nazi-puppet state of Croatia. ... Because of its central geographic position within the Yugoslavian federation, post-war Bosnia was strategically selected as a base for the development of the military defense industry. ... Combatants  Bosnia and Herzegovina Volunteers from Islamic countries Croatian Community of Herzeg-Bosnia  Croatia Volunteers from Western Europe  Republika Srpska  Yugoslavia Various paramilitary units from FR Yugoslavia Volunteers from Eastern Europe Commanders Alija Izetbegović (President of Bosnia and Herzegovina) Sefer Halilović (Army chief of staff 1992-1993) Rasim Delić (Army...

Topics

Culture
Rulers
Presidents
Demographics
Ethnic Bosnians
Economy
Military
Islam
Orthodox Christianity
Catholicism
Jews
Roma Culture of Bosnia and Herzegovina encompasses: // Ancient cultural heritage Bosnian Cyrillic Writers Ivo Andric - Nobel Prize laureate of 1961 Musa Casim Catic - early 20th century poet Mak Dizdar- the pre-eminent 20th century poet Zuko Dzumhur - cartoonist and travel writer Aleksandar Hemon - bestselling modern author (lives in the USA) Miljenko... This is the list of rulers of Bosnia. ... This is a list of prominent Bosnians (including Bosnian Serbs, Bosnian Croats, and Bosnian Muslims also known as Bosniaks): // Arts Literature Novelists and Writers Ivo Andrić - Nobel Laureate Mula Mustafa Bašeskija - travel writer Branko Ćopić - writer, poet Svetozar Ćorović - writer Zija Dizdarević - author Dario Džamonja - writer Zuko D... // Population pyramid 4,498,976 (July 2006 est. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Ethnic groups in Bosnia and Herzegovina and Bosnians (Discuss) Languages Bosnian Religions Muslims, Orthodox Christians, Catholics, Jews, Atheists, Agnostics Related ethnic groups South Slavs, Bosniaks, Croats, Serbs Ethnic Bosnians - simply called Bosnians - are those who are considered, by... Pedestrians walk by the Tsars Mosque built in the Ottoman era, the oldest mosque in Sarajevo, the capital and largest city of Bosnia and Herzegovina. ... The Roman Catholic Church in Bosnia and Herzegovina is part of the worldwide Roman Catholic Church, under the spiritual leadership of the Pope and curia in Rome. ...


This box: view  talk  edit
Main article: History of Bosnia and Herzegovina

This is a history of Bosnia and Herzegovina. ...

Pre-Slavic period

Bosnia has been inhabited at least since Neolithic times by Illyrian tribes. In the early Bronze Age, the Neolithic population was replaced by more warlike Indo-European tribes known as the Illyres or Illyrians. Celtic migrations in the fourth century BC and third century BC displaced many Illyrian tribes from their former lands, but some Celtic and Illyrian tribes mixed. Concrete historical evidence for this period is scarce, but overall it appears that the region was populated by a number of different peoples speaking distinct languages. Conflict between the Illyrians and Romans started in 229 BC, but Rome would not complete its annexation of the region until AD 9. In the Roman period, Latin-speaking settlers from all over the Roman empire settled among the Illyrians and Roman soldiers were encouraged to retire in the region.[3] The vase from Butmir near Sarajevo, early Neolithic In the boundaries of today’s Bosnia and Herzegovina there have been many layers of prehistory cultures and their creation and disappearance is linked to migrations of unidentified ethnic groups. ... An array of Neolithic artifacts, including bracelets, axe heads, chisels, and polishing tools. ... The Bronze Age is a period in a civilizations development when the most advanced metalworking has developed the techniques of smelting copper from natural outcroppings and alloys it to cast bronze. ... Indo-Europeans are speakers of Indo-European languages. ... Illyria (disambiguation) Illyrians has come to refer to a broad, ill-defined Indo-European[1] group of peoples who inhabited the western Balkans (Illyria, roughly from northern Epirus to southern Pannonia) and even perhaps parts of Southern Italy in classical times into the Common era, and spoke Illyrian languages. ... Celts, normally pronounced //, is a modern term used to describe any of the European peoples who spoke, or speak, a Celtic language. ... The 4th century BC started the first day of 400 BC and ended the last day of 301 BC. It is considered part of the Classical era, epoch, or historical period. ... The 3rd century BC started the first day of 300 BC and ended the last day of 201 BC. It is considered part of the Classical era, epoch, or historical period. ... Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew from a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula circa the 9th century BC to a massive empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea. ... Centuries: 4th century BC - 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC Decades: 270s BC 260s BC 250s BC 240s BC 230s BC - 220s BC - 210s BC 200s BC 190s BC 180s BC 170s BC Years: 234 BC 233 BC 232 BC 231 BC 230 BC - 229 BC - 228 BC 227 BC... For other uses, see number 9. ... For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ...


Some claim that Christianity arrived in the region by the end of the first century, but there are no artifacts or objects from the time testify to this. There were only two Roman Catholic churches in Bosnia-Herzegovina up until the occupation of Austro-Hungary, and no Serb Orthodox churches at all. However, the Franciscans founded their permanent missions in Bosnia as early as the 11th century. The land originally was part of the Illyria up until the Roman occupation. Following the split of the Roman Empire between 337 and 395, Dalmatia and Pannonia became parts of the Western Roman Empire. Some claim that the region was conquered by the Ostrogoths in 455. It subsequently changed hands between the Alans and Huns. By the sixth century, Emperor Justinian had reconquered the area for the Byzantine Empire. The Slavs, a people from eastern Europe (now territory of Ukraine), were conquered by the Avars in the sixth century. Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in the New Testament. ... Motto Senatus Populusque Romanus The Western Roman Empire in 395. ... This article deals with the continental Ostrogoths. ... The Alans, Alani, Alauni or Halani were an Iranian nomadic group among the Sarmatian people, warlike nomadic pastoralists of varied backgrounds, who spoke an Iranian language and to a large extent shared a common culture. ... For other uses, see Hun (disambiguation). ... Justinian may refer to: Justinian I, a Roman Emperor; Justinian II, a Byzantine Emperor; Justinian, a storeship sent to the convict settlement at New South Wales in 1790. ... Byzantine redirects here. ... Late Avar period Map showing the location of Avar Khaganate, c. ...


Medieval Bosnia

Bosnia during the tenth century.
Bosnian state during Ban Kulin 1180-1204
Bosnian state during king Tvrtko 1353-1391
Borders of Bosnian state in second part of fifteenth century
Bosnia and Herzegovina in second part of nineteenth century
Main article: History of Bosnia and Herzegovina (958–1463)

Modern knowledge of the political situation in the west Balkans during the Early Middle Ages is patchy and confusing. Upon their arrival, the Slavs brought with them a tribal social structure, which probably fell apart and gave way to Feudalism only with Frankish penetration into the region in the late ninth century. It was also around this time that the south Slavs were Christianized. Bosnia, due to its geographic position and terrain, was probably one of the last areas to go through this process, which presumably originated from the urban centers along the Dalmatian coast. The principalities of Serbia and Croatia split control of Bosnia and Herzegovina in the ninth and tenth century, but by the High Middle Ages political circumstance led to the area being contested between the Kingdom of Hungary and the Byzantine Empire. Following another shift of power between the two in the early twelfth century, Bosnia found itself outside the control of both and emerged as an independent state under the rule of local bans.[3] Image File history File links Download high resolution version (4315x4078, 1455 KB) Legend Bosnia in 10th century Bosnian state during Ban Kulin 1180-1204 Bosnian state during king Tvrtko 1353-1391 Borders of Bosnian state in second part of 15th century Bosnia and Herzegovina in second part of 19th century... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (4315x4078, 1455 KB) Legend Bosnia in 10th century Bosnian state during Ban Kulin 1180-1204 Bosnian state during king Tvrtko 1353-1391 Borders of Bosnian state in second part of 15th century Bosnia and Herzegovina in second part of 19th century... The Byzantines restored control over Bosnia at the end of 10th century, but not for long as it was soon taken by the Czar of Bulgarians Samuil. ... Justinians wife Theodora and her retinue, in a 6th century mosaic from the Basilica of San Vitale in Ravenna. ... Roland pledges his fealty to Charlemagne; from a manuscript of a chanson de geste Feudalism, a term first used in the early modern period (17th century), in its most classic sense refers to a Medieval European political system comprised of a set of reciprocal legal and military obligations among the... This article is about the Frankish people and society. ... As a means of recording the passage of time the 9th century was the century that lasted from 801 to 900. ... Dalmatia, highlighted, on a map of Croatia. ... Not to be confused with Republika Srpska. ... The cathedral Notre Dame de Paris, a significant architectural contribution of the High Middle Ages. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Ban is a title of either Avar or Illyrian origin, the title was used in some states in central and south-eastern Europe between the 7th century and the 20th century. ...

The Charter of Kulin Ban - treaty with Dubrovnik. Now in Ermitrage in Petersburg.
Kulin Ban's plate found in Biskupići, near Visoko.
Kulin Ban's plate found in Biskupići, near Visoko.

The first notable Bosnian monarch, Ban Kulin, presided over nearly three decades of peace and stability during which he strengthened the country's economy through treaties with Dubrovnik and Venice. His rule also marked the start of a controversy with the Bosnian Church, an indigenous Christian sect considered heretical by both the Roman Catholic and Serbian Orthodox churches. In response to Hungarian attempts to use church politics regarding the issue as a way to reclaim sovereignty over Bosnia, Kulin held a council of local church leaders to renounce the heresy and embraced Catholicism in 1203. Despite this, Hungarian ambitions remained unchanged long after Kulin's death in 1204, waning only after an unsuccessful invasion in 1254. Image File history File links Poveljakulinbana. ... Image File history File links Poveljakulinbana. ... Image File history File links Plocakulinabana. ... Image File history File links Plocakulinabana. ... Municipality of Bosnia and Herzegovina General Information Entity Federation Canton Zenica - Doboj Land area 232 km² Population (1991 census) 46,130 Population density Coordinates Area code +387 32 Mayor Munib Alibegović (SDA) Website http://www. ... Ban Kulin (1163 – 1204) was a powerful Bosnian Ban who ruled from 1180 to 1204 first as a vassal of the Byzantine Empire and then of the Kingdom of Hungary. ... Borders of the Republic of Ragusa, 1426-1808 Capital Ragusa Language(s) Latin, Italian since 1492 Religion Roman Catholic Government Republic Duke  - 1808 Auguste Marmont Historical era Renaissance  - Treaty of Zara June 27, 1358  - Invasion by France January 31, 1808  - Annexed October 14, 1808 Area  - 1808? 1,500 km2 579... Borders of the Republic of Venice in 1796 Capital Venice Language(s) Venetian, Latin, Italian Religion Roman Catholic Government Republic Doge  - 1789–97 Ludovico Manin History  - Established 697  - Treaty of Zara June 27, 1358  - Treaty of Leoben April 17, 1797 * Traditionally, the establishment of the Republic is dated to 697. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Catholic Church redirects here. ... Orthodox icon of Pentecost. ...


Bosnian history from then until the early fourteenth century was marked by the power struggle between the Šubić and Kotromanić families. This conflict came to an end in 1322, when Stjepan II Kotromanić became ban. By the time of his death in 1353, he was successful in annexing territories to the north and west, as well as Zahumlje and parts of Dalmatia. He was succeeded by his nephew Tvrtko who, following a prolonged struggle with nobility and inter-family strife, gained full control of the country in 1367. Tvrtko crowned himself on 26 October 1377 as Stefan Tvrtko I by the mercy of God King of Serbs, Bosnia and the Seaside and the Western Lands. This 14th-century statue from south India depicts the gods Shiva (on the left) and Uma (on the right). ... Coat of Arms of the Breberienses The Å ubić were one of the twelve tribes which constituted Croatian statehood in the Middle Ages; they held the county of Bribir (Varvaria) in inland Dalmatia. ... The Kotromanić dynasty ruled various regions in Bosnia and the surroundings from the 13th century as Bans until the crowning with the Bosnian-Serbian crown in 1377 and then as Kings until the Ottoman conquest of Bosnia in 1463. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Tvrtko I (real name Tvrtko Kotromanić, 1338–1391) was the greatest native ruler of medieval kingdom of Bosnia. ... is the 299th day of the year (300th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events January 17 – Pope Gregory XI enters Rome. ... Languages Serbian Religions Predominantly Serbian Orthodox Christian Related ethnic groups Other Slavic peoples, especially South Slavs See Cognate peoples below (* many Serbs opted for Yugoslav ethnicity) [27] Serbs (Serbian: Срби or Srbi) are a South Slavic people who live mainly in Serbia, Montenegro, Bosnia-Herzegovina, and, to a lesser extent, in... This article is about a geographic region of Bosnia. ...


Historians considered that he was crowned in the Serbian Orthodox Mileševa monastery.[4] Another possibility, advanced by P. Anđelić and based on archeological evidence, is that he was crowned in Mile near Visoko in the church which was built in time of Stephen II Kotromanić's reign, where he was also buried alongside his uncle Stjepan II.[5][6] Following his death in 1391 however, Bosnia fell into a long period of decline. The Ottoman Empire had already started its conquest of Europe and posed a major threat to the Balkans throughout the first half of the fifteenth century. Finally, after decades of political and social instability, Bosnia officially fell in 1463. Herzegovina would follow in 1482, with a Hungarian-backed reinstated "Bosnian Kingdom" being the last to succumb in 1527. Flag of the Serbian Orthodox Church Unknown flag, seen offten in public. ... MileÅ¡eva monastery. ... View from Visočica hill showing todays Visoko and much of Visoko valley, excluding MoÅ¡tre Archaeological excavations proved that the Visoko Valley was the center of a medieval Bosnian state and later kingdom. ... Stephen II Kotromanić (Stjepan II. Kotromanić)(died 1353) was a Ban (ruler) of Bosnia. ... Motto دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1683, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299–1326) Bursa (1326–1365) Edirne (1365–1453) Ä°stanbul (1453–1922) Government Monarchy Sultans  - 1281–1326 (first) Osman I  - 1918–22 (last) Mehmed VI Grand Viziers  - 1320... The wars of the Ottoman Empire in Europe are also sometimes referred to as the Ottoman Wars or as Turkish Wars, particularly in older, European texts. ... Balkan redirects here. ...


Ottoman era

The Ottoman province of Bosnia in the seventeenth century.
The Ottoman province of Bosnia in the seventeenth century.
The Višegrad bridge, a UNESCO World Heritage Site
Ottoman-style house in Mostar
Ottoman-style house in Travnik
Main article: History of Bosnia and Herzegovina (1463–1878)

The Ottoman conquest of Bosnia marked a new era in the country's history and introduced tremendous changes in the political and cultural landscape of the region. Although the kingdom had been crushed and its high nobility executed, the Ottomans nonetheless allowed for the preservation of Bosnia's identity by incorporating it as an integral province of the Ottoman Empire with its historical name and territorial integrity - a unique case among subjugated states in the Balkans.[7] Within this sandžak (and eventual vilayet) of Bosnia, the Ottomans introduced a number of key changes in the territory's socio-political administration; including a new landholding system, a reorganization of administrative units, and a complex system of social differentiation by class and religious affiliation.[3] Image File history File links Ottomanbosnia. ... Image File history File links Ottomanbosnia. ... Not to be confused with VyÅ¡ehrad, Visegrád, or Visegrad. ... Elabana Falls is in Lamington National Park, part of the Central Eastern Rainforest Reserves World Heritage site in Queensland, Australia. ... Mostar (Мостар) is a city and municipality in Bosnia and Herzegovina, the center of the Herzegovina-Neretva Canton of the Federation. ... Municipality of Bosnia and Herzegovina General Information Entity {{{entity}}} Land area 35 km² Population 75,000 Population density Coordinates Area code +387 30 Mayor Tahir Lendo (SDA) Website http://www. ... The arrival of the Ottoman Turks marked a new era in Bosnian history. ... This page is about districts of the Ottoman Empire; for a region in Serbia and Montenegro, see Sandžak. ... Vilâyet (also eyalet or pashaluk) was the Turkish name for the provinces of the Ottoman Empire. ...


The four centuries of Ottoman rule also had a drastic impact on Bosnia's population make-up, which changed several times as a result of the empire's conquests, frequent wars with European powers, migrations, and epidemics. A native Slavic-speaking Muslim community emerged and eventually became the largest of the ethno-religious groups (mainly as a result of a gradually rising number of conversions to Islam),[8] while a significant number of Sephardi Jews arrived following their expulsion from Spain in the late fifteenth century. The Bosnian Christian communities also experienced major changes. The Bosnian Franciscans (and the Catholic population as a whole) were protected by official imperial decree. The Orthodox community in Bosnia, initially confined to Herzegovina and Podrinje, spread throughout the country during this period and went on to experience relative prosperity until the nineteenth century. Meanwhile, the schismatic Bosnian Church disappeared altogether.[3] Bosnia and Herzegovina’s Slavic population underwent a large-scale conversion to Islam after the region’s conquest and occupation by the Ottoman Empire in the second half of the 15th century, giving it a unique character within the Balkan region. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... Language(s) Hebrew, Ladino, Judæo-Portuguese, Catalanic, Shuadit, local languages Religion(s) Judaism Related ethnic groups Ashkenazi Jews, Mizrahi Jews, other Jewish ethnic divisions, Arabs, Spaniards, Portuguese. ... This article is about one of the historical Inquisitions. ... Franciscans is the common name used to designate a variety of mendicant religious orders of men or women tracing their origin to Francis of Assisi and following the Rule of St. ... Orthodox icon of Pentecost. ...


As the Ottoman Empire thrived and expanded into Central Europe, Bosnia was relieved of the pressures of being a frontier province and experienced a prolonged period of general welfare and prosperity. A number of cities, such as Sarajevo and Mostar, were established and grew into major regional centers of trade and urban culture. Within these cities, various Sultans and governors financed the construction of many important works of Bosnian architecture (such as the Stari most and Gazi Husrev-beg's Mosque). Furthermore, numerous Bosnians played influential roles in the Ottoman Empire's cultural and political history during this time.[7] Bosnian soldiers formed a large component of the Ottoman ranks in the battles of Mohács and Krbava field, two decisive military victories, while numerous other Bosnians rose through the ranks of the Ottoman military bureaucracy to occupy the highest positions of power in the Empire, including admirals, generals, and grand viziers. Many Bosnians also made a lasting impression on Ottoman culture, emerging as mystics, scholars, and celebrated poets in the Turkish, Arabic, and Persian languages.[8] Mostar (Мостар) is a city and municipality in Bosnia and Herzegovina, the center of the Herzegovina-Neretva Canton of the Federation. ... Architecture in Bosnia and Herzegovina is largely influenced by 4 major periods where political and social changes influenced the creation of distinct cultural and architectural habits of the population. ... Panorama of Old Bridge in Mostar, June 2006 Stari Most (English translation: The Old Bridge) is a 16th century bridge in the city of Mostar, Bosnia and Herzegovina that crosses the river Neretva and connects two parts of the city. ... Gazi Husrev-begs Mosque, as seen from the south. ... This article is about the better-known Battle of Mohács of 1526. ... // Combatants Ottoman Empire Kingdom of Croatia Commanders Bosnian Sandjak-beg Hadum Jakub Pasa Ban Mirko Derenčin † Strength 8,000 light cavalry 2,000 heavy cavalry 8,000 infantry Casualties Some 1,000 killed Some 7,000 killed The Battle of Krbava field (Krbavsko polje, the field of blood), was...


However, by the late seventeenth century the Empire's military misfortunes caught up with the country, and the conclusion of the Great Turkish War with the treaty of Karlowitz in 1699 once again made Bosnia the Empire's westernmost province. The following hundred years were marked by further military failures, numerous revolts within Bosnia, and several outbursts of plague. The Porte's efforts at modernizing the Ottoman state were met with great hostility in Bosnia, where local aristocrats stood to lose much through the proposed reforms. This, combined with frustrations over political concessions to nascent Christian states in the east, culminated in a famous (albeit ultimately unsuccessful) revolt by Husein Gradaščević in 1831.[8] Related rebellions would be extinguished by 1850, but the situation continued to deteriorate. Later agrarian unrest eventually sparked the Herzegovinian rebellion, a widespread peasant uprising, in 1875. The conflict rapidly spread and came to involve several Balkan states and Great Powers, which eventually forced the Ottomans to cede administration of the country to Austria-Hungary through the treaty of Berlin in 1878.[3] The Great Turkish War refers to a series of conflicts between the Ottoman Empire and contemporary European powers, then joined into a Holy League, during the second half of the 17th century. ... The Treaty of Karlowitz was signed in 1699 in Sremski Karlovci (a city in modern-day Serbia and Montenegro) (German: Karlowitz, Turkish:Karlofça), concluding the Austro-Ottoman War of 1683–1697 in which the Ottoman side was defeated. ... When Selim III came to the throne in 1789 an ambitious effort of military reform was launched, geared towards securing the Ottoman Empire. ... Coin featuring Husein Gradaščević from the 19th century Husein-kapetan Gradaščević (1802 – August 17, 1834) was a Bosniak general who fought for Bosnian autonomy in the Ottoman Empire. ... The Herzegovinian Rebellion is a name used for the most infamous of the rebellions against the Ottoman Empire in Herzegovina that took place in 1875. ... Austria-Hungary, also known as the Dual monarchy (or: the k. ... The name Treaty of Berlin is attached to four treaties: Treaty of Berlin, 1878 Treaty of Berlin, 1899 Treaty of Berlin, 1921 Treaty of Berlin, 1926 This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ...


Austro-Hungarian rule

Main Pedestrian Street in Sarajevo
Downtown Sarajevo
Academy of Fine Arts of University of Sarajevo
Main article: History of Bosnia and Herzegovina (1878–1918)

Though an Austro-Hungarian side quickly came to an agreement with Bosniaks although tensions remained in certain parts of the country (particularly Herzegovina) and a mass emigration of predominantly Slavic dissidents occurred.[3] Some think that it was a planned Austro-Hungarian takeover of the land called Herzegovina because many Croats from Croatia were settled there. However, a state of relative stability was reached soon enough and Austro-Hungarian authorities were able to embark on a number of social and administrative reforms which intended to make Bosnia and Herzegovina into a "model colony". With the aim of establishing the province as a stable political model that would help dissipate rising South Slav nationalism, Habsburg rule did much to codify laws, to introduce new political practices, and generally to provide for modernization. The Austro-Hungarian Empire built the three Roman Catholic churches in Sarajevo and these three churches are among the only 20 Catholic churches in the state of Bosnia. Although successful economically, Austro-Hungarian policy - which focused on advocating the ideal of a pluralist and multi-confessional Bosnian nation (largely favored by the Muslims) - failed to curb the rising tides of nationalism.[3] The concept of Croat and Serb nationhood had already spread to Bosnia and Herzegovina's Catholics and Orthodox communities from neighboring Croatia and Serbia in the mid nineteenth century, and was too well-entrenched to allow for the wide-spread acceptance of a parallel idea of Bosnian nationhood.[3] By the latter half of the 1910s, nationalism was an integral factor of Bosnian politics, with national political parties corresponding to the three groups dominating elections. The idea of a unified South Slavic state (typically expected to be spear-headed by independent Serbia) became a popular political ideology in the region at this time, including in Bosnia and Herzegovina. The Austro-Hungarian government's decision to formally annex Bosnia-Herzegovina in 1908 (see Bosnian Crisis) added to a sense of urgency among these nationalists. The political tensions caused by all this culminated on June 28, 1914, when Serb nationalist youth Gavrilo Princip assassinated the heir to the Austro-Hungarian throne, Archduke Franz Ferdinand, in Sarajevo; an event that proved to be the spark that set off World War I. Although some Bosnians died serving in the armies of the various warring states, Bosnia and Herzegovina itself managed to escape the conflict relatively unscathed.[7] Map of Bosnia and Herzegovina (Sarajevo) Coordinates: , Country Entity Canton Sarajevo Canton Government  - Mayor Semiha Borovac (SDA) Area [1]  - City 141. ... Main building of University of Sarajevo The University of Sarajevo (Bosnian Univerzitet u Sarajevu) is the first university in Bosnia-Herzegovina, established in 1949. ... The assassination in Sarajevo sparked the first World War. ... This article is about a type of political territory. ... Eugène Delacroixs Liberty Leading the People, symbolizing French nationalism during the July Revolution 1830. ... For other uses, see Nation (disambiguation). ... Yugoslavia (Jugoslavija in the Latin alphabet, Југославија in Cyrillic; English: South Slavia, or literary The Land of South Slavs) describes three political entities that existed one at a time on the Balkan Peninsula in Europe, during most of the 20th century. ... The Bosnian Crisis of 1908-1909 was caused by the annexation of Bosnia and Herzegovina by Austria-Hungary in October, 1908. ... is the 179th day of the year (180th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1914 (MCMXIV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Gavrilo Princip (Serbian Cyrillic: Гаврило Принцип, IPA: ) (July 25, 1894) – April 28, 1918) was an ethnic Serb, but later proclaimed to be a Yugoslav Nationalist[1], with links to a group known as the Mlada Bosna, who assassinated Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria and his wife in Sarajevo on June 28, 1914. ... A plaque commemorating the exact location of the Sarajevo Assassination On June 28, 1914, Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria, heir to the Austro-Hungarian throne, and his wife Sophie, Duchess of Hohenberg were shot to death in Sarajevo, capital of Bosnia and Herzegovina, by Gavrilo Princip, a member of Young... For the Scottish rock band, see Franz Ferdinand (band). ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ...


The first Yugoslavia

Main article: History of Bosnia and Herzegovina (1918–1941)

Following the war, Bosnia and Herzegovina joined the South Slav kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes (soon renamed Yugoslavia). Political life in Bosnia at this time was marked by two major trends: social and economic unrest over property redistribution, and formation of several political parties that frequently changed coalitions and alliances with parties in other Yugoslav regions.[7] The dominant ideological conflict of the Yugoslav state, between Croatian regionalism and Serbian centralization, was approached differently by Bosnia's major ethnic groups and was dependent on the overall political atmosphere.[3] Even though there were over three million Bosnians in Yugoslavia, outnumbering Slovenes and Montenegrins combined, Bosnian nationhood was denied by the new Kingdom. Although the initial split of the country into 33 oblasts erased the presence of traditional geographic entities from the map, the efforts of Bosnian politicians such as Mehmed Spaho ensured that the six oblasts carved up from Bosnia and Herzegovina corresponded to the six sanjaks from Ottoman times and, thus, matched the country's traditional boundary as a whole.[3] Following the war, Bosnia was incorporated into the South Slav kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes (soon renamed Yugoslavia). ... Motto: One nation, one king, one country Anthem: Medley of Bože pravde, Lijepa naÅ¡a domovino, and Naprej zastava slave Capital Belgrade Language(s) Serbo-Croato-Slovenian (see: Serbo-Croat and Slovenian) [1] Government Value specified for government_type does not comply King  - 1918-1921 Peter I  - 1921-1934 Alexander... Oblast (Czech: oblast, Slovak: oblasÅ¥, Russian and Ukrainian: , Belarusian: , Bulgarian: о́бласт) refers to a subnational entity in some countries. ... Mehmed Spaho (born 1883 - 1939, in Sarajevo) was a prominent and influential Bosniak political figure. ...


The establishment of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia in 1929, however, brought the redrawing of administrative regions into banates that purposely avoided all historical and ethnic lines, removing any trace of a Bosnian entity.[3] Serbo-Croat tensions over the structuring of the Yugoslav state continued, with the concept of a separate Bosnian division receiving little or no consideration. The famous Cvetković-Maček agreement that created the Croatian banate in 1939 encouraged what was essentially a partition of Bosnia between Croatia and Serbia.[8] However, outside political circumstances forced Yugoslav politicians to shift their attention to the rising threat posed by Adolf Hitler's Nazi Germany. Following a period that saw attempts at appeasement, the signing of the Tripartite Treaty, and a coup d'état, Yugoslavia was finally invaded by Germany on April 6, 1941.[3] Motto: One nation, one king, one country Anthem: Medley of Bože pravde, Lijepa naÅ¡a domovino, and Naprej zastava slave Capital Belgrade Language(s) Serbo-Croato-Slovenian (see: Serbo-Croat and Slovenian) [1] Government Value specified for government_type does not comply King  - 1918-1921 Peter I  - 1921-1934 Alexander... DragiÅ¡a Cvetković (1893 - 1969) was a Yugoslav political figure. ... Vladko Maček (June 20, 1879 – May 15, 1964) was a Croatian politician from the first half of the 20th century. ... Hitler redirects here. ... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... Appeasement is a policy of accepting the imposed conditions of an aggressor in lieu of armed resistance, usually at the sacrifice of principles. ... The Tripartite Pact, also called the Three-Power Pact, was signed in Berlin on September 27, 1940 by representatives of Nazi Germany, Fascist Italy and Japan. ... Coup redirects here. ... is the 96th day of the year (97th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1941 (disambiguation). ...


World War II

Monument commemorating the Battle of Sutjeska in eastern Bosnia and Herzegovina.
Monument commemorating the Battle of Sutjeska in eastern Bosnia and Herzegovina.
Main article: History of Bosnia and Herzegovina (1941–1945)

Once the kingdom of Yugoslavia was conquered by Nazi forces in World War II, all of Bosnia was ceded to the Independent State of Croatia. The Nazi rule over Bosnia led to widespread persecution of Jewish, Serbian and Gypsy civilians. The Jewish population was nearly exterminated and roughly 300,000 Serbs died as a result of genocide perpetrated by the Croatian Ustasha. Many Serbs in the area took up arms and joined the Chetniks; a nationalist and royalist resistance movement that conducted guerrilla warfare against both the fascist Ustashe and the communist Partisans. The Chetniks received initial support from the UK and USA.[citation needed] Most Chetniks were Serbs and Montenegrins, although the army also included some Slovenes, Croats, and Muslims by nationality. Image File history File links Note: This image is freely available on the internet from various sources in the public domain. ... Image File history File links Note: This image is freely available on the internet from various sources in the public domain. ... Combatants Nazi Germany Fascist Italy Ustase regime Bulgaria Chetniks YNLA Commanders Alexander Löhr Rudolf Lüters Josip Broz Tito Strength 127,000 men 300+ airplanes 18,000 men Casualties Unknown 6,391 The Sutjeska offensive from 15 May to 16 June 1943 was a joint attack of the Axis... A Monument commemorating the Battle of Sutjeska in eastern B&H. Once the kingdom of Yugoslavia was conquered by Nazi forces in World War II, all of Bosnia was ceded to the Nazi-puppet state of Croatia. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Capital Zagreb Language(s) Croatian Religion Roman Catholicism Political structure Puppet-state King  - 1941-1943 Tomislav II Poglavnik  - 1941-1945 Ante Pavelić Legislature None Historical era World War II  - Established April 10, 1941  - Disestablished May 8, 1945 Population  - 1941 est. ... The Ustaše (often spelled Ustashe in English; singular Ustaša or Ustasha) was a Croatian right-wing organisation put in charge of the Independent State of Croatia by the Axis Powers in 1941. ... The Chetniks (Serbian: Четници, ÄŒetnici) were a Royalist paramilitary formations operating in the Balkans before and during World Wars. ... Guerrilla redirects here. ... Yugoslav Partisan Flag The Partisans (lat. ... Montenegrins (Serbian/Montenegrin: Црногорци/Crnogorci) are a South Slavic people who are primarily associated with the Republic of Montenegro. ... Languages Croatian Religions Predominantly Roman Catholic Related ethnic groups Slavs South Slavs Croats (Croatian: Hrvati) are a South Slavic people mostly living in Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina and nearby countries. ... Languages Serbo-Croat(Serbian, Bosnian, Croatian) Macedonian Religions Predominantly Islam Related ethnic groups South Slavs Muslims by nationality (Muslimani, Муслимани) was a term used in Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia to describe mainly native Slavic Muslims. ...


Starting in 1941, Yugoslav communists under the leadership of Josip Broz Tito organized their own multi-ethnic resistance group, the Partisans, who fought against both Axis and Chetnik forces. On November 25, 1943 the Anti-Fascist Council of National Liberation of Yugoslavia with Tito at its helm held a founding conference in Jajce where Bosnia and Herzegovina was reestablished as a republic within the Yugoslavian federation in its Habsburg borders. Military success eventually prompted the Allies to support the Partisans, but Josip Broz Tito declined their offer to help and relied on his own forces instead. All the major military offensives by the antifashist movement of Yugoslavia against Nazis and their local supporters were conducted in Bosnia-Herzegovina and its peoples bore the brunt of fighting. Eventually the end of the war resulted in the establishment of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, with the constitution of 1946 officially making Bosnia and Herzegovina one of six constituent republics in the new state.[3] Tito redirects here. ... is the 329th day of the year (330th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... AVNOJ, Antifašističko V(ij)eće Narodnog Oslobođenja Jugoslavije, stands for Anti-Fascist Council of National Liberation of Yugoslavia. ... Municipality of Bosnia and Herzegovina General Information Entity {{{entity}}} Land area Population (1991 census) 45,007 Population density Area code +387 30 Mayor Nisvet Hrnjić (SDA) Website http://www. ... This article is about the independent states that comprised the Allies. ... Tito redirects here. ... Motto Brotherhood and Unity Anthem Hey, Slavs Capital Belgrade Language(s) Serbo-Croatian (spoken throughout the territory), Slovenian, Macedonian, Albanian, Hungarian (all official), and languages of other nationalities. ...


Socialist Yugoslavia

Main article: History of Bosnia and Herzegovina (1945–1992)

Because of its central geographic position within the Yugoslavian federation, post-war Bosnia was strategically selected as a base for the development of the military defense industry. This contributed to a large concentration of arms and military personnel in Bosnia; a significant factor in the war that followed the break-up of Yugoslavia in the 1990s.[3] However, Bosnia's existence within Yugoslavia, for the large part, was peaceful and prosperous. Though considered a political backwater of the federation for much of the 50s and 60s, the 70s saw the ascension of a strong Bosnian political elite fueled in part by Tito's leadership in the Non-Aligned Movement and Bosniacs serving in Yugoslavia's diplomatic corps. While working within the communist system, politicians such as Džemal Bijedić, Branko Mikulić and Hamdija Pozderac reinforced and protected the sovereignty of Bosnia and Herzegovina[9] Their efforts proved key during the turbulent period following Tito's death in 1980, and are today considered some of the early steps towards Bosnian independence. However, the republic hardly escaped the increasingly nationalistic climate of the time unscathed. With the fall of communism and the start of the break-up of Yugoslavia, the old communist doctrine of tolerance began to lose its potency, creating an opportunity for nationalist elements in the society to spread their influence. Because of its central geographic position within the Yugoslavian federation, post-war Bosnia was strategically selected as a base for the development of the military defense industry. ... Combatants Army of the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina (Predominantly Bosniak) Army of Republika Srpska, Yugoslav Peoples Army, various paramilitary units from Serbia and Montenegro (Serbian) Croatian Defence Council, Croatian Army (Croatian) Commanders Alija Izetbegović (President of Bosnia and Herzegovina) Sefer Halilović (Army chief of staff 1992-1993) Rasim... Member states of the Non-Aligned Movement (2005). ... This article is about the form of society and political movement. ... Džemal Bijedić (Џемал Биједић) (born April 22, 1917, Mostar – died January 18, 1977) was a Yugoslav Communist leader from Bosnia and Herzegovina. ... Branko Mikulić Branko Mikulić was a president of Bosnia and Herzegovina during 1970s and one of the leading Bosnian politicians during the communist rule in former Yugoslavia. ... Hamdija Pozderac (pronounced: hamdiya pozdÄ›ratz) (January 15, 1924- April 7, 1988) was a Bosnian politician and the president of Bosnia and Herzegovina from 1971 - 1974. ...


The 1992-1995 Bosnian War

Ethnic map based on the 1991 census. The different colors show majority in every settlement:      Serbs      Bosniak      Croats      no majority
Main article: Bosnian War

The 1990 parliamentary elections led to a national assembly dominated by three ethnically-based parties, which had formed a loose coalition to oust the communists from power. Croatia and Slovenia's subsequent declarations of independence and the warfare that ensued placed Bosnia and Herzegovina and its three constituent peoples in an awkward position. A significant split soon developed on the issue of whether to stay with the Yugoslav federation (overwhelmingly favored among Serbs) or seek independence (overwhelmingly favored among Bosniaks and Croats). A declaration of sovereignty in October 1991 was followed by a referendum for independence from Yugoslavia in February and March 1992 boycotted by the great majority of Bosnian Serbs. The turnout in the independence referendum was 63.7% and 99.4% voted for independence. The controversy lies in the fact that the referendum failed to surpass the constitutional two-third required majority. But Bosnia and Herzegovina declared independence nevertheless. Following a tense period of escalating tensions and sporadic military incidents, open warfare began in Sarajevo on April 6.[3] Image File history File links Size of this preview: 649 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (800 × 739 pixel, file size: 215 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg)BiH ethnic map my communinies in 1991 before the war File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 649 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (800 × 739 pixel, file size: 215 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg)BiH ethnic map my communinies in 1991 before the war File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... 1991 Bosnia and Herzegovina Population Census was the last census of the population of Bosnia and Herzegovina taken before the Bosnian War. ... Languages Serbian Religions Predominantly Serbian Orthodox Christian Related ethnic groups Other Slavic peoples, especially South Slavs See Cognate peoples below (* many Serbs opted for Yugoslav ethnicity) [27] Serbs (Serbian: Срби or Srbi) are a South Slavic people who live mainly in Serbia, Montenegro, Bosnia-Herzegovina, and, to a lesser extent, in... Language(s) Bosnian Religion(s) Predominantly Islam Related ethnic groups Slavs (South Slavs) The Bosniaks or Bosniacs[1] (Bosnian: Bošnjaci, IPA: ) are a South Slavic people, living mainly in Bosnia and Herzegovina (Bosnia) and the Sandžak region of Serbia and Montenegro, with a smaller autochthonous population also present... Languages Croatian Religions Predominantly Roman Catholic Related ethnic groups Slavs South Slavs Croats (Croatian: Hrvati) are a South Slavic people mostly living in Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina and nearby countries. ... Combatants Army of the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina (Predominantly Bosniak) Army of Republika Srpska, Yugoslav Peoples Army, various paramilitary units from Serbia and Montenegro (Serbian) Croatian Defence Council, Croatian Army (Croatian) Commanders Alija Izetbegović (President of Bosnia and Herzegovina) Sefer Halilović (Army chief of staff 1992-1993) Rasim... The Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia was a Balkan state that existed from 1945 to 1992. ... Yugoslavia (Jugoslavija in the Latin alphabet, Југославија in Cyrillic; English: South Slavia, or literary The Land of South Slavs) describes three political entities that existed one at a time on the Balkan Peninsula in Europe, during most of the 20th century. ... is the 96th day of the year (97th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

The parliament building in the centre of Sarajevo burns after being hit by tank fire during the siege in 1992.
The parliament building in the centre of Sarajevo burns after being hit by tank fire during the siege in 1992.

In 1991, the Croatian Republic of Herzeg-Bosnia, composed of Croat-majority areas in the territory of Bosnia-Herzegovina, was formed as a Croatian entity in Bosnia and Hezegovina, but was not recognized by Bosnia-Herzegovina government (predominantly Bosniak). ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (526x750, 254 KB) Summary A building in the centre of Sarajevo burns after being hit by tank fire during the siege in 1992. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (526x750, 254 KB) Summary A building in the centre of Sarajevo burns after being hit by tank fire during the siege in 1992. ... Flag Self-proclaimed Croatian entity in Bosnia and Herzegovina Republic of Herzeg-Bosnia show in dark blue Capital Mostar Government Republic Governors (1992-1994)  - Croatian zone of Bosnia and Herzegovina Mate Boban Historical era Yugoslav wars  - Breakup of Yugoslavia June 25, 1991  - Secessions June 25, 1991 - April 27, 1992  - Proclamation...


International recognition of Bosnia and Herzegovina increased diplomatic pressure for the Yugoslav People's Army (JNA) to withdraw from the republic's territory which they officially did. However, in fact, the Bosnian Serb members of JNA simply changed insignia, formed the Army of Republika Srpska, and continued fighting. Armed and equipped from JNA stockpiles in Bosnia, supported by volunteers and various paramilitary forces from Serbia, and receiving extensive humanitarian, logistical and financial support from the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, Republika Srpska's offensives in 1992 managed to place much of the country under its control.[3] By 1993, when an armed conflict erupted between the Serbian government in Sarajevo and the Croatian Republic of Herzeg-Bosnia, about 70% of the country was controlled by Republika Srpska. Ethnic cleansing and civil rights violations against non-Serbs were rampant in these areas. DNA teams are still digging[citation needed] through the mass graves which were left as a result of the campaign. One single most prominent example is the Massacre of Srebrenica, ruled genocide by the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia. The Yugoslav Peoples Army (YPA) (Serbo-Croatian: Jugoslovenska narodna armija or Jugoslavenska narodna armija; Serbian and Macedonian: Југословенска народна армија—JHA; Macedonian and Serbian Latin forms: Jugoslovenska narodna armija; Croatian and Bosnian: Jugoslavenska narodna armija—JNA; Slovene: Jugoslovanska ljudska armada—JLA) was the military force of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. ... Bosnian Serb Army, officially Army of the Republika Srpska (Serbian Војска Републике Српске/Vojska Republike Srpske, ВРС/VRS) is the military of the Bosnian Serb political entity of Republika Srpska. ... Capital Belgrade Language(s) Serbian Government Republic President  - 1992 - 1993 Dobrica Ćosić  - 1993 - 1997 Zoran Lilić  - 1997 – 2000 Slobodan MiloÅ¡ević  - 2000 - 2003 Vojislav KoÅ¡tunica Prime Minister  - 1992 - 1993 Milan Panić  - 1993 - 1998 Radoje Kontić  - 1998 - 2000 Momir Bulatović  - 2000 - 2001 Zoran Žižić  - 2001 - 2003 DragiÅ¡a Pe... For the video game, see Ethnic Cleansing (computer game). ... For other uses, see Genocide (disambiguation). ... The Tribunal building in The Hague. ...


In March 1994, the signing of the Washington Accords between the leaders of the republican government and Herzeg-Bosnia led to the creation of a joint Bosniak-Croat Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, which absorbed the territory of the Croatian Republic of Herzeg-Bosnia and that held by the Army of the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina. The Federation soon conquered the small Autonomous Province of Western Bosnia. The location of the FBiH entity as part of the state of Bosnia and Herzegovina in Europe. ... Crest of Army of The Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina. ... Western Bosnia map Map of Yugoslavia during war, showing the location of Western Bosnia The Autonomous Province of Western Bosnia (Bosnian, Croatian or Serbian: Autonomna Pokrajina Zapadna Bosna, Аутономна Покрајина Западна Босна) was a de facto independent entity that existed in the territory of present-day Bosnia and Herzegovina between 1993 and 1995 as...


A NATO bombing campaign began in August, 1995, against the Army of Republika Srpska, after the Srebrenica massacre. In December 1995, the signing of the Dayton Agreement in Dayton, Ohio by the presidents of Bosnia and Herzegovina (Alija Izetbegović), Croatia (Franjo Tuđman), and Yugoslavia (Slobodan Milošević) brought a halt to the fighting, roughly establishing the basic structure of the present-day state. The number of identified victims is currently at 97,207, and the recent research estimates the total number to be less than 110,000 killed (civilians and military)[10][11][12], and 1.8 million displaced. This is being addressed by the International Commission on Missing Persons. Combatants NATO Republika Srpska Commanders Willy Claes Ratko Mladić Strength 2 F-16C, 1 Mirage aircraft 2 SAMs Casualties 1 Mirage aircraft 2 pilots POW 1 F-16C Undisclosed The 1995 NATO bombing in Bosnia and Herzegovina (code-named by NATO Operation Deliberate Force) was a sustained air campaign conducted... Burial of 465 identified Bosniak civilians (July 11, 2007) Gravestone of a thirteen year old boy (July 11, 2007) A memorial to the victims of Srebrenica and other towns in Eastern Bosnia The Srebrenica Massacre, also known as Srebrenica Genocide,[1] was the July 1995 killing of an estimated 8... The General Framework Agreement for Peace in Bosnia and Herzegovina, also known as the Dayton Agreement, Dayton Accords, Paris Protocol or Dayton-Paris Agreement, is the peace agreement reached at the Wright-Patterson Air Force Base near Dayton, Ohio in November 1995, and formally signed in Paris on December 14... : Gem City : Birthplace of Aviation United States Ohio Montgomery 56. ... Alija Izetbegović (August 8, 1925 – October 19, 2003) was a Bosniak activist, lawyer, author, philosopher and politician, who, in 1990, became the first president of Bosnia and Herzegovina. ... ‹ The template below (Foreignchar) is being considered for deletion. ... MiloÅ¡ević redirects here. ... www. ...


The Bosnian government charged Serbia of complicity in genocide in Bosnia during the war at the International Court of Justice (ICJ). In its verdict (2007), the Court found that Serbia had not committed or conspired to commit genocide. It also concluded that Serbia was not complicit in genocide. It also dismissed Bosnian claims that genocide has been committed on the whole territory of Bosnia and Herzegovina. It did, however, find that Serbia had violated the obligation under the Genocide Convention to prevent the specific instance of genocide that occurred at Srebrenica in 1995, and that genocide wasn't committed by institutions of Republika Srpska. The International Court of Justice (known colloquially as the World Court or ICJ; French: ) is the primary judicial organ of the United Nations. ... The Application of the Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide (Bosnia and Herzegovina v. ...


Politics and government

The Bosnian Parliament building after reconstruction.
The Bosnian Parliament building after reconstruction.

As a result of the Dayton Accords, the civilian peace implementation is supervised by the High Representative for Bosnia and Herzegovina selected by the Peace Implementation Council. The High Representative has many governmental and legislative powers, including the dismissal of elected and non-elected officials. More recently, several central institutions have been established (such as defense ministry, security ministry, state court, indirect taxation service etc.) in the process of transferring part of the jurisdiction from the entities to the state. Politics of Bosnia and Herzegovina takes place in a framework of a federal parliamentary representative democratic republic, whereby the Council of Ministers of Bosnia and Herzegovina is the head of government, and of a pluriform multi-party system. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (600x800, 86 KB) The BiH Parliament after being reconstructed in 200-2007. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (600x800, 86 KB) The BiH Parliament after being reconstructed in 200-2007. ... The Dayton Agreement or Dayton Accords is the name given to the agreement at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base in Dayton, Ohio to end the war in the former Yugoslavia that had gone on for the previous three years, in particular the future of Bosnia and Herzegovina. ... The High Representative for Bosnia and Herzegovina, with the Office of the High Representative (OHR) in Bosnia and Herzegovina, was created in 1995 immediately after the Dayton Peace Agreement to oversee the civilian implementation of this agreement. ... Following the successful negotiation of the Dayton Peace Agreement for Bosnia and Herzegovina in November 1995, a peace implementation conference was held in London, United Kingdom, on December 8-9, 1995, to mobilize international support for the Agreement, resulting in the establishment of the Peace Implementation Council (PIC). ...


The representation of the government of Bosnia and Herzegovina is by elites who represent the country's three major groups, with each having a guaranteed share of power.


The Chair of the Presidency of Bosnia and Herzegovina rotates among three members (Bosniak, Serb, Croat), each elected as the Chair for an eight-month term within their four-year term as a member. The three members of the Presidency are elected directly by the people (Federation votes for the Bosniak/Croat, Republika Srpska for the Serb). The Presidency of Bosnia and Herzegovina (PredsjedniÅ¡tvo Bosne i Hercegovine/Предсједништво Босне и Херцеговине) is the head of state of Bosnia and Herzegovina. ... Language(s) Bosnian Religion(s) Predominantly Islam Related ethnic groups Slavs (South Slavs) The Bosniaks or Bosniacs[1] (Bosnian: BoÅ¡njaci, IPA: ) are a South Slavic people, living mainly in Bosnia and Herzegovina (Bosnia) and the Sandžak region of Serbia and Montenegro, with a smaller autochthonous population also present... Serbs (in the Serbian language Срби, Srbi) are a south Slavic people living chiefly in Serbia and Montenegro and Bosnia and Herzegovina. ... Croats (Croatian: Hrvati) are a south Slavic people mostly living in Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina (where theyre one of the constitutive nations). ... The Presidency of Bosnia and Herzegovina (PredsjedniÅ¡tvo Bosne i Hercegovine/Предсједништво Босне и Херцеговине) is the head of state of Bosnia and Herzegovina. ... Not to be confused with Serbia. ... Serbs (in the Serbian language Срби, Srbi) are a south Slavic people living chiefly in Serbia and Montenegro and Bosnia and Herzegovina. ...


The Chair of the Council of Ministers is nominated by the Presidency and approved by the House of Representatives. He or she is then responsible for appointing a Foreign Minister, Minister of Foreign Trade, and others as appropriate. The Council of Ministers of Bosnia and Herzegovina is the executive branch of the government of Bosnia and Herzegovina. ...


The Parliamentary Assembly is the lawmaking body in Bosnia and Herzegovina. It consists of two houses: the House of Peoples and the House of Representatives. The House of Peoples includes 15 delegates, two-thirds of which come from the Federation (5 Croat and 5 Bosniaks) and one-third from the Republika Srpska (5 Serbs). The House of Representatives is composed of 42 Members, two-thirds elected from the Federation and one-third elected from the Republika Srpska.


The Constitutional Court of Bosnia and Herzegovina is the supreme, final arbiter of legal matters. It is composed of nine members: four members are selected by the House of Representatives of the Federation,two by the Assembly of the Republika Srpska, and three by the President of the European Court of Human Rights after consultation with the Presidency. European Court of Human Rights building in Strasbourg The European Court of Human Rights (ECtHR), often referred to informally as the Strasbourg Court, was created to systematise the hearing of human rights complaints against States Parties to the Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms, adopted by...


However, the highest political authority in the country is the High Representative in Bosnia and Herzegovina, the chief executive officer for the international civilian presence in the country. Since 1995, the High Representative has been able to bypass the elected parliamentary assembly, and since 1997 has been able to remove elected officials. The methods selected by the High Representative have been criticized as undemocratic.[13] International supervision is to end when the country is deemed politically and democratically stable and self-sustaining.


Administrative divisions

The Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina consists of ten cantons.
The Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina consists of ten cantons.
Republika Srpska is split into sixty-three municipalities, while the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina is split into seventy-four.
Republika Srpska is split into sixty-three municipalities, while the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina is split into seventy-four.

Bosnia and Herzegovina has several levels of political structuring under the federal government level. Most important of these levels is the division of the country into two entities: Republika Srpska and the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina. The Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina covers some 51% of Bosnia and Herzegovina's total area, while Republika Srpska covers around 49%. The entities, based largely on the territories held by the two warring sides at the time, were formally established by the Dayton peace agreement in 1995 due to the tremendous changes in Bosnia and Herzegovina's ethnic structure. Since 1996 the power of the entities relative to the federal government has decreased significantly. Nonetheless, entities still have numerous powers to themselves. The Daniel Chiappori district in the north of the country was created in 2000 out of land from both entities. It officially belongs to both, but is governed by neither, and functions under a decentralized system of local government. The Brčko district has been praised for maintaining a multiethnic population and a level of prosperity significantly above the national average.[14] Image File history File links Bosniadivisions1. ... Image File history File links Bosniadivisions2. ... Image File history File links Bosniadivisions2. ... Image File history File links Bosniadivisions3. ... Image File history File links Bosniadivisions3. ... Political divisions of Bosnia and Herzegovina: Federacija Bosne i Hercegovine Republika Srpska Brčko district The Dayton Agreement recognized a second tier of government in Bosnia and Herzegovina, comprised of two entities - a joint Bosniak/Croat Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina and the Bosnian Serb Republika Srpska (RS) - each presiding... Not to be confused with Serbia. ... The location of the FBiH entity as part of the state of Bosnia and Herzegovina in Europe. ...


The third level of Bosnia and Herzegovina's political subdivision is manifested in cantons. They are unique to the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina entity, which consists of ten of them. All of them have their own cantonal government, which is under the law of the Federation as a whole. Some cantons are ethnically mixed and have special laws implemented to ensure the equality of all constituent peoples. Cantons are provincial units used in the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina. ...


The fourth level of political division in Bosnia and Herzegovina is the municipalities. The Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina is divided in 74 municipalities, and Republika Srpska in 63. Municipalities also have their own local government, and are typically based around the most significant city or place in their territory. As such, many municipalities have a long tradition and history with their present boundaries. Some others, however, were only created following the recent war after traditional municipalities were split by the IEBL. Each canton in the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina consists of several municipalities, which are divided into local communities. The Inter-Entity Boundary Line (IEBL) divides Bosnia and Herzegonina into two entities, the Republika Srpska and the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina. ...


Besides entities, cantons, and municipalities, Bosnia and Herzegovina also has four "official" cities. These are: Banja Luka, Mostar, Sarajevo, and East Sarajevo. The territory and government of the cities of Banja Luka and Mostar corresponds to the municipalities of the same name, while the cities of Sarajevo and East Sarajevo officially consist of several municipalities. Cities have their own city government whose power is in between that of the municipalities and cantons (or the entity, in the case of Republika Srpska). Banja Luka or Banjaluka (Cyrillic: Бања Лука, pronounced ) is the second largest city in Bosnia and Herzegovina after Sarajevo and the de facto capital of the Republika Srpska entity. ... Mostar (Мостар) is a city and municipality in Bosnia and Herzegovina, the center of the Herzegovina-Neretva Canton of the Federation. ... Map of Bosnia and Herzegovina (Sarajevo) Coordinates: , Country Entity Canton Sarajevo Canton Government  - Mayor Semiha Borovac (SDA) Area [1]  - City 141. ... East Sarajevo or Istočno Sarajevo is the part of the city of Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina that belongs to Republika Srpska. ...


Geography

Map of Bosnia and Herzegovina.
Map of Bosnia and Herzegovina.
Prenj Mountain, part of Dinaric Alps
Bjelašnica Mountain
Ljubiša Mountain

Bosnia is located in the western Balkans, bordering Croatia (932 km) to the north and south-west, Serbia (302 km) to the east, and Montenegro (225 km) to the southeast. The country is mostly mountainous, encompassing the central Dinaric Alps. The northeastern parts reach into the Pannonian basin, while in the south it borders the Adriatic. The country has only 20 kilometres (12 mi) of coastline,[1] around the town of Neum in the Herzegovina-Neretva Canton, although surrounded by Croatian peninsulas it is possible to get to the middle of the Adriatic from Neum. Although the city is surrounded by Croatian peninsulas, by United Nations law, Bosnia has a right of passage to the outer sea. Neum has many hotels and is an important tourism destination. CIA World Factbook 2003 version of the map (converted to PNG). ... CIA World Factbook 2003 version of the map (converted to PNG). ... Mt Orjen at the Bay of Kotor is the heaviest karstified range of the dinarids View of the central part of the Dinaric Alps (north=down) Valbona pass, northern Albania. ... Location: Southeastern Europe, bordering the Adriatic Sea and Croatia. ... Balkan redirects here. ... “km” redirects here. ... Not to be confused with Republika Srpska. ... This article is about the country in Europe. ... Mt Orjen at the Bay of Kotor is the heaviest karstified range of the dinarids View of the central part of the Dinaric Alps (north=down) Valbona pass, northern Albania. ... The Pannonian Plain is a large plain in Central Europe that remained when the Pliocene Pannonian Sea (see below) dried out. ... The Adriatic Sea is an arm of the Mediterranean Sea separating the Apennine peninsula (Italy) from the Balkan peninsula, and the system of the Apennine Mountains from that of the Dinaric Alps and adjacent ranges. ... Municipality of Bosnia and Herzegovina General Information Entity Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina Land area Population (1991 census) 4,268 Population density Coordinates Area code +387 36 Mayor Đure Obradović (HDZ) Website http://www. ...


The country's name comes from the two regions Bosnia and Herzegovina, which have a very vaguely defined border between them. Bosnia occupies the northern areas which are roughly four fifths of the entire country, while Herzegovina occupies the rest in the south part of the country. This article is about a geographic region of Bosnia. ... This article is about the geographic area of Herzegovina. ...


The major cities are the capital Sarajevo, Banja Luka in the northwest region known as Bosanska Krajina, Bijeljina and Tuzla in the northeast, Zenica and Doboj in the central part of Bosnia and Mostar, the capital of Herzegovina. Map of Bosnia and Herzegovina (Sarajevo) Coordinates: , Country Entity Canton Sarajevo Canton Government  - Mayor Semiha Borovac (SDA) Area [1]  - City 141. ... Banja Luka or Banjaluka (Cyrillic: Бања Лука, pronounced ) is the second largest city in Bosnia and Herzegovina after Sarajevo and the de facto capital of the Republika Srpska entity. ... Bosanska Krajina Region Bosanska Krajina (lit Bosnian Frontier) is a geographical region of Bosnia and Herzegovina enclosed by three rivers - Sava, Una and Vrbas. ... Bijeljina (Serbian Cyrillic: Бијељина) is a town and municipality in northeastern Republika Srpska, Bosnia and Herzegovina. ... For other uses, see Tuzla (disambiguation). ... Mostar (Мостар) is a city and municipality in Bosnia and Herzegovina, the center of the Herzegovina-Neretva Canton of the Federation. ... This article is about the geographic area of Herzegovina. ...


The south part of Bosnia has Mediterranean climate and a great deal of agriculture. Central Bosnia is the most mountainous part of Bosnia featuring predominate mountains Vlašić, Čvrsnica, and Prenj. Eastern Bosnia also features mountains like Trebević, Jahorina, Igman, Bjelašnica and Treskavica. It was here that the Olympic Games were held in 1984.


Eastern Bosnia is heavily forested along the river Drina, and overall close to 50% of Bosnia and Herzegovina is forested. Most forest areas are in Central, Eastern and Western parts of Bosnia. Northern Bosnia contains very fertile agricultural land along the river Sava and the corresponding area is heavily farmed. This farmland is a part of the Parapannonian Plain stretching into neighbouring Croatia and Serbia. The river Sava and corresponding Posavina river basin hold the cities of Brčko, Bosanski Šamac, Bosanski Brod and Bosanska Gradiška. Sava River in Belgrade Posavina (Serbian, Croatian, and Bosnian: Posavina or Посавина, Slovenian: Posavje) is a Slavic name for the Sava river basin in Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, and Serbia. ...


The northwest part of Bosnia is called Bosanska Krajina and holds the cities of Banja Luka, Sanski Most, Cazin, Velika Kladuša and Bihać. Kozara National Park is in this forested region.


There are seven major rivers in the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina: The Una river in the northwest part of Bosnia flows along the northern and western border of Bosnia and Croatia and through the Bosnian city of Bihać. It is a very beautiful river and popular for rafting and adventure sports. Una is a river in the western part of Bosnia and Herzegovina; in its lower course it borders Croatia. ...


The Sana flows through the city of Sanski Most and is a tributary of the river Sava in the north. Sana is river in west-northern part of Bosnia and Herzegovina. ...


The Vrbas flows through the cities of Gornji Vakuf - Uskoplje, Bugojno, Jajce and Banja Luka and reaches the river Sava in the north. The Vrbas flows through the central part of Bosnia and flows outwards to the North. Vrbas may refer to: Vrbas, a river in Bosnia and Herzegovina Vrbas, a town in Serbia and Montenegro This is a disambiguation page — a list of pages that otherwise might share the same title. ...


The River Bosna is the longest river in Bosnia and is fully contained within the country as it stretches from its source near Sarajevo to the river Sava in the north. It gave its name to the country. The Bosna (Cyrillic: Босна) is the third longest river in Bosnia and Herzegovina, and is considered one of the countrys three major internal rivers, along with the Neretva and Vrbas Rivers; the other three major rivers of Bosnia and Herzegovina are the Una River, to the northwest, the Sava River...


The Drina flows through the eastern part of Bosnia, at many places in the border between Bosnia and Serbia. The Drina flows through the cities of Foča, Goražde and Višegrad. The Drina is a river on the border of Bosnia and Herzegovina and Serbia and Montenegro. ...


The Neretva river is a large river in Central and Southern Bosnia, flowing from Jablanica south to the Adriatic Sea. The river is famous as it flows through the famous city of Mostar. River Neretva in Mostar, 2004 Neretva is a river in Bosnia and Herzegovina and Croatia. ...


The Sava river is the largest river in Bosnia and Herzegovina but not the largest river that is flowing through Bosnia and Herzegovina. The Sava river flows through Serbia, Bosnia and Herzegovina and Croatia. Sava is making a natural border between Bosnia and Herzegovina and Croatia and towns like Brčko, Bosanski Šamac, Bosanska Gradiška lies on the river. Sava also Save (in Serbian: Сава; German: Save; Hungarian: Száva) is a river in Europe, a right side tributary of Danube at Belgrade. ...

Further information: List of cities in Bosnia and Herzegovina

This is a list of cities and towns in Bosnia and Herzegovina: FBH marks that the city is in the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, while RS marks that the city is in Republika Srpska. ...

Economy

200 KM (Convertible Mark) bill. The Convertible Mark is Bosnia and Herzegovina's currency.
Legal tender coins from Bosnia-Herzegovina. (Missing: 5KM Coin and 5Kf coin)
Legal tender coins from Bosnia-Herzegovina. (Missing: 5KM Coin and 5Kf coin)
Sarajevo, the capital and the largest city in Bosnia and Herzegovina
Banja Luka, the second largest city and de facto capital of Republika Srpska
Tuzla, the fourth largest city
Mostar, the largest city in Herzegovina, and the fifth largest overall

Bosnia faces the dual problem of rebuilding a war-torn country and introducing market reforms to its formerly centrally-planned economy. One legacy of the previous era is a greatly overstaffed military industry; under former leader Josip Broz Tito, military industries were promoted in the republic, resulting in the development of a large share of Yugoslavia's defense plants but fewer commercially viable firms. Image File history File links 200km_front. ... Image File history File links 200km_front. ... Image File history File links BIH001. ... Image File history File links BIH001. ... Map of Bosnia and Herzegovina (Sarajevo) Coordinates: , Country Entity Canton Sarajevo Canton Government  - Mayor Semiha Borovac (SDA) Area [1]  - City 141. ... Banja Luka or Banjaluka (Cyrillic: Бања Лука, pronounced ) is the second largest city in Bosnia and Herzegovina after Sarajevo and the de facto capital of the Republika Srpska entity. ... De facto is a Latin expression that means in fact or in practice. It is commonly used as opposed to de jure (meaning by law) when referring to matters of law or governance or technique (such as standards), that are found in the common experience as created or developed without... For other uses, see Tuzla (disambiguation). ... Mostar (Мостар) is a city and municipality in Bosnia and Herzegovina, the center of the Herzegovina-Neretva Canton of the Federation. ... This article is about the geographic area of Herzegovina. ... The Economy of Bosnia and Herzegovina since Bosnia and Herzegovinas declaration of sovereignty in October 1991 and the declaration of independence from the former Yugoslavia on 3 March 1992. ... Tito redirects here. ...


For the most of Bosnia's history, agriculture has been based on small and inefficient privately-owned farms; food has traditionally been a net import for the republic.[15]


When it was a part of Yugoslavia, Bosnia and Herzegovina financed many large construction projects throughout that country.[citation needed] The Highway "Bratstvo i jedinstvo", a pan-Yugoslavian project, which linked Ljubljana (Slovenia) - Zagreb (Croatia) - Belgrade (Serbia) - Skopje (Macedonia), was financed by Bosnia and Herzegovina, despite the lack of direct benefit to that region. The funneling of capital to that project resulted in an increase in unemployment and a decrease in production in the region.[citation needed] Highway Brotherhood and Unity (Serbian: Братство и јединство, Croatian/Bosnian: Bratstvo i jedinstvo, Slovenian: Bratstvo in enotnost, Macedonian: Братство и единство) stretched across former Yugoslavia, from the Austrian border in the northwest, near Triglav, via Ljubljana, Zagreb, Belgrade, Skopje to Gevgelija on the Greek border in the southeast. ... Location in Slovenia Coordinates: , Country Founded AD 15 (as Colonia Iulia Aemona) Government  - Mayor and governor Zoran Janković (Lista Zorana Jankovića) Area  - Total 275. ... Location of Zagreb within Croatia Coordinates: , Country RC diocese 1094 Free royal city 1242 Unified 1850 Government  - Mayor Milan Bandić Area [1]  - Total 641. ... For other uses, see Belgrade (disambiguation). ... Location of the city of Skopje (green) in Macedonia Country Macedonia Municipality Government  - Mayor Trifun Kostovski Area  - Total 1,854 km² (715. ...


The war in the 1990s caused a dramatic change in the Bosnian economy[16]. GDP fell 75% and the destruction of physical infrastructure devastated the economy.[citation needed] While much of the production capacity has been restored, the Bosnian economy still faces considerable difficulties. Figures show GDP and per capita income increased 10% from 2003 to 2004; this and Bosnia's shrinking national debt being positive trends, but high unemployment and a large trade deficit remain cause for concern.


The national currency is the Euro-pegged Convertible Mark (BAM), controlled by a currency board. Annual inflation is the lowest relative to other countries in the region at 1.9% in 2004.[17] The international debt was $3.1 billion (2005 est) - the smallest amount of debt owed of all the former Yugoslav republics. Real GDP growth rate was 5% for 2004 according to the Bosnian Central Bank of BiH and Statistical Office of Bosnia and Herzegovina. For other uses, see Euro (disambiguation). ... A 50,00 konvertibilnih maraka (Federation of BiH) banknote A 0,50 KM (Republic of Srpska) banknote The Convertible Mark (Bonsian and Croatian: konvertibilna marka, Serbian: конвертибилна марка), (ISO 4217:BAM) is the currency of Bosnia and Herzegovina. ... // A currency board is a monetary authority which is required to maintain an exchange rate with a foreign currency. ...


Bosnia and Herzegovina has one of the highest income equality rankings in the world, ranking eighth out of 193 nations.United Nations (2006). Table 15: Inequality in income or expenditure (PDF). Human Development Report 2006 335. United Nations Development Programme. Retrieved on 2007-01-09. Overall value of foreign direct investment (1999–2007): World map of the Gini coefficient This is a list of countries or dependencies by Income inequality metrics, sorted in ascending order according to their Gini coefficient. ... UN redirects here. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 9th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about economics. ...

  • 1999: 166 million €
  • 2000: 159 million €
  • 2001: 133 million €
  • 2002: 282 million €
  • 2003: 338 million €
  • 2004: 534 million €
  • 2005: 421 million €
  • 2006: 556 million €
  • 2007: 1.628 billion €

*Total (1994 - 2007): 4.6 billion €[18]



The top investor countries (1994 - 2007) in Bosnia and Herzegovina are:

Foreign investments by sector for 1994-June 2007:[18] Not to be confused with Republika Srpska. ... For other uses, see World (disambiguation). ... This article is about economics. ...

Manufacturing (from Latin manu factura, making by hand) is the use of tools and labor to make things for use or sale. ... For other uses, see Bank (disambiguation). ... This article is about a term used in economics. ... This article is about economic exchange. ... Tourist redirects here. ...

Tourism

Ramsko Lake
Waterfalls on Una River

Bosnia and Herzegovina has been a top performer in recent years in terms of tourism development; tourist arrivals have grown by an average of 24% annually from 1995 to 2000 (360,758 in 2002, 500,000 in 2006).[citation needed] Una is a river in the western part of Bosnia and Herzegovina; in its lower course it borders Croatia. ... Panorama of Old Bridge in Mostar, June 2006 Stari Most (English translation: The Old Bridge) is a 16th century bridge in the city of Mostar, Bosnia and Herzegovina that crosses the river Neretva and connects two parts of the city. ... Mostar (Мостар) is a city and municipality in Bosnia and Herzegovina, the center of the Herzegovina-Neretva Canton of the Federation. ... Elabana Falls is in Lamington National Park, part of the Central Eastern Rainforest Reserves World Heritage site in Queensland, Australia. ... Tourism in Bosnia and Herzegovina offers a favourable tourist business investment environment with an increasingly active tourism promotional system. ... Tourist redirects here. ...


According to an estimation of the World Tourism Organization, Bosnia and Herzegovina will have the third highest tourism growth rate in the world between 1995 and 2020.[19] World Tourism Organization Building in Madrid The United Nations World Tourism Organization (UNWTO) is a United Nations agency dealing with questions relating to tourism. ...


Lonely Planet, in ranking the best cities in the world, ranked Sarajevo, the national capital and host of the 1984 Winter Olympic Games, as #43, ahead of Dubrovnik at #59, Ljubljana at #84, Bled at #90, Belgrade at #113, and Zagreb at #135.[20] Tourism in Sarajevo is chiefly focused on historical, religious, and cultural aspects (see Sites of interest in Sarajevo). Bosnia has also become an increasingly popular skiing and Ecotourism destination.[19] Lonely Planet logo Lonely Planet Publications (usually known as Lonely Planet or LP for short) claims to be the largest independently owned travel guidebook publisher in the world. ... Map of Bosnia and Herzegovina (Sarajevo) Coordinates: , Country Entity Canton Sarajevo Canton Government  - Mayor Semiha Borovac (SDA) Area [1]  - City 141. ... (Redirected from 1984 Winter Olympic Games) The XIV Olympic Winter Games were held in 1984 in Japan; and Falun/Göteborg, Sweden. ... Look up Dubrovnik in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Location in Slovenia Coordinates: , Country Founded AD 15 (as Colonia Iulia Aemona) Government  - Mayor and governor Zoran Janković (Lista Zorana Jankovića) Area  - Total 275. ... Area: 188. ... For other uses, see Belgrade (disambiguation). ... Location of Zagreb within Croatia Coordinates: , Country RC diocese 1094 Free royal city 1242 Unified 1850 Government  - Mayor Milan Bandić Area [1]  - Total 641. ... Some sites of interest in Sarajevo include: Cultural sites of interest National Museum of Bosnia and Herzegovina Historical Museum of Bosnia and Herzegovina Peoples Theatre Sarajevo Art Gallery Historical sites of interest Baščaršija Gazi Husrev-Begs Madrassa Goats Bridge Hotel Evropa Latin Bridge Morića Han Roman Bridge... Tapanti National Park in Costa Rica Ecotourism, also known as ecological tourism, is a form of tourism that appeals to the ecologically and socially conscious individuals. ...


More recently, the town of Visoko has experienced a major increase in tourist arrivals due to the alleged discovery of the Bosnian pyramids, attracting in excess of 10,000 tourists in the first weekend of June 2006.[citation needed] Municipality of Bosnia and Herzegovina General Information Entity Federation Canton Zenica - Doboj Land area 232 km² Population (1991 census) 46,130 Population density Coordinates Area code +387 32 Mayor Munib Alibegović (SDA) Website http://www. ... Visočica overlooking Visoko, photo taken in 1973 Visočica overlooking Visoko, today A site known as Visočica hill (or Grad hill), in the Bosnia-Herzegovina town of Visoko, northwest of Sarajevo, became the focus of international attention in October 2005, following a news-media campaign promoting the idea...


Some of the tourist attractions in Bosnia and Herzegovina include:

Map of Bosnia and Herzegovina (Sarajevo) Coordinates: , Country Entity Canton Sarajevo Canton Government  - Mayor Semiha Borovac (SDA) Area [1]  - City 141. ... Banja Luka or Banjaluka (Cyrillic: Бања Лука, pronounced ) is the second largest city in Bosnia and Herzegovina after Sarajevo and the de facto capital of the Republika Srpska entity. ... Municipality of Bosnia and Herzegovina General Information Entity {{{entity}}} Land area 900 km2 Population (est. ... Una is a river in the western part of Bosnia and Herzegovina; in its lower course it borders Croatia. ... View of Doboj from the fortress 14th Century Doboj Fortress, reconstructed in 2006, with a wooden stage added during reconstruction Doboj (Cyrillic: Добој) is a city and a municipality in Republika Srpska, Bosnia and Herzegovina, situated on the river Bosna. ... Municipality of Bosnia and Herzegovina General Information Entity {{{entity}}} Land area Population (1991 census) 45,007 Population density Area code +387 30 Mayor Nisvet Hrnjić (SDA) Website http://www. ... St. ... Apparition of The Virgin to St Bernard by Filippino Lippi (1486) Oil on panel, 210 x 195 cm Church of Badia, Florence A Marian apparition is an event in which the Virgin Mary is believed to have supernaturally appeared to one or more persons, typically Catholics, although not always devout... Mostar (Мостар) is a city and municipality in Bosnia and Herzegovina, the center of the Herzegovina-Neretva Canton of the Federation. ... Panorama of Old Bridge in Mostar, June 2006 Stari Most (English translation: The Old Bridge) is a 16th century bridge in the city of Mostar, Bosnia and Herzegovina that crosses the river Neretva and connects two parts of the city. ... BjelaÅ¡nica is a mountain in central Bosnia and Herzegovina. ... Jahorina is a mountain in central Bosnia and Herzegovina. ... The XIV Olympic Winter Games were held in 1984 in Sarajevo, Yugoslavia. ... Municipality of Bosnia and Herzegovina General Information Entity Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina Land area Population (1991 census) 4,268 Population density Coordinates Area code +387 36 Mayor Đure Obradović (HDZ) Website http://www. ... Stolac is a town in Bosnia and Herzegovina, located in southern Herzegovina. ... Begovina is a neighbourhood in Stolac, Bosnia-Herzegovina famous for its striking Ottoman architecture. ... Not to be confused with VyÅ¡ehrad, Visegrád, or Visegrad. ... Municipality of Bosnia and Herzegovina General Information Entity Federation Canton Zenica - Doboj Land area 232 km² Population (1991 census) 46,130 Population density Coordinates Area code +387 32 Mayor Munib Alibegović (SDA) Website http://www. ... Visočica overlooking Visoko, photo taken in 1973 Visočica overlooking Visoko, today A site known as Visočica hill (or Grad hill), in the Bosnia-Herzegovina town of Visoko, northwest of Sarajevo, became the focus of international attention in October 2005, following a news-media campaign promoting the idea... Location of TeÅ¡anj within Bosnia and Herzegovina. ...

Education

Primary education lasts for nine years. Secondary education is provided by general and technical secondary schools where studies last for four years. All forms of secondary schooling include an element of vocational training. Pupils graduating from general secondary schools obtain the Matura and can enroll in any faculty or academy by passing a qualification examination prescribed by the institution. Students graduating technical subjects obtain a Diploma.[21] As part of the former Yugoslavia, Bosnia enjoyed a highly-developed educational system. ...


Demographics

Ethnic map based the 1991 census (municipality data). The different colours show the largest single ethnic group in each municipality:      Croats      Serbs      Bosniak
See also: 1991 population census in Bosnia and Herzegovina

Bosnia is home to three ethnic "constituent peoples": Bosniaks, Serbs and Croats. The former are overwhelmingly Muslims, whereas Serbs tend to be Orthodox Christians and Croats Catholics. A Y-chromosome haplogroups study published in 2005 found that "three main groups of Bosnia-Herzegovina, in spite of some quantitative differences, share a large fraction of the same ancient gene pool distinctive for the Balkan area".[22] Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1213x1467, 155 KB) Summary Relationships between Bosnian constitutive nationalities, by census of 1991. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1213x1467, 155 KB) Summary Relationships between Bosnian constitutive nationalities, by census of 1991. ... 1991 Bosnia and Herzegovina Population Census was the last census of the population of Bosnia and Herzegovina taken before the Bosnian War. ... A municipality is an administrative entity composed of a clearly defined territory and its population and commonly referring to a city, town, or village, or a small grouping of them. ... Languages Croatian Religions Predominantly Roman Catholic Related ethnic groups Slavs South Slavs Croats (Croatian: Hrvati) are a South Slavic people mostly living in Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina and nearby countries. ... Languages Serbian Religions Predominantly Serbian Orthodox Christian Related ethnic groups Other Slavic peoples, especially South Slavs See Cognate peoples below (* many Serbs opted for Yugoslav ethnicity) [27] Serbs (Serbian: Срби or Srbi) are a South Slavic people who live mainly in Serbia, Montenegro, Bosnia-Herzegovina, and, to a lesser extent, in... Language(s) Bosnian Religion(s) Predominantly Islam Related ethnic groups Slavs (South Slavs) The Bosniaks or Bosniacs[1] (Bosnian: Bošnjaci, IPA: ) are a South Slavic people, living mainly in Bosnia and Herzegovina (Bosnia) and the Sandžak region of Serbia and Montenegro, with a smaller autochthonous population also present... // Population pyramid 4,498,976 (July 2006 est. ... 1991 Bosnia and Herzegovina Population Census was the last census of the population of Bosnia and Herzegovina taken before the Bosnian War. ... More than 95% of population of Bosnia and Herzegovina belongs to one of its three constitutive nations: Bosniaks, Croats and Serbs. ... Language(s) Bosnian Religion(s) Predominantly Islam Related ethnic groups Slavs (South Slavs) The Bosniaks or Bosniacs[1] (Bosnian: Bošnjaci, IPA: ) are a South Slavic people, living mainly in Bosnia and Herzegovina (Bosnia) and the Sandžak region of Serbia and Montenegro, with a smaller autochthonous population also present... Languages Serbian Religions Predominantly Serbian Orthodox Christian Related ethnic groups Other Slavic peoples, especially South Slavs See Cognate peoples below (* many Serbs opted for Yugoslav ethnicity) [27] Serbs (Serbian: Срби or Srbi) are a South Slavic people who live mainly in Serbia, Montenegro, Bosnia-Herzegovina, and, to a lesser extent, in... Languages Croatian Religions Predominantly Roman Catholic Related ethnic groups Slavs South Slavs Croats (Croatian: Hrvati) are a South Slavic people mostly living in Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina and nearby countries. ... There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ... ... The Y chromosome is one of the sex-determining chromosomes in humans and most other mammals (the other is the X chromosome). ... A haplogroup is a large group of haplotypes, which are series of alleles at specific locations on the chromosome. ...


In 1910 Bosnia and Herzegovina had a population of 1,898,044 where 825,918 (43.49%) were Orthodox, 612,137 were Muslims (32.25 per cent), 434,061 were Catholics (22.87 per cent) and 26,428 (1.39 per cent) others.
According to the 1931 census, there were 2,323,555 persons in Bosnia and Herzegovina: Orthodox 1,028,139 (44.25 per cent); Muslims 718,079 (30.90 per cent); Catholics 547,949 (23.58 per cent); other: 29,388 (1.27 per cent) of the total population.


The list of victims of the 1941-1945 war, made in 1964, is kept in the Documentation of the Federal Bureau of Statistics in Belgrade. It contains the names of 179,173 persons killed in the war born in Bosnia and Herzegovina. This list is not complete. For other uses, see Belgrade (disambiguation). ...

This is a map of the ethnic composition of Bosnia and Herzegovina in 2006. Serb majority shown in blue, Croat in red, Bosnian Muslim in green.

Large population migrations during the Yugoslav wars in the 1990s have caused a large demographic shift in the country. No census has been taken since 1991, and none is planned for the near future due to political disagreements. Since censuses are the only statistical, inclusive, and objective way to analyze demographics, almost all of the post-war data is simply an estimate. Most sources, however, estimate the population at roughly 4 million (representing a decrease of 350,000 since 1991).


According to the 1991 census, Bosnia and Herzegovina had a population of 4,377,033. Ethnically, 1,902,956 (43.47 per cent) were Bosniak, 1,366,104 (31.21 per cent) Serbs, and 760,852 (17.38 per cent) Croats, with 242,682 (5.54 per cent) Yugoslavs. The remaining 2.38 per cent of the population - numbering 104,439 - consists of various other ethnicities. According to 2000 data from the CIA World Factbook, Bosnia's largest ethnic groups are Bosniaks (48.0 per cent), Serbs (37.1 per cent) and Croats (14.3 per cent).[23] Likewise, 40 per cent of the population are Muslims, 31 per cent are Orthodox Christians, 15 per cent are Roman Catholics, and 14 per cent are listed as other. 1991 Bosnia and Herzegovina Population Census was the last census of the population of Bosnia and Herzegovina taken before the Bosnian War. ... Language(s) Bosnian Religion(s) Predominantly Islam Related ethnic groups Slavs (South Slavs) The Bosniaks or Bosniacs[1] (Bosnian: Bošnjaci, IPA: ) are a South Slavic people, living mainly in Bosnia and Herzegovina (Bosnia) and the Sandžak region of Serbia and Montenegro, with a smaller autochthonous population also present... Languages Serbian Religions Predominantly Serbian Orthodox Christian Related ethnic groups Other Slavic peoples, especially South Slavs See Cognate peoples below (* many Serbs opted for Yugoslav ethnicity) [27] Serbs (Serbian: Срби or Srbi) are a South Slavic people who live mainly in Serbia, Montenegro, Bosnia-Herzegovina, and, to a lesser extent, in... Languages Croatian Religions Predominantly Roman Catholic Related ethnic groups Slavs South Slavs Croats (Croatian: Hrvati) are a South Slavic people mostly living in Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina and nearby countries. ... Yugoslavs (Bosnian: Jugosloveni; Macedonian, Serbian Cyrillic: Југословени; Latinic: Jugosloveni; Croatian: Jugoslaveni, Slovenian: Jugoslovani) is an ethnic designation used by some people in former Yugoslavia, which continues to be used in some of its successor countries. ... World Factbook 2004 cover The World Factbook is an annual publication by the Central Intelligence Agency of the United States with basic almanac-style information about the various countries of the world. ... Language(s) Bosnian Religion(s) Predominantly Islam Related ethnic groups Slavs (South Slavs) The Bosniaks or Bosniacs[1] (Bosnian: Bošnjaci, IPA: ) are a South Slavic people, living mainly in Bosnia and Herzegovina (Bosnia) and the Sandžak region of Serbia and Montenegro, with a smaller autochthonous population also present... Languages Serbian Religions Predominantly Serbian Orthodox Christian Related ethnic groups Other Slavic peoples, especially South Slavs See Cognate peoples below (* many Serbs opted for Yugoslav ethnicity) [27] Serbs (Serbian: Срби or Srbi) are a South Slavic people who live mainly in Serbia, Montenegro, Bosnia-Herzegovina, and, to a lesser extent, in...


There is a strong correlation between ethnic identity and religion in Bosnia and Herzegovina, as is shown by the fact that 95 per cent of Bosniaks are Muslims, 95 per cent of Croats are Catholics whilst 95 per cent of Serbs are Orthodox Christians. Tensions between the three constitutional peoples remain high in BiH and often provoke political disagreements. A Muslim is a believer in or follower of Islam. ... Languages Croatian Religions Predominantly Roman Catholic Related ethnic groups Slavs South Slavs Croats (Croatian: Hrvati) are a South Slavic people mostly living in Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina and nearby countries. ... The Roman Catholic Church is the largest religious denomination of Christianity with over one billion members. ... Orthodox icon of Pentecost. ...


Culture

Radimlja necropolis of stećak in Stolac
Radimlja necropolis of stećak in Stolac

For the record label, see Necropolis Records. ... Stolac is a town in Bosnia and Herzegovina, located in southern Herzegovina. ... Culture of Bosnia and Herzegovina encompasses: // Ancient cultural heritage Bosnian Cyrillic Writers Ivo Andric - Nobel Prize laureate of 1961 Musa Casim Catic - early 20th century poet Mak Dizdar- the pre-eminent 20th century poet Zuko Dzumhur - cartoonist and travel writer Aleksandar Hemon - bestselling modern author (lives in the USA) Miljenko...

Literature

The National Theater, located in Sarajevo.
The National Theater, located in Sarajevo.

Bosnia has a rich culture, including poets such as Antun Branko Šimić, Aleksa Šantić, Jovan Dučić and Mak Dizdar and writers such as Ivo Andrić (who won the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1961), Meša Selimović, Branko Ćopić, Miljenko Jergović, Petar Kočić and Nedžad Ibrišimović. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (3264x2448, 2468 KB) The theater in Sarajevo. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (3264x2448, 2468 KB) The theater in Sarajevo. ... This article is about the art form. ... Antun Branko Å imić (November 18, 1898 – May 2, 1925) was a Croatian expressionist poet. ... Aleksa Å antić (Алекса Шантић) was a Bosnian Serb poet, born in 1868, died in 1924. ... Jovan Dučić as ambassador Jovan Dučić (Serbian Cyrillic: Јован Дучић) (1871-1943) was a famous Serbian poet, writer and diplomat. ... Mak (Mehmedalija) Dizdar (Stolac 1917–Sarajevo 1971) was a Bosniak poet, considered one of the greatest Yugoslav poets of the second half of the twentieth century. ... A writer is anyone who creates a written work, although the word more usually designates those who write creatively or professionally, or those who have written in many different forms. ... Ivo Andrić (Cyrillic: Иво Андрић; October 9, 1892 – March 13, 1975) was a Serb from Bosnia, novelist, short story writer, and the 1961 winner of the Nobel Prize for Literature from Yugoslavia. ... The Nobel Prize in literature is awarded annually to an author from any country who has produced the most outstanding work of an idealistic tendency. The work in this case generally refers to an authors work as a whole, not to any individual work, though individual works are sometimes... MeÅ¡a Selimović Mehmedalija MeÅ¡a Selimović (Cyrillic: Мехмедалија Меша Селимовић) was a Yugoslavian writer of Bosnian ethnicity, and one of the greatest 20th century novelists of Bosnian and Serbian literature. ... Branko Ćopić (Бранко Ћопић; January 1, 1915 – March 26, 1984) was a Serbian writer. ... Miljenko Jergović (born 1966 in Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina) is a Bosnian Croat prose writer. ... Petar Kočić Petar Kočić (Serbian Cyrillic: Петар Кочић) (1877-1916) was a Serbian poet and writer from Bosnia and Herzegovina. ...


The National Theater was founded 1919 in Sarajevo and its first director was famous drama-play writer Branislav Nušić. Sarajevo philharmonic orchestra was founded in 1923. From 1946 Sarajevo opera and Sarajevo Balet started; until year 2000, it had over 1000 theater shows and 300 ballets and operas. The Academy of Performing Arts in Sarajevo was founded in 1981. MESS is International theater festival founded during the war in 1992. For other usages see Theatre (disambiguation) Theater (American English) or Theatre (British English and widespread usage among theatre professionals in the US) is that branch of the performing arts concerned with acting out stories in front of an audience using combinations of speech, gesture, music, dance, sound and spectacle — indeed...


Visual arts

The visual arts in Bosnia and Herzegovina were always constant; from prehistoric era, through original medieval tombstones (stecak) to paintings in Kotromanić court. However, only with arrival of Austro-Hungarians in Bosnia real painting renaissance have begun. First artists that were educated in Europe academies appeared with the beginning of 20th century. With their talent and imaginative force we can point out: Gabrijel Jurkić, Petar Tiješić, Karlo Mijić, Špiro Bocarić, Petar Šain, Đoko Mazalić, Roman Petrović i Lazar Drljača. Their ascenders are: Ismet Mujezinović, Vojo Dimitrijević, Ivo Šeremet, Mica Todorović and others. After World War II we have artists like: Virgilije Nevjestić, Bekir Misirlić, Ljubo Lah, Meha Sefić, Franjo Likar, Mersad Berber, Ibrahim Ljubović, Dževad Hozo, Affan Ramić, Safet Zec, Ismar Mujezinović, Mehmed Zaimović ... ARS AEVI (founded in Sarajevo 1995) is international cultural project of Visual Arts and includes famous world artist. The Mona Lisa is one of the most recognizable artistic paintings in the Western world. ... Self-Portrait Gabrijel Jurkić (24 March 1886 — 25 February 1974) was a Bosnian Croat artist. ... Mersad Berber Mersad Berber was born on 1 January 1940 in a western Bosnian township of Bosanski Petrovac. ...


Music

Traditional Bosnian and Herzogovinian songs are ganga, rera, and from Ottoman era the most popular is sevdalinka. Pop and Rock music has a tradition here as well, with the more famous musicians including Goran Bregović, Davorin Popović, Kemal Monteno, Zdravko Čolić, Johnny Štulić, Edo Maajka, Dino Merlin and Tomo Miličević. Also, it would be unfair not to mention some of the talented composers such as Đorđe Novković, Esad Arnautalić, Kornelije Kovač, and many pop and rock bands, e.g. Bijelo Dugme, Indexi, Zabranjeno Pušenje, who were among the leading ones in the former Yugoslavia. Bosnia is home to the composer Dušan Šestić, the creator of the current national anthem of Bosnia and Herzegovina and father of singer Marija Šestić, and pianist Sasha Toperich. This article is about the musical composition. ... Sevdalinka is a traditional genre of folk music originating from Bosnia and Herzegovina. ... For other uses, see Music (disambiguation). ... Goran Bregović (Serbian Cyrillic: Горан Бреговић) (born March 22, 1950) is a musician from Bosnia and Herzegovina and one of the most recognizable modern composers of the Balkans. ... Zdravko ÄŒolić (Cyrillic: Здравко Чолић) (born May 30, 1951 in Sarajevo, Bosnia-Herzegovina, FPR Yugoslavia) is a Bosnian Serb singer, popular across the entire area of former Yugoslavia. ... Branimir Johnny Å tulić Branimir Johnny Å tulić (born April 11, 1953 in Skopje, Macedonia) is a singer, songwriter, poet and a leader of a popular former Yugoslav rock group Azra. ... Edo Maajka (born as Edin Osmić on December 22, 1978 in Brčko, Bosnia and Herzegovina, then Yugoslavia) is a rapper from Bosnia and Herzegovina Edins stage name Edo Maajka means Edo the Mother. // Edin was born and raised in Brčko where he finished his elementary schooling. ... Edin DerviÅ¡halidović (born 12 September 1962 in Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina, SFRY), stage name Dino Merlin, is a Bosnian singer-songwriter and musician. ... Tomislav Tomo Miličević (born September 3, 1979, Sarajevo, Bosnia-Herzegovina, then Yugoslavia), the younger brother of model Ivana Miličević, is currently the lead guitarist in the L.A.-based progressive rock band 30 Seconds to Mars. ... DuÅ¡an Å estić (Душан Шестић) (born in Banja Luka, Bosnia-Herzegovina, then Yugoslavia) is a famous Bosnian Serb composer in his homeland and surrounding countries. ... Marija Å estić (born May 5, 1987, Banja Luka, Bosnia-Herzegovina, then Yugoslavia) is a singer and musician. ...


Film

Noted Bosnian film-makers are Mirza Idrizović, Aleksandar Jevđević, Ivica Matić, Danis Tanović (oscar winner for best foreign movie with his No Man's Land), Ademir Kenoviċ, Benjamin Filipoviċ, Jasmin Dizdar, Pjer Žalica, Jasmila Žbaniċ, Dino Mustafić, Srđan Vuletić, and finally most awarded Emir Kusturica. Sarajevo Film Festival, founded in 1994, has become the biggest and most influencing in southeast Europe. This article is about motion pictures. ... Danis Tanović as a member of the jury at the 2003 Cannes Film Festival Danis Tanović (born February 20, 1969) is an acclaimed Bosnian film director and screenwriter. ... Biography Jasmin Dizdar was born June 8, 1961 in town of Zenica (Bosnia and Herzegovina, former Yugoslavia). ... Pjer Žalica is a Bosnian film director, born in Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina in 1964. ... Emir Nemanja Kusturica (Serbian (Bosnia) Cyrillic: Емир Немања Кустурица; IPA: ) (born November 24, 1954 in Sarajevo) is a Bosnian Serb filmmaker and actor. ... Logo of the Sarajevo Film Festival The Sarajevo Film Festival is the premier film festival in the Balkans. ...


Cuisine

Variety of Bosnian dishes

Bosnian cuisine uses many spices; but usually in very small quantities. Most dishes are light, as they are cooked in lots of water; the sauces are fully natural, consisting of little more than the natural juices of the vegetables in the dish. Typical ingredients include tomatoes, potatoes, onions, garlic, peppers, cucumbers, carrots, cabbage, mushrooms, spinach, courgettes, dried beans, fresh beans, plums, milk, and cream called Pavlaka. Bosnian cuisine is balanced between Western and Eastern influences. Bosnian food is closely related to Turkish, Greek, and other Mediterranean cuisines. However, due to years of Austrian rule, there are many influences from Central Europe. Typical meat dishes include primarily beef and lamb. Pork is not widely used, due to the large Muslim portion of the population. Some local specialties are ćevapčići, burek, dolma, sarma, pilaf, goulash, ajvar and a whole range of Eastern sweets. The best local wines come from Herzegovina where the climate is suitable for growing grapes. Plum or apple rakia is produced in Bosnia. Bosnian cuisine does not use many spices; when it does, they appear in very small quantity. ... For other uses, see Spice (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Tomato (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Potato (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Onion (disambiguation). ... Binomial name L. Allium sativum L., commonly known as garlic, is a species in the onion family Alliaceae. ... Species C. annuum (incl. ... This article is about the fruit. ... This article is about the cultivated vegetable. ... Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. ... For other uses, see Mushroom (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Spinacia oleracea L. Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. ... This article is about the fruit. ... Species See text. ... A glass of cows milk. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Sour cream. ... For this articles equivalent regarding the East, see Eastern culture. ... The term Eastern world refers very broadly to the various cultures, social structures and philosophical systems of the East, namely Asia (including China, India, Japan, and surrounding regions). ... Mediterranean cuisine is the cuisine of the areas around the Mediterranean Sea. ... Central Europe is the region lying between the variously and vaguely defined areas of Eastern and Western Europe. ... For other uses, see Beef (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Pork (disambiguation). ... Pedestrians walk by the Tsars Mosque built in the Ottoman era, the oldest mosque in Sarajevo, the capital and largest city of Bosnia and Herzegovina. ... Ćevapčići or ćevapi is a dish of grilled minced meat, and found in the Balkans. ... Wikibooks Cookbook has an article on Burek Cheese and potato-filled bourekas Börek are filled savory pastries popular throughout the former Ottoman Empire. ... Dolma is a family of stuffed vegetable dishes in the cuisines of the former Ottoman Empire and surrounding regions, including the Middle East, the Balkans, Greece, and Central Asia. ... Sarma in cabbage leaves Sarma (Turkish, sarma; Southern Slavic, сарма or sarma; Romanian, sarmale; Arabic يبرق yabraq) is the name of a grape, cabbage or chard leaf roll common to Southeastern Europe and adjacent areas. ... Plov being prepared in a Qozon Pilaf, Albanian pilaf, Armenian ÖƒÕ«Õ¬Õ¡Õ¾, Azeri plov, Bosnian pilav, Greek πιλάφι, Hindi पुलाव, Kazakh Kazakh: (palaw), Urdu pulao, Persian polow, Romanian pilaf, Russian: plov, Serbian pilav, Turkish pilav, Tajik полов, Uzbek: , Persian: - polo, Turkmen: , Turkish: , Crimean Tatar: , Tatar: , and - palov) also spelled pilau, perloo, perlau, plaw, pilaw, and... For a style of play of contract bridge, see Goulash (bridge). ... Homemade Ajvar Ajvar or ayvar (IPA [ajvar]) is a relish made principally from red bell peppers, with eggplant, garlic and chili pepper. ... This article is about the geographic area of Herzegovina. ... A traditional bottle of slivovitz, plum rakia Croatian Sljivovica and Slovenian Slivovka, two different names for the same drink, a plum rakia Rakia or Rakija (Bulgarian: , Croatian and Bosnian (rakija), Albanian: , Macedonian and Serbian: , Slovenian: , Romanian: ) is hard liquor similar to brandy, made by distillation of fermented fruits, popular throughout... This article is about a geographic region of Bosnia. ...


Sports

The most important international sporting event in the history of Bosnia and Herzegovina was the hosting of the 14th Winter Olympics, held in Sarajevo from the 8th to the 23rd of February 1984. The 1984 Winter Olympics, officially known as the XIV Olympic Winter Games, were held in 1984 in Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Yugoslavia. ... Map of Bosnia and Herzegovina (Sarajevo) Coordinates: , Country Entity Canton Sarajevo Canton Government  - Mayor Semiha Borovac (SDA) Area [1]  - City 141. ...

Vučko, the official mascot of the 1984 Winter Olympics held in Sarajevo.
Vučko, the official mascot of the 1984 Winter Olympics held in Sarajevo.

Bosnia and Herzegovina has produced many athletes. Many of them were famous in the Yugoslav national teams before Bosnia and Herzegovina's independence. Image File history File links Vucko. ... Image File history File links Vucko. ... The 1984 Winter Olympics, officially known as the XIV Olympic Winter Games, were held in 1984 in Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Yugoslavia. ...


Some notable local Olympians were: The five Olympic rings were designed in 1913, adopted in 1914 and debuted at the Games at Antwerp, 1920. ...

  • Rome, 1960: Tomislav Knez and Velimir Sombolac (football),
  • Munich, 1972: Abaz Arslanagić, Milorad Karalić, Nebojša Popović, Đorđe Lavrinić, Dobrivoje Seleć (handball)
  • Moscow, 1980: Mirza Delibašić and Ratko Radovanović (basketball)
  • Los Angeles, 1984: Zdravko Rađenović, Zlatan Arnautović (handball) and Anto Josipović (boxing).

The Borac handball club has won seven Yugoslav National Championships, as well as the European Championship Cup in 1976 and the International Handball Federation Cup in 1991. Borac (translation Fighter) is the name of several sports clubs from Banja Luka in Republika Srpska, Bosnia and Herzegovina. ... Handball is the name of several different sports: Team handball, or Olympic/European Handball is a game somewhat similar to association football, but the ball is played with the hand, not the foot. ...


The Bosna basketball club from Sarajevo were European Champions in 1979. The Yugoslav national basketball team, which medaled in every world championship from 1963 through 1990, included Bosnian players such as Dražen Dalipagić and Mirza Delibašić. Bosnia and Herzegovina regularly qualifies for the European Championship in Basketball. Jedinstvo Women's basketball club, based in Tuzla, has won the 1979 European Championships in Florence. KK Bosna (KoÅ¡arkaÅ¡ki Klub Bosna) is a basketball club in Sarajevo the capital of Bosnia and Herzegovina. ... This article is about the sport. ... Yugoslavia was generally regarded as the second-leading force in international basketball, behind only the United States of America. ... Dražen Dalipagić (born November 27, 1951 in Mostar, Bosnia-Herzegovina, former Yugoslavia) is a former Bosnian basketball player. ... Mirza DelibaÅ¡ić (January 9, 1954 - December 8, 2001) was a Bosnian basketball player. ... This article is about the basketball tournament. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


The Tuzla-Sinalco karate club from Tuzla has won the most Yugoslav championships, as well as four European Championships and one World Championship. For other uses, see Karate (disambiguation). ...


The Bosnian chess team has been Champion of Yugoslavia seven times , in addition to winning four European championships: 1994 in Lyon, 1999 in Bugojno, 2000 in Neum, and 2001 in Kalitea. Borki Predojević (from Teslić) chess club has also won two European Championships: Litohoreu (Greece) in 1999, and Kalitei (Greece) in 2001. This article is about the Western board game. ...


Middle-weight boxer Marjan Beneš has won several B&H Championships, Yugoslavian Championships and the European Championship. In 1978 he won the World Title against Elish Obeda from Bahamas. Another middle-weight boxer, Ante Josipović won the Olympic Gold in Los Angeles, 1984. He also won Yugoslavian Championship in 1982, the Championship of the Balkans in 1983, and the Beograd Trophy in 1985. For other meanings of these words, see boxing (disambiguation) or boxer. ... Marijan BeneÅ¡ (born 11 June 1951 in Belgrade[1][2]) is a former Yugoslavian boxer from Bosnia and Herzegovina, still considered one of the best in the Yugoslavian history. ...


Football is the most popular sport in B&H. It dates from 1903, but its popularity grew significantly after the World War II. At local level, Sarajevo (1967 and 1984), Željezničar (1972) have both won the Yugoslavian Championship. The former Yugoslav national football team has included a number of Bosnian players, such as Josip Katalinski, Dušan Bajević, Ivica – Ćiro Blaževć, Ivica Osim, Safet Sušić, and Mirsad Fazlagić. “Soccer” redirects here. ... Map of Bosnia and Herzegovina (Sarajevo) Coordinates: , Country Entity Canton Sarajevo Canton Government  - Mayor Semiha Borovac (SDA) Area [1]  - City 141. ... FK Željezničar is a football club from Bosnia and Herzegovina, playing in the capital, Sarajevo. ... First International Czechoslovakia 7 - 0 Yugoslavia (Antwerp, Belgium; 28 August 1920) Last International Netherlands 2 - 0 Yugoslavia (Amsterdam, Netherlands; 25 March 1992) Largest win Yugoslavia 10 - 1 India (Helsinki, Finland; 15 July 1952) Yugoslavia 9 - 0 Zaire (Gelsenkirchen, Germany; 18 June 1974) Worst defeat Czechoslovakia 7 - 0 Yugoslavia (Antwerp, Belgium... Josip Katalinski is a former football player from Bosnia. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Ivan Ivica Osim (born May 6, 1941) is a Bosnian football manager and former player from the former Yugoslavia. ... Safet SuÅ¡ić Safet SuÅ¡ić (born April 13, 1955 in Zavidovići) is a famous football coach and former football player from Bosnia and Herzegovina. ... Mirsad Fazlagić is considered by many to be one of the best football players from Bosnia and Herzegovina. ...


In football, the independent Bosnia and Herzegovina national football team has not qualified for a European or World Championship. Bosnian national teams have struggled to draft the best national players. Many players born in Bosnia and Herzegovina choose to play for other countries due to their ethnic identification and because of higher salaries offered by other teams. For example Mario Stanić and Mile Mitić were both born in Bosnia, but play for Croatia and Serbia respectively. Other internationally famous players from Bosnia and Herzegovina, who have made similar choices, are: Zoran Savić, Vladimir Radmanović, Zoran Planinić , Aleksandar Nikolić and Savo Milošević. First international  Iran 1 - 3 Bosnia and Herzegovina (Tehran, Iran; June 6, 1993) Biggest win Bosnia and Herzegovina 5 - 0 Liechtenstein  (Zenica, B&H; October 7, 2001) Biggest defeat  Argentina 5 - 0 Bosnia and Herzegovina (La Plata, Argentina; May 14, 1998) The Bosnia and Herzegovina national football team is the... Mario Stanić (born April 10, 1972 in Sarajevo, Bosnia-Herzegovina, SFR Yugoslavia) is a former Croatian football midfielder. ... Zoran Savić (Serbian: ; born November 18, 1966 in Zenica, Bosnia and Herzegovina, SFR Yugoslavia) is a retired Serbian professional basketball player. ... Vladimir Radmanović (Serbian Cyrillic: Владимир Радмановић) (born November 19, 1980 in Trebinje, Yugoslavia (now Bosnia-Herzegovina)) is a basketball player for the NBAs Los Angeles Lakers, previously with the Los Angeles Clippers and Seattle SuperSonics. ... Zoran Planinić (born September 12, 1982, in Mostar, Yugoslavia (present-day Bosnia and Herzegovina)) is a Croatian professional basketball player currently a member of TAU Cerámica in Spanish ACB leagues top division. ... Often called the Father of Yugoslavian Basketball, Aleksandar Nikolić (Александар Николић) was born in Sarajevo, Yugoslavia (now Bosnia and Herzegovina) on October 28, 1924. ... Savo MiloÅ¡ević (Serbian Cyrilic: Саво Милошевић) (born September 2, 1973 in Bijeljina, Bosnia and Herzegovina, SFR Yugoslavia) is a Serbian football striker, the all-time leading scorer and cap leader for the Serbia and Montenegro national football team. ...


Bosnia and Herzegovina is the current world champion in paralympic volleyball. Many of the players lost their legs in the War of 1992-1995. Volleyball at the 2004 Summer Paralympics was staged at the Helliniko Fencing Hall from September 21-27. ...


See also

Bosnia and Herzegovina Portal

Image File history File links Flag_of_Bosnia_and_Herzegovina. ... Architecture in Bosnia and Herzegovina is largely influenced by 4 major periods where political and social changes influenced the creation of distinct cultural and architectural habits of the population. ... 1991 Bosnia and Herzegovina Population Census was the last census of the population of Bosnia and Herzegovina to be taken before the outbreak of the 1992-1995 war in Bosnia and Herzegovina. ... The Oriental Institute in Sarajevo, its premises, research library and complete manuscript collection (more that 2. ... This is a complete list of settlements in Bosnia and Herzegovina, as recorded by 1991 census, sorted by municipalities. ...

Gallery

References

  1. ^ a b Field Listing - Coastline, The World Factbook, 2006-08-22
  2. ^ Bosnia and Herzegovina: I: Introduction, Encarta, 2006
  3. ^ Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named Malcolm
  4. ^ Dr. Željko Fajfric: Kotromanići
  5. ^ Mile declared as national monument. 2003.
  6. ^ Anđelić Pavao, Krunidbena i grobna crkva bosanskih vladara u Milima (Arnautovićima) kod Visokog. Glasnik Zemaljskog muzeja XXXIV/1979., Zemaljski muzej Bosne i Hercegovine, Sarajevo, 1980,183-247
  7. ^ a b c d Riedlmayer, Andras (1993). A Brief History of Bosnia-Herzegovina. The Bosnian Manuscript Ingathering Project.
  8. ^ Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named Imamovic
  9. ^ Stojic, Mile (2005). Branko Mikulic - socialist emperor manqué. BH Dani
  10. ^ "War-related Deaths in the 1992–1995 Armed Conflicts in Bosnia and Herzegovina: A Critique of Previous Estimates and Recent Results", European Journal of Population, June, 2005. 
  11. ^ "Research halves Bosnia war death toll to 100,000", Reuters, November 23, 2005. 
  12. ^ "Review of European Security Issues", U.S. Department of State, 28 April 2006. 
  13. ^ The Contradictions of "Democracy" without Consent, East European Constitutional Review, New York University Law School, 1998
  14. ^ OHR Bulletin 66 (February 3, 1998). - Final hearing of the Arbitration Tribunal in Vienna. OHR.
  15. ^ A Divided Bosnia, January 29, 1996, Aleksandar Ciric
  16. ^ Daclon, Corrado Maria (1997). Bosnia. Maggioli. Italy
  17. ^ CIA. World Factbook. 
  18. ^ a b Najveći investitor Srbija sa 707 miliona evra
  19. ^ a b Bosnia's newfound tourism, Reuters.
  20. ^ Bosnia Travel
  21. ^ EuroEduction.net - The European Education Directory
  22. ^ Marjanovic, D; Fornarino, S, Montagna, S, Primorac, D, Hadziselimovic, R, Vidovic, S, Pojskic, N, Battaglia, V, Achilli, A, Drobnic, K, Andjelinovic, S, Torroni, A, Santachiara-Benerecetti, AS, Semino, O (2005). "The peopling of modern Bosnia-Herzegovina: Y-chromosome haplogroups in the three main ethnic groups". Annals of Human Genetics 69 (6): 757-763. 
  23. ^ CIA - The World Factbook - Bosnia and Herzegovina

The World Factbook (ISSN 1553-8133; also known as the CIA World Factbook)[2] is an annual publication of the Central Intelligence Agency of the United States with almanac-style information about the countries of the world. ... Encarta is a digital multimedia encyclopedia published by Microsoft Corporation. ... is the 327th day of the year (328th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 118th day of the year (119th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 34th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1998 Gregorian calendar). ... CIA redirects here. ... The World Factbook (ISSN 1553-8133; also known as the CIA World Factbook)[2] is an annual publication of the Central Intelligence Agency of the United States with almanac-style information about the countries of the world. ... Reuters Group plc (LSE: RTR and NASDAQ: RTRSY); pronounced is known as a financial market data provider and a news service that provides reports from around the world to newspapers and broadcasters. ...

External links

Bosnia and Herzegovina at the Open Directory Project The Open Directory Project (ODP), also known as dmoz (from , its original domain name), is a multilingual open content directory of World Wide Web links owned by Netscape that is constructed and maintained by a community of volunteer editors. ...

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Motto Brotherhood and Unity Anthem Hey, Slavs Capital Belgrade Language(s) Serbo-Croatian (spoken throughout the territory), Slovenian, Macedonian, Albanian, Hungarian (all official), and languages of other nationalities. ... This article is about the country in Europe. ... Not to be confused with Republika Srpska. ... Vojvodina (red) is one of Serbias two autonomous provinces Capital (and largest city) Novi Sad Official languages Ethnic groups  2. ... For other uses, see Kosovo (disambiguation). ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Bosnia and Herzegovina - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (6363 words)
Bosnia itself is the chief geographic region of the modern state, with a moderate continental climate, consisting of hot summers and cold snowy winters.
Bosnia and Herzegovina comprises the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina (FBiH), the Republika Srpska (RS), and the Brčko District (BD).
Ethnic composition of Bosnia and Herzegovina in 1991.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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