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Encyclopedia > Borneo

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Borneo
Topography of Borneo
Topography of Borneo
Geography
Location South East Asia
Coordinates 1°00′N, 114°00′E
Archipelago Greater Sunda Islands
Area 743,330 km²
Highest point Kinabalu
4,095 m
Administration
Flag of Brunei Brunei
Districts Belait
Brunei and Muara
Temburong
Tutong
Flag of Indonesia Indonesia
Provinces West Kalimantan
Central Kalimantan
South Kalimantan
East Kalimantan
Flag of Malaysia Malaysia
States Sabah
Sarawak
Demographics
Population 16 million (as of 2000)
Density 22/km²/km²

Borneo is the third largest island in the world and is located at the centre of Maritime Southeast Asia. Administratively, this island is divided between Indonesia, Malaysia and Brunei. Indonesia's region of Borneo is called "Kalimantan" (although Indonesians use the term for the whole island), while Malaysia's region of Borneo is called East Malaysia or Malaysian Borneo. The independent nation of Brunei occupies the remainder of the island. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 567 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1725 × 1824 pixel, file size: 2. ... Location of Southeast Asia Southeast Asia is a subregion of Asia. ... The Greater Sunda Islands are a group of islands in the west part of the Malay Archipelago. ... Mount Kinabalu (Malay: Gunung Kinabalu) is a prominent mountain in Southeast Asia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Brunei. ... Belait is the largest district (Malay: daerah) in Brunei, as well as the western-most. ... Brunei-Muara is the smallest district (daerah) in Brunei, as well as the northern-most. ... Temburong is the eastern-most district (daerah) in Brunei. ... Tutong is a district (daerah) in Brunei, as. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Indonesia. ... West Kalimantan (Indonesian: Kalimantan Barat often abbreviated to Kalbar) is a province of Indonesia. ... Central Kalimantan (Indonesian: Kalimantan Tengah often abbreviated to Kalteng) is a province of Indonesia, one of four in Kalimantan - the Indonesian part of the island of Borneo. ... Categories: Indonesia geography stubs | Provinces of Indonesia ... East Kalimantan (Indonesian: Kalimantan Timur abbrv. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Malaysia. ... For other uses, see Sabah (disambiguation). ... For the river, see Sarawak River. ... Islands by area. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Malay Archipelago. ... Kalimantan is the Indonesian part of the island of Borneo. ... East Malaysia comprises Sabah and Sarawak East Malaysia consists of the Malaysian states of Sabah and Sarawak, located on the island of Borneo to the east, across the South China Sea from Peninsular Malaysia which is located on the Malay Peninsula. ... East Malaysia contains Sabah and Sarawak East Malaysia consists of the Malaysian states of Sabah and Sarawak, located on the island of Borneo to the east, across the South China Sea from West Malaysia which is located on the Malay Peninsula. ...

Contents

Geography

Borneo is surrounded by the South China Sea to the north and northwest, the Sulu Sea to the northeast, the Celebes Sea and the Makassar Strait to the east, and the Java Sea and Karimata Strait to the south. It has an area of 743,330 km² (287,000 square miles). Filipino name Tagalog: Timog Dagat Tsina (Dagat Luzon for the portion within Philippine waters) Malay name Malay: Laut China Selatan Portuguese name Portuguese: Mar da China Meridional Vietnamese name Vietnamese: The South China Sea is a marginal sea south of China. ... The Sulu Sea is a large sea in the southwestern area of the Philippines. ... Celebes Sea The Celebes Sea (or the Sulawesi Sea (Indonesian: Laut Sulawesi) of the western Pacific Ocean is bordered on the north by the Sulu Archipelago and Sulu Sea and Mindanao Island of the Philippines, on the east by the Sangihe Islands chain, on the south by Sulawesi, and on... Makassar Strait is a strait between the islands of Borneo and Sulawesi in Indonesia. ... The Java Sea (Jawa Sea) is a large (310,000 km²), shallow sea in the southern Pacific Ocean. ... The Karimata Strait is the wide strait that connects the South China Sea to the Java Sea, between the islands of Sumatra and Borneo in Indonesia. ...


To the west of Borneo [1] are the Malay Peninsula and Sumatra. To the south is Java. To the east is the island of Sulawesi (Celebes). To the northeast is the Philippines. The Malay Peninsula (Malay: Semenanjung Tanah Melayu) is a major peninsula located in Southeast Asia. ... For other uses, see Sumatra (disambiguation). ... Java (Indonesian, Javanese, and Sundanese: Jawa) is an island of Indonesia, and the site of its capital city, Jakarta. ... Sulawesi (formerly more commonly known as Celebes, IPA: a Portuguese-originated form of the name) is one of the four larger Sunda Islands of Indonesia and is situated between Borneo and the Maluku Islands. ...


Borneo's highest point is Mount Kinabalu in Sabah, Malaysia, with an elevation of 4,095 m (13,435 ft) above sea level. This makes it the world's third highest island. Mount Kinabalu (Malay: Gunung Kinabalu) is a prominent mountain in Southeast Asia. ... For other uses, see Sabah (disambiguation). ... For considerations of sea level change, in particular rise associated with possible global warming, see sea level rise. ... This is a list of islands in the world ordered by their highest point. ...


The largest river systems are the Kapuas River, with approximately 1,143 km the longest river in Indonesia, the Rajang River in Sarawak with some 563 km the longest river in Malaysia, the Barito River about 880 km long and the Mahakam River about 980 km long. The Kapuas River is a river on the Indonesian island of Borneo. ... The Rajang River is a river in East Malaysia, in northwest Borneo. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The Mahakam River flows 980 km from the highlands of Borneo, district Long Apari to its mouth in Makassar Strait. ...


Borneo is also known for its extensive cave systems. Clearwater Cave has one of the world's longest underwater rivers. Deer Cave, thought to be the largest cave passage in the world, is home to over three million bats and guano accumulated to over 100 metres high. “Chiroptera” redirects here. ... The Chincha guano islands in Peru. ...


Administration

The Island of Borneo is divided administratively into:

The province (Indonesian: provinsi) is the highest tier of local government subnational entity in Indonesia. ... East Kalimantan (Indonesian: Kalimantan Timur abbrv. ... Categories: Indonesia geography stubs | Provinces of Indonesia ... West Kalimantan (Indonesian: Kalimantan Barat often abbreviated to Kalbar) is a province of Indonesia. ... Central Kalimantan (Indonesian: Kalimantan Tengah often abbreviated to Kalteng) is a province of Indonesia, one of four in Kalimantan - the Indonesian part of the island of Borneo. ... Kalimantan is the Indonesian part of the island of Borneo. ... Malaysia is a federation of 13 states. ... For other uses, see Sabah (disambiguation). ... For the river, see Sarawak River. ... Wilayah Persekutuan is the Malay term for Federal Territory. ... Motto: Coordinates: Country Malaysia State Wilayah Persekutuan Made into Federal Territory 16 April 1984 Government  - Administered by Perbadanan Labuan Labuan Corporation  - Chairman Datuk Suhaili Abdul Rahman Area  - City 92 km²  (35. ... Temburong is the eastern-most district (daerah) in Brunei. ...

History

Political divisions of Borneo
Political divisions of Borneo

In the 15th century, the Majapahit rule exerted its influence in Borneo. Princess Junjung Buih, the queen of the Hindu kingdom of Negara Dipa (situated in Candi Agung area of Amuntai) married a Javanese prince, Prince Suryanata, and together they ruled the kingdom which is a tributary to the Majapahit Empire (1365). In this way, it became a part of Nusantara. Along the way, the power of Negara Dipa weakened and was replaced by the new court of Negara Daha. When Prince Samudra (Prince Suriansyah) of Negara Daha converted to Islam and formed the Islamic kingdom of Banjar, it inherited some of the areas previously ruled by the Hindu kingdom of Negara Daha. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1063x1183, 69 KB) Summary Map of Borneo, based on information from several maps. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1063x1183, 69 KB) Summary Map of Borneo, based on information from several maps. ... The Majapahit Empire was based in eastern Java and ruled much of the southern Malay Peninsula, Borneo, Sumatra, and Bali from about 1293 to around 1500. ... Nusantara was taken from an oath by Gajah Mada written on a Javanese old manuscript of Negarakertagama. ...


The Brunei Sultanate during its golden age from the 15th to 17th centuries ruled a large part of northern Borneo. In 1703 (other sources say 1658), the Sultanate of Sulu received North Borneo from the Sultan of Brunei, after Sulu sent aid against a rebellion in Brunei. During the 1450s, Shari'ful Hashem Syed Abu Bakr, an Arab born in Johor, arrived in Sulu from Malacca. In 1457, he founded the Sultanate of Sulu; he then renamed himself "Paduka Maulana Mahasari Sharif Sultan Hashem Abu Bakr". Subsequently HM Sultan Jamalul Ahlam Kiram (1863-1881) the 29th reigning Sultan of Sulu leased North Borneo in 1878 to Gustavus Baron de Overbeck & Alfred Dent representing the British North Borneo Company [2] in what is now Sabah part of Malaysia. The company also exerted control on inland territories that were inhabited by numerous tribes. In the 19th Century coastal areas ruled by the Brunei Sultanate in the west of the island were gradually taken by the Brooke dynasty. [3] For the province, see Sulu Location of Sulu in the Philippines Capital Jolo Language(s) Arabic (official), Tausug, Malay, Banguingui, Bajau languages Religion Islam Government Monarchy Sultan  - 1450-1480 Shariful Hashem Syed Abu Bakr  - 1884-1899 Jamal ul-Kiram I History  - Established 1450  - Annexed by USA 1899 The Sultanate... The British North Borneo Company was chartered company assigned to administer North Borneo (todays Sabah in Malaysia) in August 1881 and North Borneo became a protectorate of the British Empire with internal affairs administered by the company until 1946 when it became the colony of British North Borneo. ... For other uses, see Sabah (disambiguation). ... Motto Always in service with Gods guidance(translation) Anthem Allah Peliharakan Sultan God Bless the Sultan Capital (and largest city) Bandar Seri Begawan Official languages Malay Demonym Bruneian Government  -  Sultan Hassanal Bolkiah Independence  -  End of British protectorate January 1, 1984  Area  -  Total 5,765 km² (170th) 2,226 sq... Sir James Brooke Sir James Brooke (the most legendary person ever!!)(29 April 1803 – 11 June 1868) was born in Coombe Grove, near Bath, educated at Norwich School, England and became the first White Rajah of Sarawak. ...


By the 18th century, the area from Sambas to Berau were tributaries to the Banjar Kingdom, but this eventually shrunk to the size of what is now South Kalimantan as a result of agreements with the Dutch. In the Karang Intan Agreement during the reign of Prince Nata Dilaga (Susuhunan Nata Alam) (1808-1825), the Banjar Kingdom gave up its territories to the Dutch Indies which included Bulungan, Kutai, Pasir, Pagatan and Kotawaringin. Other territories given up to the Dutch Indies were Landak, Sambas, Sintang and Sukadana. This article or section needs copy editing for grammar, style, cohesion, tone and/or spelling. ... Categories: Indonesia geography stubs | Provinces of Indonesia ...


In the early 19th century, British and Dutch governments signed the Anglo-Dutch Treaty of 1824 to exchange trading ports under their controls and assert spheres of influences, in which indirectly set apart the two parts of Borneo into British and Dutch controlled areas. China has had historical trading links with the inhabitants of the island. Some of the Chinese beads and wares found their way deep into the interior of Borneo. The Anglo-Dutch Treaty of 1824, also known as the Treaty of London (one of several), was a treaty signed between the United Kingdom and the United Kingdom of the Netherlands in London on March 17, 1824. ...


Moreover in the 19th century, the Dutch admitted the founding of district kingdoms with native leaders who were under the power of the Dutch (Indirect Bestuur). The Dutch assign a resident to head their rule over Kalimantan. List of the residents and governors of Kalimantan:

  1. C.A. Kroesen (1898), resident
  2. C.J. Van Kempen (1924), resident
  3. J. De Haan (1924-1929), resident
  4. R. Koppenel (1929-1931), resident
  5. W.G. Morggeustrom (1933-1937), resident
  6. Dr. A. Haga (1938-1942), governor
  7. Pangeran Musa Ardi Kesuma (1942-1945), Ridzie
  8. Ir. Pangeran Muhammad Noor (1945), governor

Since 1938, Dutch-Borneo (Kalimantan) was one administrative territory under a governor (Governor Haga) whose seat was in Banjarmasin. In 1957 following the independence of Indonesia, Kalimantan was divided into 3 provinces which is South Kalimantan, East Kalimantan and West Kalimantan. The province of Central Kalimantan separated from South Kalimantan to have their own territory in 1958. Nickname: Motto: Kayuh Baimbai (Banjarese: Rowing Together) Coordinates: , Province Country Government  - Mayor H.A. Yudhi Wahyuni Area  - City 72 km²  (27. ...


During the Second World War, Japanese forces gained control of Borneo (1941–45). They decimated many local populations and Malay intellectuals, including the elimination of the Malay Sultanate of Sambas in Kalimantan [4]. Borneo was the main site of the confrontation between Indonesia and Malaysia between 1962 and 1966, as well as the communist revolts to gain control of the whole area. Before the formation of Malaysian Federation, the Philippines claimed that the Malaysian state of Sabah in north Borneo is within their territorial rights based on historical facts of the Sultanate of Sulu's leasing agreement with the North Borneo Company, is presently an unresolved claim against Malaysia. Several other territorial claims such as Sipadan were resolved at The Hague international courts. Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... This article or section needs copy editing for grammar, style, cohesion, tone and/or spelling. ... Kalimantan is the Indonesian part of the island of Borneo. ... The Indonesia-Malaysia confrontation was an intermittent war over the future of the island of Borneo, between British-backed Malaysia and Indonesia in 1962–1966. ... This article is about the form of society and political movement. ... For other uses, see Sabah (disambiguation). ... Motto: Pergo et Perago (Latin: I undertake and I achieve”) British North Borneo Capital Jesselton Language(s) Malay, English Government Monarchy Monarch  - 1882 - 1901 Victoria  - 1952 - 1963 Elizabeth II Governor  - 1896 - 1901 Robert Scott Historical era New Imperialism  - North Borneo Company May, 1882  - British protectorate 1888  - Japanese invasion January 1... Sipadan is the only oceanic island in Malaysia; rising 2,000 feet or 600m from the seabed; it has been formed by living corals growing on top of an extinct volcanic cone that took thousands of years to develop. ... Hague redirects here. ... The International Criminal Court (ICC) was established in 2002 as a permanent tribunal to prosecute individuals for genocide, crimes against humanity, and war crimes, as defined by several international agreements, most prominently the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court. ...


Ecology

Nepenthes villosa, a species of pitcher plant endemic to Kinabalu National Park, Borneo.
Nepenthes villosa, a species of pitcher plant endemic to Kinabalu National Park, Borneo.

Borneo is very rich in biodiversity compared to many other areas (MacKinnon et al. 1998). There are about 15,000 species of flowering plants with 3,000 species of trees (267 species are dipterocarps), 221 species of terrestrial mammals and 420 species of resident birds in Borneo (MacKinnon et al. 1998). It is also the centre of evolution and radiation of many endemic species of plants and animals. The remaining Borneo rainforest is the only natural habitat for the endangered Bornean Orangutan. It is also an important refuge for many endemic forest species, and the Asian Elephant, the Sumatran Rhinoceros, the Sumatran tiger[citation needed], Bornean Clouded Leopard, and the Dayak Fruit Bat. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (744x992, 212 KB)[edit] Summary Photo taken by me in natural habitat. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (744x992, 212 KB)[edit] Summary Photo taken by me in natural habitat. ... Binomial name Nepenthes villosa Hook. ... Pitcher of Nepenthes distillatoria. ... Kinabalu National Park or Taman Negara Kinabalu in Malay, established as one of the first national parks of Malaysia in 1964, is Malaysias first World Heritage site designated by UNESCO in December 2000 for its outstanding universal values and the role as one of the most important biological sites... Rainforests are among the most biodiverse ecosystems on earth Biodiversity is the variation of life forms within a given ecosystem, biome or for the entire Earth. ... Classes Magnoliopsida - Dicots Liliopsida - Monocots The flowering plants or angiosperms are the most widespread group of land plants. ... Genera Anisoptera Cotylelobium Dipterocarpus Dryobalanops Hopea Marquesia Monotes Neobalanocarpus Pakaraimaea Parashorea Shorea Stemonoporus Upuna Vateria Vateriopsis Vatica Dipterocarpaceae is a family of 17 genera and approximately 580-680 species of mainly tropical lowland rainforest trees with two-winged fruits. ... For the novel, see Rainforest (novel). ... Habitat (which is Latin for it inhabits) is the place where a particular species live and grow. ... Binomial name Pongo pygmaeus (Linnaeus, 1760) The Bornean Orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus) is a species of orangutan native to the island of Borneo. ... In biology and ecology endemic means exclusively native to a place or biota, in contrast to cosmopolitan or introduced. ... Binomial name Linnaeus, 1758 Asian Elephant range The Asian or Asiatic Elephant (Elephas maximus), sometimes known by the name of its nominate subspecies (the Indian Elephant), is one of the three living species of elephant, and the only living species of the genus Elephas. ... Binomial name Fischer, 1814 Sumatran Rhinoceros range Subspecies Dicerorhinus sumatrensis harrissoni Dicerorhinus sumatrensis sumatrensis †Dicerorhinus sumatrensis lasiotis The Sumatran Rhinoceros, Dicerorhinus sumatrensis is the smallest extant rhinoceros species, as well as the one with the most fur, which allows it to survive at very high altitudes in Borneo and Sumatra. ... Trinomial name Panthera tigris sumatrae Pocock, 1929 Distribution map The Sumatran tiger (Panthera tigris sumatrae) is found only on the Indonesian island of Sumatra. ... Binomial name Neofelis diardi (G. Cuvier, 1823) Range Synonyms Felis diardii Felis macrocelis Felis marmota Neofelis nebulosa diardi Neofelis diardi is a medium-sized wild cat found on Borneo, Sumatra and the Batu Islands in the Malay Archipelago and publicised under the name Bornean Clouded Leopard by the World Wide... Binomial name Dyacopterus spadiceus (Thomas, 1890) The Dayak fruit bat or Dyak fruit bat (Dyacopterus spadiceus) is found in Sumatra, Borneo, the Philippines, and the Malay Peninsula. ...

The World Wildlife Fund divides the island into seven distinct ecoregions. The Borneo lowland rain forests cover most of the island, with an area of 427,500 km². Other lowland ecoregions are the Borneo peat swamp forests, the Kerangas or Sundaland heath forests, the Southwest Borneo freshwater swamp forests, and the Sunda Shelf mangroves. The Borneo mountain rain forests lie in the central highlands of the island, above the 1000 meter elevation. The highest elevations of Mount Kinabalu are home to the Kinabalu mountain alpine meadow, an alpine shrubland notable for its numerous endemic species, including many orchids. Tropical and subtropical moist broadleaf forests of the world Amazon river rain forest in Peru Amazon river rain forest in Brazil Tropical rainforests are rainforests generally found near the equator. ... Note: After losing a court case in 2002 on the use of the initials WWF, the organization previously known as the World Wrestling Federation has rebranded itself as World Wrestling Entertainment, or WWE. WWF - The Conservation Organization was formerly known as World Wildlife Fund and Worldwide Fund for Nature. ... An ecoregion, sometimes called a bioregion, is a relatively large area of land or water that contains a geographically distinct assemblage of natural communities. ... Satellite image of the island of Borneo on August 19, 2002, showing smoke from burning peat swamp forests The Borneo peat swamp forests is a tropical moist forest ecoregion on the island of Borneo, which is divided between Brunei, Indonesia and Malaysia. ... Tropical heath forest, also known as Kerangas forest, is a type of forest found on the island of Borneo, especially in Brunei, as well as on the islands of Belitung and Bangka, which lie to the west of Borneo. ... Mount Kinabalu (Malay: Gunung Kinabalu) is a prominent mountain in Southeast Asia. ... An Alpine Meadow is a high-altitude grassland located in an alpine climate, above the treeline of a mountain. ...


The island historically had extensive rainforest cover, but the area shranked rapidly due to heavy logging for the needs of the Malaysian plywood industry. Two forestry researchers of Sepilok Research Centre, Sandakan, Sabah in the early 80's indentified four fast-growing hardwoods and a breakthrough on seed collection and handling of Acacia mangium and Gmelina arborea, a fast growing tropical trees were planted on huge track of formerly logged and deforested areas primarily in the northern part of Borneo Island. One half of the annual tropical timber acquisition of the whole world comes from Borneo. Furthermore, Palm oil plantations are rapidly encroaching on the last remnants of primary rainforest. The rainforest was also greatly destroyed due to the forest fires in 1997 to 1998 which were started by people and coincided with an exceptional drought season of El Niño. During the great fire, hotspots could be seen on satellite images and a haze was created that affected Brunei, Malaysia, Indonesia and Singapore. For the novel, see Rainforest (novel). ... For other uses, see Log. ... Binomial name Acacia mangium Willd. ... Binomial name Gmelina arborea Roxb. ... Palm oil from Ghana with its natural dark color visible, 2 litres Palm oil block showing the lighter color that results from boiling. ... Chart of ocean surface temperature anomaly [°C] during the last strong El Niño in December 1997 El Niño and La Niña (also written in English as El Nino and La Nina) are major temperature fluctuations in surface waters of the tropical Eastern Pacific Ocean. ... This is the first crude picture obtained from Explorer 6 Earth satellite. ... Haze is an atmospheric phenomenon where dust, smoke and other pollutant particles obscure the normal clarity of the sky. ...


In order to combat overpopulation in Java, the Indonesian government started a massive transmigration (transmigrasi) of poor farmers and landless peasants into Borneo in the 70's and 80's, to farm the logged areas, albeit with little success as the fertility of the land has been removed with the trees and what soil remains is washed away in tropical downpours. Java (Indonesian, Javanese, and Sundanese: Jawa) is an island of Indonesia, and the site of its capital city, Jakarta. ... Indonesias Transmigration program was an initiative to move landless people from densely populated areas of Indonesia to less populous areas of the archipelago. ...


Ethnic and biological diversity

Satellite image of the island of Borneo on August 19, 2002, showing smoke from burning peat swamp forests.

There are over 30 sub-ethnic groups living in Borneo, making the population of this island one of the most varied of human social groups. The native ethnic groups are Austronesians and their languages belong to the Malayo-Polynesian language family. Some ethnicities are now represented by only 30-100 individuals and are threatened with extinction. Much culture, language, ethnomusic and traditional knowledge has yet to be documented by anthropologists. Ancestral knowledge of ethnobotany [5] and ethnozoology [6] is useful in drug discovery (for example, bintangor plant for AIDS) or as future alternative food sources (such as sago starch for lactic acid production and sago maggots as a protein source). Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... In sociology, a group is usually defined as a collection of humans or animals, who share certain characteristics, interact with one another, accept expectations and obligations as members of the group, and share a common identity. ... Austronesian can refer to: The Austronesian people The Austronesian languages Austronesia, refers to the homeland of the people who speak Austronesian languages. ... The Malayo-Polynesian languages are a subgroup of the Austronesian languages. ... A language family is a group of languages related by descent from a common proto-language. ... Traditional knowledge (TK), indigenous knowledge (IK), and local knowledge generally refer to the matured long-standing traditions and practices of certain regional, indigenous, or local communities. ... Ethnobotany is the study of the relationship between plants and people: Fromethno - study of people and botany - study of plants. ... Bintagor may refer to: Bintangor trees are the hardwood trees of the Calophyllum genus. ... For other uses, see AIDS (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Sago (disambiguation). ... For the production of milk by mammals, see Lactation. ...

Mount Kinabalu, a major center of biodiversity in Borneo.
Mount Kinabalu, a major center of biodiversity in Borneo.

Certain indigenous people (such as the Kayan, Kenyah, Punan Bah and Penan) living on the island have been struggling for decades for their right to preserve their environment from loggers and transmigrant settlers and colonists. Land reform is needed for future development in the face of rapid economic changes. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (1984 × 1488 pixel, file size: 4. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (1984 × 1488 pixel, file size: 4. ... Mount Kinabalu (Malay: Gunung Kinabalu) is a prominent mountain in Southeast Asia. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The Kenyah are an indigenous peoples of Borneo, living in the remote Baram and Belaga regions in Sarawak, Malaysia and Kalimantan, Indonesia. ... Punan is an ethnic group distinct or a minority ethnic here in Sarawak specially, unrelated to the Penan and also the other so called Punan found both in Sarawak and Kalimantan part of Borneo. ... The Penan are a nomadic aboriginal people living in Sarawak and Brunei. ... -1...


The type of rainforests found in Borneo include the high diversity mixed dipterocarp forest, the rare peat swamp forests and heath forest. Genera Anisoptera Cotylelobium Dipterocarpus Dryobalanops Hopea Marquesia Monotes Neobalanocarpus Pakaraimaea Parashorea Shorea Stemonoporus Upuna Vateria Vateriopsis Vatica Dipterocarpaceae is a family of 17 genera and approximately 580-680 species of mainly tropical lowland rainforest trees with two-winged fruits. ... Peat swamp forests are areas of land where the peat, created by the leave compost has become a boggy marsh and the forests are resposible for this. ... Tropical heath forest, also known as Kerangas forest, is a type of forest found on the island of Borneo, especially in Brunei. ...


Researchers scouring swamps in the heart of Borneo island have discovered a venomous species of snake that can change its skin color. Scientists named their find the Kapuas mud snake, and speculated it might only occur in the Kapuas River drainage system. Binomial name Enhydris gyii The Kapuas mud snake (Enhydris gyii) is a native of Borneo, and can change its color sponteneously, like a chameleon, a very rare trait among snakes. ... The Kapuas River is a river on the Indonesian island of Borneo. ... In geomorphology, a drainage system is the pattern formed by the streams, rivers, and lakes in a particular watershed. ...


World Wildlife Fund has stated that 361 animal and plant species have been discovered in Borneo since 1996, underscoring its unparalleled biodiversity. [7] In the 18 month period from July 2005 until December 2006, another 52 new species were found. Note: After losing a court case in 2002 on the use of the initials WWF, the organization previously known as the World Wrestling Federation has rebranded itself as World Wrestling Entertainment, or WWE. WWF - The Conservation Organization was formerly known as World Wildlife Fund and Worldwide Fund for Nature. ...


See also

Satellite image of the island of Borneo on August 19, 2002, showing smoke from burning peat swamp forests The Borneo peat swamp forests is a tropical moist forest ecoregion on the island of Borneo, which is divided between Brunei, Indonesia and Malaysia. ... This article is one of a series providing information about endemism among birds in the Worlds various zoogeographic zones. ... // Borneo is the third largest island in the world. ... The Hikayat Banjar is the Malay chronicle of Banjarmasin. ... Indonesia comprises 17,508 islands according to Indonesian government estimates, with about 6,000 of those inhabited. ... The mammal species of Borneo include 288 species of terrestrial and 91 species of marine mammals recorded within the territorial boundaries of Brunei, Indonesia and Malaysia. ... Islands by area. ... Survivor: Pulau Tiga was the first installment of the popular United States reality show Survivor. ... The Rainforest World Music Festival is an annual 3-day music festival celebrating the diversity of world music formerly known as ethnic music held in Kuching, Sarawak, Malaysia, that consists of cultural and musical workshop-oriented daytime events and the more concert-like music performances during the night. ...

References

  • Bowen, M.R. and Eusebio, T.V. (1981) b): Acacia mangium. Updated information on seed collection, handling and germination testing. Occasional Tech. and Scientific Notes, Seed Series No.5, Forest Research Centre, Sepilok, Sandakan, Sabah, Malaysia
  • Bowen, M.R. and Eusebio, T.V. (1982): Seed handling practices: four fast-growing hardwoods...Malaysian Forester Vol 45, No.4: 534-547
  • Ghazally Ismail et al. (eds.) Scientific Journey Through Borneo Series. Universiti Malaysia Sarawak, Kota Samarahan. 1996-2001.
  • Gudgeon, L. W. W. British North Borneo. Adam and Charles Black, London. (An early well-illustrated book on "British North Borneo", now known as Sabah.) 1913.
  • MacKinnon K, Hatta G, Halim H, Mangalik A. The ecology of Kalimantan. Oxford University Press, London. 1998.
  • K M Wong & C L Chan. "Mt Kinabalu: Borneo's Magic Mountain." Natural History Publications, Kota Kinabalu. 1998.
  • David Macdonald. Expedition to Borneo.
  • Dennis Lau. Borneo: A Photographic Journey.
  • Stephen Holley. White Headhunter in Borneo.
  • Robert Young Pelton Borneo.

Universiti Malaysia Sarawak (UNIMAS) was officially incorporated on 24 December 1992. ... Oxford University Press (OUP) is a highly-respected publishing house and a department of the University of Oxford in England. ... Natural History Publications (Borneo) is a publishing house based in Kota Kinabalu, Borneo. ... Nickname: Location in Malaysia and Sabah Country State Settled by BNBC 1882 Declared capital of North Borneo 1946 Granted city status February 2, 2000 Government  - Mayor Datuk Illiyas Ibrahim Area  - City 351 km²  (136 sq mi) Population (2007)  - City 532 129 [2]  - Density 1,516/km² (3,913/sq mi...

Selected references

  • Robert Young Pelton. Fielding's Borneo[8]
  • Eric Hansen. Stranger in the Forest: On Foot Across Borneo.
  • John Wassner. Espresso with the Headhunters: A Journey Through the Jungles of Borneo.
  • Redmond O'Hanlon. Into the Heart of Borneo: An Account of a Journey Made in 1983 to the Mountains of Batu Tiban with James Fenton.
  • Charles M. Francis. A Photographic Guide to Mammals of South-east Asia.
  • Abdullah, MT. "Biogeography and variation of Cynopterus brachyotis in Southeast Asia." PhD thesis. The University of Queensland, St Lucia, Australia. 2003.
  • Corbet, GB, Hill JE. The mammals of the Indomalayan region: a systematic review. Oxford University Press, Oxford. 1992.
  • G.W.H. Davison, Chew Yen Fook. A Photographic Guide to Birds of Borneo.
  • Hall LS, Gordon G. Grigg, Craig Moritz, Besar Ketol, Isa Sait, Wahab Marni and MT Abdullah. "Biogeography of fruit bats in Southeast Asia." Sarawak Museum Journal LX(81):191–284. 2004.
  • Karim, C., A.A. Tuen and M.T. Abdullah. "Mammals." Sarawak Museum Journal Special Issue No. 6. 80: 221–234. 2004.
  • Garbutt, Nick, and J. Cede Prudente. Wild Borneo: The Wildlife and Scenery of Sabah, Sarawak, Brunei, and Kalimantan. 2007.
  • Mohd. Azlan J., Ibnu Maryanto, Agus P. Kartono, and MT Abdullah. "Diversity, Relative Abundance and Conservation of Chiropterans in Kayan Mentarang National Park, East Kalimantan, Indonesia." Sarawak Museum Journal 79: 251-265. 2003.
  • Hall LS, Richards GC, Abdullah MT. "The bats of Niah National Park, Sarawak." Sarawak Museum Journal. 78: 255-282. 2002.
  • Wilson DE, Reeder DM. Mammal species of the world. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington DC. 2005.

This article is about the thesis in academia. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with megabats. ... The Smithsonian Institution Building or Castle on the National Mall serves as the Institutions headquarters. ...

External links

Indonesia Portal
  • WWF Heart of Borneo conservation initiative - Information about the Heart of Borneo - 220,000 km² of upland montane tropical rainforest, where endangered species such as the orang-utan, rhinoceros and pygmy elephant cling for survival.
  • Environmental Profile of Borneo - Background on Borneo, including natural and social history, deforestation statistics, and conservation news.
  • http://www.borneotravelguide.com Online Travel Guide of Sabah, Sarawak and Brunei.
Image File history File links Portal. ... Tropic wet forests in the World Tropical and subtropical moist broadleaf forests, also known as tropical wet forests, are a tropical and subtropical forest biome. ... The Siberian Tiger is a subspecies of tiger that are critically endangered. ... This article is about the primate. ... The Borneo pygmy elephant Elephas maximus borneensis. ... Å…Social history is an area of historical study considered by some to be a social science that attempts to view historical evidence from the point of view of developing social trends. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Borneo (793 words)
Borneo, some two weeks' sail from Singkawang, and of a fourth station at Pamangkat, which is seven hours from Singkawang.
Borneo into an independent prefecture and entrusted it to the Rev. Charles Cuarteron, a Spaniards.
Borneo and Labuan to the Soeiety for Foreign Missions of Mill-hill, England.
Borneo - LoveToKnow 1911 (9269 words)
The geology of Borneo is very imperfectly known The mountain range which lies between Sarawak and the Dutch possessions, and may be looked upon as the backbone of the island, consists chiefly of crystalline schists, together with slates, sandstones and limestones.
Borneo began to be known to Europeans after the fall of Malacca in 1511, when Alphonso d'Albuquerque despatched Antonio d'Abreu with three ships in search of the Molucca or Spice Islands with instructions to establish friendly relations with all the native states that he might encounter on his way.
The establishment of Dutch trading-posts on the west coast of Borneo dates from 1604, nine years after the first Dutch fleet, under Houtman, sailed from the Texel to dispute with the Portuguese the possession of the Eastern trade, and in 1608 Samuel Blommaert was appointed Dutch resident, or head factor, in Landak and Sukedana.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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