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Encyclopedia > Boshin war
Boshin War
戊辰戦争
(1868-1869)

Samurai of the Satsuma clan, fighting for the Imperial side during the Boshin War period. Photograph by Felice Beato.
Date January 1868 – May 1869
Location Japan
Result End of the Shogunate;
Restoration of imperial rule
Combatants
Imperial faction:
Satsuma,
Chōshū,
Tosa
Tokugawa Shogunate
Commanders
Ruler: Meiji Emperor,
CIC: Saigō Takamori,
Army: Kuroda Kiyotaka
Shogunate:
Ruler: Tokugawa Yoshinobu,
Army: Katsu Kaishu,
Navy: Enomoto Takeaki,
Ezo Republic:
President:Enomoto Takeaki,
CIC: Otori Keisuke,
Navy: Arai Ikunosuke
Casualties
~1,000 killed ~2,000 killed
Boshin War
Toba-Fushimi – Awa – Kōshū-Katsunuma – Utsunomiya CastleUenoHokuetsu - Bonari PassAizuMiyako BayHakodateHakodate Bay
Campaign map of the Boshin War (1868-1869). The Southern domains of Satsuma, Chōshū and Tosa (in red) joined forces to defeat the Shogunate forces at Toba-Fushimi, and then progressively took control of the rest of Japan until the final stand-off in the northern island of Hokkaidō

The Boshin War (戊辰戦争 Boshin Sensō?, "War of the Year of the Dragon")[1] was a civil war in Japan, fought from 1868 to 1869 between forces of the ruling Tokugawa shogunate and those seeking to return political power to the imperial court. The war finds its origins in dissatisfaction among many nobles and young samurai with the Shogunate's handling of foreigners following the opening of Japan the prior decade. An alliance of southern samurai and court officials secured the cooperation of the young Emperor Meiji, who declared the abolition of the two-hundred-year-old Shogunate. Military movements by imperial forces and partisan violence in Edo led Tokugawa Yoshinobu, the sitting shogun, to launch a military campaign to seize the emperor's court at Kyoto. The military tide rapidly turned in favor of the smaller but relatively modernized imperial faction, and after a series of battles culminating in the surrender of Edo, Yoshinobu personally surrendered. The Tokugawa remnant retreated to northern Honshū and later to Hokkaidō, where they founded the Ezo republic. Defeat at the Battle of Hakodate broke this last holdout and left the imperial rule supreme throughout the whole of Japan, completing the military phase of the Meiji Restoration. ImageMetadata File history File links Satsuma-samurai-during-boshin-war-period. ... Felice Beato, self-portrait, c. ... The Late Tokugawa Shogunate (Japanese: Bakumatsu) is the period between 1853 and 1867 during which Japan ended its isolationist foreign policy called sakoku and modernized from a feudal shogunate to the Meiji government. ... The Meiji Restoration ), also known as the Meiji Ishin, Revolution, or Renewal, was a chain of events that led to enormous changes in Japans political and social structure. ... Satsuma is the name of a town in Japan, Satsuma, Kagoshima, the surrounding district, Satsuma District, Kagoshima, the former province, Satsuma Province, which is now the western half of Kagoshima Prefecture on the island of Kyushu, a revolt, the Satsuma Rebellion. ... ChōshÅ« may refer to any of the following: Nagato Province ) in Japan ChōshÅ« Domain ) in Japan The wrestler Riki Choshu ) Category: ... Tosa is the name of several places in Japan: In Kochi Prefecture Tosa City. ... The Tokugawa shogunate or Tokugawa bakufu (徳川幕府) (also known as the Edo bakufu) was a feudal military dictatorship of Japan established in 1603 by Tokugawa Ieyasu and ruled by the shoguns of the Tokugawa family until 1868. ... Emperor Meiji (Mutsuhito) Mutsuhito (睦仁), the Meiji Emperor (明治天皇, literally Enlightened Rule Emperor) (3 November 1852–30 July 1912) was the 122nd Emperor of Japan. ... Commander-in-Chief (in NATO-lingo often C-in-C or CINC pronounced sink) is the commander of all the military forces within a particular region or of all the military forces of a state. ... Saigō Takamoris statue in Ueno park Saigō Takamori 23 January 1827/28 — 24 September 1877), one of the most influential samurai in Japanese history, lived during the late Edo Period and early Meiji Era. ... Kuroda Kiyotaka (黒田 清隆; October 16, 1840–August 25, 1900), also known as Ryōsuke, was a Japanese politician of the Meiji era, and the second Prime Minister of Japan from April 30, 1888 to October 25, 1889. ... This page is about the Japanese ruler and military rank. ... Tokugawa Yoshinobu in French military uniform, c. ... Katsu Kaishu (勝 海舟 Katsu Kaishū, 1823-99) was a stateman in Japan in the late shogunate period who held an important part in the Tokugawa shogunate in rare occasions. ... Enomoto Takeaki at the time of Republic of Ezo in 1869. ... Enomoto Takeaki (front, right) and the leaders of his loyalist troops in Hokkaido, 1869. ... Enomoto Takeaki at the time of Republic of Ezo in 1869. ... Commander-in-Chief (in NATO-lingo often C-in-C or CINC pronounced sink) is the commander of all the military forces within a particular region or of all the military forces of a state. ... Otori Keisuke(1833-1911) Otori Keisuke during the Boshin War (center). ... Arai Ikunosuke (1836-1909) Arai Ikunosuke ); (12 June 1836-19 July 1909) was a Japanese samurai of the late Edo period. ... The Battle of Toba-Fushimi (Japanese:鳥羽・伏見の戦い) occurred between pro-Imperial and Shogunate forces during the Boshin War in Japan. ... Combatants Imperial court, Satsuma Tokugawa shogunate Commanders Enomoto Takeaki The Naval Battle of Awa ) occurred on January 28, 1868 during the Boshin War in Japan, in the area of Awa Bay near Osaka. ... Kondo Isami at the Battle of KōshÅ«-Katsunuma. ... Combatants Imperial Army made up of forces from the Matsumoto, Kurohane, Mibu, Iwamurata, Suzaka, Hikone, Ogaki, Utsunomiya, and Kasama domains. ... The attack on Kaneiji Temple, labeled here as The attack of Honnōji (本能寺) in the Battle of Ueno. ... The Battle of Hokuetsu (Japanese:北越戦争) was part of the Boshin War, and occurred in 1868 in the northwestern part of Japan, in the area of modern Niigata Prefecture. ... The Battle of Bonari Pass (Japanese:母成峠の戦い) was part of the Boshin War, and occurred on October 6th, 1868 (Gregorian Calendar), or August 21 (Lunar Calendar). ... Combatants Satsuma, ChōshÅ«, Tosa Bakufu, Aizu Commanders Ruler: Meiji Emperor Daimyo Matsudaira Katamori Strength 15,000 combatants 5,000 combatants Casualties unknown unknown The Battle of Aizu (Japanese:会津戦争, lit. ... Combatants Empire of Japan: Kōtetsu Kasuga HiryÅ« Teibo Yoshun Moshun Chōyō Ezo Republic: Kaiten BanryÅ« Takao Commanders Arai Ikunosuke Strength 8 steam warships 3 steam warships Casualties 3 ships damaged 1 ship scuttled The Naval Battle of Miyako Bay (宮古湾海戦) was a naval action during the Boshin War in... Combatants Empire of Japan Ezo Republic Commanders Kuroda Kiyotaka Enomoto Takeaki Strength 7,000 combatants 10 steam warships 3,000 combatants 11 steam warships Casualties 770 casualties 1 ship sunk 1 ship destroyed 1,300 killed 400 wounded 1,300 captured 2 ships sunk 3 ships captured 3 ships lost... Combatants Empire of Japan: Kotetsu Kasuga Hiryu Teibo Yoharu Moshun Chōyō Ezo Republic: Kaiten BanryÅ« Chiyodagata Chōgei Mikaho Commanders Arai Ikunosuke Strength 8 steam warships 5 steam warships Casualties 1 ship sunk 2 ships sunk, 3 captured The Naval Battle of Hakodate Bay (Japanese:函館湾海戦) was fought from 4... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 558 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1304 × 1402 pixel, file size: 177 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Map of the Boshin War. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 558 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1304 × 1402 pixel, file size: 177 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Map of the Boshin War. ... The Battle of Toba-Fushimi (Japanese:鳥羽・伏見の戦い) occurred between pro-Imperial and Shogunate forces during the Boshin War in Japan. ... A civil war is a war in which parties within the same culture, society or nationality fight against each other for the control of political power. ... The Tokugawa shogunate or Tokugawa bakufu (徳川幕府) (also known as the Edo bakufu) was a feudal military dictatorship of Japan established in 1603 by Tokugawa Ieyasu and ruled by the shoguns of the Tokugawa family until 1868. ... History of Japan Paleolithic Jomon Yayoi Yamato period ---Kofun period ---Asuka period Nara period Heian period Kamakura period Muromachi period Azuchi-Momoyama period ---Nanban period Edo period Meiji period Taisho period Showa period ---Japanese expansionism ---Occupied Japan ---Post-Occupation Japan Heisei Pre-History/The Origin of History Jomon Period Main... Emperor Meiji ) (November 3, 1852 — July 30, 1912) was the 122nd emperor of Japan according to the traditional order of succession, reigning from February 3, 1867 until his death. ... Edo (Japanese: , literally: bay-door, estuary, pronounced //), once also spelled Yedo or Yeddo, is the former name of the Japanese capital Tokyo. ... Tokugawa Yoshinobu in French military uniform, c. ... Edo (Japanese: , literally: bay-door, estuary, pronounced //), once also spelled Yedo or Yeddo, is the former name of the Japanese capital Tokyo. ... HonshÅ« (本州 Literally Main State) is the largest island of Japan, called the Mainland; it is south of Hokkaido across the Tsugaru Strait, north of Shikoku across the Inland Sea, and northeast of Kyushu across the Kanmon Strait. ...   literally North Sea Circuit, Ainu: Mosir), formerly known as Ezo, Yezo, Yeso, or Yesso, is the second largest island and largest prefecture of Japan. ... Enomoto Takeaki (front, right) and the leaders of his loyalist troops in Hokkaido, 1869. ... Combatants Empire of Japan Ezo Republic Commanders Kuroda Kiyotaka Enomoto Takeaki Strength 7,000 combatants 10 steam warships 3,000 combatants 11 steam warships Casualties 770 casualties 1 ship sunk 1 ship destroyed 1,300 killed 400 wounded 1,300 captured 2 ships sunk 3 ships captured 3 ships lost... The Meiji Restoration ), also known as the Meiji Ishin, Revolution, or Renewal, was a chain of events that led to enormous changes in Japans political and social structure. ...


Around 120,000 men were mobilized during the conflict, and of these about 3,500 were killed.[2] In the end, the victorious imperial faction abandoned its objective to expel foreigners from Japan and instead adopted a policy of continued modernization with an eye to eventual renegotiation of the Unequal Treaties with the Western powers. Due to the persistence of Saigō Takamori, a prominent leader of the imperial faction, the Tokugawa loyalists were shown clemency, and many former shogunal leaders were later given positions of responsibility under the new government. The Unequal Treaties is the name in the English language used by modern China for a series of treaties signed by several Asian states, including the Qing Empire in China, late Tokugawa Japan, and late Joseon Korea, and foreign powers (列強, ì—´ê°•) during the 19th and early 20th centuries. ... Saigō Takamoris statue in Ueno park Saigō Takamori 23 January 1827/28 — 24 September 1877), one of the most influential samurai in Japanese history, lived during the late Edo Period and early Meiji Era. ... A pardon is the forgiveness of a crime and the penalty associated with it. ...


The Boshin War testifies to the advanced state of modernization already achieved by Japan barely fourteen years after its opening to the West, the already high involvement of Western nations (especially United Kingdom and France) in the country's politics, and the rather turbulent installation of Imperial power. Over time, the war has been romanticized by Japanese and others who view the Meiji Restoration as a "bloodless revolution," despite the number of casualties. Various dramatizations of the war have been made in Japan, and elements of the conflict were incorporated into the 2003 American film The Last Samurai. The Last Samurai is an action/drama film written by John Logan and Edward Zwick & Marshall Herskovitz based on a story by Logan. ...

Contents

Political background

Early discontent against the Shogunate

For the two centuries prior to 1854, Japan had severely limited exchange with foreign European nations, with the notable exceptions of Korea via Tsushima, Qing China via the Ryūkyūs, and the Dutch through the trading post of Dejima.[3] In 1854, Commodore Perry opened Japan to global commerce with the implied threat of force, thus initiating a period of rapid development in foreign trade and Westernization. In large part due to the humiliating terms of the Unequal Treaties, as agreements like those conveyed by Perry are called, the Shogunate soon faced internal hostility, which materialized into a radical, xenophobic movement, the sonnō jōi (literally "Revere the Emperor, expel the barbarians").[4] The Late Tokugawa Shogunate (Japanese: Bakumatsu) is the period between 1853 and 1867 during which Japan ended its isolationist foreign policy called sakoku and modernized from a feudal shogunate to the Meiji government. ... The following text needs to be harmonized with text in the article History of Japan#Seclusion. ... Korea (Korean: 한국 or ì¡°ì„ , see below) is a geographic area, civilization, and former state situated on the Korean Peninsula in East Asia. ... Tsushima is a name related to Japan. ... The Qing Dynasty (Manchu: daicing gurun; Chinese: 清朝; pinyin: qīng cháo; Wade-Giles: ching chao), sometimes known as the Manchu Dynasty, was founded by the Manchu clan Aisin Gioro, in what is today northeast China expanded into China proper and the surrounding territories of... Location of Ryukyu Islands. ... Dejima, also Deshima (出島, literally protruding island) in modern Japanese, Desjima in Dutch, often latinised as Decima, was a fan-shaped artificial island in the bay of Nagasaki that was a Dutch trading post during Japans self-imposed isolation (sakoku) of the Edo period, from 1641 until 1853. ... Matthew Calbraith Perry (1794-1858). ... The Unequal Treaties is the name in the English language used by modern China for a series of treaties signed by several Asian states, including the Qing Empire in China, late Tokugawa Japan, and late Joseon Korea, and foreign powers (列強, ì—´ê°•) during the 19th and early 20th centuries. ... This page is about the Japanese ruler and military rank. ... Xenophobia means fear of strangers or the unknown and comes from the Greek ξενοφοβια, xenophobia, literally meaning fear of the strange. It is often used to describe fear of or dislike of foreigners, but racism in general is sometimes described as a... Sonnō jōi (尊皇攘夷) is a Japanese political philosophy and a social movement, which was derived from Neo-Confucianism; it was also a political slogan in 1850s-60s, meaning Revere the Emperor, Expel the Barbarians, or being commonly translated as The origin of the philosophy can be seen in Takenouchi Shikibu...

The Shogunate's Kanrin Maru, Japan's first screw-driven steam warship, 1855. The Shogunate actively pursued modernization, but was faced by growing internal discontent against the harm to national sovereignty brought on by contact with Westerners

The Emperor Kōmei agreed with such sentiments, and–breaking with centuries of imperial tradition–began to take an active role in matters of state: as opportunities arose, he fulminated against the treaties and attempted to interfere in the shogunal succession. His efforts culminated in March 1863 with his "Order to expel barbarians". Although the Shogunate had no intention of enforcing the order, it nevertheless inspired attacks against the Shogunate itself and against foreigners in Japan: the most famous incident was that of the English trader Charles Lennox Richardson, for whose death the Tokugawa government had to pay an indemnity of one hundred thousand British pounds.[5] Other attacks included the shelling of foreign shipping in Shimonoseki.[6] The Kanrinmaru (1855). ... The Kanrinmaru (1855). ... Kanrin Maru (Japanese: 咸臨丸) was Japans first sail and screw-driven steam warship. ... 1855 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... Emperor Kōmei of Japan Emperor Kōmei ) (July 22, 1831 - January 30, 1867) was the 121st imperial ruler of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession. ... The Order to expel barbarians (Japanese:攘夷勅命, also 攘夷実行の勅命) was an edict issued by the Japanese Emperor Kōmei in 1863 against the Westernization of Japan following the opening of the country by Commodore Perry in 1854. ... This page is about the Japanese ruler and military rank. ... Charles Lennox Richardson was the English merchant from Shanghai who was in Japan and was murdered by the Satsuma retainers of Shimazu Hisamitsu on September 14, 1862. ... For details of notes and coins, see British coinage and British banknotes. ... Shimonoseki (下関市; -shi) is a city located in Yamaguchi, Japan. ...

Shogunal troops in 1864.Illustrated London News
Shogunal troops in 1864.Illustrated London News

During 1864, these actions were successfully countered by armed retaliations by foreign powers, such as the British Bombardment of Kagoshima and the multinational Bombardment of Shimonoseki. At the same time, the forces of Chōshū, together with xenophobic ronin, raised the Hamaguri rebellion trying to seize the city of Kyoto, where the Emperor's court was held, but the future shogun Tokugawa Yoshinobu led a punitive expedition and defeated them. At this point initial resistance among the leadership in Chōshū and the imperial court subsided, but over the next year the Tokugawa proved unable to reassert full control over the country as most daimyo began to ignore orders and questions from Edo.[7] Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 353 pixelsFull resolution (915 × 404 pixel, file size: 349 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Bakumatsu shogunal troops in 1864. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 353 pixelsFull resolution (915 × 404 pixel, file size: 349 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Bakumatsu shogunal troops in 1864. ... The Illustrated London News was a magazine founded by Herbert Ingram and his friend Mark Lemon, the editor of Punch magazine. ... The Anglo-Satsuma War (Japanese Satsu-Ei Sensou) took place in August 1863. ... Captured battery at Shimonoseki, 1864. ... ChōshÅ« may refer to any of the following: Nagato Province ) in Japan ChōshÅ« Domain ) in Japan The wrestler Riki Choshu ) Category: ... Graves of the forty-seven Ronin at Sengaku-ji Ronin robbing a merchants house in Japan around 1860 (1) For other uses, see Ronin (disambiguation). ... The rebellion at the Hamaguri Gate (蛤御門の変 Hamagurigomon no Hen) of the Imperial Palace in Kyōto took place on August 20, 1864 and reflected the discontent of pro-imperial and anti-alien groups. ... Tokugawa Yoshinobu in French military uniform, c. ... Daimyo Matsudaira Katamori visits the residence of a retainer. ...


Foreign military assistance

Despite the bombardment of Kagoshima, the Satsuma domain had become closer to the British and was pursuing the modernization of its army and navy with their support.[8] The Scottish dealer Thomas Blake Glover sold quantities of warships and guns to the southern Provinces.[9] Anglo-American military experts, usually former officers, may have been directly involved in this military effort.[10] The British ambassador Harry Smith Parkes supported the anti-Shogunate forces in a drive to establish a legitimate, unified Imperial rule in Japan, and to counter French influence with the Shogunate. During that period, southern Japanese leaders such as Saigō Takamori of Satsuma, or Itō Hirobumi and Inoue Kaoru of Chōshū cultivated personal connections with British diplomats, notably Ernest Mason Satow.[11] Thomas Blake Glover. ... Sir Harry Smith Parkes (1828 - 1885) was a 19th century British diplomat who worked mainly in China and Japan. ... Saigō Takamoris statue in Ueno park Saigō Takamori 23 January 1827/28 — 24 September 1877), one of the most influential samurai in Japanese history, lived during the late Edo Period and early Meiji Era. ... Itō Hirobumi , 16 October 1841–26 October 1909, also called Hirofumi/Hakubun and Shunsuke in his youth) was a Japanese statesman, Resident-General of Korea, four times Prime Minister of Japan (the 1st, 5th, 7th and 10th) and genrō. Itō was assassinated by An Jung-geun, a Korean anti-Japanese... 1880 (Meiji 13) Inoue Kaoru (井上 馨 Inoue Kaoru, January 16, 1836 - September 1, 1915;) was a Japanese statesman. ... The Right Honourable Sir Ernest Mason Satow GCMG, (June 30, 1843 - August 26, 1929) was a British scholar-diplomat born to an ethnically German father (Hans David Christoph Satow, born in Wismar, then under Swedish rule, naturalised British in 1846) and an English mother (Margaret, nee Mason) in Clapton, North...

Training of the Shogunate troops by the French Military Mission to Japan in 1867
Training of the Shogunate troops by the French Military Mission to Japan in 1867

The Shogunate also was preparing for further conflict by modernizing its forces. In line with Parkes' designs, the British, theretofore the Shogunate's primary partner, proved reluctant to provide assistance.[12] The Tokugawa thus came to rely mainly on French expertise, comforted by the military prestige of Napoleon III at that time, acquired through his successes in the Crimean War and the War of Italy.[13] The Shogunate took major steps towards the construction of a modern and powerful military: a navy with a core of eight steam warships had been built over several years and was already the strongest in Asia.[14] In 1865, Japan's first modern naval arsenal was built in Yokosuka by the French engineer Léonce Verny. In January 1867, a French military mission arrived to reorganize the shogunal army and create an elite force, and an order was placed with the United States to buy the French-built ironclad warship CSS Stonewall. Due to the Western powers' declared neutrality, the Americans refused to release the ship, but once neutrality was lifted, the imperial faction obtained the vessel and employed it in engagements in Hakodate under the name Kōtetsu (literally "Ironclad").[15] Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1162x409, 375 KB) Summary Training of Japanese Bakufu troops by the French Military Mission to Japan. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1162x409, 375 KB) Summary Training of Japanese Bakufu troops by the French Military Mission to Japan. ... The French military mission before its departure to Japan, in 1866. ... Charles Louis Napoléon Bonaparte (April 20, 1808 - January 9, 1873) was the son of King Louis Bonaparte and Queen Hortense de Beauharnais; both monarchs of the French puppet state, the Kingdom of Holland. ... Combatants Allies: Second French Empire United Kingdom Ottoman Empire Kingdom of Sardinia Russian Empire Bulgarian volunteers Casualties 90,000 French 35,000 Turkish 17,500 British 2,050 Sardinian killed, wounded and died of disease ~134,000 killed, wounded and died of disease The Crimean War (1854–1856) was fought... Combatants Image:Second-empire. ... View of the Entrance to the Arsenal, by Canaletto, 1732. ... Categories: Cities in Kanagawa Prefecture | Japan geography stubs ... François Léonce Verny François Léonce Verny, (December 2, 1837-May 2, 1908) was a French engineer who directed the construction of the Japanese arsenal of Yokosuka, as well as many related modern infrastructure projects from 1865 to 1876, thus helping jump-start Japans modernization. ... The French military mission before its departure to Japan, in 1866. ... Kotetsu (Japanese: 甲鉄, literally Ironclad) was the first ironclad warship of the Imperial Japanese Navy. ...


Coups d'état (1866-8)

Tokugawa Yoshinobu in French military uniform, c. 1867

Following an internal coup within and renewed revolt by Chōshū, and the Shogunate's announced intention to lead an expedition to quell that revolt, Chōshū formed a secret alliance with Satsuma. In late 1866, however, first Shogun Iemochi and then Emperor Kōmei died, respectively succeeded by Yoshinobu and Emperor Meiji. These events "made a truce inevitable."[16] On November 9, 1867, a secret order was issued to Satsuma and Chōshū by Emperor Meiji authority commanding the "slaughtering of the traitorous subject Yoshinobu."[17] Just prior to this however, and following a proposal from the daimyo of Tosa, Yoshinobu resigned his post and authorities to the emperor, agreeing to "be the instrument for carrying out" imperial orders.[18] The Tokugawa Shogunate had ended.[19] Download high resolution version (407x745, 91 KB)Tokugawa Yoshinobu, in French military uniform. ... Download high resolution version (407x745, 91 KB)Tokugawa Yoshinobu, in French military uniform. ... Tokugawa Yoshinobu in French military uniform, c. ... Satsuma (薩摩国; -no Kuni) was an old province of Japan that is now the western half of Kagoshima prefecture on the island of Kyushu. ... Tokugawa Iemochi (徳川 家茂; 1846–1866) was the 14th shogun of the Tokugawa shogunate of Japan, who held office 1858 to 1866. ... Emperor Kōmei of Japan Emperor Kōmei ) (July 22, 1831 - January 30, 1867) was the 121st imperial ruler of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession. ... Tokugawa Yoshinobu in French military uniform, c. ... Emperor Meiji ) (November 3, 1852 — July 30, 1912) was the 122nd emperor of Japan according to the traditional order of succession, reigning from February 3, 1867 until his death. ... November 9 is the 313th day of the year (314th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 52 days remaining. ... Cunt BAg Twat Fuk suck my penis ring 0778851865!!!!!!Year 1867 (MDCCCLXVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Emperor Meiji ) (November 3, 1852 — July 30, 1912) was the 122nd emperor of Japan according to the traditional order of succession, reigning from February 3, 1867 until his death. ...


While Yoshinobu's resignation had created a nominal void at the highest level of government, his apparatus of state continued to exist. Moreover, the shogunal government, the Tokugawa family in particular, would remain a prominent force in the evolving political order and would retain many executive powers,[20] a prospect hard-liners from Satsuma and Chōshū found intolerable.[21] Events came to a head on January 3, 1868 when these elements seized the imperial palace in Kyoto, and the following day had the fifteen-year-old Emperor Meiji declare his own restoration to full power. Although the majority of the imperial consultative assembly was happy with the formal declaration of direct rule by the court and tended to support a continued collaboration with the Tokugawa (under the concept of "just government" (公議政体派? kōgiseitaiha), Saigō Takamori threatened the assembly into abolishing the title "shogun" and order the confiscation of Yoshinobu's lands.[22] January 3 is the 3rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1868 (MDCCCLXVIII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a leap year starting on Friday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ... Saigō Takamoris statue in Ueno park Saigō Takamori 23 January 1827/28 — 24 September 1877), one of the most influential samurai in Japanese history, lived during the late Edo Period and early Meiji Era. ...

Destruction of the Palace of Satsuma by Shogunate forces in Edo
Destruction of the Palace of Satsuma by Shogunate forces in Edo

Although he initially agreed to these demands, on January 17, 1868, Yoshinobu declared "that he would not be bound by the proclamation of the Restoration and called on the court to rescind it."[23] On January 24, Yoshinobu decided to prepare an attack on Kyoto, occupied by Satsuma and Chōshū forces. This decision was prompted by his learning of a series of arsons in Edo, starting with the burning of the outworks of Edo Castle, the main Tokugawa residence. This was blamed on Satsuma ronin, who on that day attacked a government office. The next day shogunate forces responded by attacking the Edo residence of the daimyo of Satsuma, where many opponents of the shogunate, under Takamori's direction, had been hiding and creating trouble. The palace was burned down, and many opponents killed or later executed.[24] Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 569 pixelsFull resolution (1016 × 723 pixel, file size: 581 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Destruction of the Palace of Satsuma, in Tokyo, on January 19th 1868. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 569 pixelsFull resolution (1016 × 723 pixel, file size: 581 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Destruction of the Palace of Satsuma, in Tokyo, on January 19th 1868. ... Edo (Japanese: , literally: bay-door, estuary, pronounced //), once also spelled Yedo or Yeddo, is the former name of the Japanese capital Tokyo. ... January 17 is the 17th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1868 (MDCCCLXVIII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a leap year starting on Friday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ... Kyoto )   is a city in the central part of the island of HonshÅ«, Japan. ... Edo Castle (江戸城 -jō) was built in 1457 by ÅŒta Dōkan in what is now the Chiyoda ward of Tokyo, but was then known as Edo, Toshima District, Musashi Province. ...


Opening conflicts

Main articles: Battle of Toba-Fushimi and Naval Battle of Awa
Battle scene at Toba-Fushimi. Shogunate forces are on the left, including battalions from Aizu. On the right are forces from Chōshū and Tosa. These are modernized battalions, but some of the forces were also traditional samurai (especially on the Shogunate side)
Battle scene at Toba-Fushimi. Shogunate forces are on the left, including battalions from Aizu. On the right are forces from Chōshū and Tosa. These are modernized battalions, but some of the forces were also traditional samurai (especially on the Shogunate side)
A Satsuma battery in action at Toba-Fushimi
A Satsuma battery in action at Toba-Fushimi
Doctor William Willis, of the English Legation, managed the military hospital for the Satsuma forces during the Toba-Fushimi battle and throughout the Boshin war.
Doctor William Willis, of the English Legation, managed the military hospital for the Satsuma forces during the Toba-Fushimi battle and throughout the Boshin war.[25]

On January 27, 1868, the shogunate forces attacked the forces of Chōshū and Satsuma, clashing near Toba and Fushimi, at the entrance of Kyoto. Some parts of the 15,000-strong shogunate forces had been trained by French military advisers, but the majority remained medieval samurai forces. Meanwhile, the forces of Chōshū and Satsuma were outnumbered 3:1 but fully modernized with Armstrong howitzers, Minié rifles and a few Gatling guns. After an inconclusive start,[26] on the second day, an Imperial pennant was remitted to the defending troops, and a relative of the Emperor, Komatsumiya Akihito, was named general in chief, making the forces officially an imperial army (官軍 kangun?).[27] Moreover, convinced by courtiers, several local daimyo, thitherto faithful to the Shogun, started to defect to the side of the imperial court. These included daimyo of Yodo on the February 5, and the daimyo of Tsu on February 6, tilting the military balance in favour of the Imperial side.[28] The Battle of Toba-Fushimi (Japanese:鳥羽・伏見の戦い) occurred between pro-Imperial and Shogunate forces during the Boshin War in Japan. ... Combatants Imperial court, Satsuma Tokugawa shogunate Commanders Enomoto Takeaki The Naval Battle of Awa ) occurred on January 28, 1868 during the Boshin War in Japan, in the area of Awa Bay near Osaka. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 210 pixelsFull resolution (887 × 233 pixel, file size: 330 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Battle scene at Toba-Fushimi, Japan. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 210 pixelsFull resolution (887 × 233 pixel, file size: 330 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Battle scene at Toba-Fushimi, Japan. ... Monument to the Byakkotai Samurai Aizu ) is a former feudal domain (Han), part of the modern-day Japanese prefecture of Fukushima, formerly a part of Mutsu province. ... ChōshÅ« may refer to any of the following: Nagato Province ) in Japan ChōshÅ« Domain ) in Japan The wrestler Riki Choshu ) Category: ... Tosa is the name of several places in Japan: In Kochi Prefecture Tosa City. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... William Willis (1847-94). ... January 27 is the 27th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1868 (MDCCCLXVIII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a leap year starting on Friday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ... Toba may refer to: T. O. B. A., the Theater Owners Booking Association, a major black vaudeville circuit. ... Categories: Japan-related stubs ... Japanese samurai in armour, 1860s. ... Armstrong can have a number of possible meanings: // Armstrong, Santa Fe, Argentina Armstrong, Victoria, Australia Armstrong, British Columbia, Canada Armstrong, Ontario, Canada Armstrong, County Fermanagh, (Northern) Ireland Armstrong, Iowa, USA Armstrong, Missouri, USA Armstrong, Oklahoma, USA Armstrong County, Pennsylvania, USA Armstrong Creek, a tributary of the Susquehanna River in Pennsylvania... Loading a WW1 British 15 in (381 mm) howitzer 155 mm M198 Howitzer A howitzer or hauwitzer is a type of field artillery. ... Training with the Minié rifle during the American Civil War, 1863. ... Gatling gun illustrated in an 1885 encyclopedia in Swedish http://www. ... His Imperial Highness Prince Komatsu Akihito ) of Japan (11 February 1846 - 18 February 1903) was a member of the Japanese imperial family from the princely house of Fushimi-no-miya (伏見宮家) and a career soldier in the Imperial Japanese Army. ... Categories: Japan-related stubs ... Tsu (津市; -shi) is the capital of Mie Prefecture, Japan. ...


On February 7, Tokugawa Yoshinobu, apparently distressed by the imperial approval given to the actions of Satsuma and Chōshū, fled Osaka aboard the Kanrin Maru, withdrawing to Edo. Demoralized by his flight and by the betrayal by Yodo and Tsu, the Shogunate forces retreated, making the Toba-Fushimi encounter an Imperial victory, although it is often considered the Shogunate forces should have won the encounter.[29] The Osaka castle was soon invested on February 8 (on March 1, Western calendar), putting an end to the battle of Toba-Fushimi.[30] Kanrin Maru (Japanese: 咸臨丸) was Japans first sail and screw-driven steam warship. ... Edo (Japanese: , literally: bay-door, estuary, pronounced //), once also spelled Yedo or Yeddo, is the former name of the Japanese capital Tokyo. ...


At the same time, on January 28, 1868, took place the naval Battle of Awa between the Shogunate and elements of the Satsuma Navy, which became Japan's first engagement between two modern navies.[31] The battle, although small in scale, ended in favour of the Shogunate. Combatants Imperial court, Satsuma Tokugawa shogunate Commanders Enomoto Takeaki The Naval Battle of Awa ) occurred on January 28, 1868 during the Boshin War in Japan, in the area of Awa Bay near Osaka. ...

The killing of French sailors in the Sakai incident. Le Monde Illustré
The killing of French sailors in the Sakai incident. Le Monde Illustré

On the diplomatic front, the ministers of foreign nations, gathered in the open harbor of Hyōgo (Kobe) in early February, issued a declaration according to which the Shogunate was still considered the only rightful government in Japan, giving hope to Tokugawa Yoshinobu that foreign nations (especially France) might consider an intervention in his favour. A few days later however an Imperial delegation visited the ministers declaring that the Shogunate was abolished, that harbours would be open in accordance with International treaties, and that foreigners would be protected. The ministers finally decided to recognize the new government.[32] Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 539 pixelsFull resolution (1438 × 969 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 539 pixelsFull resolution (1438 × 969 pixel, file size: 1. ... Sakai incident, Japan (堺事件). Le Monde Illustré, 1868. ... Saigo Takamori (seated, in Western uniform), surrounded by his officers, in samurai attire. ... Kobe ) is the capital city of Hyōgo Prefecture and a prominent port city in Japan with a population of about 1. ...


The rise of anti-foreign sentiment nonetheless led to several attacks on foreigners in the following months. Eleven French sailors from the corvette Dupleix were killed by samurai of Tosa in the Sakai incident on March 8, 1868. Fifteen days later, Sir Harry Parkes, the British ambassador, was attacked by a group of samurai in a street of Kyoto.[33] French steam corvette Dupleix (1856-1887) Canadian corvettes on antisubmarine convoy escort duty during World War II. A corvette is a small, maneuverable, lightly armed warship, smaller than a frigate but larger than a coastal patrol craft. ... The Dupleix was a steam and sail corvette of the French Marine Nationale. ... The article incorporates text from OpenHistory. ... Sakai incident, Japan (堺事件). Le Monde Illustré, 1868. ... Sir Harry Smith Parkes (1828 - 1885) was a 19th century British diplomat who worked mainly in China and Japan. ...


Surrender of Edo

Main articles: Battle of Kōshū-Katsunuma and Battle of Ueno
Kondo Isami, leader of the pro-Shogunate Shinsengumi, facing soldiers from Tosa (distinctive "Red bear" (赤熊, Shaguma) wigs of the officers) at the Battle of Kōshū-Katsunuma
Kondo Isami, leader of the pro-Shogunate Shinsengumi, facing soldiers from Tosa (distinctive "Red bear" (赤熊, Shaguma) wigs of the officers) at the Battle of Kōshū-Katsunuma
Part of the fleet of Enomoto Takeaki off Shinagawa. From left to right: Mikaho, Chōgei, Kanrin, Kaiyō, Kaiten. The Banryū and Chiyodagata are absent. 1868 photograph
Part of the fleet of Enomoto Takeaki off Shinagawa. From left to right: Mikaho, Chōgei, Kanrin, Kaiyō, Kaiten. The Banryū and Chiyodagata are absent. 1868 photograph

Beginning in February, with the help of the French ambassador Léon Roches, a plan was formulated to stop the imperial court's advance at Odawara, the last strategic entry point to Edo, but Yoshinobu decided against the plan. Shocked, Léon Roches resigned from his position. In early March, under the influence of the British minister Harry Parkes, foreign nations signed a strict neutrality agreement, according to which they could not intervene or provide military supplies to either side until the resolution of the conflict.[34] Kondo Isami at the Battle of KōshÅ«-Katsunuma. ... The attack on Kaneiji Temple, labeled here as The attack of Honnōji (本能寺) in the Battle of Ueno. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Kondo Isami Kondo Isami (近藤 勇 Kondō Isami, 1834 - 1868) was a chief of the Shinsen-gumi, an armed special security team in Kyoto during the late shogunate period. ... The Shinsengumi (Japanese: 新選組 or 新撰組) were a special police force of the late shogunate period. ... Tosa is the name of several places in Japan: In Kochi Prefecture Tosa City. ... Kondo Isami at the Battle of KōshÅ«-Katsunuma. ... Image File history File links EnomotoFleet. ... Image File history File links EnomotoFleet. ... Shinagawa (品川区; -ku) is a special ward located in Tokyo, Japan. ... Part of the fleet of Enomoto Takeaki off Shinagawa. ... Chogei Chogei (長鯨) was a transportation ship belonging to the troops faithfull to the Shogun during Japans Boshin War. ... Kanrin Maru (Japanese: 咸臨丸) was Japans first sail and screw-driven steam warship. ... Kaiyō Maru (Japanese: 開陽丸) was one of Japans first modern warships, powered by both sails and steam. ... Kaiten The Japanese warship Kaiten (回天) was a warship of the troops loyal to the Shogun during the Boshin war in Japan in 1868. ... BanryÅ« The Japanese warship BanryÅ« (蟠龍)was a ship of the Bakufu Navy, and subsequently belonged to the troops loyal to the Shogun during the Boshin war in Japan in 1868. ... The Chiyodagata (Jp:千代田形) was a gunboat of the Tokugawa Navy, and Japans first domestically-built steamboat. ... Léon Roches (1809 - 1901) was a representative of the French government in Japan from 1864 to 1868. ... Categories: Cities in Kanagawa Prefecture | Japan geography stubs ... Sir Harry Smith Parkes (1828 - 1885) was a 19th century British diplomat who worked mainly in China and Japan. ...


Saigō Takamori led the victorious imperial forces north and east through Japan, winning the Battle of Kōshū-Katsunuma. He eventually surrounded Edo in May 1868, leading to its unconditional surrender by Katsu Kaishu, the shogun's army minister.[35] Some groups continued to resist after this surrender but were defeated in the Battle of Ueno. Saigō Takamoris statue in Ueno park Saigō Takamori 23 January 1827/28 — 24 September 1877), one of the most influential samurai in Japanese history, lived during the late Edo Period and early Meiji Era. ... Kondo Isami at the Battle of KōshÅ«-Katsunuma. ... Edo (Japanese: , literally: bay-door, estuary, pronounced //), once also spelled Yedo or Yeddo, is the former name of the Japanese capital Tokyo. ... Katsu Kaishu (勝 海舟 Katsu Kaishū, 1823-99) was a stateman in Japan in the late shogunate period who held an important part in the Tokugawa shogunate in rare occasions. ... The attack on Kaneiji Temple, labeled here as The attack of Honnōji (本能寺) in the Battle of Ueno. ...


Meanwhile, the leader of the shogun's navy, Enomoto Takeaki, refused to surrender all his ships. He remitted just four ships, among them the Fujisan, but he then escaped north with the remnants of the navy (eight steam warships: Kaiten, Banryū, Chiyodagata, Chōgei, Kaiyō Maru, Kanrin Maru, Mikaho and Shinsoku), and 2,000 members of the navy, in the hope of staging a counter-attack together with the northern daimyo. He was accompanied by a handful of French military advisers, notably Jules Brunet, who had formally resigned from the French Army in order to accompany the rebels.[36] Enomoto Takeaki at the time of Republic of Ezo in 1869. ... The Fujisan (Japanese:富士山). The Fujisan (Japanese:富士山), was a steam frigate of the Bakufu Navy. ... Kaiten The Japanese warship Kaiten (回天) was a warship of the troops loyal to the Shogun during the Boshin war in Japan in 1868. ... BanryÅ« The Japanese warship BanryÅ« (蟠龍)was a ship of the Bakufu Navy, and subsequently belonged to the troops loyal to the Shogun during the Boshin war in Japan in 1868. ... The Chiyodagata (Jp:千代田形) was a gunboat of the Tokugawa Navy, and Japans first domestically-built steamboat. ... Chogei Chogei (長鯨) was a transportation ship belonging to the troops faithfull to the Shogun during Japans Boshin War. ... Kaiyō Maru (Japanese: 開陽丸) was one of Japans first modern warships, powered by both sails and steam. ... Kanrin Maru (Japanese: 咸臨丸) was Japans first sail and screw-driven steam warship. ... Part of the fleet of Enomoto Takeaki off Shinagawa. ... Shinsoku The Shinsoku (神速) was a Japanese warship belonging the troops loyal to the Shogun during the Boshin War. ... The French military mission before its departure to Japan. ...


Resistance of the Northern Coalition

Troops from Sendai, following their mobilization in April, joined a northern alliance against Imperial troops in May 1868
Troops from Sendai, following their mobilization in April, joined a northern alliance against Imperial troops in May 1868
Wooden cannons used by the Sendai fief during the Boshin War. Sendai City Museum
Wooden cannons used by the Sendai fief during the Boshin War. Sendai City Museum

After Yoshinobu's surrender,[37] most of Japan accepted the emperor's rule, but a core of shogunate supporters in the North, led by the Aizu clan, continued the resistance. In May several northern daimyo formed an Alliance to fight Imperial troops, the coalition of northern domains (奥羽越列藩同盟 Ouetsu Reppan Domei?) composed of the domains of Sendai, Yonezawa, Aizu, Shonai and Nagaoka, with a total of 50,000 troops.[38] An Imperial Prince, Kitashirakawa Yoshihisa had fled north with partisans of the Tokugawa shogunate and was made the nominal head of the Northern Coalition, with the intention of naming him "Emperor Tobu". Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 323 pixelsFull resolution (1254 × 507 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 323 pixelsFull resolution (1254 × 507 pixel, file size: 1. ... This April 2007 does not cite its references or sources. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 549 pixelsFull resolution (1197 × 821 pixel, file size: 434 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Wooden cannons used by the Sendai fief during the Boshin War. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 549 pixelsFull resolution (1197 × 821 pixel, file size: 434 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Wooden cannons used by the Sendai fief during the Boshin War. ... The Sendai City Museum. ... Monument to the Byakkotai Samurai Aizu ) is a former feudal domain (Han), part of the modern-day Japanese prefecture of Fukushima, formerly a part of Mutsu province. ... Daimyo Matsudaira Katamori visits the residence of a retainer. ... Troops from Sendai, following their mobilization in April, joined the Northern Alliance against Imperial troops in May 1868. ... This April 2007 does not cite its references or sources. ... Yonezawa (米沢市; -shi) is a city located in Yamagata, Japan. ... Monument to the Byakkotai Samurai Aizu ) is a former feudal domain (Han), part of the modern-day Japanese prefecture of Fukushima, formerly a part of Mutsu province. ... Shōnai (庄内町; -machi) is a town located in Higashitagawa District, Yamagata, Japan. ... Nagaoka (長岡市; -shi) is a city located in Niigata, Japan. ... His Imperial Highness Prince Kitashirakawa Yoshihisa , 1 April 1847 - 5 November 1895) of Japan, was the 2nd head of a collateral branch of the Japanese imperial family. ...


Enomoto's fleet joined Sendai harbour on August 26. Although the Northern Coalition was numerous, its was poorly equipped, and relied on traditional fighting methods. Modern armament was scarce, and last-minute efforts were made to build cannons made of wood and reinforced with roping, firing stone projectiles. Such cannons, installed on defensive structures, could only fire four or five projectiles before bursting.[39] On the other hand, the daimyo of Nagaoka managed to procure two of the three Gatling guns in Japan and 2,000 modern French rifles from the German weapon dealer Henry Schnell. This April 2007 does not cite its references or sources. ... A small cannon on a carriage, Bucharest. ... Gatling gun illustrated in an 1885 encyclopedia in Swedish http://www. ... A reenactment of the German weapons dealer Henry Schnell in the 2006 Aizu Clan Parade in Aizu-Wakamatsu, Fukushima Prefecture, Japan. ...

Ruined castle of Shirakawa-Komine, during the Battle of Aizu
Ruined castle of Shirakawa-Komine, during the Battle of Aizu

In May 1868, the daimyo of Nagaoka inflicted high losses on the Imperial troops in the Battle of Hokuetsu, but his castle ultimately fell on May 19. Imperial troops continued to progress north, defeating the Shinsengumi at the Battle of Bonari Pass, which opened the way for their attack on the castle of Aizu-Wakamatsu in the Battle of Aizu in October 1868, thus making the position in Sendai untenable. Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Komine Castle Komine Castle ) is a castle in the city of Shirakawa, Fukushima, Japan. ... Combatants Satsuma, ChōshÅ«, Tosa Bakufu, Aizu Commanders Ruler: Meiji Emperor Daimyo Matsudaira Katamori Strength 15,000 combatants 5,000 combatants Casualties unknown unknown The Battle of Aizu (Japanese:会津戦争, lit. ... The Battle of Hokuetsu (Japanese:北越戦争) was part of the Boshin War, and occurred in 1868 in the northwestern part of Japan, in the area of modern Niigata Prefecture. ... The Shinsengumi (Japanese: 新選組 or 新撰組) were a special police force of the late shogunate period. ... The Battle of Bonari Pass (Japanese:母成峠の戦い) was part of the Boshin War, and occurred on October 6th, 1868 (Gregorian Calendar), or August 21 (Lunar Calendar). ... Aizuwakamatsu castle Aizuwakamatsu (会津若松市; -shi) is a city located in Fukushima, Japan. ... Combatants Satsuma, ChōshÅ«, Tosa Bakufu, Aizu Commanders Ruler: Meiji Emperor Daimyo Matsudaira Katamori Strength 15,000 combatants 5,000 combatants Casualties unknown unknown The Battle of Aizu (Japanese:会津戦争, lit. ...

Troops of the former Bakufu, being transported to Hokkaidō.
Troops of the former Bakufu, being transported to Hokkaidō.

The coalition crumbled, and on October 12, 1868, the fleet left Sendai for Hokkaidō, after having acquired two more ships (Oe and Hōō, previously borrowed by Sendai from the Shogunate), and about 1,000 more troops: remaining Shogunate troops under Otori Keisuke, Shinsengumi troops under Hijikata Toshizo, Yugekitai under Katsutaro Hitomi, as well as several more French advisors (Fortant, Garde, Marlin, Bouffier).[40] Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 486 pixelsFull resolution (922 × 560 pixel, file size: 462 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Troops of the former Bakufu, being transported to Ezo. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 486 pixelsFull resolution (922 × 560 pixel, file size: 462 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Troops of the former Bakufu, being transported to Ezo. ...   literally North Sea Circuit, Ainu: Mosir), formerly known as Ezo, Yezo, Yeso, or Yesso, is the second largest island and largest prefecture of Japan. ... The Hou-Ou Maru (1854) The Hōō Maru ) was one of Japans first Western-style warship following the countrys period of Seclusion. ... Otori Keisuke(1833-1911) Otori Keisuke during the Boshin War (center). ... The Shinsengumi (Japanese: 新選組 or 新撰組) were a special police force of the late shogunate period. ... Hijikata Toshizō Statue at Takahata Fudo, Hino, Tokyo Hijikata Toshizō (土方歳三)(May 31, 1835—June 20, 1869) was the deputy leader of Shinsengumi, a small-built and talented Japanese military leader who resisted the Meiji Restoration. ...


On October 26, Edo was renamed Tokyo, and the Meiji Era officially started. After a protracted month-long battle, Aizu finally admitted defeat on November 6, leading to the mass suicide of the Byakkotai (White Tiger Corps) young warriors.[41] This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... History of Japan Paleolithic Jomon Yayoi Yamato period ---Kofun period ---Asuka period Nara period Heian period Kamakura period Muromachi period Azuchi-Momoyama period ---Nanban period Edo period Meiji period Taisho period Showa period ---Japanese expansionism ---Occupied Japan ---Post-Occupation Japan Heisei The Meiji period (Japanese: Meiji Jidai 明治&#26178... Monument to the Byakkotai Samurai Aizu ) is a former feudal domain (Han), part of the modern-day Japanese prefecture of Fukushima, formerly a part of Mutsu province. ... November 6 is the 310th day of the year (311th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 55 days remaining. ... Statue of a Byakko-tai warriors at Iimori Hill, Aizu-Wakamatsu, Fukushima Prefecture, Japan. ...


Hokkaidō campaign

Creation of the Ezo Republic

Main article: Republic of Ezo
The French military advisers and their Japanese allies in Hokkaido.Back row: Cazeneuve, Marlin, Fukushima Tokinosuke, Fortant.Front row: Hosoya Yasutaro, Jules Brunet, Matsudaira Taro (vice-president of the Ezo Republic), Tajima Kintaro
The French military advisers and their Japanese allies in Hokkaido.
Back row: Cazeneuve, Marlin, Fukushima Tokinosuke, Fortant.
Front row: Hosoya Yasutaro, Jules Brunet, Matsudaira Taro (vice-president of the Ezo Republic), Tajima Kintaro

Following defeat on Honshū, Enomoto Takeaki fled to Hokkaidō with the remnants of the navy and his handful of French advisers. Together they organized a government, with the objective of establishing an independent island nation dedicated to the development of Hokkaidō. They formally established the Republic of Ezo on the American model on December 25, Japan's only republic ever, and Enomoto was elected as President, with a large majority. The republic tried to reach out to foreign legations present in Hakodate, such as the Americans, French, and Russians, but was not able to garner any international recognition or support. Enomoto offered to confer the territory to the Tokugawa Shogun under Imperial rule, but his proposal was declined by the Imperial Governing Council.[42] Enomoto Takeaki (front, right) and the leaders of his loyalist troops in Hokkaido, 1869. ... Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Cazeneuve, in Hakodate. ... The French military advisers and their Japanese allies in Hokkaido. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... The French military mission before its departure to Japan. ... The French military advisors and their Japanese allies. ... Enomoto Takeaki (front, right) and the leaders of his loyalist troops in Hokkaido, 1869. ... Enomoto Takeaki at the time of Republic of Ezo in 1869. ...   literally North Sea Circuit, Ainu: Mosir), formerly known as Ezo, Yezo, Yeso, or Yesso, is the second largest island and largest prefecture of Japan. ... Enomoto Takeaki (front, right) and the leaders of his loyalist troops in Hokkaido, 1869. ...


During the winter, they fortified their defenses around the southern peninsula of Hakodate, with the new fortress of Goryokaku at the center. The troops were organized under a Franco-Japanese command, the commander-in-chief Otori Keisuke being seconded by the French captain Jules Brunet, and divided between four brigades. Each of these was commanded by a French non-commissioned officer (Fortant, Marlin, Cazeneuve, Bouffier), and were themselves divided into eight half-brigades, each under Japanese command.[43] View of Hakodate from Mountain Hakodate (函館市; -shi) is a city and port located in Oshima, Hokkaido, Japan. ... Goryokaku was the Republic of Ezos main fortress. ... Otori Keisuke(1833-1911) Otori Keisuke during the Boshin War (center). ... The French military mission before its departure to Japan. ... Brigade is a term from military science which refers to a group of several battalions (typically two to four), and directly attached supporting units (normally including at least an artillery battery and additional logistic support). ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... The French military advisers and their Japanese allies in Hokkaido. ... Cazeneuve, in Hakodate. ... François Bouffier, in Hakodate. ...


Final losses and surrender

The Imperial Navy's ironclad Kotetsu
The Imperial Navy's ironclad Kotetsu

The Imperial navy reached the harbour of Miyako on March 20th, but anticipating the arrival of the imperial ships, the Ezo rebels organized a daring plan to seize the Kotetsu. Three warships were dispatched for a surprise attack, in what is known as the Naval Battle of Miyako. The battle ended in failure for the Tokugawa side, owing to bad weather, engine trouble and the decisive use of a Gatling gun by Imperial troops against samurai boarding parties.[44] The Imperial navys revolutionary ironclad Kotetsu was the object of the Naval Battle of Miyako. ... Combatants Empire of Japan Ezo Republic Commanders Kuroda Kiyotaka Enomoto Takeaki Strength 7,000 combatants 10 steam warships 3,000 combatants 11 steam warships Casualties 770 casualties 1 ship sunk 1 ship destroyed 1,300 killed 400 wounded 1,300 captured 2 ships sunk 3 ships captured 3 ships lost... Combatants Empire of Japan: Kotetsu Kasuga Hiryu Teibo Yoharu Moshun Chōyō Ezo Republic: Kaiten BanryÅ« Chiyodagata Chōgei Mikaho Commanders Arai Ikunosuke Strength 8 steam warships 5 steam warships Casualties 1 ship sunk 2 ships sunk, 3 captured The Naval Battle of Hakodate Bay (Japanese:函館湾海戦) was fought from 4... Download high resolution version (690x652, 94 KB)CSS Stonewall (later Japanese battleship Kotetsu) in the Washington Navy Yard c. ... Download high resolution version (690x652, 94 KB)CSS Stonewall (later Japanese battleship Kotetsu) in the Washington Navy Yard c. ... Executor and several escorting Star Destroyers In the fictional Star Wars galaxy, the Imperial Navy, or more properly, the Imperial Starfleet, was the military arm of the Galactic Empire charged with maintaining security in Imperial space. ... Kotetsu (Japanese: 甲鉄, literally Ironclad) was the first ironclad warship of the Imperial Japanese Navy. ... Miyako (宮古市; -shi) is a city located in Iwate, Japan. ... Kotetsu (Japanese: 甲鉄, literally Ironclad) was the first ironclad warship of the Imperial Japanese Navy. ... The Imperial navys revolutionary ironclad Kotetsu was the object of the Naval Battle of Miyako. ... An 1865 Gatling gun. ...

The French Navy officer Eugène Collache participated in the Naval Battle of Miyako in samurai attire.
The French Navy officer Eugène Collache participated in the Naval Battle of Miyako in samurai attire.

Imperial forces soon consolidated their hold on mainland Japan, and, in April 1869, dispatched a fleet and an infantry force of 7,000 to Ezo, starting the Battle of Hakodate. The Imperial forces progressed swiftly and won the naval engagement at Hakodate Bay, Japan's first large-scale naval battle between modern navies, as the fortress of Goryokaku was surrounded with 800 remaining men. Seeing the situation had become desperate, the French advisors escaped to a French ship stationed in Hakodate Bay - Coëtlogon, under the command of Dupetit-Thouars - from where they were shipped back to Yokohama and then France for judgement. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (505x970, 409 KB) Summary Representation of Eugene Collache in Samurai attire. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (505x970, 409 KB) Summary Representation of Eugene Collache in Samurai attire. ... Eugène Collache in samurai attire. ... The Imperial navys revolutionary ironclad Kotetsu was the object of the Naval Battle of Miyako. ... Combatants Empire of Japan Ezo Republic Commanders Kuroda Kiyotaka Enomoto Takeaki Strength 7,000 combatants 10 steam warships 3,000 combatants 11 steam warships Casualties 770 casualties 1 ship sunk 1 ship destroyed 1,300 killed 400 wounded 1,300 captured 2 ships sunk 3 ships captured 3 ships lost... Combatants Empire of Japan: Kotetsu Kasuga Hiryu Teibo Yoharu Moshun Chōyō Ezo Republic: Kaiten BanryÅ« Chiyodagata Chōgei Mikaho Commanders Arai Ikunosuke Strength 8 steam warships 5 steam warships Casualties 1 ship sunk 2 ships sunk, 3 captured The Naval Battle of Hakodate Bay (Japanese:函館湾海戦) was fought from 4... Goryokaku was the Republic of Ezos main fortress. ... Coëtlogon can refer to: Alain Emmanuel de Coëtlogon, Marshal of France Coëtlogon, Côtes-dArmor, a French commune Coëtlogon, a French Navy frigate under the command of Dupetit-Thouars during the Boshin war in Japan. ... Abel Nicolas Georges Henri Bergasse Dupetit-Thouars (March 23, 1832 – March 14, 1890) was a French sailor and admiral. ... For a tire company, known by Yokohama Tyre, see Yokohama Rubber Company. ...


Enomoto had resolved to fight to the end, and had sent his valuables to his adversary for safekeeping.[45] but Otori convinced him to surrender, telling him that deciding to live through defeat is the truly courageous way: "If it's dying you want you can do it anytime."[46] Enomoto surrendered on May 18, 1869, and accepted the Meiji Emperor's rule. The Ezo Republic ceased to exist on 27 June 1869.
May 18 is the 138th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (139th in leap years). ... 1869 (MDCCCLXIX) is a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ... Emperor Meiji (Mutsuhito) Mutsuhito (睦仁), the Meiji Emperor (明治天皇, literally Enlightened Rule Emperor) (3 November 1852–30 July 1912) was the 122nd Emperor of Japan. ... June 27 is the 178th day of the year (179th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 187 days remaining. ... 1869 (MDCCCLXIX) is a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ...


Aftermath

Main article: Meiji period
The 16-year old Meiji Emperor, moving from Kyoto to Tokyo, end of 1868.
The 16-year old Meiji Emperor, moving from Kyoto to Tokyo, end of 1868.

Following victory, the new government proceeded with unifying the country under a single, legitimate and powerful rule by the imperial court. The emperor's residence was effectively transferred from Kyoto to Tokyo at the end of 1868. The military and political power of the domains was progressively eliminated, and the domains themselves were soon transformed into prefectures, whose governors were appointed by the emperor. A major reform was the effective expropriation and abolition of the samurai class, allowing many samurai to change into administrative or entrepreneurial positions, but forcing many others into poverty.[47] The southern domains of Satsuma, Chōshū and Tosa, having played a decisive role in the victory, occupied most of the key posts in government for several decades following the conflict, a situation sometimes called the "Meiji oligarchy" and formalized with the institution of the Genrō.[48] The Meiji period ) denotes the 45-year reign of Emperor Meiji, running from 8 September 1868 (in the Gregorian calendar, 23 October 1868) to 30 July 1912. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 565 pixelsFull resolution (1084 × 766 pixel, file size: 901 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) The Meiji emperor moving from Kyoto to Tokyo. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 565 pixelsFull resolution (1084 × 766 pixel, file size: 901 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) The Meiji emperor moving from Kyoto to Tokyo. ... Emperor Meiji (Mutsuhito) Mutsuhito (睦仁), the Meiji Emperor (明治天皇, literally Enlightened Rule Emperor) (3 November 1852–30 July 1912) was the 122nd Emperor of Japan. ... Kyoto )   is a city in the central part of the island of HonshÅ«, Japan. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Kyoto )   is a city in the central part of the island of HonshÅ«, Japan. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The prefectures of Japan are the countrys 47 sub-national jurisdictions: one metropolis (都 to), Tokyo; one circuit (道 dō), Hokkaidō; two urban prefectures (府 fu), Osaka and Kyoto; and 43 other prefectures (県 ken). ... Japanese samurai in armour, 1860s. ... The Meiji oligarchy, as the new ruling class of Meiji period Japan is known to historians, was a privileged clique that exercised imperial power, sometimes despotically. ... The Genrō (元老) were retired elder Japanese statesmen, who served as informal advisors to the emperor, during the Meiji and Taisho periods in Japanese history. ...


Leading partisans of the former Shogun were imprisoned, but narrowly escaped execution. This clemency derives from the insistence of Saigō Takamori and Iwakura Tomomi, although much weight was placed on the advice of Parkes, the British envoy. He had urged Saigō, in the words of Ernest Satow, "that severity towards Keiki [Yoshinobu] or his supporters, especially in the way of personal punishment, would injure the reputation of the new government in the opinion of European Powers."[49] After two or three years of imprisonment, most of them were called to serve the new government, and several pursued brilliant careers. In the case of Enomoto Takeaki, former leader of the pro-shogunate forces, who would later serve as envoy to Russia and China and as education minister.[50] Iwakura Tomomi (岩倉 具視 October 26, 1825-July 20, 1883) was a statesman who played an important role in the Meiji restoration, influencing opinions of the Imperial Court. ... Sir Harry Smith Parkes (1828 - 1885) was a 19th century British diplomat who worked mainly in China and Japan. ... Enomoto Takeaki at the time of Republic of Ezo in 1869. ...


The Imperial side did not pursue its objective to expel foreign interests from Japan, but instead shifted to a more progressive policy aiming at the continued modernization of the country and the renegotiation of unequal treaties with foreign powers, later under the Rich country, strong army (富国強兵 Fukoku Kyōhei?) motto. The shift in stance towards the foreigners came during the early days of the civil war: on April 8, 1868, new signboards were erected in Kyoto (and later throughout the country) that specifically repudiated violence against foreigners.[51] During the course of the conflict, Meiji personally received European envoys, first in Kyoto, then later in Osaka and Tokyo.[52] Also unprecedented was Meiji's reception of Alfred, Duke of Edinburgh, in Tokyo, "'as his equal in point of blood.'"[53] Although the early Meiji era witnessed a warming between the imperial court and foreign powers, relations with France soured due to the initial support by France for the Shogun, although a second military mission was invited to Japan in 1874, and a third one in 1884. A high level of interaction resumed around 1886, when France helped build the Imperial Japanese Navy's first large-scale modern fleet, under the direction of naval engineer Louis-Émile Bertin.[54] The modernization of the country had in fact already started extensively during the last years of the Shogunate, and the Meiji government ultimately adopted the same orientation, although it was better able to mobilize the whole country towards modernization in a more efficient way. The Unequal Treaties is the name in the English language used by modern China for a series of treaties signed by several Asian states, including the Qing Empire in China, late Tokugawa Japan, and late Joseon Korea, and foreign powers (列強, ì—´ê°•) during the 19th and early 20th centuries. ... Fukoku kyōhei (富国強兵), enrich the country, strengthen the military, was Japans national slogan during the Meiji Era, replacing sonnō jōi. ... Alfred, Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha and Duke of Edinburgh (6 August 1844- 30 July 1900), was the second son and fourth child of Queen Victoria and her husband, Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha. ... The history of Franco-Japanese relations (Japanese: 日仏関係, Nichi-Futsu kankei) goes back to the early 17th century, when a Japanese samurai and ambassador on his way to Rome landed for a few days in Southern France, creating a sensation. ... Colonel Munier, commander of the Second French Military Mission to Japan. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... The Imperial Japanese Navy (IJN) (: 大日本帝國海軍 Shinjitai: 大日本帝国海軍   or 日本海軍 Nippon Kaigun), officially Navy of Empire of Greater Japan, also known as the Japanese Navy or Combined Fleet was the Navy of Empire of Japan from 1869 until 1947, when it was dissolved following Japans constitutional renunciation of the use of force... Louis-Émile Bertin in his later years. ... The Late Tokugawa Shogunate (Japanese: Bakumatsu) is the period between 1853 and 1867 during which Japan ended its isolationist foreign policy called sakoku and modernized from a feudal shogunate to the Meiji government. ...

Saigo Takamori, in his Army uniform, with officers of the Satsuma Rebellion
Saigo Takamori, in his Army uniform, with officers of the Satsuma Rebellion

Upon his coronation, Meiji issued his Charter Oath, calling for deliberative assemblies, promising increased opportunities for the common people, abolishing the "evil customs of the past," and seeking knowledge throughout the world "to strengthen the foundations of imperial rule."[55] Prominent reforms of the Meiji government included the 1871 abolition of the domain system, by which the feudal domains and their hereditary rulers were replaced by prefectures with governors appointed by the emperor.[56] Others included the introduction of compulsory schooling and the abolition of Confucian class distinctions. The reforms culminated in the 1889 issuance of the Meiji Constitution. However, despite the support given to the imperial court by samurai, many of the early Meiji reforms were seen as detrimental to their interests: the creation of a conscript army made of commoners, as well as the loss of hereditary prestige and stipends antagonized many former samurai.[57] Tensions ran particularly high in the south, leading to the 1874 Saga Rebellion, and a rebellion in Chōshū in 1876. Former samurai in Satsuma, led by Saigō Takamori, who had left government over foreign policy differences, started the Satsuma Rebellion in 1877. Fighting for the maintenance of the samurai class and a more virtuous government, their slogan was "New government, High morality" (新政厚徳 Shinsei Kōtoku?). It ended with a heroic but total defeat at the Battle of Shiroyama.[58] Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1228x911, 1264 KB) Saigo Takamori with his officers, from Le Monde Illustre, 1877. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1228x911, 1264 KB) Saigo Takamori with his officers, from Le Monde Illustre, 1877. ... Saigō Takamoris statue in Ueno park Saigō Takamori (西郷 隆盛 Saigō Takamori, 23 January 1827/28 - 24 September 1877), one of the most influential samurai in Japanese history, lived during the late Edo Period and early Meiji Era. ... The Charter Oath as officially published. ... Occurring in 1871, the abolition of the han system and establishment of the prefecture system (廃藩置県, haihan-chiken; hai abolish + han + chi set down + ken prefecture) was an act to replace the traditional han system and introduce new local government. ... The prefectures of Japan are the countrys 47 sub-national jurisdictions: one metropolis (都 to), Tokyo; one circuit (道 dō), Hokkaidō; two urban prefectures (府 fu), Osaka and Kyoto; and 43 other prefectures (県 ken). ... Jōyu (上諭) - The Emperors words (1) The Constitution of the Empire of Japan ), more commonly known as the Imperial or Meiji Constitution, was the fundamental law of the Empire of Japan from 29 November 1889 until 2 May 1947. ... Woodblock print from Tokyo Nichinichi Shimbun, 1871, depicting Eto Shimpei during the Saga Rebellion The Saga Rebellion ) was a samurai insurrection in Japan in 1874, led by Eto Shimpei and Shima Yoshitake in their native domain of Hizen against the Meiji government. ... Combatants Imperial Japanese Army Satsuma fief Commanders Ruler: Meiji Emperor CIC: Sumiyoshi Kawamura Saigō Takamori Strength 300,000 40,000 Casualties estimate ~60,000 dead soldiers about 30,000 dead The Satsuma Rebellion (Seinan Sensō 西南戦争, Southwestern War) was a revolt of the Satsuma clan samurai against the Imperial Japanese Army... Japanese samurai in armour, 1860s. ... Combatants Imperial Japanese Army Samurai of Satsuma Commanders Sumiyoshi Kawamura Saigo Takamori† Strength 300,000 troops 300-400 samurai Casualties 15,000  ? The Battle of Shiroyama took place on September 24, 1877, in Kagoshima, Japan. ...


Later depictions

A Japanese romanticized vision of the Battle of Hakodate (函館戦争の図), painted circa 1880. The cavalry charge, with a sinking sailship in the background, is led by the leaders of the rebellion in anachronistic samurai attire. French soldiers are shown behind the cavalry charge in white trousers. With a modern steam warship visible in the background, imperial troops with modern uniforms are on the right.
A Japanese romanticized vision of the Battle of Hakodate (函館戦争の図), painted circa 1880. The cavalry charge, with a sinking sailship in the background, is led by the leaders of the rebellion in anachronistic samurai attire.[59] French soldiers are shown behind the cavalry charge in white trousers. With a modern steam warship visible in the background, imperial troops with modern uniforms are on the right.[60]

In modern summaries, the Meiji restoration is often described as a "bloodless revolution" leading to the sudden modernization of Japan. The actual facts of the Boshin War clearly show that the conflict was quite violent: about 120,000 troops were mobilized altogether with roughly 3,500 known casualties.[61] Later Japanese depictions of the war tended to be highly romanticized, showing the Shogun side fighting along traditional methods, against an already modernized Imperial side. And although traditional weapons and techniques were used, both sides employed some of the most modern armaments and fighting techniques of the period: including the ironclad, Gatling guns, and fighting techniques learned from Western advisers. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 400 pixelsFull resolution (1584 × 792 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 400 pixelsFull resolution (1584 × 792 pixel, file size: 1. ... Ironclad warships, frequently shortened to just ironclads, were ships sheathed with thick iron plates for protection. ... Gatling gun illustrated in an 1885 encyclopedia in Swedish http://www. ...

The Japanese movie Goryokaku

Such Japanese depictions include numerous dramatizations, spanning many genres. Notably, Jirō Asada wrote a four-volume novel of the account, Mibu Gishi-den. A film adaptation of Asada's work, directed by Yojiro Takita, is known as When the Last Sword Is Drawn. A ten-hour television jidaigeki based on the same novel starred Ken Watanabe. The 2001 Goryokaku film is another jidaigeki highlighting the resistance in Hokkaidō. The famous Japanese anime called Rurouni Kenshin, takes place 10 years after the Boshin War. The anime revolves around the effects of the war that ended the Tokugawa regime and started the Meiji Era. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Yojiro Takita (滝田 洋二郎 Takita Yōjirō, born December 4, 1955 in Toyama, Japan), is a Japanese film director. ... When the Last Sword is Drawn (壬生義士伝, Mibu gishi den) is a 2003 Japanese movie directed by Yojiro Takita. ... Jidaigeki (時代劇) is a genre of film and television in Japan. ... Ken Watanabe , born October 21, 1959) is a renowned Japanese actor who performs on stage and television, and has received an Oscar nomination for his work in film . ... The main cast of the anime Cowboy Bebop (1998) (L to R: Spike Spiegel, Jet Black, Ed Tivrusky, Faye Valentine, and Ein the dog) For the oleo-resin, see Animé (oleo-resin). ... It has been suggested that Sakabato be merged into this article or section. ...


Elsewhere, the 2003 Hollywood movie The Last Samurai combines into a single narrative historical situations belonging both to the Boshin War and the 1877 Satsuma Rebellion. The elements of the movie pertaining to the early modernization of Japan's military forces as well as the direct involvement of foreign (mostly French) forces relate to the Boshin War and the few years leading to it. On the contrary, the suicidal stand of traditionalist samurai forces led by Saigō Takamori against the modernized Imperial army relate to the much later Satsuma Rebellion. The Last Samurai is an action/drama film written by John Logan and Edward Zwick & Marshall Herskovitz based on a story by Logan. ... Combatants Imperial Japanese Army Satsuma fief Commanders Ruler: Meiji Emperor CIC: Sumiyoshi Kawamura Saigō Takamori Strength 300,000 40,000 Casualties estimate ~60,000 dead soldiers about 30,000 dead The Satsuma Rebellion (Seinan Sensō 西南戦争, Southwestern War) was a revolt of the Satsuma clan samurai against the Imperial Japanese Army... Saigō Takamoris statue in Ueno park Saigō Takamori 23 January 1827/28 — 24 September 1877), one of the most influential samurai in Japanese history, lived during the late Edo Period and early Meiji Era. ...


Notes

  1. ^ Boshin (戊辰?) is the designation for the fifth year of a sexagenary cycle in traditional East Asian calendars. 戊辰 can also be read as "tsuchinoe-tatsu" in Japanese, literally "Elder Brother of Earth-Dragon". In Chinese terminology, it translates "Yang Earth Dragon", which is associated with that particular year in the sexagenary cycle. Etymologically, 戊 and 辰 have nothing to do with "dragon" or "elder brother of earth", so the reading "tsuchinoe-tatsu" has to be regarded as a kind of associative kun'yomi. In term of eras, the conflict started in the 4th year of Keiō, which also became the first year of Meiji in October of that year, and ended in the second year of Meiji.
  2. ^ Estimate in Hagiwara, p. 50.
  3. ^ Thanks to the interaction with the Dutch, the study of Western science continued during this period under the name of Rangaku, allowing Japan to study and follow most of the steps of the scientific and industrial revolution. See Jansen (pp. 210-15) discusses the vibrancy of Edo period rangaku, and later (p. 346) notes the competition in the early Meiji period for foreign experts and rangaku scholars. See also: "The technology of Edo" (見て楽しむ江戸のテクノロジー), 2006, ISBN 4-410-13886-3 (Japanese) and "The intellectual world of Edo" (江戸の思想空間) Timon Screech, 1998, ISBN 4-7917-5690-8 (Japanese).
  4. ^ Hagiwara, p. 34.
  5. ^ Jansen, pp. 314-5.
  6. ^ Hagiwara, p. 35.
  7. ^ Jansen, pp. 303-5.
  8. ^ Hagiwara, pp. 34-5
  9. ^ As early as 1865, Thomas Blake Glover sold 7500 Minié rifles to the Chōshū clan, allowing it to become totally modernized. Nakaoka Shintaro a few months later remarked that "in every way the forces of the han have been renewed; only companies of rifle and cannon exist, and the rifles are Minies, the cannon breech loaders using shells" (Brown)
  10. ^ This is a claim made by Jules Brunet in a letter to Napoleon III: "I must signal to the Emperor the presence of numerous American and British officers, retired or on leave, in this party [of the southern daimyo] which is hostile to French interests. The presence of Western leaders among our enemies may jeopardize my success from a political standpoint, but nobody can stop me from reporting from this campaign information Your Majesty will without a doubt find interesting." Original quotation (French): "Je dois signaler à l'Empereur la présence de nombreux officers américains et anglais, hors cadre et en congé, dans ce parti hostile aux intérêts français. La présence de ces chefs occidentaux chez nos adversaires peut m'empêcher peut-être de réussir au point de vue politique, mais nul ne pourra m'empêcher de rapporter de cette campagne des renseignements que Votre Majesté trouvera sans doute intéressants." Polak, p. 81. As an example, the English Lieutenant Horse is known to have been a gunnery instructor for the Saga domain during the Bakumatsu period ("Togo Heiachiro", 17)
  11. ^ These encounters are described in Satow's 1869 A Diplomat in Japan, where he famously describes Saigō as a man with "an eye that sparkled like a big black diamond."
  12. ^ For example, An 1864 request to Sir Rutherford Alcock to supply British military experts from the 1,500 men stationed at Yokohama went unanswered, and when Takenaka Shibata visited United Kingdom and France, in September 1865, requesting assistance, only the latter was forthcoming.
  13. ^ Following the deal with France, the French ambassador in Japan Leon Roches, trying not to alienate United Kingdom, arranged for the Shogun to ask for a British navy mission which arrived sometime after the French military mission of 1867. Polak, p. 53-5
  14. ^ A detailed presentation of the Shogunate Navy is available at this site (Japanese)
  15. ^ Keene, p. 165-6.
  16. ^ Jansen, p. 307.
  17. ^ There is debate as to the authenticity of the order, due to its violent language and the fact that, despite using the imperial pronoun ( chin?), it did not bear Meiji's signature. Keene, pp. 115-6.
  18. ^ Satow, p. 282.
  19. ^ Keene, p. 116. See also Jansen, pp. 310-1.
  20. ^ Keene, pp. 120-1, and Satow, p. 283. Moreover, Satow (p. 285) speculates that Yoshinobu had agreed to an assembly of daimyos on the hope that such a body would restore him to reinstate him.
  21. ^ Satow, p. 286.
  22. ^ During a recess, Saigō, who had his troops outside, "remarked that it would take only one short sword to settle the discussion" (Keene, p. 122). Original quotation (Japanese): "短刀一本あればかたづくことだ." in Hagiwara, p. 42. The specific word used for "dagger" was "tantō".
  23. ^ Keene, p. 124.
  24. ^ Keene, p. 125.
  25. ^ "Saigo Takamori and Okubo Toshimichi", p63
  26. ^ Saigō, while excited at the beginning of combat, had planned for the evacuation of the emperor from Kyoto if the situation demanded it. Keene, pp. 125-6.
  27. ^ The red and white pennant had been conceived and designed by Okubo Toshimichi and Iwakura Tomomi, among others. It was in effect a forgery, as was the imperial order to deploy it among the defending troops. The nominal leader of the army, Prince Ninnajinomiya Yoshiaki, was also given a special sword and appointed "great general, conqueror of the east," and the shogunal forces opposing Yoshiaki were branded "enemies of the court." Keene, pp. 126-7.
  28. ^ A detailed description of the battle is available in Hagiwara, p. 42.
  29. ^ "Militarily, the Tokugawa were vastly superior. They had between 3 to 5 times more soldiers and held Osaka Castle as a base, they could count on the forces from Edo modernized by the French, and they had the most powerful fleet of East Asia at hand in Osaka Bay. In a regular fight, the Imperial side had to loose. Saigō Takamori too, anticipating defeat had moved the Emperor to the Chūgoku mountains and was preparing for guerilla warfare." Hagiwara, p. 43. Translation from the Japanese original.
  30. ^ Hagiwara, p. 43-5.
  31. ^ "Togo Heihachiro in images, illustrated Meiji Navy"
  32. ^ Polak, p. 75.
  33. ^ Le Monde Illustré, No. 583, June 13 1868.
  34. ^ Polak, p. 77.
  35. ^ Hagiwara, p. 46
  36. ^ Polak, p. 81.
  37. ^ Tokugawa Yoshinobu was placed under house arrest, and stripped of all titles, land and power. He was later on released, when he demonstrated no further interest and ambition in national affairs. He retired to Shizuoka, the place to which his ancestor Tokugawa Ieyasu, had also retired.
  38. ^ Polak, pp. 79-91.
  39. ^ A detailed presentation of artifacts from that phase of the war is visible at the Sendai City Museum, in Sendai, Japan.
  40. ^ Polak, p. 81.
  41. ^ An account of the resistance of the Byakkotai can be accessed here (English)
  42. ^ In a letter of Enomoto to the Imperial Governing Council: "We pray that this portion of the Empire may be conferred upon our late lord, Tokugawa Kamenosuke; and in that case, we shall repay your beneficence by our faithful guardianship of the northern gate." Black, pp. 240-241
  43. ^ Polak, pp. 85-9.
  44. ^ Collache was onboard one of the ships that participated to the attack. He had to wreck his ship and flee overland, until he surrendered with his colleagues and was transferred to a prison in Tokyo. He ultimately returned to France safely to tell his story. The encounter is detailed in Collache, "Une aventure au Japon".
  45. ^ These included the Naval Codes he had brought back from Holland, which he entrusted to the general of the Imperial troops, Kuroda Kiyotaka,
  46. ^ Polak et al.
  47. ^ Most legal distinctions between samurai and ordinary subjects were soon abolished, and the traditional rice stipends paid to samurai were first converted into cash stipends, and these were later converted at a steep discount to government bonds (Gordon pp. 64-65).
  48. ^ For example Saigō Takamori, Okubo Toshimichi, and Togo Heihachiro all came from Satsuma. Discussed in Togo Heihachiro in images: Illustrated Meiji Navy
  49. ^ Quoted in Keene, 143.
  50. ^ Discussed in Polak et al. See also, Keene.
  51. ^ Keene, p. 142.
  52. ^ Keene, pp. 143-4, 165.
  53. ^ Parkes, quoted in Keene, p. 183-7. Emphasis in the original.
  54. ^ Discussed in Evans and Peattie.
  55. ^ Jansen, p. 338. See Jansen, pp. 337-43 for political developments during and relating to the course of the war. See Keene, 138-42, for discussion of the Charter Oath and signboard decrees.
  56. ^ Many daimyo were appointed as the first governors, and subsequently given peerages and large pensions. Over the following years, the three hundred domains were reduced to fifty prefectures. Jansen, pp. 348-9.
  57. ^ Jansen, 367-8.
  58. ^ Hagiwara, pp. 94-120. Saigō himself professed continued loyalty to Meiji and wore his Imperial Army uniform throughout the conflict. He committed suicide before the final charge of the rebellion, and was posthumously pardoned by the emperor in subsequent years. Jansen, 9p. 369-70.
  59. ^ The Shogunate leaders are labelled from left to right, Enomoto (Kinjiro) Takeaki, Otori Keisuke, Matsudaira Taro. The samurai in yellow garment is Hijikata Toshizo.
  60. ^ The "Red bear" (赤熊 Shaguma?) wigs indicate soldiers from Tosa, the "White bear" (白熊 Haguma?) wigs for Chōshū, and the "Black bear" (黒熊 Koguma?) wigs for Satsuma).
  61. ^ Hagiwara, p. 50.

The Chinese sexagenary cycle (Chinese: ; pinyin: gānzhÄ«) is a cyclic numeral system of 60 combinations of the two basic cycles, the ten Heavenly Stems (天干; tiāngān) and the twelve Earthly Branches (地支; dìzhÄ«). These have been traditionally used as a means of numbering the years, not only in... Taijitu, the traditional symbol representing the forces of yin and yang The dual concepts of yin and yang – or the single concept yin-yang – originate in ancient Chinese philosophy and metaphysics, which describe two primal opposing but complementary principles said to be found in all non-static objects and processes... The characters for Kanji, lit. ... There is also a Keio University in Tokyo. ... Rangaku (蘭学) or Dutch Learning was the method by which Japan kept abreast of Western technology and medicine in the period when the country was closed to foreigners, 1641-1853, because of the Tokugawa shogunates policy of national isolation (sakoku). ... Training with the Minié rifle during the American Civil War, 1863. ... The French military mission before its departure to Japan. ... Charles Louis Napoléon Bonaparte (April 20, 1808 - January 9, 1873) was the son of King Louis Bonaparte and Queen Hortense de Beauharnais; both monarchs of the French puppet state, the Kingdom of Holland. ... Saga Prefecture ) is located in the northwest part of the island of KyÅ«shÅ«, Japan. ... The late Tokugawa shogunate or last shogun (幕末; Bakumatsu) is the period between 1853 and 1867 during which Japan ended its isolationist foreign policy called sakoku and modernized from a feudal shogunate to the Meiji government. ... Sir Rutherford Alcock (1809-1897) was the first British diplomatic representative in Japan. ... For a tire company, known by Yokohama Tyre, see Yokohama Rubber Company. ... Leon Roches (1809 - 1901) is a representative of the French government in Japan from 1864 to 1868. ... Bold text This article is about the weapon. ... Two Tantō tantō blade hidden in a fan-shaped mounting A Tantō (短刀) is a Japanese knife or dagger with a blade length of about 15 - 30 cm (6 - 12). There is a disputed saying about the tantō, wakizashi, and katana stating they are The Tantō differs from the others as... Ōkubo Toshimichi (大久保 利通 Ōkubo Toshimichi, 10 August 1830 - 14 May 1878), Japanese statesman, a samurai of Satsuma, is one of the five great nobles who led the revolution in 1868 against the shogunate. ... Saigo Takamori (seated, in Western uniform), surrounded by his officers, in samurai attire. ... In justice and law, house arrest is the situation where a person is confined (by the authorities) to his or her residence. ... Shizuoka (静岡市; -shi) is the capital city of Shizuoka Prefecture, Japan. ... Shogun Tokugawa Ieyasu The Tokugawa clan crest This is a Japanese name; the family name is Tokugawa Tokugawa Ieyasu (previously spelled Iyeyasu) January 31, 1543 – June 1, 1616) was the founder and first shogun of the Tokugawa shogunate of Japan which ruled from the Battle of Sekigahara in 1600 until... The Sendai City Museum. ... This April 2007 does not cite its references or sources. ... Kuroda Kiyotaka (黒田 清隆; October 16, 1840–August 25, 1900), also known as Ryōsuke, was a Japanese politician of the Meiji era, and the second Prime Minister of Japan from April 30, 1888 to October 25, 1889. ... Saigō Takamoris statue in Ueno park Saigō Takamori 23 January 1827/28 — 24 September 1877), one of the most influential samurai in Japanese history, lived during the late Edo Period and early Meiji Era. ... Ōkubo Toshimichi (大久保 利通 Ōkubo Toshimichi, 10 August 1830 - 14 May 1878), Japanese statesman, a samurai of Satsuma, is one of the five great nobles who led the revolution in 1868 against the shogunate. ... Admiral Togo at the age of 55, shortly before the Russo-Japanese War Fleet Admiral Count Tōgō Heihachirō (東郷 平八郎 Tōgō Heihachirō OM, January 27, 1848 - 30 May 1934) was a Japanese Admiral and one of Japans greatest naval heroes. ... The kazoku (華族, lit. ... Enomoto Takeaki at the time of Republic of Ezo in 1869. ... Otori Keisuke(1833-1911) Otori Keisuke during the Boshin War (center). ... The French military advisors and their Japanese allies. ... Hijikata Toshizō Statue at Takahata Fudo, Hino, Tokyo Hijikata Toshizō (土方歳三)(May 31, 1835—June 20, 1869) was the deputy leader of Shinsengumi, a small-built and talented Japanese military leader who resisted the Meiji Restoration. ... The article incorporates text from OpenHistory. ... ChōshÅ« may refer to any of the following: Nagato Province ) in Japan ChōshÅ« Domain ) in Japan The wrestler Riki Choshu ) Category: ... Satsuma (薩摩国; -no Kuni) was an old province of Japan that is now the western half of Kagoshima prefecture on the island of Kyushu. ...

References

  • Black, John R. (1881). Young Japan: Yokohama and Yedo, Vol. II. London: Trubner & Co.. 
  • Brown, Sidney DeVere (1994). Nagasaki in the Meiji Restoration: Choshu loyalists and British arms merchants. Retrieved on 2007-04-28.
  • Collache, Eugène. "Une aventure au Japon" Le Tour du Monde, No. 77, 1874
  • Evans, David; Mark Peattie (1997). Kaigun: Strategy, Tactics, and Technology in the Imperial Japanese Navy, 1887–1941. Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press. ISBN 0-87021-192-7. 
  • Gordon, Andrew (2003). A Modern History of Japan. New York: Oxford. ISBN 0-19-511060-9. 
  • Hagiwara, Kōichi (2004). 図説 西郷隆盛と大久保利通 (Illustrated life of Saigō Takamori and Okubo Toshimichi) ASIN 4309760414, 2004 (Japanese)
  • Jansen, Marius B. (2002). The Making of Modern Japan. Harvard. ISBN 0-674-00991-6. 
  • Keene, Donald (2005). Emperor of Japan: Meiji and His World, 1852–1912. Columbia. ISBN 0-231-12340-X. 
  • Le Monde Illustré, No. 583, June 13th, 1868
  • Polak, Christian (2002). 日仏交流の黄金期 Soie et Lumière, L'Âge d'or des échanges Franco-Japonais (in Japanese and French). Hachette Fujingaho.
  • Polak, Christian, et al. (1988). 函館の幕末・維新 "End of the Bakufu and Restoration in Hakodate." ISBN 4-12-001699-4 (in Japanese).
  • Satow, Ernest [1921] (1968). A Diplomat in Japan. Tokyo: Oxford. 
  • Tōgō Shrine and Tōgō Association (東郷神社・東郷会), Togo Heihachiro in Images: Illustrated Meiji Navy (図説東郷平八郎、目で見る明治の海軍), (Japanese)

2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the CE era. ... April 28 is the 118th day of the year (119th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 247 days remaining. ... Eugène Collache in samurai attire. ... Donald Lawrence Keene is a noted Japanologist, scholar, teacher, writer, translator and interpreter of Japanese literature and culture. ... Saigo Takamori (seated, in Western uniform), surrounded by his officers, in samurai attire. ... Sir Ernest Mason Satow, G.C.M.G., P.C. (1843-1929), a British scholar-diplomat born to an ethnically German father (Hans David Christoph Satow, born in Swedish-occupied Wismar, naturalised British in 1846) and an English mother (Margaret, nee Mason) in Clapton, North London, and educated at Mill...

Further reading

  • Jansen, Marius B. (1999). The Cambridge History of Japan Volume 5: The Nineteenth Century, Chapter 5, "The Meiji Restoration". Camebridge. ISBN 0-521-65728-8. 
  • Ravina, Mark (2005). The Last Samurai: The Life and Battles of Saigō Takamori. Wiley. ISBN 0-471-70537-3. 

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Boshin War at AllExperts (1083 words)
Samurai of the Satsuma clan, during the Boshin War period.
The Boshin War (戊辰戦争 Boshin Sensō, literally "War of the Year of the Dragon") was fought in 1868â€"1869 between the Tokugawa Shogunate and the pro-Imperial forces in Japan.
In a final chapter to the war, the Commander-in-Chief of the Shogun's Navy Enomoto Takeaki fled to Hokkaido with the remnants of the navy and a handful of faithful French military advisors (notably Jules Brunet), and established the Republic of Ezo there on the American model on December 25.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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