FACTOID # 6: Michigan is ranked 22nd in land area, but since 41.27% of the state is composed of water, it jumps to 11th place in total area.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
RELATED ARTICLES
People who viewed "Border blaster" also viewed:
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Border blaster

A border blaster, in contrast to an international broadcast station, is a licensed commercial radio station that transmits at very high power to the United States of America from various Mexican cities near the border. These are also sometimes referred to as "X Stations" for their call letters: Mexican stations are assigned callsigns beginning with X, whereas American stations begin with the letters W or K. There are several such stations licensed by Mexico's Secretary of Communications and Transport (SCT) using transmitters with an output far in excess of licensed commercial stations located within the USA. In 1973 the border blaster XERB became world famous when George Lucas featured the station as the source for the musical soundtrack of his motion picture American Graffiti. International radio broadcasters are legally licensed stations that broadcast from a host nation to another nation or nations. ... A radio station is an audio (sound) broadcasting service, traditionally broadcast through the air as radio waves (a form of electromagnetic radiation) from a transmitter to an antenna and a thus to a receiving device. ... The international border between Mexico and the United States runs a total of 3,141 km (1,951 miles) from San Diego, California, and Tijuana, Baja California, in the west to Matamoros, Tamaulipas, and Brownsville, Texas, in the east. ... In radio (including television), a callsign or call sign (also call letters) is a unique designation for amateur, broadcast, and sometimes military radio use, as well as for broadcast television. ... XERB-AM are the call letters of a border-blaster radio station licensed to Bob Smith aka Wolfman Jack for the Tijuana / Rosarito area of Baja California, Mexico. ... George Walton Lucas, Jr. ... American Graffiti is a 1973 film directed by George Lucas. ...


On November 9, 1972 in Washington, D.C., the United States and Mexico signed an "Agreement concerning Frequency Modulation Broadcasting in the 87.5 to 108 MHz Band". Since then, in the FM band power levels and frequency assignments have been set by mutual agreement. AM radio border-blasters still exist, though they are largely ignored due to the decline of AM radio overall in the U.S. November 9 is the 313th day of the year (314th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 52 days remaining. ... 1972 (MCMLXXII) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... In most of the world, the FM broadcast band, used for broadcasting FM radio stations, goes from 87. ... AM broadcasting is radio broadcasting using Amplitude Modulation. ...

Contents

Background

In contrast to pirate radio stations, border blasters are licensed by the government upon whose soil they are or were located. Pirate radio stations are freebooters from offshore, outside the territorial waters of the nation they are trying to serve, or they are illegally operating in defiance of national law within its sovereign territory. The term pirate radio usually refers to illegal or unregulated radio broadcasting. ... Map of Sealand and the United Kingdom, with territorial water claims of 3nm and 12nm shown. ...


A similar situation developed in Europe, beginning with Radio Luxembourg after World War II. The British government identified these stations as pirates because the intended audience was in the British Isles. The broadcasts were considered illegal as these stations were breaking the monopoly of the non-commercial BBC. Listening to the broadcasts was technically a violation UK radio-license laws of the day. The same fr:radio périphérique, or "peripheric radio", phenomenon existed in France from the 1930s until the legalization of private broadcasting in the early 1980s, which allowed Radio Luxembourg from Luxembourg, fr:Radio Andorre and fr:Sud Radio from Andorra, fr:Radio Monte Carlo from Monaco, and fr:Europe 1 from Saarland, Germany to begin legally broadcasting signals across international borders. Radio Luxembourg (1933-1992, 2005-)was an important forerunner of pirate radio and modern commercial radio in Europe. ... Location of the British Isles The British Isles are a group of islands off the north west coast of continental Europe comprising Great Britain, Ireland and a number of smaller islands. ... The British Broadcasting Corporation, usually known as the BBC (and also informally known as the Beeb or Auntie) is the largest broadcasting corporation in the world in terms of audience numbers, employing 26,000 staff in the United Kingdom alone and with a budget of more than GB£4 billion... Radio Luxembourg (1933-1992, 2005-)was an important forerunner of pirate radio and modern commercial radio in Europe. ... Saarland is one of the 16 states of Germany. ...


In Mexico and the United States, while the federal government of the United States did not particularly like them, the stations were allowed to flourish. A Texas governor would even use the stations as a part of his election campaign. The U.S., unlike the UK, has never required a license to listen to broadcast radio or television, and the only restriction placed upon border-blasters was a law which prohibited studios in the U.S. from linking by telephone to border-blaster transmitters in Mexico. This law, part of the Brinkley Act, was introduced in the wake of John R. Brinkley's romance with fascism prior to World War II on XERA. The Brinkley Act is still on the books in the U.S., but licenses under that act are now routinely granted as long as the station follows applicable U.S. and Mexican regulations. The Brinkley Act is the popular name given to Section 325(b) of The Communications Act of 1934; United States Public Law 416, 73d Congress, June 19, 1934. ... John Romulus Brinkley (later John Richard Brinkley) was born on July 8, 1885 and died on May 26, 1942. ... Fascism is an authoritarian political ideology and mass movement that seeks to place the nation, defined in exclusive biological, cultural, and historical terms, above all other loyalties, and to create a mobilized national community. ... XERA (1935-1939) are the call letters of a famous border-blaster radio station licensed in September 1935 to Cia Mexicana Radiofusori Fronteriza in Villa Acuña, Coahuila, Mexico. ...


The British government created a similar measure after World War II, the state-owned telephone monopoly prevented studios in Britain from linking by telephone to the transmitters of Radio Luxembourg. These restrictions were mostly lifted following the privatisation and demonopolisation of the UK telephone system.


Signals of many U.S. and Canadian radio, and to a lesser extent television, stations cross over into neighboring territory. These stations are usually not considered "border blasters" as the programming is not primarily targeted at listeners and viewers on the other side of the border. U.S. and Canadian stations have always adhered to similar maximum power levels and the overspill is regarded as unintentional and largely unavoidable.


The mythology surrounding the history of the border blaster stations in Mexico is extensive and many conflicting reports have been written about them. The following geographical list shows where these stations are or were located. Where possible, multiple sourced references have been consulted, and will be cited in order to eliminate conflicting and error-driven reports.


Programming

Most border blaster stations today program Spanish-language programming targeted at the Mexican side of the border. Some of the Spanish language border blasters target the US side of the border, some target both.


As was the case between the 1930s and the 1970s, some border blaster stations in areas near larger American border cities such as San Diego are leased out by American broadcasting companies and air English-language programming targeting American audiences. The American side leases the station from the Mexican station owners/licence holders and feeds programming from their American studios to the Mexican transmitters via satellite.


Due to Mexican government regulations, these stations, like all radio stations in Mexico, must air es:La Hora Nacional a/k/a The Mexican National Hour on Sunday evenings (usually 8pm or 10pm, depending on where the station is located) and "Himno Nacional Mexicano" (The Mexican National Anthem) at 12 midnight and 5am. In addition, they must also give station identification in Spanish. This is usually done softly or during commercial breaks so the listeners on the American side won't usually notice it. The lyrics for the National Anthem of Mexico or Himno Nacional Mexicano (spanish), was written by Francisco González Bocanegra, and the music by Jaime Nunó. In 1853, President Antonio López de Santa Anna announced a competition to write a national anthem. ...


Geographical list of border blasters

Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ...

Baja California

Baja California (literally lower California in Spanish) is the northernmost state of Mexico. ...

Tijuana / Rosarito

  • XEPRS-AM: This is the radio station, formerly known as XERB, featured in the George Lucas movie American Graffiti starring Wolfman Jack as the disc jockey. He moved to this station following his work on XERF.
  • XETRA-FM
  • XETRA-AM
  • XEBC-AM
  • XEAK-AM
  • XELO-AM
  • XHITZ-FM
  • XHMORE-FM
  • XHOCL-FM
  • XHRM-FM

Tijuana (Spanish [tixwana], English usually [ˌtiːəˈwɑnə]), is the largest city in the Mexican state of Baja California and the seat of the municipality of Tijuana. ... Image:Rosarito. ... XEPRS-AM, known as XX Sports Radio (formerly the The Mighty 1090), is an American-operated sports talk radio station targeting English-speaking listeners in San Diego. ... XERB-AM are the call letters of a border-blaster radio station licensed to Bob Smith aka Wolfman Jack for the Tijuana / Rosarito area of Baja California, Mexico. ... George Walton Lucas, Jr. ... American Graffiti is a 1973 film directed by George Lucas. ... Robert Weston (Bob) Smith (21 January 1938 – 1 July 1995) became world famous in the 1960s and 1970s as a disc jockey using the stage name of Wolfman Jack. ... For other meanings of DJ, see DJ (disambiguation). ... The call letters XERF-AM are assigned to a licensed border-blaster radio station that was located in Villa Acuña (later renamed Ciudad Acuña) and that was operated under the laws of Mexico. ... XETRA-FM (or 91X) (sometimes identified as XTRA-FM) is an english language, mexican-owned (border blaster) alternative rock music station broadcasting from Tijuana, Baja California on 91. ... XETRA-AM are the call letters of a border-blaster radio station licensed to the Tijuana / Rosarito area of Baja California, Mexico, with additional studio facilities in Burbank, California. ... XEBC-AM are the call letters of a border-blaster radio station licensed to the Tijuana / Rosarito area of Baja California, Mexico. ... XEAK-AM were the call letters of a border-blaster radio station licensed to the Tijuana / Rosarito area of Baja California, Mexico, the Mighty 690. ... XELO-AM are the call letters of a border-blaster radio station licensed to the Tijuana / Rosarito area of Baja California, Mexico. ... XHITZ-FM (sometimes incorrectly identified as XHTZ) is a commercial Rhythmic Contemporary Hit Radio station in Tijuana, Baja California broadcasting on 90. ... XHMORE-FM (AKA XMOR-FM), also known as Blazin 98. ... XHOCL-FM is a Mexico-based radio station, currently programmed by Clear Channel Communications. ... XHRM (Magic 92. ...

Sonora

Sonora is a state in northwestern Mexico, bordering the states of Chihuahua to the east, Sinaloa to the south, and Baja California to the northwest. ...

Nogales

  • XELO-AM
  • XHSN-FM A top 40/ reggaeton mix station that features songs in both English and Spanish. The signal can be picked up as far away as Tucson.

Mural on the Nogales, Sonora side of the US-Mexico border. ... XELO-AM are the call letters of a border-blaster radio station licensed to the Tijuana / Rosarito area of Baja California, Mexico. ... Nickname: The Old Pueblo Location in Pima County and the state of Arizona Coordinates: Country United States State Arizona Counties Pima Government  - Mayor Bob Walkup (R) Area  - City  195. ...

Chihuahua

For other uses, see Chihuahua (disambiguation). ...

Ciudad Juárez

  • XEROK-AM
  • XEJ-AM

La Catedral in downtown Ciudad Juárez Ciudad Juárez, or simply Juárez, is a city in the Mexican state of Chihuahua with an estimated population of 1,512,354. ... XEROK-AM is an AM (mediumwave) radio station that is a Mexican border-blaster licensed to operate at a power of 150 kW (150,000 watts) on a carrier frequency of 800 kilohertz from Ciudad Juárez, Chihuahua. ...

Coahuila

Coahuila (formal name: Coahuila de Zaragoza) is one of Mexicos 31 component states. ...

Ciudad Acuña

  • XER: "Sunshine Station between the Nations" broadcasting on AM at 735 kcs. This was the original station licensed to Dr. John R. Brinkley in Mexico as the Villa Acuña Broadcasting Company. It first signed on August 18, 1932 with a 50 kW transmitter and claimed 75 kW erp via an omindirectional antenna. The engineering was by Will Branch of Fort Worth who had engineered WBAP for Amon Carter, owner of the Fort Worth Star-Telegram. It was shut down by the Mexican authorities on February 24, 1933 and the Villa Acuña Broadcasting Company was dissolved.
  • XERA: In September 1935, which was twenty months after XER was forced off the air, Dr. Brinkley gained a new license for Villa Acuña from the Government of Mexico with new call letters of XERA. His new operating company was Cia Mexicana Radiofusori Fronteriza and the station came on the air from the same location as the old XER but with a directional antenna. His new transmitter power was 500 kW., but with his new antenna he claimed an output of 1 megawatt. XERA called itself "the world's most powerful broadcasting station" and Variety magazine claimed that it could be heard in New York City. Following the signing of various treaties, the Government of Mexico revoked the license of XERA in the closing days of 1939.
  • XERF-AM: from 1947. The station that made Wolfman Jack world famous for his disc jockey and sales presentations between 1962 and 1964. This station came on the air long after the era of both XERA and Dr. Brinkley, but it initially used his old facilities although the powerful transmitter of XERA had been dismantled and shipped elsewhere. The station later moved to a new building where a 250-kilowatt RCA main transmitter was installed.

Ciudad Acuña, also known simply as Acuña, (originally Garza Galán, later Villa Acuña) is a city located in the Mexican state of Coahuila, at and a mean height above sea level of 280 metres. ... XER (1932-1933) are the call letters of a famous border-blaster radio station licensed to Villa Acuña, Coahuila, Mexico upon license appliction of Dr. John R. Brinkley of Kansas. ... [[Amplitude modulation]] (AM) is a technique used in electronic communication, most commonly for transmitting information via a carrier wave wirelessly. ... John Romulus Brinkley (later John Richard Brinkley) was born on July 8, 1885 and died on May 26, 1942. ... August 18 is the 230th day of the year (231st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1932 (MCMXXXII) was a leap year starting on Friday (the link will take you to a full 1932 calendar). ... Fort Worth is the sixth-largest city in the state of Texas, located about 30 miles west of Dallas on the West Fork Trinity River and forming part of the Dallas/Fort Worth Metroplex. ... WBAP is an AM radio station in the Dallas Fort Worth Metroplex following a talk format. ... Amon G. Carter, Sr. ... February 24 is the 55th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... Year 1933 (MCMXXXIII) was a common year starting on Sunday. ... XERA (1935-1939) are the call letters of a famous border-blaster radio station licensed in September 1935 to Cia Mexicana Radiofusori Fronteriza in Villa Acuña, Coahuila, Mexico. ... Variety is a daily magazine for the entertainment industry. ... The call letters XERF-AM are assigned to a licensed border-blaster radio station that was located in Villa Acuña (later renamed Ciudad Acuña) and that was operated under the laws of Mexico. ... Robert Weston (Bob) Smith (21 January 1938 – 1 July 1995) became world famous in the 1960s and 1970s as a disc jockey using the stage name of Wolfman Jack. ... For other meanings of DJ, see DJ (disambiguation). ... RCAs logo as seen today on many products. ...

Piedras Negras

  • XEPN-AM was sister station to XER/XERA, and was also controlled by Dr. John Brinkley.
  • XELO-AM

Piedras Negras is a city in Coahuila, Mexico, located at . ... XEPN-AM are the call letters of a border-blaster radio station licensed to Piedras Negras, Coahuila, Mexico. ... XELO-AM are the call letters of a border-blaster radio station licensed to the Tijuana / Rosarito area of Baja California, Mexico. ...

Nuevo León

Nuevo León (Spanish for New León, after the former kingdom in Spain) is a state located in north-eastern Mexico. ...

Monterrey

  • XEG-AM: In 1950 the advertising time of this station came under the control of Harold Schwartz of Chicago, who also came to represent XERB near Tijuana/Rosarito (the station made famous in the movie American Graffiti.)
  • XET-AM

Nickname: The City of the Mountains Motto: El Trabajo templa el Espíritu Location of Monterrey in northern Mexico Coordinates: Country Mexico State Nuevo León Founded 20 September 1596 Government  - Mayor Adalberto Madero (PAN) Area  - City 572 km²  (220. ... XEG-AM are the call letters of a famous border-blaster radio station licensed to Monterrey, Nuevo León, Mexico. ... Nickname: The Windy City, The Second City, Chi Town, City of the Big Shoulders, The 312, The City that Works Motto: Urbs In Horto (Latin: City in a Garden), I Will Location in Chicagoland and Illinois Coordinates: Country United States State Illinois County Cook & DuPage Incorporated March 4, 1837 Government... American Graffiti is a 1973 film directed by George Lucas. ... XET-AM are the call letters of a border-blaster radio station licensed to Monterrey, Nuevo León, Mexico. ...

Tamaulipas

Tamaulipas is a state in the northeast of Mexico. ...

Nuevo Laredo

  • XENT-AM: Operated by Norman G. Baker from 1933 until forced off the air in 1940; "The Calliaphone Station" (for an air-operated calliope invented by Baker) promoted a cancer-cure clinic of Baker's, essentially continuing his former station KTNT ("Know The Naked Truth") of Muscatine, Iowa, as was forced off the air in 1932. Brochures for the clinic urged patients to "phone 666 upon arrival in Laredo," attracting many complaints to the American Medical Association as invoked reference to Revelation 13:18, citing 666 as the Mark of the Beast.
  • XEXO-AM
  • XED-AM

Nuevo Laredo, Tamaulipas, Mexico is a city in the Mexican state of Tamaulipas. ... XENT-AM are the call letters of a border-blaster radio station licensed to Nuevo Laredo, Tamaulipas, Mexico. ... Muscatine is a city located in Muscatine County, Iowa. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... XEXO-AM are the call letters of a border-blaster radio station licensed to Nuevo Laredo, Tamaulipas, Mexico. ... XED-AM are the call letters of perhaps the first radio station in Mexico to be considered a border-blaster. ...

Reynosa

  • XED-AM: The first radio station in Mexico to be considered a border-blaster. XED was originally located at Reynosa, Tamaulipas, and was under the advertising sales management of the International Broadcasting Company. Located across the Rio Grande (El Río Bravo del Norte) from McAllen, Texas, the station broadcast with a power of 10 kilowatts that was the most powerful transmitter in Mexico at that time.
  • XEAW-AM: Another station that came under the management control of Dr. John R. Brinkley. (See XER and XERA.)

Reynosa is a primarily industrial city in the Mexican state of Tamaulipas. ... XED-AM are the call letters of perhaps the first radio station in Mexico to be considered a border-blaster. ... XEAW-AM are the call letters of a border-blaster radio station located in Reynosa, Tamaulipas, Mexico, across the Rio Grande (Río Bravo) from McAllen, Texas, USA. In the 1930s the station came under the control of Dr. John R. Brinkley who became famous for both his controversial treatments...

Tampico

  • XEFW-AM

Tampico bridge (finished in October 1988) links the states of Tamaulipas and Veracruz and is a major element in the Gulf of Mexico highway system. ... XEFW-AM are the call letters of a border-blaster radio station licensed to Tampico, Tamaulipas, Mexico. ...

Trivia

Border blasters were celebrated in the song "Heard it on the X" from the album "Fandango!" by Texas blues rock band ZZ Top and in the song "Mexican Radio" by Wall of Voodoo. Fandango! is the fourth album by American blues-rock band ZZ Top, released in 1975 (see 1975 in music). ... ZZ Top is an American blues rock band formed in 1969 in Houston, Texas. ... Mexican Radio is a novelty song by the band Wall of Voodoo. ... Wall of Voodoo is a New Wave art - punk group from Los Angeles best known for the 1983 hit Mexican Radio. ...


See also

  • Pirate radio – An explanation of how one nation can license a station that another nation regards as a "pirate radio" signal. The traditional interpretation of "pirate radio" is where a station operates without a license from on land and within a sovereign nation in defiance of its broadcasting laws; or from offshore without a license (other than permission of the ship or marine structure registry) from outside of the territorial waters of a sovereign nation, but directing its broadcasting signals into that nation. Radio Luxembourg was regarded as a "pirate" station even though it broadcast with a license issued by the government of Luxembourg. The United States never branded the border blasters along its international frontier with Mexico as pirates, but it did regard them as a problem which it attempted to resolve in part by the introduction of the Brinkley Act. The United Kingdom adopted the same response with regards to Radio Luxembourg.
  • List of clandestine radio broadcasters – These stations attempt to promote social or political change by using secretly located transmitters. These stations are different from international broadcasting services because they are illegally operated, and they are different from traditional "pirate" stations because their operations are both political and secretive.

International radio broadcasters are legally licensed stations that broadcast from a host nation to another nation or nations. ... International television broadcasters broadcast from a host nation to another nation or nations. ... The BBC World Service is one of the most widely recognised international broadcasters of radio programming, transmitting in 33 languages to many parts of the world. ... The Voice of America (VOA) is the official international broadcasting service of the Government of the United States. ... International religious radio broadcasters broadcast from a host nation to another nation or nations in order to deliver a religious message which either cannot be delivered by stations located within the target area. ... International religious television broadcasters broadcast from a host nation to another nation or nations. ... Dr. w. ... Trans World Radio (TWR) is a multinational evangelistic broadcaster. ... A missionary is traditionally defined as a propagator of religion who works to convert those outside that community; someone who proselytizes. ... Monte Carlo is a very wealthy section of the city-state of Monaco known for its casino, gambling, beaches, glamour, and sightings of famous people. ... The term pirate radio usually refers to illegal or unregulated radio broadcasting. ... Map of Sealand and the United Kingdom, with territorial water claims of 3nm and 12nm shown. ... Sovereignty is the exclusive right to exercise supreme authority over a geographic region or group of people, such as a nation or a tribe. ... Radio Luxembourg (1933-1992, 2005-)was an important forerunner of pirate radio and modern commercial radio in Europe. ... The Brinkley Act is the popular name given to Section 325(b) of The Communications Act of 1934; United States Public Law 416, 73d Congress, June 19, 1934. ...

External links

References

  • "Border Radio" by Fowler, Gene and Crawford, Bill. Texas Monthly Press, Austin. 1987 ISBN 0-87719-066-6
  • Mass Media Moments in the United Kingdom, the USSR and the USA, by Gilder, Eric. – "Lucian Blaga" University of Sibiu Press, Romania. 2003 ISBN 973-651-596-6
  • "Agreement Between the Government of the United States of America and the Government of the United Mexican States Relating to the FM Broadcasting Services in the Band 88-108 MHz", dated August 11, 1992. This agreement implies the existence of an earlier agreement, dated November 9, 1972. (Article 10) Link to Texts of Broadcast Agreements with Mexico

  Results from FactBites:
 
Border blaster - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1540 words)
A border blaster, in contrast to an international broadcast station, was a licensed commercial radio station that transmitted at very high power to the United States of America from various Mexican cities near the border.
In 1973 the border blaster XERB became world famous when George Lucas featured the station as the source for the musical soundtrack of his motion picture American Graffiti.
The United States never branded the border blasters along its international frontier with Mexico as pirates, but it did regard them as a problem which it attempted to resolve in part by the introduction of the Brinkley Act.
THE BLASTERS (3919 words)
The Blasters and their entourage are some of the nicest people in the world, so don't hesitate to approach them at the shows to say hello or to ask for an autograph.
All the Blasters are giving their all to these shows, but Dave really has the fire in his playing and its a great thrill to watch him.
The situation was that the Blasters have had a chair in the stage with a saxophone, Lee's picture, and his favorite bottle of liquor as a tribute to his memory.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m