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Encyclopedia > Borisova gradina
An alley in Borisova gradina
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An alley in Borisova gradina

Borisova gradina or Knyaz-Borisova Gradina (Борисова градина or Княз-Борисова градина, translated as Boris' Garden or Knyaz Boris' Garden) is the oldest and best known garden of Sofia, the capital of Bulgaria. Its construction and arrangement began in 1884 and it is named after Bulgarian tsar Boris III. Official website: sofia. ... 1884 (MDCCCLXXXIV) is a leap year starting on Tuesday (click on link to calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Thursday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Early Bulgar leaders bore the title of baltavar (balt-avar), which literally means ruler of Avars. Later they acquired the title Khan and Khagan, still later the title tsar. ... Tsar Boris III of Bulgaria (January 30, 1894 - August 28, 1943), son of Ferdinand I, came to the throne in 1918 upon the Bulgarias defeat in World War I. This was the countrys second major defeat in only five years, after the disastrous Second Balkan War (1913). ...


The history of the garden embraces three periods under three renowned gardeners. All followed the initial scheme, developing it further and perfecting it instead of changing it.

Contents


History

Neff period (1882-1906)

In 1882, the then-mayor of Sofia Ivan Hadzhienov brought Swiss gardener Daniel Neff from Bucharest with the intention to create a garden for the capital of Bulgaria. The mayor's initial plance included first establishing a large nursery where trees, shrubs and flowers for the future garden would grow, also providing material for the already existing gardens and for the streets. 1882 (MDCCCLXXXII) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... This is a chronological list of mayors of Sofia, the capital of Bulgaria, since that post was established after the Liberation of Bulgaria in 1878. ... Bucharest (Romanian: BucureÅŸti ) is the capital city and industrial and commercial centre of Romania. ... A nursery is a place where plants are propagated, usually for sale as a business, though some gardeners and farmers keep private nurseries. ...


Neff developed the first plan of the garden in the spring of 1882, set up the nursery and built a house for himself, starting to construct the in 1884. Acacia trees were originally planted, flowerbeds were shaped, a small artificial lake was built and this all was fenced with a hedge of oaks and hawthorns. The nursery produced saplings that met the needs of the city and were also sold to the citizen. Acacia trees were most widely produced together with mulberry trees, trumpet flowers, elm trees, plane trees and others. The nursery was shaped as a garden in 1885 and had an area of 300,000 m² in 1886 with four main alleys. 1882 (MDCCCLXXXII) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... Species About 1,300; see List of Acacia species Acacia is a genus of shrubs and trees of Gondwanian origin belonging to the subfamily Mimosoideae of the Pea Family Fabaceae, first described from Africa by Linnaeus in 1773. ... A Flowerbed is an element of many gardens. ... The word hedge is used in three quite different contexts: In gardening and agriculture, a hedge or hedgerow is a boundary formed by growing plants so that their limbs intertwine. ... Hawthorn is a common name for plants in two related genera in the subfamily Maloideae of the family Rosaceae: Crataegus Rhaphiolepis The term Hawthorn also refers to the following places: Hawthorn, Victoria, a suburb of Melbourne, Australia. ... This article is about the biological organisms known as trees. ... Species See text Mulberry (Morus) is a genus of 10–16 species of deciduous trees native to warm temperate and subtropical regions of Asia, Africa and North America, with the majority of the species native to Asia. ... Species See text. ... Species See text. ... 1885 (MDCCCLXXXV) is a common year starting on Thursday. ... 1886 (MDCCCLXXXVI) is a common year starting on Friday (click on link to calendar) // Events January 18 - Modern field hockey is born with the formation of The Hockey Association in England. ...


Borisova gradina grew to the southwest in the following years and the large lake was built in 1889. Knyaz Ferdinand ordered in 1888 the replacement of most acacias with forest oaks, sycamores, ash trees and birches. The next couple of years saw the planting of deciduous trees from neighbouring forests, as well as coniferous ones from Rila, black pines and spruces. 1889 (MDCCCLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... Kniaz’ or knyaz is a word found in some Slavic languages. ... Ferdinand Maximilan Charles Leopold Marie, Ferdinand of Bulgaria (February 26, 1861 - September 10, 1948) was monarch of Bulgaria as well as an author, botanist and philatelist. ... 1888 (MDCCCLXXXVIII) is a leap year starting on Sunday (click on link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a leap year starting on Tuesday of the Julian calendar. ... MEG ILLIF 1630 260 2894 ... Species Many, see text. ... Species Many species; see text and classification Birch is the name of any tree of the genus Betula, in the family Betulaceae, closely related to the beech/oak family, Fagaceae. ... Deciduous means temporary or tending to fall off (deriving from the Latin word decidere, to fall off). ... Orders & Families Cordaitales † Pinales   Pinaceae - Pine family   Araucariaceae - Araucaria family   Podocarpaceae - Yellow-wood family   Sciadopityaceae - Umbrella-pine family   Cupressaceae - Cypress family   Cephalotaxaceae - Plum-yew family   Taxaceae - Yew family Vojnovskyales † Voltziales † The conifers, division Pinophyta, are one of 13 or 14 division level taxa within the Kingdom Plantae. ... Rila Mountain, Bulgaria The Rila is a mountain range in western Bulgaria. ... Binomial name Pinus nigra J.F.Arnold The European Black Pine Pinus nigra (generally called Black Pine in Europe), is a variable species of pine, occurring across southern Europe from Spain to the Crimea, and also in Asia Minor, Cyprus, and locally in the Atlas Mountains of northwest Africa. ... Species About 35; see text. ...


Frei period (1906-1934)

The Alsatian Joseph Frei was appointed manager of all gardens and parks of Sofia in 1906. He reorganized Borisova gradina according to his own second plan further developing the one of Neff. In carrying out this plan Frei planted the two main alleys in the lower part of the garden, the linden and chestnut one, and opened the wide central and two side alleys in the upper part, from the children's playground to the Fish Lake. This period also witnessed the construction of the People's Fountain, later faced with freestone to be named the Freestone Fountain. Capital Strasbourg Land area¹ 8,280 km² Regional President Adrien Zeller (UMP) (since 1996) Population  - Jan. ... 1906 (MCMVI) was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... Linden is one of three English names for a genus of trees, Tilia, also known as lime and basswood. ... Species - Bush Chinkapin* - Japanese Chestnut - American Chestnut - Henrys Chestnut - Chinese Chestnut - Ozark Chinkapin - Alleghany Chinkapin - Sweet Chestnut - Seguins Chestnut * treated as a synonym of by many authors Chestnuts (Castanea), including the chinkapins, are a genus of eight or nine species of trees and shrubs in the beech family... A freestone is a stone used in architecture for molding, tracery and other work required to be worked with the chisel. ...

A pond in Borisova gradina
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A pond in Borisova gradina

While Neff was an admirer of acacia trees, Frei had a passion for flowers. He created the Rosarium at the place of removed agricultural buildings, as well as the numerous modern nursery gardens and hothouses. The garden was further extended south of the oak forest to the modern Dragan Tsankov Boulevard. The fruit plantations were gradually replaced with decorative tree and shrub species, pines and spruces, turning the garden into a wonderful park. A greenhouse in Saint Paul, Minnesota. ...


Duhtev period (1934-1944)

The Bulgarian gardener and specialist Georgi Duhtev became the manager of the Gardens and Parks Service in 1934. During his period, the old Rosarium was extended to embrace 7,000 m² with over 1,400 new cultivated rose species being planted by him. The Japanese Corner was created in 1940 above the Fish Lake towards Tsarigrad Road. Plants sent by the Japanese minister plenipotentiary were used to arrange it. These plants represented the national flora of Japan and were a gift and a sign of friendship between the Japanese and Bulgarian people. 1934 (MCMXXXIV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ... Species About 100, see text A rose is a flowering shrub of the genus Rosa, and the flower of this shrub. ... 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1940 calendar). ... ...


Around 1942 Borisova gradina embraced an area of 90,500 m², 68,600 m² of which planned and 4,400 m² not, the remainder of 17,350 m² being built up and including the Summer Swimming Bath, the University Observatory, the Open-air School, the Big Lake, the Yunak and Levski football fields, the tennis club, the diplomatic tennis court, the cycling track and the Yunak Rectifying Station. This article is about the year. ... Empty tennis courts. ... AC, half-wave and full wave rectified signals A rectifier is an electrical device, comprising one or more semiconductive devices (such as diodes) or vacuum tubes arranged for converting alternating current to direct current. ...


Later history

Borisova gradina was last reconstructed in 1986 under Georgi Radoslavov. It was proclaimed a monument of Bulgarian park and garden art the same year. 1986 (MCMLXXXVI) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


References

  • Sofia municipality website. The Gardens of Sofia. Visited 30 April 2006.

 
 

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