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Encyclopedia > Boris Yeltsin
Boris Nikolayevich Yeltsin
Борис Николаевич Ельцин
Boris Yeltsin

In office
July 10, 1991 – December 31, 1999
Vice President(s) Alexander Rutskoy
(1991–1993)
Office abolished
Preceded by None
Succeeded by Vladimir Putin

In office
November 6, 1991 – June 15, 1992
Preceded by Oleg Lobov
Succeeded by Yegor Gaidar

Born February 1, 1931(1931-02-01)
Butka, Sverdlovsk Oblast,
Russian SFSR
Died April 23, 2007 (aged 76)
Moscow, Russia Flag of Russia
Nationality Russian
Spouse Naina Yeltsina
Religion Russian Orthodox (Atheism?)[1][2]
Signature Boris Yeltsin's signature

Boris Nikolayevich Yeltsin (Russian: ) (February 1, 1931April 23, 2007) was the first President of the Russian Federation, serving from 1991 to 1999. Yeltsin can refer to: Boris Yeltsin, former president of Russia Yeltsin, a rock band. ... Image File history File links Boris_Yeltsin_1993. ... The President of Russia (ru: Президент России) is the highest position within the Government of Russia. ... is the 191st day of the year (192nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the 1991 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 365th day of the year (366th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... Alexander Vladimirovich Rutskoy (Russian:Александр Владимирович Руцкой) (b. ... The current Constitution of the Russian Federation (Конституция Российской Федерации) was adopted by national referendum on December 12, 1993 replacing the previous Soviet-era Constitution of April 12, 1978 of Russian Soviet Federated Socialist Republic following the Russian constitutional crisis of 1993. ... Vladimir Vladimirovich Putin (Russian: ) (born October 7, 1952) is the current President of the Russian Federation. ... The Prime Minister of Russia is the current Head of Government of the Russian Federation. ... is the 310th day of the year (311th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the 1991 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 166th day of the year (167th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1992 Gregorian calendar). ... Oleg Lobov (b. ... Yegor Timurovich Gaidar () (born March 19, 1956) is a Russian economist and politician, and was the acting Prime Minister of Russia from June 15, 1992 to December 14, 1992. ... is the 32nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1931 (MCMXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1931 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Flag of Sverdlovsk Oblast Sverdlovsk Oblast (Russian: , Sverdlovskaya oblast) is a federal subject of Russia (an oblast) located in the Urals Federal District. ... State motto: Russian: Пролетарии всех стран, соединяйтесь! Translation: Workers of the world, unite! Capital Moscow Official language Russian Established In the USSR:  - Since  - Until November 7, 1917 November 7, 1917 December 12, 1991 (dissolution) Area  - Total  - Water (%) Ranked 1st in the USSR 17,075,200 km² 13% Population  - Total   - Density Ranked 1st in the... Image File history File links Flag_of_Russian_SFSR.svg Summary The flag of Russian during their period in the USSR. Licensing File links The following pages link to this file: List of flags Flag of Russian SFSR Russian SFSR Flag of Russia Flags of the Soviet Republics Wikipedia:WikiProject Flag Template Wikipedia... is the 113th day of the year (114th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... For other uses, see Moscow (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Russia. ... Naina Iosifovna Yeltsina (Russian: , maiden name Girina, born March 14, 1932) is the widow of the first President of the Russian Federation, Boris Yeltsin. ... The Russian Orthodox Church (Русская Православная церковь) is that body of Christians who are united under the Patriarch of Moscow, who in turn is in communion with... “Atheist” redirects here. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Ru-Boris Nikolayevich Yeltsin. ... is the 32nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1931 (MCMXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1931 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 113th day of the year (114th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... The President of Russia (ru: Президент России) is the highest position within the Government of Russia. ...


Yeltsin came to power on a wave of high expectations. On 12 June 1991 he was elected president of the Russian Soviet Federated Socialist Republic with 57% of the vote, becoming the first popularly elected president in Russian history. But Yeltsin never recovered his popularity after a series of economic and political crises in Russia in the 1990s. The Yeltsin era was a traumatic period in Russian history; a period marked by widespread corruption, economic collapse, and enormous political and social problems. By the time he left office, Yeltsin was a deeply unpopular figure in Russia, with an approval rating as low as two percent by some estimates. [3] is the 163rd day of the year (164th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the 1991 Gregorian calendar). ... State motto: Пролетарии всех стран, соединяйтесь! (Workers of the world, unite!) Official language None (Russian in practice) Capital Moscow Chairman of the Supreme... The history of Russia begins with that of the East Slavs, the ethnic group that eventually split into the Russians, Ukrainians, and Belarusians. ...


Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in December 1991, Yeltsin, vowing to transform Russia's socialist planned economy into a capitalist market economy, endorsed a programme of "shock therapy", that would cut Soviet-era price controls and introduce drastic cuts in state spending. However, the reforms came in too slowly, and through corruption in the state departments a handful of people were able to enrich themselves while stamping out competitors.[4] The reforms also devastated the living standards of much of the population, especially the groups dependent on Soviet-era state subsidies and welfare entitlement programs.[5] Through the 1990s, Russia's GDP fell by 50 percent, vast sectors of the economy were wiped out, inequality and unemployment grew dramatically, while incomes fell. Hyperinflation, caused by the Central Bank of Russia's loose monetary policy, wiped out a lot of personal savings, and tens of millions of Russians were plunged into poverty.[6][7] This is a history of the Soviet Union from 1985 to 1991. ... The economy of the Soviet Union was based on a system of state ownership and administrative planning. ... Capitalism generally refers to an economic system in which the means of production are all or mostly privately[1][2] owned and operated for profit, and in which investments, distribution, income, production and pricing of goods and services are determined through the operation of a free market. ... A market economy (also called a free market economy or a free enterprise economy) is an economic system in which the production and distribution of goods and services take place through the mechanism of free markets guided by a free price system. ... In economics, shock therapy refers to the sudden release of price and currency controls, withdrawal of state subsidies, and immediate trade liberalization within a country. ... Welfare is financial assistance paid by taxpayers to groups of people who are unable to support themselves, and determined to be able to function more effectively with financial assistance. ... Look up Entitlement in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Certain figures in this article use scientific notation for readability. ...


In August 1991, Yeltsin won international plaudits for casting himself as a democrat and defying the August coup attempt of 1991 by the members of Soviet government opposed to perestroika. But he left office widely despised among the Russian population as a desperate, ailing autocrat.[8] As president, Yeltsin's conception of the presidency was highly autocratic and inrespectable to laws. For example he changed the name of the state by his own decree before the constitution was modified. Yeltsin either acted as his own prime minister (until June 1992) or appointed men of his choice, regardless of parliament. His confrontations with parliament climaxed in the October 1993 Russian constitutional crisis, when Yeltsin called up tanks to shell the Russian White House, blasting out his opponents in parliament. Later in 1993, Yeltsin imposed a new constitution with strong presidential powers, which was approved by referendum in December. During the Soviet Coup of 1991 (August 19-22, 1991), also known as the August Putsch or August Coup, a group of members of the Soviet government briefly deposed Soviet president Mikhail Gorbachev and attempted to take control of the country. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Boris Yeltsin was President of the Russian Federation at the time of the crisis. ... The White House of Russia, also known as the Russian White House, is a government building in Moscow that housed the Russian parliament until the crisis of 3 October 1993 when an uprising lead to siege and artillery attacks on White House that caused a major fire. ... The current Constitution of the Russian Federation (Конституция Российской Федерации) was adopted by national referendum on December 12, 1993 replacing the previous Soviet-era Constitution of April 12, 1978 of Russian Soviet Federated Socialist Republic following the Russian constitutional crisis of 1993. ... A referendum was held in Russia on 12 December, 1993. ...


Following the 1998 Russian financial crisis, Yeltsin was at the end of his political career. Just hours before the first day of 2000, Yeltsin made a surprise announcement of his resignation, leaving the presidency in the hands of Vladimir Putin. Inkombank was one of the most high-profile casualties of the events of August 1998. ... Vladimir Vladimirovich Putin (Russian: ) (born October 7, 1952) is the current President of the Russian Federation. ...

Contents

Early life

Boris Yeltsin was born in the village of Butka, in Talitsky District of Sverdlovsk Oblast, Russia. His father, Nikolay Yeltsin, was convicted of anti-Soviet agitation in 1934 and sentenced to hard labour in a gulag for three years.[9] Following his release he remained unemployed for a period of time and then worked in construction. His mother, Klavdiya Vasilyevna Yeltsina, worked as a seamstress. Flag of Sverdlovsk Oblast Sverdlovsk Oblast (Russian: , Sverdlovskaya oblast) is a federal subject of Russia (an oblast) located in the Urals Federal District. ... Article 58 of the Russian SFSR Penal Code was put in force on February 25, 1927 to arrest those suspected of counter-revolutionary activities. ... Gulag ( , Russian: ) was the government body responsible for administering prison camps across the former Soviet Union. ...


Boris Yeltsin studied at Pushkin High School in Berezniki in Perm Krai. He was fond of sports (in particular skiing, gymnastics, volleyball, track and field, boxing and wrestling) despite losing the thumb and index finger of his left hand when he and some friends snuck into a Red Army supply depot, stole several grenades, and tried to dissect them.[10] Pushkin High School is a comprehensive school in the city of Berezniki in Perm Krai oblast in Russia. ... Berezniki (Russian: ) is a city in Perm Krai, Russia, situated on the banks of the Kama River at . ... Perm Krai (Russian: ) is a federal subject of Russia (a krai) that came into existence on December 1, 2005 as a result of the 2004 referendum on the merger of Perm Oblast and Komi-Permyak Autonomous Okrug. ... Cross-country skiing (skating style) in Einsiedeln, Switzerland. ... Gymnastics is a sport involving the performance of sequences of movements requiring physical strength, flexibility, balance, endurance, and kinesthetic awareness, such as handsprings, handstands, split leaps, aerials and cartwheels. ... Volleyball is an Olympic sport in which two teams separated by a high net use their hands, arms or (rarely) other parts of their bodies to hit a ball back and forth over the net. ... Athletics, also known as track and field or track and field athletics, is a collection of sport events. ... For other senses of these words, see boxing (disambiguation) or boxer (disambiguation). ... Ancient Greek wrestlers (Pankratiasts) Wrestling is the act of physical engagement between two unarmed persons, in which each wrestler strives to get an advantage over or control of his opponent. ... For other organizations known as the Red Army, see Red Army (disambiguation). ...


Yeltsin received his higher education at the Ural Polytechnic Institute in Sverdlovsk, majoring in construction, and graduated in 1955. The subject of his degree paper was "Television Tower". Ural Polytechnic Institute - former name for the Ural State Technical University See the article: Ural State Technical University ... Snow-covered statue of Sverdlov in Yekaterinburg Yekaterinburgs Church on the Blood built on the spot where the Tsar and his family were executed. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


From 1955 to 1957 he worked as a foreman with the building trust Uraltyazhtrubstroi and from 1957 to 1963 he worked in Sverdlovsk, and was promoted from construction site superintendent to chief of the Construction Directorate with the Yuzhgorstroi Trust. In 1963 he became chief engineer, and in 1965 head of the Sverdlovsk House-Building Combine. He joined the ranks of the CPSU nomenklatura in 1968 when he was appointed head of construction with the Sverdlovsk Regional Party Committee. In 1975 he became secretary of the regional committee in charge of the region's industrial development. In 1976 the Politburo of the CPSU promoted him to the post of the first secretary of the CPSU Committee of Sverdlovsk Oblast (effectively he became the head of one of the most important industrial regions in the USSR), he remained in this position till 1985. The Communist Party of the Soviet Union ( Russian: Коммунисти́ческая Па́ртия Сове́тского Сою́за = &#1050... The nomenklatura were a small, élite subset of the general population in the Soviet Union who held various key administrative positions in all spheres of the Soviet Union: in government, industry, agriculture, education, etc. ... The Politburo (in Russian: Политбюро), known as the Presidium from 1952 to 1966, functioned as the central policymaking and governing body of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. ... Flag of Sverdlovsk Oblast Sverdlovsk Oblast (Russian: , Sverdlovskaya oblast) is a federal subject of Russia (an oblast) located in the Urals Federal District. ... Year 1985 (MCMLXXXV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link displays 1985 Gregorian calendar). ...


CPSU member

Yeltsin was a member of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (CPSU) from 1961 to July 1990, and began working in the Communist administration in 1968. He later commented on his communist views: The Communist Party of the Soviet Union (Russian: Коммунисти́ческая Па́ртия Сове́тского Сою́за = КПСС) was the name used by the successors of the Bolshevik faction of the Russian Social-Democratic Labour Party from 1952 to 1991, but the wording Communist Party was present in the partys name since 1918 when the Bolsheviks became the Russian... This article is about communism as a form of society and as a political movement. ...

"I sincerely believed in the ideals of justice propagated by the party, and just as sincerely joined the party, made a thorough study of the charter, the programme and the classics, re-reading the works of Lenin, Marx and Engels."

In 1977 as party boss in Sverdlovsk, Yeltsin--on orders from Moscow--ordered the destruction of the Ipatiev House where the last Russian tsar had been killed by Bolshevik troops. The Ipatiev House was demolished in one night, July 27, 1977. [9] Also during Yeltsin's stay in Sverdlovsk, a CPSU palace was built which was named "White Tooth" by the residents. During this time, Yeltsin developed connections with key people in the Soviet power structure. Vladimir Ilyich Lenin ( Russian: Влади́мир Ильи́ч Ле́нин  listen?), original surname Ulyanov (Улья́нов) ( April 22 (April 10 ( O.S.)), 1870 – January 21, 1924), was a... Karl Heinrich Marx (May 5, 1818 – March 14, 1883) was a 19th century philosopher, political economist, and revolutionary. ... Friedrich Engels (November 28, 1820 – August 5, 1895) was a German social scientist and philosopher, who developed communist theory alongside his better-known collaborator, Karl Marx, co-authoring The Communist Manifesto (1848). ... Yekaterinburgs Church on the Blood, built on the spot where the Ipatiev House once stood. ... Nicholas II redirects here. ... Bolshevik Party Meeting. ... Yekaterinburgs Church on the Blood, built on the spot where the Ipatiev House once stood. ... is the 208th day of the year (209th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also: 1977 (album) by Ash. ...


He was appointed to the Politburo, and was also "Mayor" of Moscow (First Secretary of the CPSU Moscow City Committee) from December 24, 1985 to 1987. He was promoted to these high rank positions by Mikhail Gorbachev and Yegor Ligachev, who presumed that Yeltsin would be their man. Yeltsin was also given a country house (dacha) previously occupied by Gorbachev. During this period Yeltsin portrayed himself as a reformer and populist (for example, he took a trolleybus to work), firing and reshuffling his staff several times. His initiatives became popular among Moscow residents. The Politburo (in Russian: Политбюро), known as the Presidium from 1952 to 1966, functioned as the central policymaking and governing body of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. ... For other uses, see Moscow (disambiguation). ... The Communist Party of the Soviet Union (Russian: Коммунисти́ческая Па́ртия Сове́тского Сою́за = КПСС) was the name used by the successors of the Bolshevik faction of the Russian Social-Democratic Labour Party from 1952 to 1991, but the wording Communist Party was present in the partys name since 1918 when the Bolsheviks became the Russian... is the 358th day of the year (359th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1985 (MCMLXXXV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link displays 1985 Gregorian calendar). ... Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev (Russian: ), surname more accurately romanized as Gorbachyov; (born 2 March 1931) is a Russian politician. ... Yegor Kuzmich Ligachev (Его́р Кузьми́ч Лигачёв) (b. ... Dacha of Boris Pasternak in Peredelkino. ... Populism is a political ideology or rhetorical style that holds that the common person is oppressed by the elite in society, which exists only to serve its own interests, and therefore, the instruments of the State need to be grasped from this self-serving elite and instead used for the... A Polish Solaris trolleybus in Landskrona, Sweden. ...


In 1987, after a confrontation with hardliner Yegor Ligachev and Mikhail Gorbachev about Gorbachev's wife, Raisa, meddling in affairs of the state, Yeltsin was sacked from his high ranking party positions. On October 21, 1987 at the plenary meeting of the Central Committee of the CPSU, Yeltsin, without prior approval from Gorbachev, lashed out at the Politburo. He expressed his discontent with both the slow pace of reform in society and the servility shown to the General Secretary, then asked to resign from the Politburo, adding that the City Committee would decide whether he should resign from the post of first secretary of the Moscow City Party Committee. In his reply, Gorbachev accused Yeltsin of "political immaturity" and "absolute irresponsibility", and at the plenary meeting of the Moscow City Party Committee proposed relieving Yeltsin of his post of first secretary. Nobody backed Yeltsin. Criticism of Yeltsin continued on November 11, 1987 at the meeting of the Moscow City Party Committee. After Yeltsin admitted that his speech had been a mistake, he was fired from the post of first secretary of the Moscow City Committee. He was demoted to the position of first deputy commissioner for the State Committee for Construction. After being fired, Yeltsin was hospitalized and later (confirmed by Nikolai Ryzhkov) attempted suicide. He was perturbed and humiliated but began plotting his revenge.[11] His opportunity came with Gorbachev's establishment of the Congress of People's Deputies.[12] He recovered, and started intensively criticizing Gorbachev, highlighting the slow pace of reform in the Soviet Union as his major argument. Yegor Kuzmich Ligachev (Его́р Кузьми́ч Лигачёв) (b. ... Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev (Russian: ), surname more accurately romanized as Gorbachyov; (born 2 March 1931) is a Russian politician. ... is the 294th day of the year (295th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1987 (MCMLXXXVII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link displays 1987 Gregorian calendar). ... The Communist Party of the Soviet Union ( Russian: Коммунисти́ческая Па́ртия Сове́тского Сою́за = &#1050... is the 315th day of the year (316th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1987 (MCMLXXXVII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link displays 1987 Gregorian calendar). ... Nikolai Ivanovich Ryzhkov (Николай Иванович Рыжков; born September 28, 1929-) was a Soviet official and, after the breakup of the Soviet Union, a Russian politician. ... The Congress of Soviets was the supreme governing body of the RSFSR and the USSR in two periods, from 1917 to 1936 and from 1989 to 1991. ...


Yeltsin's criticism of the Politburo and Gorbachev led to a smear campaign against him, in which examples of Yeltsin's awkward behavior were used against him. An article published in Pravda described him as being drunk at a lecture during his visit to the United States, an allegation which appeared to be confirmed by a TV account of his speech. However, popular dissatisfaction with the regime was very strong, and these attempts to smear Yeltsin only added to his popularity. In another incident, Yeltsin fell from a bridge. Commenting on this event, Yeltsin hinted that he was helped to fall from the bridge by the enemies of perestroika, but his opponents suggested that he was simply drunk. Pravda (Russian: , The Truth) was a leading newspaper of the Soviet Union and an official organ of the Central Committee of the Communist Party between 1912 and 1991. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...


President of the RSFSR

In an iconic photograph by the Associated Press broadcast worldwide[13], Yeltsin (far left) with his personal bodyguard Alexander Korzhakov stands on a tank to defy the August coup in 1991

In March 1989, Yeltsin was elected to the Congress of People's Deputies as the delegate from Moscow district and gained a seat on the Supreme Soviet. In May 1990, he was elected chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the Russian SFSR (RSFSR). He was supported by both democratic and conservative members of the Supreme Soviet, which sought power in the developing political situation in the country. A part of this power struggle was the opposition between power structures of the Soviet Union and the RSFSR. In an attempt to gain more power, on 12 June 1990, the Congress of People's Deputies of the RSFSR adopted a declaration of sovereignty and Yeltsin quit the CPSU in July 1990. Image File history File links Boris Yeltsin (far left) stands on a tank to defy the 1991 coup. ... Image File history File links Boris Yeltsin (far left) stands on a tank to defy the 1991 coup. ... The Associated Press, or AP, is an American news agency, the worlds largest such organization. ... Being the Presidents bodyguard, Korzhakov (second from left) stands with Boris Yeltsin (on the left) on a tank to defy the August coup on August 18, 1991. ... The Congress of Soviets was the supreme governing body of the RSFSR and the USSR in two periods, from 1917 to 1936 and from 1989 to 1991. ... For other uses, see Moscow (disambiguation). ... The Supreme Soviet (Russian: , Verhovniy Sovet, literally the Supreme Council) comprised the highest legislative body in the Soviet Union in the interim of the sessions of the Congress of Soviets, and the only one with the power to pass constitutional amendments. ... The Chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic was the de jure leader of the Russian SFSR between 1938 and 1991. ... State motto: Russian: Пролетарии всех стран, соединяйтесь! Translation: Workers of the world, unite! Capital Moscow Official language Russian Established In the USSR:  - Since  - Until November 7, 1917 November 7, 1917 December 12, 1991 (dissolution) Area  - Total  - Water (%) Ranked 1st in the USSR 17,075,200 km² 13% Population  - Total   - Density Ranked 1st in the... The Supreme Soviet (Russian: , Verhovniy Sovet, literally the Supreme Council) comprised the highest legislative body in the Soviet Union in the interim of the sessions of the Congress of Soviets, and the only one with the power to pass constitutional amendments. ... State motto: Пролетарии всех стран, соединяйтесь! (Workers of the world, unite!) Official language None (Russian in practice) Capital Moscow Chairman of the Supreme...


On 12 June 1991, Yeltsin won 57% of the popular vote in the democratic presidential elections for the Russian republic, defeating Gorbachev's preferred candidate, Nikolai Ryzhkov. In his election campaign, Yeltsin criticized the "dictatorship of the center", but did not suggest the introduction of a market economy. Instead, he said that he would put his head on the railtrack in the event of increased prices. Yeltsin took office on July 10. is the 163rd day of the year (164th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the 1991 Gregorian calendar). ... Presidential elections were held in the Russian Federation on June 12, 1991. ... Nikolai Ivanovich Ryzhkov (Николай Иванович Рыжков; born September 28, 1929-) was a Soviet official and, after the breakup of the Soviet Union, a Russian politician. ... is the 191st day of the year (192nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


On August 18, 1991, a coup against Gorbachev was launched by the government members opposed to perestroika headed by Vladimir Kryuchkov. Gorbachev was held in Crimea while Yeltsin raced to the White House of Russia (residence of the Supreme Soviet of the RSFSR) in Moscow to defy the coup. The White House was surrounded by the military but the troops defected in the face of mass popular demonstrations. Yeltsin responded to the coup by making a memorable speech from the turret of a tank. By August 21 most of the coup leaders had fled Moscow and Gorbachev was "rescued" from Crimea and then returned to Moscow. Yeltsin was subsequently hailed by his supporters around the world for rallying mass opposition to the coup. is the 230th day of the year (231st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the 1991 Gregorian calendar). ... During the Soviet Coup of 1991 (August 19-22, 1991), also known as the August Putsch or August Coup, a group of members of the Soviet government briefly deposed Soviet president Mikhail Gorbachev and attempted to take control of the country. ... Vladimir Alexandrovich Kryuchkov (Владимир Александрович Крючков in Russian) was born in Volgograd in 1924. ... Motto: Процветание в единстве - Prosperity in unity Anthem: Нивы и горы твои волшебны, Родина - Your fields and mounts are wonderful, Motherland Location of Crimea (red) on the map of Ukraine. ... White house of Russia under siege The White House of Russia, also known as the Russian White House, is a government building in Moscow that housed the Soviet Unions Congress of Peoples Deputies and Supreme Soviet until the crisis of 3 October 1993 when an uprising lead to... is the 233rd day of the year (234th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Motto: Процветание в единстве - Prosperity in unity Anthem: Нивы и горы твои волшебны, Родина - Your fields and mounts are wonderful, Motherland Location of Crimea (red) on the map of Ukraine. ...


Although restored to his position, Gorbachev's powers were now fatally compromised. Neither union nor Russian power structures heeded his commands as support had swung over to Yeltsin. Through the fall of 1991, the Russian government took over the union government, ministry by ministry. In November 1991, Yeltsin issued a decree banning the Communist Party throughout the RSFSR.


In early December 1991, Ukraine voted for independence from the Soviet Union. A week later, on December 8, Yeltsin met with Ukrainian president Leonid Kravchuk and the leader of Belarus, Stanislav Shushkevich, in Belovezhskaya Pushcha, where the three presidents announced the dissolution of the Soviet Union and that they would establish a voluntary Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) in its place. According to Mikhail Gorbachev, the president of the Soviet Union at that time, Yeltsin kept the plans of the Belovezhskaya meeting in strict secrecy and the main goal of the dissolution of the Soviet Union was to get rid of Gorbachev, who by that time had started to recover his position after the events of August. Mikhail Gorbachev has also accused Yeltsin of violating the people's will expressed in the referendum in which the majority voted to keep the Soviet Union. is the 342nd day of the year (343rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Leonid Kravchuk in Kiev, August 1992 Leonid Makarovych Kravchuk (Ukrainian: Леонід Макарович Кравчук born 10 January 1934) is a Ukrainian politician. ... Stanislav Stanislavovich Shushkevich (Belarusian: Станісла́ў Станісла́вавіч Шушке́віч; StanisÅ‚aÅ­ StanisÅ‚avavič Å uÅ¡kievič) (b. ... Białowieża Primaeval Forest, known as Belavezhskaya Pushcha (Белавеская пушча) in Belarus and Puszcza Białowieska in Poland, is an ancient virginal forest straddling the border between Belarus and Poland, located 70 km...  Member state  Associate member Headquarters Minsk, Belarus Working language Russian Type Commonwealth Membership 11 member states 1 associate member Leaders  -  Executive Secretary Viktor Yanukovych Establishment December 21, 1991 Website http://cis. ... Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev (Russian: ), surname more accurately romanized as Gorbachyov; (born 2 March 1931) is a Russian politician. ... Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev (Russian: ), surname more accurately romanized as Gorbachyov; (born 2 March 1931) is a Russian politician. ...


On December 24, the Russian Federation took the Soviet Union's seat in the United Nations. The next day, President Gorbachev resigned and the Soviet Union ceased to exist (see Collapse of the Soviet Union), thereby ending the world's largest and most influential socialist state. Economic relations between the former Soviet republics were severely compromised. Millions of native Russians found themselves in the newly formed "foreign" countries. is the 358th day of the year (359th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The foundation of the U.N. The United Nations (UN) is an international organization whose stated aims are to facilitate co-operation in international law, international security, economic development, social progress and human rights issues. ... The rise of Gorbachev Although reform stalled between 1964–1982, the generational shift gave new momentum for reform. ...


President of the Russian Federation

Yeltsin's first term

Radical reforms

Just days after the dissolution of the Soviet Union, Boris Yeltsin resolved to embark on a program of radical economic reform, with the aim of restructuring Russia's economic system—converting the world's largest socialist planned economy into a market-oriented capitalist one. During early discussions of this transition, Yeltsin's advisers debated issues of speed and sequencing, with an apparent division between those favoring a rapid approach and those favoring a gradual or slower approach. This article refers to an economy controlled by the state. ...


In late 1991 Yeltsin turned to the advice of Western economists, and Western institutions such as the IMF, the World Bank, and the U.S. Treasury Department, who had developed a standard policy recipe for transition economies in the late 1980s. This policy recipe came to be known as the "Washington Consensus" or "shock therapy," a combination of measures intended to liberalize prices and stabilize the state's budget. Such measures had been attempted in Poland, and advocates of "shock therapy" felt the same could be done in Russia. Some Russian policymakers were skeptical that this was the way to go, but the approach was favored by Yeltsin's deputy, Yegor Gaidar, a 35-year-old Russian economist inclined toward radical reform. The flag of the International Monetary Fund (IMF) The International Monetary Fund (IMF) is the international organization entrusted with overseeing the global financial system by monitoring foreign exchange rates and balance of payments, as well as offering technical and financial assistance when asked. ... ... The United States Department of the Treasury is a Cabinet department, a treasury, of the United States government established by an Act of U.S. Congress in 1789 to manage the revenue of the United States government. ... The Washington Consensus is a phrase initially coined in 1987-88 by John Williamson to describe a relatively specific set of ten economic policy prescriptions that he considered to constitute a standard reform package promoted for crisis-wracked countries by Washington-based institutions such as the International Monetary Fund, World... In economics, shock therapy refers to the sudden release of price and currency controls, withdrawal of state subsidies, and immediate trade liberalization within a country. ... Yegor Timurovich Gaidar () (born March 19, 1956) is a Russian economist and politician, and was the acting Prime Minister of Russia from June 15, 1992 to December 14, 1992. ...


In January 1992, Gaidar convinced Yeltsin to introduce a program of "shock therapy" in Russia. On January 2, Yeltsin, acting as his own prime minister, ordered the liberalization of foreign trade, prices, and currency. At the same time, Yeltsin followed a policy of 'macroeconomic stabilization,' a harsh austerity regime designed to control inflation. Under Yeltsin's stabilization program, interest rates were raised to extremely high levels to tighten money and restrict credit. To bring state spending and revenues into balance, Yeltsin raised new taxes heavily, cut back sharply on government subsidies to industry and construction, and made steep cuts to state welfare spending. The Prime Minister of Russia is the current Head of Government of the Russian Federation. ...


In early 1992, prices skyrocketed throughout Russia, and deep credit crunch shut down many industries and brought about a protracted depression. Many state enterprises shut down as they found themselves without orders or financing. The living standards of much of the population were devastated. In the 1990s Russia suffered an economic downturn more severe than the United States or Germany had undergone six decades earlier in the Great Depression.[14] Russian commentators and even some Western economists, such as Marshall Goldman, widely blamed Yeltsin's Western-backed economic program for the country's disastrous economic performance in the 1990s. Many politicians began to quickly distance themselves from the program. In February 1992, Russia's vice president, Alexander Rutskoy denounced the Yeltsin program as "economic genocide."[15] By 1993 conflict over the reform direction escalated between Yeltsin on the one side, and the opposition to radical economic reform in Russia's parliament on the other. For other uses, see The Great Depression (disambiguation). ... Marshall Goldman is an expert on the economy of the former Soviet Union. ... Alexander Vladimirovich Rutskoy (Russian:Александр Владимирович Руцкой) (b. ...


Confrontation with parliament

Tanks shell the Russian Parliament building on October 3, 1993 on Yeltsin's orders

Also throughout 1992, Yeltsin wrestled with the Supreme Soviet and the Congress of People's Deputies for control over government, government policy, government banking and property. In the course of 1992, the speaker of the Russian Supreme Soviet, Ruslan Khasbulatov, came out in opposition to the reforms, despite claiming to support Yeltsin's overall goals. In December 1992, the 7th Congress of People's Deputies succeeded in turning down the Yeltsin-backed candidacy of Yegor Gaidar for the position of Russian prime minister. This work is copyrighted. ... This work is copyrighted. ... is the 276th day of the year (277th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1993 (MCMXCIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1993 Gregorian calendar). ... The Supreme Soviet (Russian: , Verhovniy Sovet, literally the Supreme Council) comprised the highest legislative body in the Soviet Union in the interim of the sessions of the Congress of Soviets, and the only one with the power to pass constitutional amendments. ... The Congress of Soviets was the supreme governing body of the RSFSR and the USSR in two periods, from 1917 to 1936 and from 1989 to 1991. ... Ruslan Khasbulatov speaks to Radio Free Europe in 2003 Ruslan Imranovich Khasbulatov (Руслан Имранович Хасбулатов) (born 1942) is a Russian economist and politician who played a central role in the events leading to the 1993 constitutional crisis in the Russian Federation. ... The Congress of Soviets was the supreme governing body of the RSFSR and the USSR in two periods, from 1917 to 1936 and from 1989 to 1991. ... The Prime Minister of Russia is the current Head of Government of the Russian Federation. ...


The conflict escalated on 20 March 1993 when Yeltsin, in a televised address to the nation, announced that he was going to assume certain "special powers" in order to implement his program of reforms. In response, the hastily-called 9th Congress of People's Deputies attempted to remove Yeltsin from presidency through impeachment on 26 March 1993. Yeltsin's opponents gathered more than 600 votes for impeachment, but fell 72 votes short of the required two-thirds majority.[16] On 21 September 1993 Yeltsin announced in a televised address his decision to disband the Supreme Soviet and Congress of People's Deputies by decree. is the 79th day of the year (80th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1993 (MCMXCIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1993 Gregorian calendar). ... The Congress of Soviets was the supreme governing body of the RSFSR and the USSR in two periods, from 1917 to 1936 and from 1989 to 1991. ... March 26 is the 85th day of the year (86th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1993 (MCMXCIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1993 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 264th day of the year (265th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1993 (MCMXCIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1993 Gregorian calendar). ...


In his address Yeltsin declared his intent to rule by decree until the election of the new parliament and a referendum on a new constitution, triggering the constitutional crisis of October 1993. On the night after Yeltsin's televised address, the Supreme Soviet declared Yeltsin removed from presidency, by virtue of his breaching the constitution, and Vice-President Alexander Rutskoy was sworn in as the acting president. Boris Yeltsin was President of the Russian Federation at the time of the crisis. ...


Between September 21–24, Yeltsin was confronted by significant popular unrest, encouraging the defenders of the parliament. Moscow saw what amounted to a spontaneous mass uprising of anti-Yeltsin demonstrators numbering in the tens of thousands marching in the streets resolutely seeking to aid forces defending the parliament building. The demonstrators were protesting the new and terrible living conditions under Yeltsin. Since 1989 GDP had declined by half. Corruption was rampant, violent crime was skyrocketing, medical services were collapsing, food and fuel were increasingly scarce and life expectancy was falling for all but a tiny handful of the population; moreover, Yeltsin was increasingly getting the blame.


By early October, Yeltsin had secured the support of Russia's army and ministry of interior forces. In a massive show of force, Yeltsin called up tanks to shell the Russian White House, Russia's parliament building, blasting out his opponents. The White House of Russia, also known as the Russian White House, is a government building in Moscow that housed the Russian parliament until the crisis of 3 October 1993 when an uprising lead to siege and artillery attacks on White House that caused a major fire. ...


As Supreme Soviet was dissolved, in December 1993 were held elections to the newly established parliament, State Duma. Candidates identified with Yeltsin's economic policies were overwhelmed by a huge anti-Yeltsin vote, the bulk of which was divided between the Communist Party and ultra-nationalists. The referendum, however, held at the same time, approved the new constitution, which significantly expanded the powers of the president, giving Yeltsin a right to appoint the members of the government, to dismiss the prime minister and, in some cases, to dissolve the Duma.[17] For other uses, see State Duma (disambiguation). ... Communist Party supporters attend a May Day rally in Moscow The Communist Party of the Russian Federation (Russian: Коммунистическая партия Российской Федерации = КПРФ; translit. ... A prime minister is the most senior minister of a cabinet in the executive branch of government in a parliamentary system. ...


Chechnya

Main article: First Chechen War

In December 1994, Yeltsin ordered the military invasion of Chechnya in an attempt to restore Moscow's control over the separatist republic. Nearly two years later Yeltsin later withdrew federal forces from the devastated Chechnya under a 1996 peace agreement brokered by Alexander Lebed, then Yeltsin's security chief. The peace deal allowed Chechnya greater autonomy but not full independence. Combatants Russian Federation Chechen Republic of Ichkeria Commanders Pavel Grachev Anatoly Kulikov Konstantin Pulikovsky Anatoliy Romanov Vyacheslav Tikhomirov Gennady Troshev Dzhokhar Dudayev  â€  Aslan Maskhadov Strength (December 11, 1994) Up to 50,000 soldiers and Interior Ministry (MVD) (December 11, 1994) 3,000 to 15,000[1] Casualties Military: At least... The Chechen Republic (IPA: ; Russian: , Chechenskaya Respublika; Chechen: , Noxçiyn Respublika), or, informally, Chechnya (; Russian: ; Chechen: , Noxçiyçö), sometimes referred to as Ichkeria, Chechnia, Chechenia or Noxçiyn, is a federal subject of Russia. ... Aleksandr Ivanovich Lebed (Алексáндр Ивáнович Лéбедь) ( April 20, 1950– April 28, 2002) was a Russian general and politician. ...


The decision to launch the war in Chechnya dismayed many in the West. TIME magazine wrote: (Clockwise from upper left) Time magazine covers from May 7, 1945; July 25, 1969; December 31, 1999; September 14, 2001; and April 21, 2003. ...

"Then, what was to be made of Boris Yeltsin? Clearly he could no longer be regarded as the democratic hero of Western myth. But had he become an old- style communist boss, turning his back on the democratic reformers he once championed and throwing in his lot with militarists and ultranationalists? Or was he a befuddled, out-of-touch chief being manipulated, knowingly or unwittingly, by -- well, by whom exactly? If there was to be a dictatorial coup, would Yeltsin be its victim or its leader?"[10]

Privatization and the rise of "the oligarchs"

A number of prominent oligarchs, including Mikhail Khodorkovsky (far right), pictured with Boris Yeltsin in the mid-1990s

Following the collapse of the Soviet Union, Yeltsin promoted privatization as a way of spreading ownership of shares in former state enterprises as widely as possible to create political support for his economic reforms. In the West, privatization was viewed as the key to the transition from communism in Eastern Europe, ensuring a quick dismantling of the Soviet-era planned economy to make way for 'free market reforms.' In the early 1990s, Anatoly Chubais, Yeltsin's deputy for economic policy, emerged as a leading advocate of privatization in Russia. This work is copyrighted. ... The quality of this article or section may be compromised by peacock terms. You can help Wikipedia by removing peacock terms. ... This article does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


In late 1992, Yeltsin launched a program of free vouchers as a way to give mass privatization a jump-start. Under the program, all Russian citizens were issued vouchers, each with a nominal value of around 10,000 rubles, for purchase of shares of select state enterprises. Although each citizen initially received a voucher of equal face value, within months most of them converged in the hands of intermediaries who were ready to buy them for cash right away.


In 1995, as Yeltsin struggled to finance Russia's growing foreign debt and gain support from the Russian business elite for his bid in the spring 1996 presidential elections, the Russian president prepared for a new wave of privatization offering stock shares in some of Russia's most valuable state enterprises in exchange for bank loans. The program was promoted as a way of simultaneously speeding up privatization and ensuring the government a much-needed infusion of cash for its operating needs.


However, the deals were effectively giveaways of valuable state assets to a small group of tycoons in finance, industry, energy, telecommunications, and the media who came to be known as the "Russian oligarchs" in the mid-1990s. By summer 1996, substantial ownership shares over major firms were acquired at very low prices by the "oligarchs." Boris Berezovsky, who controlled major stakes in several banks and the national media, emerged as one of Yeltsin's most prominent backers. Along with Berezovsky, Mikhail Khodorkovsky, Roman Abramovich, Vladimir Potanin, Vladimir Bogdanov, Rem Viakhirev, Vagit Alekperov, Viktor Chernomyrdin, Victor Vekselberg, and Mikhail Fridman emerged as Russia's most powerful and prominent oligarchs. Business oligarch, a synonym of business magnate, describes wealthy people that significantly influence the life of a state. ... Boris Abramovich Berezovsky (Бори́с Абра́мович Березо́вский) a. ... The quality of this article or section may be compromised by peacock terms. You can help Wikipedia by removing peacock terms. ... Roman Arkadyevich Abramovich (IPA: ) (Russian: ) (born 24 October 1966 in Saratov, Russia) is a Russian oil billionaire and the main owner of private investment company Millhouse Capital, referred to as one of the Russian oligarchs. ... Vladimir Potanin (Владимир Потанин in Russian) (born in 1961), is the president and founder of Oneximbank (also Oneksimbank). ... Vladimir Bogdanov (Владимир Богданов in Russian) (born in 1951), President of Surgutneftegaz, Russias second largest oil company. ... Rem Viakhirev (Рэм Вяхирев in Russian) (born in 1934), chairman of the Russian natural gas and pipeline monopoly called Gazprom. ... Vagit Alekperov Vagit Alekperov (Вагит Юсуфович Алекперов in Russian, Vahid Yusuf oÄŸlu ƏlÉ™kbÉ™rov in Azerbaijani) (born September 1, 1950 in Baku, Azerbaijan) is currently a President of the leading Russian oil company LUKOIL. Vagit Alekperov, rated by Forbes magazine as the 48th richest person worldwide with US $12. ... Viktor Stepanovich Chernomyrdin (Russian: Ви́ктор Степа́нович Черномы́рдин) (born April 9, 1938) is a Russian politician. ... Viktor Feliksovich Vekselberg (born April 14, 1957) is a chairman of Tyumen Oil (TNK), Russias third-largest oil and gas company. ... Mikhail Fridman (born 26 June 1963) is a Russian businessman. ...


The Yeltsin/Senator Helms Interchange

On December 5, 1991, Senator Helms, ranking member of the Minority Staff of the U.S. Senate Committee on Foreign Relations, wrote to Boris Yeltsin concerning U.S. servicemen who were POWs or MIAs. "The status of thousands and thousands of American servicemen who are held by Soviet and other Communist forces, and who were never repatriated after every major war this century, is of grave concern to the American people." Yeltsin would ultimately respond with a statement made on June 15, 1992, while being interviewed aboard his presidential jet on his way to the United States, "Our archives have shown that it is true — some of them were transferred to the territory of the U.S.S.R. and were kept in labor camps... We can only surmise that some of them may still be alive." On December 10, 1991, just five days after Senator Helms had written Yeltsin concerning American servicemen, he again wrote to Yeltsin, this time concerning KAL 007. "One of the greatest tragedies of the Cold War was the shoot-down of the Korean Airlines flight KAL-007 by the Armed Forces of what was then the Soviet Union on September 1, 1983. . . The KAL-007 tragedy was one of the most tense incidences of the entire Cold War. However, now that relations between our two nations have improved substantially, I believe that it is time to resolve the mysteries surrounding this event. Clearing the air on this issue could help further to improve relations [11]." In March of 1992, Yeltsin would hand over KAL 007's Black Box without its tapes to Korean President Roh Tae-Woo at the end of the plenary session of the Korean National Assembly with this statement, "We apologize for the tragedy and are trying to settle some unsolved issues." Yeltsin would ultimately respond on January 8, 1992 by handing over to the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) of the United Nations what the Russians had for so many years denied possessing: the tapes of the KAL 007's "Black Box" (its Digital Flight Data Recorder and Cockpit Voice Recorder) [12].This openness on the part of Yeltsin concerning POW/MIA and KAL 007 matters, may also have signaled readiness to a more general openness to the west as did, in the same 1992 time frame -the "window of opportunity", his admission that the April 2, 1979 anthrax outbreak at Sverdlovsk, about 850 miles east of Moscow, in which 94 people were affected, with 64 of these dying, had not been the result of contaminated meat, as the Russian government had previously maintained, but had been caused as a result of a mishap at a biological warfare, military facility.


1996 presidential election

In February 1996 Yeltsin announced that he would seek a second term in the spring 1996 Russian presidential election. The announcement followed weeks of speculation that Yeltsin was at the end of his political career because of his health problems and growing unpopularity in Russia. At the time Yeltsin was recuperating from a series of heart attacks. Domestic and international observers also noted his occasionally erratic behaviour. When campaigning opened at the beginning of 1996, Yeltsin's popularity was close to zero. [18] Meanwhile, the opposition Communist Party of the Russian Federation had already gained ground in parliamentary voting on 17 December 1995, and its candidate, Gennady Zyuganov, had a strong grass roots organization, especially in the rural areas and small towns, and appealed effectively to memories of the old days of Soviet prestige on the international stage and the socialist domestic order. [19] Presidential elections were held in the Russian Federation in 1996. ... Communist Party supporters attend a May Day rally in Moscow The Communist Party of the Russian Federation (Russian: Коммунистическая партия Российской Федерации = КПРФ; translit. ... December 17 is the 351st day of the year (352nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1995 (MCMXCV) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full 1995 Gregorian calendar). ... Zyuganov on a November 7 rally Gennady Andreyevich Zyuganov or Guennady Ziuganov (Russian: ) (born 26 June 1944) is a Russian politician, and head of the Communist Party of the Russian Federation (since 1993), a member of Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe (since 1996). ...


Panic struck the Yeltsin team when opinion polls suggested that the ailing president could not win; some members of his entourage urged him to cancel presidential elections and effectively rule as dictator from then on. Instead, Yeltsin changed his campaign team, assigning a key role to his daughter, Tatyana Dyachenko, and appointing Chubais as campaign manager. [13] Chubais, acting as both Yeltsin's campaign manager and adviser on Russia's privatisation programme, used his control of the privatisation programme as an instrument of Yeltsin's reelection campaign. Please wikify (format) this article or section as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ...


In the spring of 1996, Chubais and Yeltsin recruited a team of a handful of financial and media oligarchs to bankroll the Yeltsin campaign and guaranteed favorable media coverage the president on national television and in leading newspapers.[20] In return, Chubais allowed well-connected Russian business leaders to acquire majority stakes in some of Russia's most valuable state-owned assets.[21] The media painted a picture of a fateful choice for Russia, between Yeltsin and a "return to totalitarianism." The oligarchs even played up the threat of civil war if a Communist were elected president.


Yeltsin campaigned energetically, dispelling concerns about his health, and maintained a high media profile. To boost his popularity, Yeltsin promised to abandon some his more unpopular economic reforms, boost welfare spending, end the war in Chechnya, and pay wage and pension arrears. Yeltsin's campaign also got a boost from the announcement of a $10 billion loan to the Russian government from the International Monetary Fund. [22]


Zyuganov, who lacked Yeltsin's resources and financial backing, saw his strong initial lead whittle away. In the run-off on July 3, with a turnout of 68.9%, Yeltsin won 53.8% of the vote and Zyuganov 40.3%, with the rest (5.9%) voting "against all". [23] is the 184th day of the year (185th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A Protest vote is a vote cast in an election to demonstrate the casters unhappiness with the choice of candidates or refusal of the current political system. ...


In his second term, Yeltsin was unable to follow through on most of his campaign promises, except for ending the Chechen war, which was halted for most of the period.


Yeltsin's second term

Boris Yeltsin and Bill Clinton in 1999
Boris Yeltsin and Bill Clinton in 1999

In July 1996, Yeltsin was re-elected as president with financial support from influential business oligarchs who owed their wealth to their connections with Yeltsin's administration. Despite only gaining 35% of the first round vote in the 1996 elections, Yeltsin defeated his communist rival Gennady Zyuganov with 54% in the runoff election. Later that year, Yeltsin underwent heart bypass surgery and remained in the hospital for months. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... William Jefferson Bill Clinton (born William Jefferson Blythe III[1] on August 19, 1946) was the 42nd President of the United States, serving from 1993 to 2001. ... Business oligarch, a synonym of business magnate, describes wealthy people that significantly influence the life of a state. ... Zyuganov on a November 7 rally Gennady Andreyevich Zyuganov or Guennady Ziuganov (Russian: ) (born 26 June 1944) is a Russian politician, and head of the Communist Party of the Russian Federation (since 1993), a member of Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe (since 1996). ... A coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) or heart bypass is a surgical procedure performed in patients with coronary artery disease (see atherosclerosis) for the relief of angina and possible improved heart muscle function. ...


During Yeltsin's presidency, Russia received US$ 40 billion in funds from the IMF and other international lending organizations. However, his opponents allege that most of these funds were stolen by people from Yeltsin's circle and placed in foreign banks.[24][25][26] The United States dollar is the official currency of the United States. ... The flag of the International Monetary Fund (IMF) The International Monetary Fund (IMF) is the international organization entrusted with overseeing the global financial system by monitoring foreign exchange rates and balance of payments, as well as offering technical and financial assistance when asked. ...


In 1998, a political and economic crisis emerged when Yeltsin's government defaulted on its debts, causing financial markets to panic and the ruble, to collapse in the 1998 financial crisis. ISO 4217 Code RUB User(s) Russia and self-proclaimed Abkhazia and South Ossetia Inflation 7% Source Rosstat, 2007 Subunit 1/100 kopek (копейка) Symbol руб kopek (копейка) к Plural The language(s) of this currency is of the Slavic languages. ... It has been suggested that GKO be merged into this article or section. ...


During the 1999 Kosovo war, Yeltsin strongly opposed the NATO military campaign against Yugoslavia, and warned of possible Russian intervention if NATO deployed ground troops to Kosovo. In televised comments he stated: "I told NATO, the Americans, the Germans: Don't push us toward military action. Otherwise there will be a European war for sure and possibly world war."[27] The term Kosovo War or Kosovo Conflict is often used to describe two sequential and at times parallel armed conflicts (a civil war followed by an international war) in the southern Serbian province called Kosovo (officially Kosovo and Metohia), part of the former Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. ... This article is about the military alliance. ... Capital Belgrade Language(s) Serbian Government Republic President  - 1992 - 1993 Dobrica Ćosić  - 1993 - 1997 Zoran Lilić  - 1997 – 2000 Slobodan MiloÅ¡ević  - 2000 - 2003 Vojislav KoÅ¡tunica Prime Minister  - 1992 - 1993 Milan Panić  - 1993 - 1998 Radoje Kontić  - 1998 - 2000 Momir Bulatović  - 2000 - 2001 Zoran Žižić  - 2001 - 2003 DragiÅ¡a Pe...


On May 15, 1999, Yeltsin survived another attempt of impeachment, this time by the democratic and communist opposition in the State Duma. He was charged with several unconstitutional activities, including the signing of the Belavezha Accords, dissolving the Soviet Union in December 1991, the coup-d'état in October 1993, and initiating the war in Chechnya in 1994. None of these charges received the two-thirds majority of the Duma which was required to initiate the process of impeachment of the president. is the 135th day of the year (136th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... Depiction of the impeachment trial of Andrew Johnson, then President of the United States, in 1868. ... Yabloko (official title: the Russian Democratic Party Yabloko, in Russian: Российская демократическая партия Яблоко, (Russian: — Apple)) is a Russian social-liberal party, led by Grigory Yavlinsky. ... Communist Party supporters attend a May Day rally in Moscow The Communist Party of the Russian Federation (Russian: Коммунистическая партия Российской Федерации = КПРФ; translit. ... For other uses, see State Duma (disambiguation). ... The Belavezha Accords (Russian: ) is the agreement signed at the state Dacha near Visculi in Belarussian part of the BiaÅ‚owieża Forest (also known as Belovezhskaya Pushcha) on December 8, 1991, by the Presidents of Russia, Ukraine and Belarus (Boris Yeltsin, Leonid Kravchuk and Stanislav Shushkevich), which declared the... Year 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the 1991 Gregorian calendar). ... Boris Yeltsin was President of the Russian Federation at the time of the crisis. ... The Chechen Republic (IPA: ; Russian: , Chechenskaya Respublika; Chechen: , Noxçiyn Respublika), or, informally, Chechnya (; Russian: ; Chechen: , Noxçiyçö), sometimes referred to as Ichkeria, Chechnia, Chechenia or Noxçiyn, is a federal subject of Russia. ... Year 1994 (MCMXCIV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display full 1994 Gregorian calendar). ... Depiction of the impeachment trial of Andrew Johnson, then President of the United States, in 1868. ...


On August 9, 1999 Yeltsin fired his prime minister, Sergei Stepashin, and for the fourth time, fired his entire cabinet. In Stepashin's place he appointed Vladimir Putin, relatively unknown at that time, and announced his wish to see Putin as his successor. is the 221st day of the year (222nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... Sergei Vadimovich Stepashin (Серге́й Вади́мович Степа́шин) (born March 2, 1952, in Port Arthur, China) is a Russian politician. ... Vladimir Vladimirovich Putin (Russian: ) (born October 7, 1952) is the current President of the Russian Federation. ...


In late 1999 Yeltsin and President Clinton openly disagreed on the war in Chechnya. At the November meeting of the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe, Clinton pointed his finger at Yeltsin and demanded he halt bombing attacks that had resulted in many civilian casualties. Yeltsin immediately left the conference.[28]


In December while visiting China to seek support on Chechnya, Yeltsin replied to Clinton’s criticism of a Russian ultimatum to citizens of Grozney. He bluntly pronounced: "Yesterday, Clinton permitted himself to put pressure on Russia. It seems he has for a minute, for a second, for half a minute, forgotten that Russia has a full arsenal of nuclear weapons. He has forgotten about that." Clinton dismissed Yeltsin's comments stating: "I didn't think he'd forgotten that America was a great power when he disagreed with what I did in Kosovo." It fell to Vladimir Putin to downplay Yeltsin's comments and present reassurances about U.S. and Russian relations.[29]


Resignation

On 31 December 1999, in a surprise announcement made live on Russian television, Yeltsin said Prime Minister Vladimir Putin would take over as acting president, with elections due to take place on 26 March 2000. Yeltsin asked for forgiveness for what he acknowledged were errors of his rule, and said Russia needed to enter the new century with new political leaders. Yeltsin said: "I want to beg forgiveness for your dreams that never came true. And also I would like to beg forgiveness not to have justified your hopes." is the 365th day of the year (366th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... March 26 is the 85th day of the year (86th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full 2000 Gregorian calendar). ...


Alleged alcoholism and neurological disorder

According to numerous reports, Yeltsin struggled with alcoholism. The subject made headlines abroad during Yeltsin's visit to the U.S. in 1989 for a series of lectures on social and political life in the Soviet Union. That trip was described by a scandalous publication in the Italian newspaper La Repubblica. The article reported that Yeltsin often appeared drunk in public. The article was reprinted by Pravda. Yeltsin's alleged alcoholism was also the subject of media discussion following his meeting with U.S. Deputy Secretary of State Strobe Talbott following Clinton's inauguration in 1993 and after his flight stop-over at Shannon Airport, Ireland in September 1994 when the waiting Irish Taoiseach (prime minister) Albert Reynolds was told that Yeltsin was unwell and would not be leaving the aircraft. La Repubblica (meaning: The Republic) is an Italian daily newspaper. ... Pravda (Russian: , The Truth) was a leading newspaper of the Soviet Union and an official organ of the Central Committee of the Communist Party between 1912 and 1991. ... The Deputy Secretary of State of the United States is the chief assistant to the Secretary of State who is responsible for Foreign Affairs. ... Nelson Strobridge Strobe Talbott III (born April 25, 1946 in Dayton, Ohio) is a U.S. diplomat and political scientist. ... Shannon Airport (IATA: SNN, ICAO: EINN), or Aerfort na Sionna in Irish is an airport in Ireland. ... Albert Reynolds (born November 3, 1932), was the eighth Taoiseach of the Republic of Ireland, serving one term in office from 1992 until 1994. ...


According to former Deputy Prime Minister of Russia Boris Nemtsov, the bizarre behavior of Yeltsin resulted from "strong drugs" given to him by Kremlin's doctors, which were incompatible even with a small amount of alcohol. This was discussed by journalist Yelena Tregubova from the "Kremlin's pool" in connection with an episode during Yeltsin's visit to Stockholm in 1997 when Yeltsin suddenly started telling nonsense, lost his balance, and almost fell down at a podium after drinking a single glass of Champaign vine [30] Similarly, Yeltsin made a hasty withdrawal from the funeral of Hussein of Jordan in February 1999. Boris Nemtsov Boris Efimovich Nemtsov (Борис Ефимович Немцов) (born October 9, 1959) is one of the leading members of the liberal Union of Right Forces political party in Russia. ... Yelena Viktorovna Tregubova (Russian: ) (born May 24, 1973) is a Russian journalist, a critic of the president Vladimir Putin and his environment. ... For other uses, see Stockholm (disambiguation). ... Hussein I bin Talal, King of Jordan (Arabic: ‎ ; November 14, 1935 – February 7, 1999). ...


After Yeltsin's death, a Dutch neurosurgeon revealed that his team was secretly flown to Moscow to operate on Yeltsin in 1999. Yeltsin suffered from an unspecified neurological disorder that affected his sense of balance, causing him to wobble as if in a drunken state; the goal of the operation was to reduce the pain. [31]


Life after resignation

Yeltsin's personal and health problems received a great deal of attention in the global press. As the years went on, he was often viewed as an increasingly unstable leader, rather than the inspiring figure he was once seen as. The possibility that he might die in office was often discussed.


Yeltsin maintained a low profile after his resignation, making almost no public statements or appearances. However, on 13 September 2004, following the Beslan school hostage crisis and nearly-concurrent terrorist attacks in Moscow, Putin launched an initiative to replace the election of regional governors with a system whereby they would be directly appointed by the president and approved by regional legislatures. Yeltsin, together with Mikhail Gorbachev, publicly criticized Putin's plan as a step away from democracy in Russia and a return to the centrally-run political apparatus of the Soviet era.[32] is the 256th day of the year (257th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Republic of North Ossetia in Russia Terrorist attacks of the Second Chechen War Kaspiysk bombing - Moscow hostage crisis – Stavropol bombing - Red Square bombing - Moscow metro bombing - Aircraft bombings – Beslan hostage crisis The Beslan school hostage crisis (also referred to as the Beslan school siege or Beslan Massacre) began when... Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev (Russian: ), surname more accurately romanized as Gorbachyov; (born 2 March 1931) is a Russian politician. ...


In September 2005, Yeltsin underwent a hip operation in Moscow after breaking his femur in a fall while vacationing on the Italian island of Sardinia.[33] 2005 : January - February - March - April - May - June - July - August - September - October - November - December- → Deaths in September September 28 : Constance Baker Motley September 25 : M. Scott Peck September 25 : Don Adams September 20 : Simon Wiesenthal September 14 : Robert Wise September 10 : Hermann Bondi September 8 : Donald Horne September 7 : Moussa Arafat... The femur or thigh bone is the longest, most voluminous, and strongest bone of the mammalian bodies. ... For the place in the United States, see Sardinia, Ohio. ...


On February 1, 2006, Yeltsin celebrated his 75th birthday. He used this occasion as an opportunity to criticize a "monopolistic" U.S. foreign policy, and to state that Vladimir Putin was the right choice for Russia.[34] He also disputed accusations of corruption and the term "Family." is the 32nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Vladimir Vladimirovich Putin (Russian: ) (born October 7, 1952) is the current President of the Russian Federation. ...


Death

Flowers at Yeltsin's grave
Flowers at Yeltsin's grave

Boris Yeltsin died of congestive heart failure[35][36] on 23 April 2007 at the age of 76.[37][38][39]. According to experts quoted by Komsomolskaya Pravda, recent outbreak of Yeltsin's disease was due to his visit to Jordan from 25 March to 2 April.[35] He was buried in the Novodevichy Cemetery on 25 April 2007 [40], following a period during which his body had lain in state in the Cathedral of Christ the Saviour, Moscow.[41] Yeltsin is the first Russian statesman in 113 years to be buried in a church ceremony, after Emperor Alexander III[42]. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2560 × 1920 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2560 × 1920 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links WikiNews-Logo. ... Wikinews is a free-content news source and a project of the Wikimedia Foundation. ... Congestive heart failure (CHF), also called congestive cardiac failure (CCF) or just heart failure, is a condition that can result from any structural or functional cardiac disorder that impairs the ability of the heart to fill with or pump a sufficient amount of blood throughout the body. ... is the 113th day of the year (114th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... Komsomolskaya Pravda (in Russian Комсомольская правда, meaning Komsomols Truth) is an all-Russian newspaper and is the product of the long-lived but now extinct Komsomol organization. ... is the 84th day of the year (85th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 92nd day of the year (93rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Grave of Anton Chekhov Novodevichy Cemetery (Новодевичье кла́дбище, Novodevichye kladbishche) is the most famous cemetery in Moscow, Russia, situated next to the World Heritage Site, the 16th-century Novodevichy Convent, which is the citys third most popular tourist site. ... is the 115th day of the year (116th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... Lying-in-state is the term used during a major funeral procession when the coffin is placed on public view to allow members of the public to pay their respects to the deceased. ... View of the cathedral and the Great Stone Bridge in 1905. ... Alexander III Alexandrovich (10 March 1845 – 1 November 1894) (Russian: Александр III Александрович) reigned as Emperor of Russia from 14 March 1881 until his death in 1894. ...


The day of his funeral was declared by President Putin to be a national day of mourning with flags flown at half-staff and all entertainment programs suspended for the day.[43] Proclamation of the Day of Mourning. ...


Yeltsin is survived by his wife, Naina Iosifovna Yeltsina, whom he married in 1956, and their two daughters Yelena and Tatyana, born in 1957 and 1959, respectively. Naina Iosifovna Yeltsina (Russian: , maiden name Girina, born March 14, 1932) is the widow of the first President of the Russian Federation, Boris Yeltsin. ... Please wikify (format) this article or section as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ...


Reaction

See also: International reactions to the death of Boris Yeltsin

Flag of Russia Russia—Russian president Vladimir Putin said, declaring April 25, 2007, a day of national mourning, that: This article is being considered for deletion in accordance with Wikipedias deletion policy. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Russia. ... Vladimir Vladimirovich Putin (Russian: ) (born October 7, 1952) is the current President of the Russian Federation. ...

Yeltsin's "presidency has inscribed him forever in Russian and in world history." ... "A new democratic Russia was born during his time: a free, open and peaceful country. A state in which the power truly does belong to the people." ... "the first President of Russia’s strength consisted in the mass support of Russian citizens for his ideas and aspirations. Thanks to the will and direct initiative of President Boris Yeltsin a new constitution, one which declared human rights a supreme value, was adopted. It gave people the opportunity to freely express their thoughts, to freely choose power in Russia, to realise their creative and entrepreneurial plans. This Constitution permitted us to begin building a truly effective Federation." ... "We knew (Yeltsin) as a brave and a warm-hearted, spiritual person. He was an upstanding and courageous national leader. And he was always very honest and frank while defending his position." ... "(Yeltsin) assumed full responsibility for everything he called for, for everything he aspired to. For everything he tried to do and did do for the sake of Russia, for the sake of millions of Russians. And he invariably took upon himself, let it in his heart, all the trials and tribulations of Russia, peoples’ difficulties and problems."[44]

Flag of Russia Russia—Shortly after the news broke, former Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev issued a statement, saying: Image File history File links Flag_of_Russia. ... Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev (Russian: ), surname more accurately romanized as Gorbachyov; (born 2 March 1931) is a Russian politician. ...

"I offer my deepest condolences to the family of a man on whose shoulders rested many great deeds for the good of the country and serious mistakes—a tragic fate".[45]

See also

  • Yeltsinism

Yeltsinism refers to the political and economic policies of Boris Yeltsin, after he became the effective ruler of Russia following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in December 1991. ...

References

  1. ^ "В Храме Христа Спасителя простились с Борисом Ельциным", Русская линия, 2007-04-25. Retrieved on 2007-07-17. (Russian) 
  2. ^ Starobin, Paul. "The Accidental Autocrat", The Atlantic Monthly, March 2005. Retrieved on 2007-07-17. 
  3. ^ Transcripts of 'Insight' on CNN. CNN (7 October 2002). Retrieved on 2007-07-17.
  4. ^ Åslund, Anders (September/October 1999). Russia's Collapse. Foreign Affairs. Council on Foreign Relations. Retrieved on 2007-07-17.
  5. ^ Peter Nolan, China's Rise, Russia's Fall. Macmillan Press, 1995. pp. 17–18.
  6. ^ Daniel Treisman, "Why Yeltsin Won: A Russian Tammany Hall," Foreign Affairs, September/October 1996. [1]
  7. ^ Theodore P. Gerber, Michael Hout, "More Shock than Therapy: Market Transition, Employment, and Income in Russia, 1991–1995", AJS Volume 104 Number 1 (July 1998): 1–50.
  8. ^ Paul J. Saunders, "U.S. Must Ease Away From Yeltsin", Newsday, May 14, 1999. [2]
  9. ^ Timeline of a Leader. CBC (October 1998). Retrieved on 2007-04-17.
  10. ^ 10 things we didn't know last week. BBC (2007-04-27). Retrieved on 2007-04-29.
  11. ^ The Strange Death of the Soviet Empire, page 86; ISBN 0-8050-4154-0
  12. ^ The Strange Death of the Soviet Empire, page 90; ISBN 0-8050-4154-0
  13. ^ Robert L. Hilliard; Michael C. Keith (2006). The Broadcast Century and Beyond: a Biography of American Broadcasting. Elsevier, p. 271. ISBN 0240805704. 
  14. ^ Peter Nolan, China's Rise, Russia's Fall. Macmillan Press, 1995. pp. 17–18.
  15. ^ Celestine Bohlen, "Yeltsin Deputy Calls Reforms 'Economic Genocide,'" New York Times, February 9, 1992.
  16. ^ http://www.acs.brockport.edu/~dgusev/Russian/bybio.html
  17. ^ http://www.departments.bucknell.edu/russian/const/ch4.html
  18. ^ CNN, Russian presidential candidate profiles, 1906.[3]
  19. ^ CNN, Gennady Zyuganov candidate profile, 1996. [4]
  20. ^ Daniel Treisman, "Blaming Russia First," Foreign Affairs, November/December 2000. [5]
  21. ^ See, e.g., Pekka Sutela, "Insider Privatization in Russia: Speculations on Systemic Changes," Europe-Asia Studies 46:3 (1994), p. 420-21.
  22. ^ CNN Interactive : Pivotal Elections : Russian Elections ; Candidates : Boris Yeltsin [6]
  23. ^ Lee Hockstader, Washington Post Foreign Service, Friday, July 5, 1996 [7]
  24. ^ Stanislav Lunev (1999-07-27). Where Is the IMF Money to Russia Really Going?. NewsMax.com. Retrieved on 2007-04-17.
  25. ^ the-spark.net (2003-07-19). Yeltsin, "The Family" and the Bureaucratic Mafia. Retrieved on 2007-04-17.
  26. ^ ;Asia Times Online (1999-09-10). Checkmate nears for Yeltsin. Retrieved on 2007-04-17.
  27. ^ "Yeltsin Warns Of European War Over Kosovo", Reuters, April 9, 1999.  Also, "Yeltsin warns of possible world war over Kosovo", CNN, April 9, 1999. Retrieved on 2007-04-23. 
  28. ^ Babington, Charles. "Clinton Spars With Yeltsin On Chechnya, President Denounces Killing of Civilians", Washington Post, November 19, 1999, pp. A01. 
  29. ^ Laris, Michael. "In China, Yeltsin Lashes Out at Clinton Criticisms of Chechen War Are Met With Blunt Reminder of Russian Nuclear Power", Washington Post, December 10, 1999, p. A35. 
  30. ^ Yelena Tregubova Tales of a Kremlin Digger (Russian: Елена Трегубова. Байки кремлевского диггера., Mосква., Ad Marginem, 2003 ISBN 5-93321-073-0 Full text in Russian. German translation. Tregubova barely escaped an assassination attempt after publishing this material [8]
  31. ^ University professor reveals neurological disorder. Rijks Universiteit Groningen (2007-05-03). Retrieved on 2007-04-17.
  32. ^ Mikhail Gorbachev and Boris Yeltsin Speak out Against Putin’s Reforms. MosNews.com (2004-09-16). Retrieved on 2007-04-17.
  33. ^ Yulia Osipova (2005-09-19). Boris Yeltsin Leaves Ward. Kommersant. Retrieved on 2007-04-17.
  34. ^ Putin Was Right Choice for Russia—Boris Yeltsin. MosNews.com (2006-01-30). Retrieved on 2007-04-17.
  35. ^ a b У первого президента не выдержало сердце. Komsomolskaya Pravda (2007-04-24). Retrieved on 2007-04-24. (Russian)
  36. ^ Ельцин умер от остановки сердца. Lenta.ru (2007-04-23). Retrieved on 2007-04-24. (Russian)
  37. ^ Russian ex-president Yeltsin dies. BBC (2007-04-23).
  38. ^
  39. ^ Former Russian President Yeltsin dies. Sky News (2007-04-23).
  40. ^ Former Russian President Boris Yeltsin, who helped bring demise of Soviet Union, dead at 76. FoxNews (2007-04-23).
  41. ^ BBC News Yeltsin to lie in state in Moscow retrieved on April 24, 2007
  42. ^ Смерть Ельцина вернула России традицию императорских похорон
  43. ^ President's decree of mourning day (2007-04-23). Retrieved on 2007-04-24. (Russian)
  44. ^ Vladimir Putin`s Address on the Occasion of Boris Yelstin’s Passing Kremlin, April 23, 2007. Retrieved: 2007-04-24
  45. ^ In quotes: Reactions to Yeltsin death April 23, 2007.

Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 198th day of the year (199th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 198th day of the year (199th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Cable News Network, commonly known as CNN, is a major cable television network founded in 1980 by Ted Turner. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 198th day of the year (199th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Anders Ã…slund is a Swedish economist and expert on economic transition from centrally planned to market economies. ... The Council on Foreign Relations (CFR) is an influential and independent, nonpartisan foreign policy membership organization founded in 1921 and based at 58 East 68th Street (corner Park Avenue) in New York City, with an additional office in Washington, D.C. Through its membership, meetings, and studies, it has been... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 198th day of the year (199th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Canadian Broadcasting Corporation (CBC), a Canadian crown corporation, is the country’s national public radio and television broadcaster. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 107th day of the year (108th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The British Broadcasting Corporation, which is usually known as the BBC, is the largest broadcasting corporation in the world in terms of audience numbers, employing 26,000 staff in the United Kingdom alone and with a budget of more than GB£4 billion. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... April 27 is the 117th day of the year (118th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 248 days remaining. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 119th day of the year (120th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The New York Times is an internationally known daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed in the United States and many other nations worldwide. ... is the 40th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1992 Gregorian calendar). ... This article is about the year. ... is the 208th day of the year (209th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... NewsMax. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 107th day of the year (108th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 200th day of the year (201st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 107th day of the year (108th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Asia Times Online is an Internet-only publication that reports and examines geopolitical, political, economic and business issues, looking at these from an Asian perspective. ... This article is about the year. ... is the 253rd day of the year (254th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 107th day of the year (108th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 113th day of the year (114th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Yelena Viktorovna Tregubova (Russian: ) (born May 24, 1973) is a Russian journalist, a critic of the president Vladimir Putin and his environment. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 123rd day of the year (124th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 107th day of the year (108th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 259th day of the year (260th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 107th day of the year (108th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 262nd day of the year (263rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Kommersant (Cyrillic: Коммерса́нтъ) (which literally translates as The Businessman) is a commerce-oriented newspaper published in Russia. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 107th day of the year (108th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 30th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 107th day of the year (108th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Komsomolskaya Pravda (in Russian Комсомольская правда, meaning Komsomols Truth) is an all-Russian newspaper and is the product of the long-lived but now extinct Komsomol organization. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 114th day of the year (115th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 114th day of the year (115th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Lenta. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 113th day of the year (114th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 114th day of the year (115th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The British Broadcasting Corporation, which is usually known as the BBC, is the largest broadcasting corporation in the world in terms of audience numbers, employing 26,000 staff in the United Kingdom alone and with a budget of more than GB£4 billion. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 113th day of the year (114th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Sky News is a 24-hour British domestic and international television news channel that started broadcasting on 16 February 1989 as part of the then four-channel Sky Television service. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 113th day of the year (114th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The FOX News Channel is a US cable and satellite news channel. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 113th day of the year (114th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 114th day of the year (115th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 113th day of the year (114th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 114th day of the year (115th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to:
Boris Yeltsin
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Boris Yeltsin
  • Obituary and public tributes on Lasting Tribute
  • CNN Cold War — Profile: Boris Nikolayevich Yeltsin
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  • The Good Czar The Strange Nobility of Boris Yeltsin
Preceded by
Oleg Lobov
Prime Minister of Russia
1991–1992
(led the Government of Russia as the President of Russian Federation)
Succeeded by
Yegor Gaidar
Preceded by
New office
(replacing Chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the RSFSR)
President of Russia
1991–1999
Succeeded by
Vladimir Putin
Preceded by
Vitaly Vorotnikov
Chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the Russian SFSR
1990–1991
Succeeded by
Abolished
Persondata
NAME Yeltsin, Boris Nikolayevich
ALTERNATIVE NAMES Ельцин, Борис Николаевич (Russian); Eltsin.
SHORT DESCRIPTION Political leader, President of Russia.
DATE OF BIRTH February 1, 1931(1931-02-01)
PLACE OF BIRTH Butka, Sverdlovsk, Soviet Union
DATE OF DEATH April 23, 2007
PLACE OF DEATH Moscow, Russia

  Results from FactBites:
 
Boris Yeltsin (5243 words)
Yeltsin sharply criticized the Secretariat of the Central Committee of the CPSU for slow pace of reforms at the October, 1987, plenary meeting of the Central Committee.
Boris Yeltsin stressed the importance of "developing the market and bringing down the social cost of this process" in his annual state of the nation address to the parliament on February 23.
Yeltsin's new security czar, Alexander Lebed, who had campaigned for president on an anti-crime and anti-corruption platform before accepting his position in the government, told the journalists he was not interested in "the murky case".
Boris Yeltsin - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (3852 words)
Boris Yeltsin was born to a peasant family in Butka village, Talitsa district, Sverdlovsk region.
Yeltsin's decree stipulated the transitional period until the election of the new parliament, the State Duma and the referendum on the new Constitution.
Yeltsin continued as President of Russia until December 31, 1999, but the events of 1991 proved to be something of a high-water mark for him historically and personally.
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