Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is an experimental form of radiotherapy that utilizes a neutron beam that interacts with boron injected to a patient. BNCT depends on the interaction of slow neutrons with boron-10 to produce alpha particles and lithium nuclei, other types of ionizing radiation. Patients are first given an intravenous injection of a boron-10 tagged chemical that preferentially binds to tumor cells. In clinical trials performed so far the neutrons are created in a nuclear reactor, but particle accelerators may also be used to collide protons into targets made of lithium or beryllium. The neutrons pass through a moderator, which shapes the neutron energy spectrum suitable for BNCT treatment. Before entering the patient the neutron beam is shaped by a beam collimator. While passing through the tissue of the patient, the neutrons are slowed by collisions and become low energy thermal neutrons. The thermal neutrons undergo reaction with the boron-10 nuclei, forming a compound nucleus (excited boron-11) which then promptly disintegrates to lithium-7 and an alpha particle. Both the alpha particle and the lithium ion produce closely spaced ionizations in the immediate vicinity of the reaction, with a range of approximately 10 micrometres, or one cell diameter. This technique is advantageous since the radiation damage occurs over a short range and thus normal tissues can be spared. BNCT has been experimentaly tested primarily as an alternative treatment for malignant brain tumors called glioblastomas. Although there are reports of some successful outcomes, this approach has not yet been shown to be superior to other current therapies. Hence, BNCT has not entered routine clinical use. Radiation therapy (or radiotherapy) is the medical use of ionizing radiation as part of cancer treatment to control malignant cells (not to be confused with radiology, the use of radiation in medical imaging and diagnosis). ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... General Name, Symbol, Number boron, B, 5 Chemical series metalloids Group, Period, Block 13, 2, p Appearance black/brown Atomic mass 10. ... Core of a small nuclear reactor used for research. ...
International Society of Neutron Capture therapy
Helsinki University Central Hospital and Technical Research Centre of Finland BNCT Project
Categories: Oncology stubs | Neurology | Neurosurgery | Oncology | Radiobiology | Radiation oncology To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Nuclear engineering is the practical application of the atomic nucleus gleaned from principles of nuclear physics and the interaction and maintenance of nuclear fission systems and components, specifically, nuclear reactors, nuclear power plants and/or nuclear weapons. ... Nuclear physics is the branch of physics concerned with the nucleus of the atom. ... For the generation of electrical power by fission, see Nuclear power plant An induced nuclear fission event. ... The deuterium-tritium (D-T) fusion reaction is considered the most promising for producing fusion power. ... Radiation as used in physics, is energy in the form of waves or particles. ... Radiation hazard symbol. ... A semi-accurate depiction of the helium atom. ... Core of a small nuclear reactor used for research. ... This diagram demonstrates the defense in depth quality of nuclear power plants. ... Nuclear chemistry is a subfield of chemistry dealing with radioactivity, nuclear processes and nuclear properties. ... Nuclear material consists of materials used in nuclear systems, such as nuclear reactors and nuclear weapons. ... Nuclear Fuel Process A graph compairing nucleon number against binding energy Nuclear fuel is any material that can be consumed to derive nuclear energy, by analogy to chemical fuel that is burned to derive energy. ... Fertile material is a term used to describe nuclides which generally themselves do not undergo induced fission (fissionable by thermal neutrons) but from which fissile material is generated by neutron absorption and subsequent nuclei conversions. ... General Name, Symbol, Number thorium, Th, 90 Chemical series Actinides Group, Period, Block n/a, 7, f Appearance silvery white Atomic mass 232. ... General Name, Symbol, Number uranium, U, 92 Chemical series actinides Group, Period, Block n/a, 7, f Appearance silvery gray metallic; corrodes to a spalling black oxide coat in air Atomic mass 238. ... These pie-graphs showing the relative proportions of uranium-238 (blue) and uranium-235 (red) at different levels of enrichment. ... Depleted uranium storage yard. ... General Name, Symbol, Number plutonium, Pu, 94 Chemical series actinides Group, Period, Block n/a, 7, f Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight (244) gÂ·molâ1 Electron configuration [Rn] 5f6 7s2 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 24, 8, 2 Physical properties Phase solid Density (near r. ... A nuclear power station. ... A nuclear power station. ... An illustration showing the various sources of nuclear waste Radioactive waste are waste types containing radioactive chemical elements that do not have a practical purpose. ... Internal view of the JET tokamak superimposed with an image of a plasma taken with a visible spectrum video camera. ... Future energy development faces great challenges due to an increasing world population, demands for higher standards of living, demands for less pollution and a possible end to fossil fuels. ... An Inertial fusion power plant is intended to industrially produce electric power by use of inertial confinement fusion techniques. ... Pressurized water reactors (PWRs) (also VVER) are generation II nuclear power reactors that use water under high pressure as coolant and neutron moderator. ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... Generation IV reactors (Gen IV) are a set of theoretical nuclear reactor designs currently being researched. ... The fast breeder or fast breeder reactor (FBR) is a fast neutron reactor designed to breed fuel by producing more fissile material than it consumes. ... A fast neutron reactor or simply a fast reactor is a category of nuclear reactor in which the fission chain reaction is sustained by fast neutrons. ... Schematic diagram of a Magnox nuclear reactor showing gas flow. ... Schematic diagram of the Advanced Gas-cooled Reactor. ... The Gas-Cooled Fast Reactor (GFR) system is a Generation IV reactor concept that features a fast-neutron spectrum and closed fuel cycle for efficient conversion of fertile uranium and management of actinides. ... A molten salt reactor is a type of nuclear reactor where the working fluid is a molten salt. ... A Liquid metal cooled nuclear reactor is nuclear reactor where the primary coolant is a liquid molten metal. ... The Lead-cooled Fast Reactor is a Generation IV reactor that features a fast-spectrum lead or lead/bismuth eutectic liquid metal-cooled reactor with a closed fuel cycle. ... The Sodium-cooled fast reactor is a sodium cooled reactor that uses fast neutrons. ... Supercritical water reactor scheme. ... Very high temperature reactor scheme. ... Graphite Pebble for Reactor The pebble bed reactor (PBR) or pebble bed modular reactor (PBMR) is an advanced nuclear reactor design. ... The Integral Fast Reactor or Advanced Liquid-Metal Reactor is a design for a nuclear fast reactor with a specialized nuclear fuel cycle. ... Nuclear propulsion can include a wide variety of methods, the commonality of which is the use of some form of nuclear reaction as their primary power source. ... In a nuclear thermal rocket a working fluid, usually hydrogen, is heated in a high temperature nuclear reactor, and then expands through a rocket nozzle to create thrust. ... // A radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG) is a simple electrical generator which obtains its power from radioactive decay. ... Shown above is the bone scintigraphy of a young woman. ... Image of a typical positron emission tomography (PET) facility Positron emission tomography (PET) is a nuclear medicine medical imaging technique which produces a three dimensional image or map of functional processes in the body. ... Clinac 2100 C100 accelerator Radiation therapy (or radiotherapy) is the medical use of ionizing radiation as part of cancer treatment to control malignant cells (not to be confused with radiology, the use of radiation in medical imaging and diagnosis). ... Radiosurgery is a medical procedure which allows non-invasive brain surgery, i. ... Proton therapy is a kind of external beam radiotherapy where protons are directed to a tumor site. ... Brachytherapy for prostate cancer is administered using seeds, small radioactive rods implanted directly into the tumour. ... The mushroom cloud of the atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan, 1945, rose some 18 kilometers (11 mi) above the hypocenter. ... A nuclear fireball lights up the night in a United States nuclear test. ... For the 1989 computer game, see Nuclear War (computer game). ... U.S. and USSR/Russian nuclear weapons stockpiles, 1945-2006. ... The first nuclear weapons, though large, cumbersome and inefficient, provided the basic design building blocks of all future weapons. ... A 23 kiloton tower shot called BADGER, fired on April 18, 1953 at the Nevada Test Site, as part of the Operation Upshot-Knothole nuclear test series. ... Preparation for an underground nuclear test at the Nevada Test Site in the 1980s. ... // Nuclear weapons delivery is the technology and systems used to place a nuclear weapon at the position of detonation, on or near its intended target. ... World map with nuclear weapons development status represented by color. ... This is a list of states with nuclear weapons. ... Main article: Nuclear testing The following is a list of nuclear test series designations, organized first by country and then by date. ...
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