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Encyclopedia > Boris Godunov
Tsar Boris I
Tsar Boris I

Boris Feodorovich Godunov (Бори́с Фёдорович Годуно́в) (c. 1551April 13, 1605) was de facto regent of Russia from 1584 to 1598 and then the first non-Rurikid tsar from 1598 to 1605. Boris Godunov as painted during his lifetime. ... Boris Godunov as painted during his lifetime. ... Events Russia, Reforming Synod of the metropolite Macaire, Orthodoxy: introduction of a calendar of the saints and an ecclesiastical law code ( Stoglav ) Major outbreak of the sweating sickness in England. ... April 13 is the 103rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (104th in leap years). ... 1605 was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... 1584 was a leap year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar or a leap year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... Events January 7 - Boris Godunov seizes the throne of Russia following the death of his brother-in-law, Tsar Feodor I. April 13 - Edict of Nantes - Henry IV of France grants French Huguenots equal rights with Catholics. ... The Rurik Dynasty was the ruling dynasty of what is now Belarus, Russia and Ukraine from 862 to 1598. ... Monomakhs Cap symbol of Russian autocracy, the crown of Russian grand princes and tsars Czar and tzar redirect here. ... Events January 7 - Boris Godunov seizes the throne of Russia following the death of his brother-in-law, Tsar Feodor I. April 13 - Edict of Nantes - Henry IV of France grants French Huguenots equal rights with Catholics. ... 1605 was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ...

Contents

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Early years

Boris was the most famous member of an ancient, now extinct, Russian family of Tatar origin, which migrated from the Horde to Kostroma in the early 14th century. Boris's career of service began at the court of Ivan the Terrible. He is mentioned in 1570 as taking part in the Serpeisk campaign as one of the archers of the guard. The Golden Horde (Turkish: Altın Ordu, Russian: Золотая Орда) was a Tatar-Mongol state established in parts of present-day Russia, Ukraine, and Kazakhstan after the break up of the Mongol Empire in the 1240s. ... Kostroma (Russian: ) is a historic city in central Russia, administrative centre of the Kostroma Oblast. ... Ivan IV (August 25, 1530–March 18, 1584) was the first ruler of Russia to assume the title of tsar. ... Events January 23 - The assassination of regent James Stewart, Earl of Moray throws Scotland into civil war February 25 - Pope Pius V excommunicates Queen Elizabeth I of England with the bull Regnans in Excelsis May 20 - Abraham Ortelius issues the first modern atlas. ...


In 1571 he strengthened his position at court by his marriage with Maria, the daughter of Ivan's abominable favorite Malyuta Skuratov. In 1580 the Tsar chose Irene, the sister of Boris, to be the bride of the Tsarevich Feodor, on which occasion Boris was promoted to the rank of boyar. On his deathbed Ivan appointed Boris, together with the Romanovs, as guardians of his son and successor; for Feodor, despite his 27 years, was of somewhat weak intellect. Events January 11 - Austrian nobility is granted Freedom of religion. ... Grigory Lukyanovich Skuratov-Belsky, better known as Malyuta Skuratov (Григорий Лукьянович Скуратов-Бельский, Малюта Скуратов in Russian) (? - January 1, 1573) was one of the organizers and leaders of the oprichnina during the reign of Ivan the Terrible. ... Events March 1 - Michel de Montaigne signs the preface to his most significant work, Essays. ... Tsar, (Bulgarian цар�, Russian царь; often spelled Czar or Tzar in English), was the title used for the autocratic rulers of the First and Second Bulgarian Empires since 913, in Serbia in the middle of the 14th century, and in Russia from 1547 to 1917. ... Feodor presents a golden chain to Boris Godunov. ... A boyar (also spelled bojar) or bolyarin was a member of the highest rank of the feudal Russian, Romanian and Bulgarian aristocracy, second only to the ruling princes, from the tenth through the seventeenth century. ... The House of Romanov (Рома́нов, pronounced Ro-MAH-nof), the second and last royal dynasty of Russia, which ruled Muscovy and the Russian Empire for five generations from 1613 to 1762. ... Feodor presents a golden chain to Boris Godunov. ...

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Years of regency

The reign of Feodor began with a rebellion in favor of the infant Tsarevich Dmitry, the son of Ivan's fifth wife Maria Nagaya, a rebellion resulting in the banishment of Dmitry, with his mother and her relations, to their appanage at Uglich. On the occasion of the Tsar's coronation (May 31, 1584), Boris was given honors and riches, yet he held the second place in the regency during the lifetime of the Tsar's uncle Nikita Romanovich, on whose death, in August, he was left without any serious rival. Dmitry Ivanovich, also known as Dmitry of Uglich and Dmitry of Moscow (Дмитрий Иванович, Дмитрий Угличский, Дмитрий Московский in Russian) (October 19, 1582 — May 15, 1591) was a Russian tsarevich, son of Ivan the Terrible and Maria Nagaya. ... Transfiguration cathedral in the kremlin Uglich (Russian: У́глич, pronounced ooglitch) is a historic town in Yaroslavl Oblast, Russia, on the Volga River. ... May 31 is the 151st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (152nd in leap years), with 214 days remaining. ... 1584 was a leap year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar or a leap year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... Nikita Romanovich also known as Nikita Zakharyin-Yuriev (Russian: , d. ...


A conspiracy against him of all the other great boyars and the metropolitan Dionysius, which sought to break Boris's power by divorcing the Tsar from Godunov's childless sister, only ended in the banishment or tonsuring of the malcontents. Henceforth Godunov was omnipotent. The direction of affairs passed entirely into his hands, and he corresponded with foreign princes as their equal. Dionysius II (Russian: Дионисий) (? - 1591) was Metropolitan of Moscow and all Russia between 1581 and 1587. ...

Godunov's estate near Moscow
Godunov's estate near Moscow

His policy was generally pacific, but always most prudent. In 1595 he recovered from Sweden the towns lost during the former reign. Five years previously he had defeated a Tatar raid upon Moscow, for which service he received the title of konyushy, an obsolete dignity even higher than that of boyar. Towards Turkey he maintained an independent attitude, supporting an anti-Turkish faction in the Crimea, and furnishing the emperor with subsidies in his war against the sultan. 16th-century phallic church at Boris Godunovs estate near Moscow. ... 16th-century phallic church at Boris Godunovs estate near Moscow. ... Events January 30 - William Shakespeares Romeo and Juliet is performed for the first time. ... Konyushy (Belarusian: Канюшы, Polish: Koniuszy, Russian: Конюший) is literally translated as Master of the Horse, Equerry. ... Motto: Процветание в единстве - Prosperity in unity Anthem: Нивы и горы твои волшебны, Родина - Your fields and mounts are wonderful, Motherland Capital Simferopol Largest cities Simferopol, Eupatoria, Kerch, Theodosia, Yalta Official language Ukrainian. ...


Godunov encouraged English merchants to trade with Russia by exempting them from tolls. He civilized the north-eastern and south-eastern borders of Russia by building numerous towns and fortresses to keep the Tatar and Finnic tribes in order. These towns included Samara, Saratov, Voronezh, Tsaritsyn and a whole series of lesser towns. He also re-colonized Siberia, which had been slipping from the grasp of Russia, and formed scores of new settlements, including Tobolsk and other large centres. Ivan IV of Russia demonstrates his treasures to the English ambassador (1875) Muscovy Company (also called Russian Company or Muscovy Trading Company, Polish Kompania Moskiewska, Russian: Московская компания), was a trading company chartered in 1555. ... Samara (Russian: ), from 1935 to 1991—Kuybyshev (), is a major city situated on the Volga River in the southeastern part of European Russia, Volga Federal District, the administrative center of Samara Oblast. ... Saratov flag Saratov (Russian: ) is a major city in southern European Russia. ... Voronezh (Russian: ) is a large city in the Southwest Russia, not far from Ukraine. ... Volgograd (Russian: ), formerly called Tsaritsyn (Russian: ) (1598–1925) and Stalingrad (Russian: ) (1925–1961) is a city in and the administrative center of Volgograd Oblast, Russia. ... Siberian Federal District (dark red) and the broadest definition of Siberia (red) Siberia (Russian: , Sibir’; Tatar: Seber) is a vast region of Russia and northern Kazakhstan constituting almost all of Northern Asia. ... View of Tobolsk in the 1910s. ...


It was during his government that the Russian Orthodox Church received its patriarchate, which placed it on an equal footing with the ancient Eastern churches and emancipated it from the influence of the Patriarch of Constantinople. This reform was meant to please the ruling monarch, as Feodor took extraordinary interest in church affairs. The Russian Orthodox Church (also known as the Orthodox Catholic Church of Russia) (Русская Православная церковь) is that body of Christians who are united under the Patriarch of Moscow, who in turn is in communion with the other patriarchs and primates of the Eastern Orthodox Church. ... A patriarchate is the office or jurisdiction of a patriarch. ... Map of Constantinople. ...


Boris's most important domestic reform was the 1587 decree forbidding the peasantry to transfer themselves from one landowner to another, thus binding them to the soil. The object of this ordinance was to secure revenue, but it led to the institution of serfdom in its most grinding form. 1587 was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Sunday of the Julian calendar. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


The sudden death of the Tsarevich Dmitry at Uglich on May 15, 1591 has commonly been attributed to Boris, because it cleared his way to the throne; but there is no clear proof that he was personally involved. The same may be said of the many, often absurd, accusations subsequently brought against him by jealous rivals or ignorant contemporaries who hated Godunov's reforms. Transfiguration cathedral in the kremlin Uglich (Russian: У́глич, pronounced ooglitch) is a historic town in Yaroslavl Oblast, Russia, on the Volga River. ... May 15 is the 135th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (136th in leap years). ... Events June - Capture of Zutphen by the Dutch under Maurice of Nassau. ...

[edit]

Years of tsardom

On the death of the childless tsar Feodor (January 7, 1598), self-preservation quite as much as ambition forced Boris to seize the throne. Had he not done so, lifelong seclusion in a monastery would have been his lightest fate. His election was proposed by the Patriarch Job of Moscow, who acted on the conviction that Boris was the one man capable of coping with the extraordinary difficulties of an unexampled situation. Boris, however, would only accept the throne from a Zemsky Sobor, or national assembly, which met on 17 February, and unanimously elected him on 21 February. On 1 September he was solemnly crowned tsar. January 7 is the seventh day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events January 7 - Boris Godunov seizes the throne of Russia following the death of his brother-in-law, Tsar Feodor I. April 13 - Edict of Nantes - Henry IV of France grants French Huguenots equal rights with Catholics. ... Job (Russian: , Iov) (real name: Иоанн, or Ioann), also known as Job of Moscow (2nd quarter of the 16th century - June 19, 1607) was the first Patriarch of Moscow and All Russia. ... The zemsky sobor (Russian: зе́мский собо́р) was the first Russian parliament of the feudal Estates type, in the 16th and 17th centuries. ... February 17 is the 48th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... February 21 is the 52nd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... September 1 is the 244th day of the year (245th in leap years). ... Monomakhs Cap symbol of Russian autocracy, the crown of Russian grand princes and tsars Czar and tzar redirect here. ...

Boris Godunov overseeing the studies of his son.
Boris Godunov overseeing the studies of his son.

During the first years of his reign he was both popular and prosperous, and ruled excellently. He fully recognized the need for Russia to catch up to the intellectual progress of the West, and did his utmost to bring about educational and social reforms. He was the first tsar to import foreign teachers on a great scale, the first to send young Russians abroad to be educated, the first to allow Lutheran churches to be built in Russia. Having won the Russo–Swedish War (1590–1595), he felt the necessity of a Baltic seaboard, and attempted to obtain Livonia by diplomatic means. He cultivated friendly relations with the Scandinavians, in order to intermarry if possible with foreign royal houses, so as to increase the dignity of his own dynasty. Image File history File links N. Nekrasov. ... Image File history File links N. Nekrasov. ... The Lutheran movement is a group of denominations of Protestant Christianity by the original definition. ... The Russo-Swedish War of 1590–1595 was instigated by Boris Godunov in the hope of recovering territory along the Gulf of Finland lost to Sweden during the previous Livonian War. ... Map of the Baltic Sea. ... Livonia (Latvian: Livonija; Estonian: Liivimaa; German: Livland; Swedish: Livland; Polish: Inflanty; Russian: Лифляндия or Lifljandija) once was the land of the Finnic Livonians, but came in the Middle Ages to designate a much broader territory controlled by the Livonian Order on the eastern coasts of the Baltic Sea in present-day...


Undoubtedly Boris was one of the greatest of the Russian tsars. But his great qualities were overshadowed by an incurable suspiciousness, which made it impossible for him to act cordially with those about him. His fear of possible pretenders induced him to go so far as to forbid the greatest of the boyars to marry. He also encouraged informers and persecuted suspects on their unsupported statements. The Romanov family especially suffered severely from this behaviour. He also declined the personal union proposed to him in 1600 by the diplomatic mission led by Lew Sapieha from the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. Boris died suddenly on April 13, 1605, leaving one son, Feodor II, who succeeded him for a few months and then was murdered by the enemies of the Godunovs. A personal union is a political union of two or more entities that, internationally, are considered separate states, but through established law, share the same head of state —hence also whatever political actions are vested in the head of state, but no (or very few) others. ... 1597 1598 1599 - 1600 - 1601 1602 1603 |- | align=center colspan=2 | Decades: 1570s 1580s 1590s - 1600s - 1610s 1620s 1630s |- | align=center | Centuries: 15th century - 16th century - 17th century |} // Events January January 1 - Scotland adopts January 1st as being New Years Day February February 17 - Giordano Bruno burned at the... Seal on the building of German Embassies. ... Lew Sapieha (1557-1633) (Lithuanian: Leu Sapega). ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... April 13 is the 103rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (104th in leap years). ... 1605 was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... Assassination of Feodor II (1862). ...

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Arts based on Boris Godunov

Boris's life was fictionalized by Alexander Pushkin in the famous play inspired by Shakespeare's Macbeth. Modest Mussorgsky based his great opera Boris Godunov upon Pushkin's play. Sergei Prokofiev later wrote incidental music to the play. His name was also the basis for that of the cartoon character Boris Badenov, the Pottsylvanian villain of The Rocky and Bullwinkle Show. Aleksandr Pushkin was a Russian poet and a founder of modern Russian literature Aleksandr Sergeyevich Pushkin (Russian: Алекса́ндр Серге́евич Пу́шкин) (June 6 (May 26, O.S... William Shakespeare—born April 1564; baptised April 26, 1564; died April 23, 1616 (O.S.), May 3, 1616 (N.S.)—has a reputation as the greatest of all writers in English. ... Scene from Macbeth, depicting the witches conjuring of an apparition in Act IV, Scene I. Painting by William Rimmer This article is on the play Macbeth by William Shakespeare. ... Modest Mussorgsky Modest Petrovich Mussorgsky (more accurately spelled Musorgsky) (Russian: , Modest Petrovič Musorgskij, French: ) (March 9/21, 1839 – March 16/28, 1881), one of the Russian composers known as the Five, was an innovator of Russian music. ... The Teatro alla Scala in Milan is one of the worlds most famous opera houses. ... Modest Mussorgsky in 1870 Boris Godunov (Russian: , Borís Godunóv) is an opera by Modest Mussorgsky. ... Sergei Sergeyevich Prokofiev (Russian: , Sergej Sergejevič Prokof’ev; 15/April 271, 1891–March 5, 1953) was a Russian composer who mastered numerous musical genres and came to be admired as one of the greatest composers of the 20th century. ... From left to right, Boris Badenov, Natasha Fatale, and Fearless Leader. ... Pottsylvania, in the fictional universe defined by Jay Wards The Rocky and Bullwinkle Show, was a country in Eastern Europe whose interests were generally understood to be hostile to those of the free world. The geography of Pottsylvania is indeterminate. ... Bullwinkle (left) and Rocky (right), the stars of Rocky and His Friends and The Bullwinkle Show. ...

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References

  • This article incorporates text from the Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition, a publication now in the public domain.
Preceded by:
Feodor I
Tsar of Russia
1598–1605
Succeeded by:
Feodor II
[edit]

Encyclopædia Britannica, the 11th edition The Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition (1910–1911) is perhaps the most famous edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica. ... The public domain comprises the body of all creative works and other knowledge—writing, artwork, music, science, inventions, and others—in which no person or organization has any proprietary interest. ... Feodor presents a golden chain to Boris Godunov. ... At different times, a ruler in Kievan Rus/Muscovy/Imperial Russia bore the title of Kniaz (translated as Duke or Prince), Velikiy Kniaz (translated as Grand Duke, Grand Prince or Great Prince), Tsar, Emperor. ... Assassination of Feodor II (1862). ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Boris Godunov - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1139 words)
Boris was the most famous member of an ancient, now extinct, Russian family of Tatar origin, which migrated from the Horde to Kostroma in the early 14th century.
In 1580 the Tsar chose Irene, the sister of Boris, to be the bride of the Tsarevich Feodor, on which occasion Boris was promoted to the rank of boyar.
Boris died suddenly on April 13, 1605, leaving one son, Feodor II, who succeeded him for a few months and then was murdered by the enemies of the Godunovs.
Godunov, Boris. The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. 2001-05 (261 words)
Boris was popularly believed to have ordered the murder (1591) of Feodor’s younger brother and heir, Dmitri, in order to secure the succession for himself.
Most important, Boris continued Ivan’s policy of strengthening the power of state officials and townspeople at the expense of the boyars.
Boris died, and his son, Feodor II, was unable to defend the throne against the false Dmitri.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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