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A borough is an administrative division used in various countries. In principle, the term borough designates a self-governing township although, in practice, official use of the term varies widely. Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wiktionary (a portmanteau of wiki and dictionary) is a multilingual, Web-based project to create a free content dictionary, available in over 150 languages. ... The term township is used to denote a lower level territorial subdivision. ...


In the Middle Ages, boroughs were settlements that were granted some self-government. Boroughs were particularly common in England, Germany, and Scotland. In medieval England, boroughs were also entitled to elect members of parliament. The Borough in Southwark, London is thought to have been the original 'borough' from which all others derive. The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... Self-governance is an abstract concept that refers to several scales of organization. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... This article is about the country. ... Mediæval Britain is a term used to suggest that there is a unity to the history of Great Britain from the 5th centurys withdrawal of Roman forces and Germanic invasions until the 16th century Reformations in Scotland and England. ... A parliament is a legislature, especially in those countries whose system of government is based on the Westminster system modelled after that of the United Kingdom. ... The Borough or Southwark(e) (pronounced suthuk or suthark) is the area of London immediately south of London Bridge and part of the larger London Borough of Southwark. ... For other places with the same name, see Southwark (disambiguation). ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ...


Usually, a borough is a single town with its own local government. However, in some cities it is a subdivision of the city (e.g. London, New York City, Toronto, and Montreal). In such cases, the borough will normally have either limited powers delegated to it by the city's local government, or no powers at all. At certain times, London has had no overall city government and London boroughs were the main unit of local government for Londoners. In other places, such as Alaska, a borough does not designate a single township, but a whole region. In Australia, 'borough' can designate a town and its surrounding area, e.g. Borough of Queenscliffe. This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... Nickname: Motto: Concordia Salus (well-being through harmony) Coordinates: , Country Province Founded 1642 Established 1832 Government  - Mayor Gérald Tremblay Area [1][2][3]  - City 365. ... Official language(s) English[1] Spoken language(s) English 85. ... Look up Region in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The Borough of Queenscliffe is a Local Government Area in Victoria, Australia. ...


Boroughs are to be found in the United Kingdom, more specifically in England and Northern Ireland. Boroughs also exist in the Canadian provinces of Quebec and Ontario, in some states of the United States, in Israel, and formerly in New Zealand. For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... Northern Ireland (Irish: ) is a part of the United Kingdom lying in the northeast of the island of Ireland, covering 5,459 square miles (14,139 km², about a sixth of the islands total area). ... Regions Political culture Foreign relations Other countriesAtlas  Politics Portal      Canada is a federation which consists of ten provinces that, with three territories, make up the worlds second largest country in total area. ... , Motto: Je me souviens (French: I remember) Capital Quebec City Largest city Montreal Official languages French Government - Lieutenant-Governor Pierre Duchesne - Premier Jean Charest (PLQ) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 75 - Senate seats 24 Confederation July 1, 1867 (1st) Area  Ranked 2nd - Total 1,542,056 km² (595... Motto: Ut Incepit Fidelis Sic Permanet (Latin: Loyal she began, loyal she remains) Capital Toronto Largest city Toronto Official languages English Government - Lieutenant-Governor James K. Bartleman - Premier Dalton McGuinty (Liberal) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 106 - Senate seats 24 Confederation July 1, 1867 (1st) Area [1] Ranked... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  Politics Portal      A U.S. state is any one of the fifty subnational entities of the...


Several places in Britain owe part of their name to borough, but with a variety of spellings; e.g.:

A few places, e.g. Brough and Bury, are named exclusively for their being a borough. This article is about the town in North East England. ... The North of England , also the North country or simply The North, is a term which strictly refers to any part of Northern England north of a line from the Humber to the Dee estuaries. ... Map sources for Boroughbridge at grid reference SE3966 Boroughbridge is a small town 13 miles northwest of York in North Yorkshire in England. ... For other uses, see Edinburgh (disambiguation). ... This article is about the country. ... A sign in Linlithgow, Scotland. ... For other uses, see Salisbury (disambiguation). ... Southern England is a vague term referring to the south of England. ... Brough is a village and civil parish in the Eden district of Cumbria, England. ... , Bury is a town in the north of Greater Manchester in North West England. ...


These forms of the word borough were carried to North America. The Scottish forms are found in the American South and West. The suffix -bury is found in New England. The ending -boro is also common in the American South, especially in North Carolina. Borough is a rare surname, most common in the UK and USA; but derivatives of the word, such as Brough, are a little more common. The related German word Burg (castle) is common in German place names and is also found in North American place names. The U.S. Southern states or The South, known during the American Civil War era as Dixie, is a distinctive region of the United States with its own unique historical perspective, customs, musical styles, and cuisine. ... The Western United States, also referred to as the American West or simply The West, traditionally refers to the region constituting the westernmost states of the United States (see geographical terminology section for further discussion of these terms). ... This article is about the region in the United States of America. ... The U.S. Southern states or The South, known during the American Civil War era as Dixie, is a distinctive region of the United States with its own unique historical perspective, customs, musical styles, and cuisine. ... Official language(s) English Capital Raleigh Largest city Charlotte Area  Ranked 28th  - Total 53,865 sq mi (139,509 km²)  - Width 150 miles (240 km)  - Length 560[1] miles (901 km)  - % water 9. ...


Nominally self-governing boroughs existed in medieval France and Spain, called bourg in French and burgo in Spanish. Both these terms are found in some place names.

Contents

Pronunciation

In many parts of England, "borough" is pronounced as IPA: [bʌɹə] ( listen ) as an independent word, and as /bɹə/ when forming a suffixal part of a place-name. As a suffix, "-brough" is usually pronounced /bɹə/. Articles with similar titles include the NATO phonetic alphabet, which has also informally been called the “International Phonetic Alphabet”. For information on how to read IPA transcriptions of English words, see IPA chart for English. ... Image File history File links En-borough. ... Image File history File links En-borough. ...


In the United States, "borough" is pronounced as /ˈbɝoʊ/ (or as /ˈbʌɻoʊ/ in some areas, notably New York City). When appearing as the suffix "-burg(h)" in place-names, it's pronounced as [bɝg]. New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ...


Present-day boroughs

Canada

In Quebec, the term borough is used as the formal translation into English of the French arrondissement, an administrative division of a municipality. It was previously used in Metropolitan Toronto, Ontario, to denote suburban municipalities. , Motto: Je me souviens (French: I remember) Capital Quebec City Largest city Montreal Official languages French Government - Lieutenant-Governor Pierre Duchesne - Premier Jean Charest (PLQ) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 75 - Senate seats 24 Confederation July 1, 1867 (1st) Area  Ranked 2nd - Total 1,542,056 km² (595... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... An arrondissement is an administrative division in some French or Dutch-speaking countries: // Main article: Municipal arrondissement in France Main article: Arrondissements of Paris Paris, capital city of France, is divided into 20 arrondissements. ... Metro Council redirects here. ... Motto: Ut Incepit Fidelis Sic Permanet (Latin: Loyal she began, loyal she remains) Capital Toronto Largest city Toronto Official languages English Government - Lieutenant-Governor James K. Bartleman - Premier Dalton McGuinty (Liberal) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 106 - Senate seats 24 Confederation July 1, 1867 (1st) Area [1] Ranked...


Only eight municipalities in Quebec are divided into boroughs. See List of boroughs in Quebec. This is a list of boroughs in Quebec. ...


United Kingdom

In the United Kingdom, the name "borough" is applied to various types of local government districts. Borough status in the United Kingdom is granted by royal charter to local government districts in England, Wales and Northern Ireland. ...


In England, there are three types of boroughs: London Boroughs, metropolitan boroughs, and non-metropolitan boroughs. The term London Boroughs is used to describe a type of district with borough status that have been in existence in Greater London. Reorganized in 1965, Greater London currently has thirty-two of these type of borough, including the City of Westminster. Districts with borough status within the six metropolitan counties of England are known as metropolitan boroughs. Districts granted a charter outside Greater London and the six metropolitan counties are non-metropolitan districts are simply known as boroughs. For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... The administrative area of Greater London contains thirty-two London boroughs. ... The administrative area of Greater London contains thirty-two London boroughs. ... Greater London is the top-level administrative subdivision covering London, England. ... The City of Westminster is a London borough with city status, situated to the west of the City of London and north of the River Thames. ... The six metropolitan counties shown within England The metropolitan counties are a type of county-level subnational entity in current use in England. ... A metropolitan borough (or metropolitan district) is a type of local government district in England, covering urban areas within metropolitan counties. ...


Elsewhere in England a number of district and unitary authority councils are called "borough". Historically, this was a status that denoted towns with a certain type of local government (a municipal corporation). Since 1974, it has been a purely ceremonial style granted by royal charter, which entitles the council chairman to bear the title of mayor. Districts may apply to the British Crown for the grant of borough status upon advice of the Privy Council of the United Kingdom. The districts of England are a level of subnational division of England used for the purposes of local government. ... A unitary authority is a type of local authority, which has a single tier and is responsible for all local government functions within its area. ... A Municipal Corporation is a legal defintion for a local governing body, including (but not necessarily limited to) cities, counties, and towns. ... In the United Kingdom, the office of Mayor or Lord Mayor (Provost and Lord Provost in Scotland) had long been ceremonial posts, with little or no duties attached to it. ... This article is about the monarchy of the United Kingdom, one of sixteen that share a common monarch; for information about this constitutional relationship, see Commonwealth realm; for information on the reigning monarch, see Elizabeth II. For information about other Commonwealth realm monarchies, as well as other relevant articles, see... Her Majestys Most Honourable Privy Council is a body of advisors to the British Sovereign. ...


In Northern Ireland, local government was reorganised in 1973. Under the legislation that created the twenty-six districts of Northern Ireland, a district council whose area included an existing municipal borough could resolve to adopt the charter of the old municipality and thus continue to enjoy borough status. Districts that do not contain a former borough can apply for a charter in a similar manner to English districts. Northern Ireland (Irish: ) is a part of the United Kingdom lying in the northeast of the island of Ireland, covering 5,459 square miles (14,139 km², about a sixth of the islands total area). ... Northern Ireland is divided into 26 districts for local government purposes. ... A borough is a political division originally used in England. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ...


Several unitary authorities in Wales are called county boroughs. Apart from the title of the authority and its civic head, there is no difference in powers between these and the other Welsh unitary county councils. This article is about the country. ... County borough was a term introduced in 1889 in the United Kingdom to refer to a borough or a city independent of county administration. ... In the British Isles, a county council is a council that governs a county. ...


A number of boroughs have additionally been granted the higher status of a city. Historically, city status in England and Wales was associated with the presence of a cathedral, such as York Minster. ...


For Scottish usage of a cognate term, see burgh. This article is about the country. ... A sign in Linlithgow, Scotland. ...


United States

The word "borough" has many meanings relating to local government in the United States. Since the Tenth Amendment to the United States Constitution makes local government for the most part a matter for the states rather than the federal government, the states are free to have political subdivisions called "boroughs", or not to do so, and to define the word in many different ways. The word borough has many meanings relating to local government in the United States. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Chief Justice Associate Justices Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Counties, Cities, and Towns Other countries Politics Portal      Local government in the United States (sometimes referred to as municipal government) is generally structured... The Bill of Rights in the National Archives Amendment X (the Tenth Amendment) of the United States Constitution, which is part of the Bill of Rights, was ratified on December 15, 1791. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  Politics Portal      A U.S. state is any one of the fifty subnational entities of the...


The following states use, or have used, the word with the following meanings:

  • Alaska, as a county-equivalent
  • Connecticut, as an incorporated municipality within, or consolidated with, a town
  • Minnesota, formerly applied to one municipality
  • New Jersey, as a type of independent incorporated municipality
  • New York, as one of the five divisions of New York City, each coextensive with a county
  • Pennsylvania, as a type of municipality
  • Virginia, as a division of a city under certain circumstances

Official language(s) English[1] Spoken language(s) English 85. ... A county-equivalent in the United States is a term used by the federal government to describe one of the two following state subdivisions: A unit of local government in certain states which is comparable to a county as found in most states. ... Official language(s) English Capital Hartford Largest city Bridgeport Largest metro area Hartford Area  Ranked 48th  - Total 5,543[2] sq mi (14,356 km²)  - Width 70 miles (113 km)  - Length 110 miles (177 km)  - % water 12. ... The system of local government in use in New England is very different from that found throughout the rest of the United States. ... Capital Saint Paul Largest city Minneapolis Area  Ranked 12th  - Total 87,014 sq mi (225,365 km²)  - Width 250 miles (400 km)  - Length 400 miles (645 km)  - % water 8. ... Official language(s) English de facto Capital Trenton Largest city Newark Area  Ranked 47th  - Total 8,729 sq mi (22,608 km²)  - Width 70 miles (110 km)  - Length 150 miles (240 km)  - % water 14. ... “NY” redirects here. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... Capital Harrisburg Largest city Philadelphia Area  Ranked 33rd  - Total 46,055 sq mi (119,283 km²)  - Width 280 miles (455 km)  - Length 160 miles (255 km)  - % water 2. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ...

Australia

In Australia, the term borough is an occasionally used term for a local government area. There is only one borough in Australia; The Borough of Queenscliffe in Victoria. The Borough of Queenscliffe is a Local Government Area in Victoria, Australia. ... “VIC” redirects here. ...


Israel

Under Israeli law, inherited from British Mandate municipal law, the possibility of creating a municipal borough exists. However, no borough was actually created under law until 2005-2006, when Neve Monosson and Maccabim-Re'ut, both communal settlements (Heb: yishuv kehilati) founded in 1953 and 1984, respectively, were declared to be autonomous municipal boroughs (Heb: vaad rova ironi), within their mergers with the towns of Yehud and Modi'in. Similar structures have been created under different types of legal status over the years in Israel, notably Kiryat Haim in Haifa, Jaffa in Tel Aviv-Yafo and Ramot and Gilo in Jerusalem. However, Neve Monosson is the first example of a full municipal borough actually declared under law by the Minister of the Interior, under a model subsequently adopted in Maccabim-Re'ut as well. Palestine and Transjordan were incorporated (under different legal and administrative arrangements) into the Mandate for Palestine issued by the League of Nations to Great Britain on 29 September, 1923. ... Emblem of Neve Monosson Neve Monosson (Heb. ... Maccabim-Reut (or Makkabbim-Reut; Hebrew: מַכַּבִּים-רֵעוּת) is the unified name of the two community settlements Maccabim and Reut in the Center District of Israel. ... Hebrew יהוד Founded in 1953 Government City District Center Population 22,600 (2003) Jurisdiction 4 100 dunams (4. ... Modiin (Hebrew: מודיעין) is a city in the Center District of Israel. ... Qiryat Chaim is one of five towns of the HaQerayot in an urban area in Israel, part of a conglomeration of five smaller towns located about 30km north of Haifa in the Haifa District, which as of 2003 contains: Qiryat Yam 38,000 people. ... Hebrew חֵיפָה Arabic حَيْفَا Founded in 3rd century CE Government City District Haifa Population 267,000 1,039,000 (metropolitan area) Jurisdiction 63,666 dunams (63. ... Jaffa port Jaffa ( Hebrew: יָפוֹ, Yafo Arabic: يَافَا  ; also Japho, Joppa; also, ~1350 B.C.E. Amarna Letters: Yapu; ), is an ancient port city located in south Tel Aviv, Israel on the Mediterranean Sea. ... Tel Aviv at night Dizengof Center Allenby Street Tel Aviv-Yafo (Hebrew תל אביב-יפו; Arabic تل ابيب-يافا Tal Abīb-Yāfā) is an Israeli city on the coast of the Mediterranean... Ramot is one of the largest neighborhoods in Jerusalem, with about 50,000 residents. ... A view of Gilo from Beit Jala in the south. ... For other uses, see Jerusalem (disambiguation). ... Maccabim-Reut (or Makkabbim-Reut; Hebrew: מַכַּבִּים-רֵעוּת) is the unified name of the two community settlements Maccabim and Reut in the Center District of Israel. ...


It is the declared intention of the Interior Ministry to use the borough mechanism in order to facilitate municipal mergers in Israel, after a 2003 wide-reaching merger plan, which generally ignored the sensitivities of the communal settlements, largely failed.


Republic of Ireland

Under the Local Government Act 2001 section 10 (3) and schedule 6 part 1 chapter 1, the following continue to be known as Boroughs (though this is largely a matter of nomenclature) Clonmel, Drogheda, Kilkenny, Sligo, Wexford. In Section 10 (7) continues the "use of the description city in relation to Kilkenny, to the extent that that description was used before (January 1, 2002) and is not otherwise inconsistent with this Act." The Local Government Act, 2001 (No. ... WGS-84 (GPS) Coordinates: , Irish Grid Reference S199229 Statistics Province: Munster County: Population (2002)  - Town:  - Rural: 16,910 Clonmel (Cluain Meala in Irish) is the largest inland town in the south of Republic of Ireland. ... WGS-84 (GPS) Coordinates: , Irish Grid Reference O088754 Statistics Province: Leinster County: Elevation: 1 m Population (2006)  - Proper  - Environs    28,973[1]  6,117[1] Website: www. ... WGS-84 (GPS) Coordinates: 52. ... WGS-84 (GPS) Coordinates: 54. ... This article is about the Irish town. ... is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ...


Historical boroughs

In its original Anglo-Saxon connection with its modern meaning, a borough was a number of households or an extended household, surrounded by a defensive wall. This might have been a stockade or a walled town. In place-names therefore, it can refer to the walled enclosure of a lord's hall or to a walled town. When the Five Burghs of the Danelaw were given that name, this was people's view of them. By the late medieval period, a charter from the king and a civic organization became more significant in defining a borough than the wall was. The Five Burghs or more usually The Five Boroughs or The Five Boroughs of the Danelaw were the five main towns of Danish Mercia. ... Green: Danelaw The Danelaw (from the Old English Dena lagu, Danish: Danelagen ) is an 11th century name for an area of northern and eastern England under the administrative control of the Vikings (or Danes, or Norsemen) from the late 9th century. ...


England and Wales

Municipal boroughs

In England and Wales, boroughs developed as a method of providing a corporate identity for a town, particularly in relation to rights obtained from local barons or from the English Crown. The formal status of borough came to be conferred by Royal Charter. A Royal Charter is a charter given by a monarch to legitimize an incorporated body, such as a city, company, university or such. ...


These boroughs were generally governed by a self-selecting corporation (i.e., when a member died or resigned his replacement would be by co-option). Sometimes boroughs were governed by bailiffs or headboroughs. A co-option or more often co-optation is an election where members of a committee (or similar group) vote in order to fill a vacancy on that committee or group. ... A Bailiff in a United States courtroom Bailiff (from Late Latin bajulivus, adjectival form of bajulus) is a governor or custodian; cf. ...


Debates on the Reform Bill (eventually the Reform Act 1832) had highlighted the variations in systems of governance of towns, and a Royal Commission was set up to investigate the issue. This resulted in a regularisation of municipal government (Municipal Corporations Act 1835), with all municipal corporations to be elected according to a standard franchise based on property ownership. At the same time, a procedure was established whereby a town could petition Parliament to be given borough status. The 178 reformed boroughs, and those that followed them, became known as municipal boroughs. A number of unreformed boroughs remained after 1835, these being finally abolished in 1886. In states that are Commonwealth Realms a Royal Commission is a major government public inquiry into an issue. ... The Municipal Reform Act 1835 required members of town councils (municipal corporations) to be elected by ratepayers and councils to publish their financial accounts. ... Look up Petition in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Municipal boroughs were a type of local authority which existed in England and Wales between 1835 and 1974. ... Unreformed boroughs were those corporate towns in England and Wales which had not been reformed by the Municipal Corporations Act 1835. ...


The reform of county government in 1888 established the county borough, a city or town that had a corporation as any other borough, but with additional powers equivalent to those of a county council. The Local Government Act 1888 (51 & 52 Vict. ... County borough was a term introduced in 1889 in the United Kingdom to refer to a borough or a city independent of county administration. ... In the British Isles, a county council is a council that governs a county. ...


As part of a large-scale reform of local government in England and Wales in 1974, both county boroughs and municipal boroughs were abolished. However, the civic traditions of many boroughs were continued by the grant of a charter to their successor district councils. In smaller boroughs, a town council was formed for the area of the abolished borough, while charter trustees were formed in other former boroughs. In each case, the new body was allowed to use the regalia of the old corporation, and appoint ceremonial office holders such as sword and mace bearers as provided in their original charters. The council or trustees may apply for an Order in Council or Royal Licence to use the former borough coat of arms. The Local Government Act 1972 (1972 c. ... A Royal Charter is a charter given by a monarch to legitimize an incorporated body, such as a city, company, university or such. ... Main articles: Local government in the United Kingdom, Parish and Civil parish In England parish councils were formed in 1894 to take over local oversight of social welfare and civic duties in towns and villages. ... In the United Kingdom, Charter Trustees are set up to maintain the continuity of a town charter or city charter after a district with the status of a borough or city has been abolished, until such time as a parish council is established. ... An Order-in-Council is a type of legislation in the United Kingdom and in the Commonwealth of Nations which is formally made in the name of the Queen by the Privy Council (Queen-in-Council), or the Governor-General in a Commonwealth realm or Governor by the Executive Council... A modern coat of arms is derived from the medi val practice of painting designs onto the shield and outer clothing of knights to enable them to be identified in battle, and later in tournaments. ...


Parliamentary boroughs

From 1265, two burgesses from each borough were summoned to the Parliament of England, alongside two knights from each county. Representation in the House of Commons was decided by the House itself, which resulted in many cases of a borough being represented in Parliament despite it having no corporation or mayor (or vice versa). The English parliament in front of the King, c. ... A statue of an armoured knight of the Middle Ages For the chess piece, see knight (chess). ... A county is generally a sub-unit of regional self-government within a sovereign jurisdiction. ... Type Lower House Speaker of the House of Commons Leader of the House of Commons Michael Martin, (Non-affiliated) since October 23, 2000 Harriet Harman, QC, (Labour) since June 28, 2007 Shadow Leader of the House of Commons Theresa May, PC, (Conservative) since December 6, 2005 Members 646 Political groups...


By the 19th century, the population changes brought about by the Industrial Revolution had created a situation in which a major conurbation might have no representation in Parliament, whilst towns which had declined in size to mere villages still retained their seat. Additionally, the electoral franchise varied from borough to borough, some of which had become rotten boroughs. The Industrial Revolution was a major shift of technological, socioeconomic, and cultural conditions that occurred in the late 18th century and early 19th century in some Western countries. ... The term rotten borough referred to a parliamentary borough or constituency in Great Britain and Ireland which, due to size and population, was controlled and used by a patron to exercise undue and unrepresentative influence within parliament. ...


The Reform Act 1832 sought to rationalise this system to some extent, as well as eliminating corrupt practices. Many boroughs, some of which existed in little more than name, were disenfranchised, whilst some of the industrial towns which had developed in the North came to be represented in Parliament for the first time. The Representation of the People Act 1832, commonly known as the Reform Act 1832, was an Act of Parliament that introduced wide-ranging changes to the electoral system of the United Kingdom. ... The North of England , also the North country or simply The North, is a term which strictly refers to any part of Northern England north of a line from the Humber to the Dee estuaries. ...


Subsequent Reform Acts gave more parliamentary seats to the expanding boroughs, whilst disenfranchising the smaller ones. From 1884, voters in county and borough seats had the same franchise, so the distinction between the two was essentially eliminated; however, on the assumption that the smaller, urban boroughs would require less travelling for electoral candidates than in the larger, more rural county seats, the distinction between the two sorts of constituency was retained for the purposes of calculating maximum permitted electoral expenses.


Metropolitan boroughs

In 1899, as part of a reform of local government in the County of London, the various parishes in the county were reorganised as a new entity, the metropolitan borough. These became reorganised as London Boroughs in a subsequent reform, in 1965. This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ...


As part of the 1974 reform of local government in England, six major urban areas were established as "metropolitan counties", divided into "metropolitan districts". A number of those districts over time were granted the dignity of "borough", and thus became known as a metropolitan borough.


Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland

For the similar situation in Ireland cf Municipal Corporations (Ireland) Act 1840. The Municipal Corporations Act (Ireland) 1840, (3 & 4 Vict. ...


New Zealand

New Zealand formerly used the term borough to designate self-governing towns of more than 1,000 people. A borough of more than 20,000 people could become a city by proclamation. Boroughs and cities were collectively known as municipalities, and were enclaves separate from their surrounding counties. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


In the 1980s, some boroughs and cities began to be merged with their surrounding counties to form districts with a mixed urban and rural population. In 1989, a nationwide reform of local government completed the process. Counties and boroughs were abolished and all boundaries were redrawn. Under the new system, most territorial authorities cover both urban and rural land. The more populated councils are classified as cities, and the more rural councils are classified as districts. Only Kawerau District, an enclave within Whakatane District, continues to follow the tradition of a small town council that does not include surrounding rural area. Local government areas called districts are used, or have been used, in several countries. ... Kawerau is a town in the Bay of Plenty region of the North Island of New Zealand. ... Whakatane (IPA , also pronounced ; or ) is a town in the Bay of Plenty region, in the North Island of New Zealand, the seat of the Bay of Plenty Regional Council. ...


Borough as a place name

There is a neighbourhood in the London Borough of Southwark simply called The Borough, south of London Bridge across the Thames from the City. There are several villages in England, such as those in Cumbria and the East Riding of Yorkshire, called Brough, pronounced [bɹʌf]. The London Borough of Southwark is a London borough in London, England. ... The Borough or Southwark(e) (pronounced suthuk or suthark) is the area of London immediately south of London Bridge and part of the larger London Borough of Southwark. ... Motto: Domine dirige nos Latin: Lord, guide us Shown within Greater London Sovereign state United Kingdom Constituent country England Region Greater London Status sui generis, City and Ceremonial County Admin HQ Guildhall Government  - Leadership see text  - Mayor John Stuttard  - MP Mark Field  - London Assembly John Biggs Area  - City  1. ... Cumbria (IPA: ), is a shire county in the extreme North West of England. ... The East Riding of Yorkshire is a local government district with unitary authority status, and a ceremonial county of England. ...


El Burgo in Spain is across the river Ucero from the smaller City of Osma; also in Spain lies the city of Burgos. See also below under the places mentioned in the next section on Etymology. Coat of Arms of El Burgo de Osma Burgo de Osma-Ciudad de Osma is the third largest municipality in the province of Soria in Spain, with a population of about 5000. ... The cathedral Our Lady of Burgos. ...


Etymology

The word borough has cognates in other Germanic languages. For example, burgh in Scots, Burg in German and borg in both Danish and Swedish; the equivalent word is also to be found in Frisian, Dutch, Norwegian, and Icelandic. Alternate forms and spellings in English include bury and burrow. Cognates are words that have a common origin. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Scots refers to the Anglic varieties spoken in parts of Scotland. ... This article is about the Frisian languages, as spoken in the north of the Netherlands and Germany. ...


The English borough and the Scots burgh are derived from the Anglian word burh (with other dialectal variants including burg, beorh, beorg, and byrig). The word originally indicated a fortified town, and was related to the verb beorgan (cf. Dutch and German bergen), meaning "to keep, to save, to make secure". The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Scots refers to the Anglic varieties spoken in parts of Scotland. ... A sign in Linlithgow, Scotland. ... Old English (also called Anglo-Penis[1], Englisc by its speakers) is an early form of the English language that was spoken in parts of what is now England and southern Scotland between the mid-fifth century and the mid-twelfth century. ...


A number of other European languages have cognate words which were borrowed from the Germanic languages during the Middle Ages, including brog in Irish, bwr or bwrc, meaning "wall, rampart" in Welsh, bourg in French, burg in Catalan, borgo in Italian, and burgo in Spanish (hence the place-name Burgos). The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... Welsh redirects here, and this article describes the Welsh language. ... Catalan IPA: (català IPA: or []) is a Romance language, the national language of Andorra, and a co-official language in the Spanish autonomous communities of Balearic Islands, Catalonia and Valencia (in the latter with the name of Valencian), and in the city of LAlguer in the Italian island of... The cathedral Our Lady of Burgos. ...


Also related are the words bourgeois and belfry (both from the French), and burglar; more distantly, it is related to words meaning "hill" or "mountain" in a number of languages (cf. the second element of iceberg). Icebergs at Cape York, Greenland Iceberg at Cape York, Greenland Iceberg, Témpanos, Patagonia, Argentina. ...


References

See also


  Results from FactBites:
 
London borough - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (652 words)
Municipal Borough of Acton, Municipal Borough of Ealing
Municipal Borough of Hornsey, Municipal Borough of Tottenham
Municipal Borough of Ilford, Municipal Borough of Wanstead and Woodford
Borough - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2174 words)
Borough is also a generic term for municipal regions, and a part of many place names, such as Borough of Queenscliffe in Australia.
The Municipality of Anchorage is a consolidated city-borough, as are Sitka, Juneau, Haines and Yakutat.
In the 1980s some boroughs and cities began to be merged with their surrounding counties to form districts with a mixed urban and rural population.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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