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Encyclopedia > Bordeaux wine
Bordeaux with sub-wine regions
Bordeaux with sub-wine regions

A Bordeaux wine is any wine produced in the Bordeaux region of France. Over 700 million bottles of Bordeaux wine are produced every year, ranging from large quantities of everyday table wine, to the most expensive and prestigious wines in the world. Bordeaux wine is made in 9,000 wineries called châteaux from the grapes of 13,000 grape growers. There are 57 appellations of Bordeaux wine. Image File history File links Mergefrom. ... The garagistes refers to a group of innovative winemakers in Bordeaux. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 687 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (861 × 751 pixel, file size: 273 KB, MIME type: image/png) (All user names refer to de. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 687 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (861 × 751 pixel, file size: 273 KB, MIME type: image/png) (All user names refer to de. ... For other uses, see Wine (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Bordeaux (disambiguation). ... In the United States, table wine is used as a legal definition to differentiate standard wine from stronger (higher alcohol content) fortified wine or sparkling wine[1]. In the European Union it is meant to designate the lowest quality level of wine produced, one that qualifies for neither an appellation... Château de Chenonceau in the Loire valley, France A rural château in France. ... Appellation d’origine contrôlée (AOC), which translates as term of controlled origin is the French certification granted to certain French geographical indications for wines, cheeses, butters, and other agricultural products, all under the auspices of the government bureau Institut National des Appellations dOrigine (INAO). ...

Contents

Climate and geography

The Bordeaux region of France is the second largest wine-growing area in the world with 284,320 acres under vine. Only the Languedoc wine region with 617,750 acres under vine is larger.[1]. Located halfway between the North pole and the equator, there is more vineyard land planted in Bordeaux than in all of Germany and ten times the amount planted in New Zealand.[2] Languedoc wine (typically labeled vin de pays dOc) is produced in the Languedoc region of south-west France bordering Spain to the west and the Mediterranean Sea to the south. ... For other uses, see North Pole (disambiguation). ... World map showing the equator in red In tourist areas, the equator is often marked on the sides of roads The equator marked as it crosses Ilhéu das Rolas, in São Tomé and Príncipe. ...


The major reason for the success of winemaking in the Bordeaux region is the excellent environment for growing vines. The geological foundation of the region is limestone, leading to a soil structure that is heavy in calcium. The Gironde estuary dominates the regions along with its tributaries, the Garonne and the Dordogne rivers, and together irrigate the land and provide a maritime climate for the region.[2] The Gironde is a navigable estuary, but often referred to as a river, in southwest France. ... A tributary (or affluent or confluent) is a contributory stream, a river that does not reach the sea, but joins another major river (a parent river), to which it contributes its waters, swelling its discharge. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Dordogne (Occitan: Dordonha) is a department in central France named after the Dordogne River. ... An oceanic climate (also called marine west coast climate and maritime climate) is the climate typically found along the west coasts at the middle latitudes of all the worlds continents, and in southeastern Australia; similar climates are also found at high elevations within the tropics. ...


In Bordeaux the concept of terroir plays a pivotal role in wine production with the top estates aiming to make terroir driven wines that reflect the place they are from, often from grapes collected from a single vineyard. [3] The soil of Bordeaux is composed of gravel, sandy stone, and clay. The region's best vineyards are located on the well drained gravel soils that are frequently found near the Gironde river. An old adage in Bordeaux is the best estates can "see the river" from their vineyard and majority of land that face riverside are occupied by classified estates.[4] Terroir was originally a French term in wine and coffee appreciation used to denote the special characteristics of geography that bestowed individuality upon the food product. ... Gravel (largest fragment in this photo is about 4 cm) Gravel is rock that is of a certain particle size range. ... For other uses, see Sand (disambiguation). ... An adage (IPA ), or adagium (Latin), is a short, but memorable saying, which holds some important fact of experience that is considered true by many people, or it has gained some credibility through its long use. ... For the 1855 Exposition Universelle de Paris, Emperor Napoleon III requested a classification system for Frances best Bordeaux wines which were to be on display for visitors from around the world. ...


Grapes

Cabernet Sauvignon vines in the Medoc
Cabernet Sauvignon vines in the Medoc

Red Bordeaux, which is traditionally known as claret in the United Kingdom, is generally made from a blend of grapes. Permitted grapes are Cabernet Sauvignon, Cabernet Franc, Merlot, Petit Verdot, Malbec, and Carmenere. Today Malbec is very seldom used, and Carmenere is used in tiny quantities. An example of a famous château that uses Carmenere is Château Clerc Milon, a fifth growth Bordeaux. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 789 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (992 × 754 pixel, file size: 347 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Bordeaux wine Metadata This file contains... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 789 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (992 × 754 pixel, file size: 347 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Bordeaux wine Metadata This file contains... Claret is a name used in English for red wine from the Bordeaux region of France, along the valleys of the rivers Gironde, Garonne and Dordogne, including Medoc, Graves and St Emilion. ... Old vine Cabernet Sauvignon at Chateau Montelena in Napa Valley. ... Cabernet Franc is a red wine grape variety similar to and a parent of Cabernet Sauvignon. ... Merlot grapes on the vine. ... Petit verdot is a variety of red wine grape, principally in classic Bordeaux blends. ... Malbec is a black, mellow grape variety originally grown in France, in the Loire Valley and Cahors. ... The Carmenere grape is a wine grape variety originally planted in the Médoc region of Bordeaux, France where it is used to produce deep red wines occasionally used for blending purposes in the same manner as Petit Verdot. ...


As a very broad generalization, Cabernet Sauvignon dominates the blend in red wines produced in the Médoc and the rest of the left bank of the Gironde estuary. Merlot and to a lesser extent Cabernet Franc tend to predominate in Saint Emilion, Pomerol and the other right bank appellations. [citation needed] Old vine Cabernet Sauvignon at Chateau Montelena in Napa Valley. ... The Gironde is a navigable estuary, but often referred to as a river, in southwest France. ... Merlot grapes on the vine. ... Cabernet Franc is a red wine grape variety similar to and a parent of Cabernet Sauvignon. ... Saint- milion is a small town near Bordeaux, France that is famous for the eponymous wine region that surrounds it. ... Pomerol is a village and wine growing region (AOC) in France. ...


White Bordeaux is predominantly, and exclusively in the case of the sweet Sauternes, made from Sémillon, Sauvignon Blanc and Muscadelle. As with the reds, white Bordeaux wines are usually blends, most commonly of Sémillon and a smaller proportion of Sauvignon Blanc. Other permitted grape varieties are Ugni Blanc, Colombard, Merlot Blanc, Ondenc and Mauzac. Sauternes is a commune of the Gironde département in France. ... Sémillon is a golden-skinned grape used to make dry and sweet white wines, most notably in France and Australia. ... Sauvignon blanc is a green-skinned grape variety which originates from the Bordeaux region of France. ... Muscadelle is a white wine grape. ... Trebbiano is a white grape used to make white wine, and the most common white grape variety in Italy, accounting for around a third of all Italys white wine. ... Colombard is a variety of wine grape, better known as French Colombard in North America. ... Mauzac is a minor grape variety mainly grown in the Gaillac region southeast of Bordeaux in France. ...


In the late 1960s Sémillon was the most planted grape in Bordeaux. Since then it has been in constant decline although it still is the most common of Bordeaux's white grapes. Sauvignon Blanc's popularity on the other hand has been rising, overtaking Ugni Blanc as the second most planted white Bordeaux grape in the late 1980s and now being grown in an area more than half the size of that of the lower yielding Sémillon.


Wineries all over the world aspire to making wines in a Bordeaux style. In 1988, a group of American vintners formed The Meritage Association to identify wines made in this way. Although most Meritage wines come from California, there are members of the Meritage Association in 18 states and five other countries, including Argentina, Australia, Canada, Israel, and Mexico. Meritage is a word used to distinguish wines that are made in the style of Bordeaux but without infringing on that regions legally protected appellation. ...


Wine regions and classification

The Bordeaux wine region is divided into subregions including Saint-Émilion, Pomerol, Médoc, and Graves. In 1855 a classification system was made at the request of Emperor Napoleon III for the Exposition Universelle de Paris. This came to be known as The Bordeaux Wine Official Classification of 1855, which ranked the wines into five categories according to price. The first growth red wines (four from Médoc and one, Château Haut-Brion, from Graves), are among the most expensive wines in the world. Bordeaux and sub regions The wine regions of Bordeaux are the area around the city of Bordeaux within the Gironde department of Aquitaine. ... For the 1855 Exposition Universelle de Paris, Emperor Napoleon III requested a classification system for Frances best Bordeaux wines which were to be on display for visitors from around the world. ... The following is a list of regions where wine grapes are grown and wine is made from them. ... Saint Emilion Saint-Émilion is a small town near Bordeaux, France that is famous for the eponymous wine region that surrounds it. ... Pomerol is a village and wine growing region (AOC) in France. ... The Médoc is one of the most famous of the French wine-growing regions, consisting of the region in the département of Gironde, on the left bank of the Gironde estuary, north of Bordeaux. ... This article is about the wine region of Bordeaux. ... Charles Louis Napoléon Bonaparte (April 20, 1808 - January 9, 1873) was the son of King Louis Bonaparte and Queen Hortense de Beauharnais; both monarchs of the French puppet state, the Kingdom of Holland. ... Images of the Palais dIndustrie The Exposition Universelle of 1855 was a Worlds Fair held in Paris, France. ... For the 1855 Exposition Universelle de Paris, Emperor Napoleon III requested a classification system for Frances best Bordeaux wines which were to be on display for visitors from around the world. ... First Growth (French Premier Cru) status refers to the greatest wines of the Bordeaux region. ...


The first growths are:

In 1955, St. Émilion AOC were classified, adding an additional two Premier Crus (Class A):[citation needed] Château Lafite-Rothschild Lafite-Rothschild label from the 1999 vintage Château Lafite Rothschild is a winery in France currently owned by members of the Rothschild banking family of France. ... The vineyard of Château Margaux stands as the producer of one of the worlds greatest and most sought-after red wines. ... Château Latour label Tower at Château Latour In most appraisals of the wine-growing world, the five First Growth Châteaux of the famous 1855 Bordeaux Classification are placed among the very best in the world. ... Château Haut-Brion is a First Growth in the Bordeaux Wine Official Classification of 1855. ... Château Mouton Rothschild, located 50 km (30 mi) north-west of the city of Bordeaux, France in an area known as the Médoc, specifically the village of Pauillac. ...

There is no official classification applied to Pomerol. However some Pomerol wines, notably Château Pétrus and Château Le Pin, are unofficially rated as being equivalent to the first growths, and often sell for even higher prices. Château Ausone is a winery in Saint-Émilion in the Bordeaux region of France. ... Château Cheval Blanc Château Cheval Blanc, is a winery in Saint-Émilion in the Bordeaux region of France. ... Pomerol is a village and wine growing region (AOC) in France. ... Pétrus is a wine of the Pomerol wine region in Bordeaux. ...


History

Map of the French provinces (including Bordeaux) assimilated by the Plantagenet-Aquitaine union
Map of the French provinces (including Bordeaux) assimilated by the Plantagenet-Aquitaine union

The history of wine production seems to have begun sometime after 48 AD, during the Roman occupation of St. Émilion, when the Romans established vineyards to cultivate wine for the soldiers.[5] However, it is only in 71 AD that Pliny recorded the first real evidence of vineyards in Bordeaux.[6] France's first extensive vineyards were established by Rome in around 122 BC in today's Languedoc, the better part of two hundred years earlier.[7] The history of Bordeaux wine spans almost 2000 years to Roman times when the first vineyards were planted. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (968x1541, 497 KB) Summary From University of Texas web site. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (968x1541, 497 KB) Summary From University of Texas web site. ... Monolithic church of Saint-Émilion and its bell tower Saint-Émilion is a small town near Bordeaux, France that is known for the eponymous wine region that surrounds it. ... For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... Pliny the Elder: an imaginative 19th Century portrait. ...


Although domestically popular, French wine was seldom exported, as the areas covered by vineyards and the volume of wine produced was low. In the 12th century however, the popularity of Bordeaux wines increased dramatically following the marriage of Henry Plantagenet and Aliénor d’Aquitaine[8]. The marriage made the province of Aquitaine English territory, and thenceforth the majority of Bordeaux was then exported[8]. This accounts for the ubiquity of claret in England. Henry II of England 5 March 1133 – 6 July 1189) ruled as King of England (1154–1189), Count of Anjou, Duke of Normandy, Duke of Aquitaine, Duke of Gascony, Count of Nantes, Lord of Ireland and, at various times, controlled parts of Wales, Scotland and western France. ... Eleanor of Aquitaine For other Eleanors of England, see Eleanor of England (disambiguation) Eleanor of Aquitaine (1122[1] – March 31, 1204) was one of the wealthiest and most powerful women in Europe during the High Middle Ages. ... Claret is a name used in English for red wine from the Bordeaux region of France, along the valleys of the rivers Gironde, Garonne and Dordogne, including Medoc, Graves and St Emilion. ...


As the popularity of Bordeaux wine increased, the vineyards expanded to accommodate the demands from abroad. Being the land tax beneficiary, Henry II was in favor of this industry, and to increase it further, abolished export taxes to England from the Aquitaine region. In the 13th and 14th century, a code of business practices called the police des vins emerged to give Bordeaux wine a distinct trade advantage over its neighboring regions.[9] A common vineyard. ... The police des vins were a set of codes and business practices set up in the 13th and 14th century that govern the wine trade within the region of Bordeaux and the use of its port by neighboring areas. ...


The export of Bordeaux was effectively halted by the outbreak of The Hundred Years' War between France and England in 1337[8]. By the end of the conflict in 1453 France had repossessed the province, thus taking control of wine production in the region[8]. Combatants France Castile Scotland Genoa Majorca Bohemia Crown of Aragon Brittany England Burgundy Brittany Portugal Navarre Flanders Hainaut Aquitaine Luxembourg Holy Roman Empire The Hundred Years War was a conflict between France and England, lasting 116 years from 1337 to 1453. ...


In 1725, the spread of vineyards throughout Bordeaux was so vast that it was divided into specific areas so that the consumer could tell exactly where each wine was from. The collection of districts was known as the Vignoble de Bordeaux, and bottles were labeled with both the region and the area from which they originated. This article needs a complete rewrite for the reasons listed on the talk page. ...


From 1875-1892 almost all Bordeaux vineyards were ruined by Phylloxera infestations[8]. The region's wine industry was rescued by grafting native vines on to pest-resistant American rootstock[8]. All Bordeaux vines that survive to this day are a product of this action[8]. This is not to say that all contemporary Bordeaux wines are truly American wines, as rootstock does not affect the production of grapes. Grape Phylloxera (Daktulosphaira vitifoliae, family Phylloxeridae, superfamily Aphidoidea) is a serious pest of commercial grapevines worldwide, originally native to eastern North America. ... Grafted apple tree Malus sp. ... Grafting is a method of plant propagation by which one woody plant is mechanically attached to another so that the two eventually fuse together. ... In the United States wine is produced commercially in all fifty states, although the majority of wine is produced in California. ...


Due to the lucrative nature of this business, other areas in France began growing their own wines and labeling them as Bordeaux products. As profits in the Aquitaine region declined, the vignerons demanded that the government impose a law declaring that only produce from Bordeaux could be labeled with that name. The INAO or Institut National des Appellations d'Origine was created for this purpose[8]. (Region flag) (Region logo) Location Administration Capital Regional President Departments Dordogne Gironde Landes Lot-et-Garonne Pyrénées-Atlantiques Arrondissements 18 Cantons 235 Communes 2,296 Statistics Land area1 41,308 km² Population (Ranked 6th)  - January 1, 2006 est. ... The Institut National des Appellations dOrigine is the France organization charged with regulating controlled place names. ... The Institut National des Appellations dOrigine is the French organization charged with regulating controlled place names. ...


In 1936, the government responded to the appeals from the winemakers and stated that all regions in France had to name their wines by the place in which they had been produced. Labeled with the AOC approved stamp, products were officially confirmed to be from the region that it stated. This law later extended to other goods such as cheese, poultry and vegetables[8]. Appellation d’origine contrôlée (AOC), which translates as term of controlled origin is the French certification granted to certain French geographical indications for wines, cheeses, butters, and other agricultural products, all under the auspices of the government bureau Institut National des Appellations dOrigine (INAO). ...


Problems and prospects

Despite its worldwide reputation for producing premium wines - according to Forbes.com, a bottle of Château Margaux 1787 holds the record as the most expensive bottle of wine ever broken, insured at $225,000 - the large number of vignerons and producers in Bordeaux means that quality is highly variable. The area is also susceptible to climate changes and during unfavorable seasons where the Cabernet Sauvignon grapes don't fully ripen, Bordeauxs will have difficulties in comparison to some of the fuller ripening New World Cabernets. [10] Image File history File links Mergefrom. ... Plan Bordeaux is an initiative introduced in 2005 by Onivins, the French vintners association, designed to reduce Frances wine glut and improve sales. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The vineyard of Château Margaux stands as the producer of one of the worlds greatest and most sought-after red wines. ... New World wines are those wines produced outside the traditional wine-growing areas of Europe and North Africa. ...


While the most exclusive wines sell for increasingly high prices, the Bordeaux wine industry as a whole is facing problems. Consumption of wine in France has been declining, New World wines present strong competition in major export markets, increasing consumer preference for brand names and varietal labels create marketing challenges, high production costs reduce competitiveness, along with other problems have created economic difficulties. [citation needed]


France has an unsurpassed wine infrastructure, a long tradition of making wine, and a strong international reputation. Proposals such as Plan Bordeaux and actions such as vine pull schemes are designed to build on the region's strengths and bring about a return to prosperity. [citation needed] Plan Bordeaux is an initiative introduced in 2005 by Onivins, the French vintners association, designed to reduce Frances wine glut and improve sales. ... Vine pull schemes are programs whereby grape growers receive a financial incentive to pull up their grape vines, a process known as arrachage in French. ...


Wine style

The vast majority of Bordeaux wine is red, with red wine production out numbering white wine production six to one. [10] But Bordeaux also produces dry white wines, sweet white Sauternes, rosé wines and even the sparkling Crémant de Bordeaux. A half bottle of Sauternes from Château dYquem Sauternes is a type of dessert wine made from Sémillon, Sauvignon Blanc, and Muscadelle grapes that have been affected by Botrytis cinerea, also known as noble rot. ... Crémant is the French name for sparkling wine made in that country outside the region of Champagne. ...


Wine label

A wine label from Château Haut-Batailley.

Bordeaux wine labels generally include [11]-
Image File history File links Size of this preview: 591 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (662 × 671 pixel, file size: 71 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Château Haut-Batailley 2000 label I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 591 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (662 × 671 pixel, file size: 71 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Château Haut-Batailley 2000 label I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Château Haut-Batailley 2000 Château Haut-Batailley is a winery in the Pauillac appellation of the Bordeaux region of France. ... This article needs a complete rewrite for the reasons listed on the talk page. ...

  1. The name of estate -(Image example: Château Haut-Batailley)
  2. The estate's classification -(Image example: Grand Cru Classé en 1855) This can be in reference to the 1855 Bordeaux classification or one of the Cru Bourgeois.
  3. The appellation -(Image example: Pauillac) Appellation d'origine contrôlée laws dictate that all grapes must be harvested from a particular appellation in order for that appellation to appear on the label. The appellation is a key indicator of the type of wine in the bottle. With the image example, Pauillac wines are always red, and usually Cabernet Sauvignon is the dominant grape.
  4. Whether or not the wine is bottled at the chateau (Image example: Mis en Bouteille au Chateau) or assembled by a Négociant.
  5. The vintage -(Image example: 2000)
  6. Alcohol content - (Image example: 13% vol)

The Cru Bourgeois classification lists some of the high quality wines from the Bordeaux region of France that were not included in the 1855 Classification of Classed Growths, or Grand Crus Classés. Since the classification of Classed Growths has only had one change since 1855, it is now generally... Appellation d’origine contrôlée (AOC), which translates as term of controlled origin is the French certification granted to certain French geographical indications for wines, cheeses, butters, and other agricultural products, all under the auspices of the government bureau Institut National des Appellations dOrigine (INAO). ... An appellation in its broadest sense is a name or designation. ... A négociant is a wine merchant who assembles the produce of smaller growers and winemakers and sells the result under its own name. ...

See also

Comité régional daction viticole (CRAV, Regional Committee of Wine Action), is a French group of radical wine producers. ... The garagistes refers to a group of innovative winemakers in Bordeaux. ... The globalization of wine is largely a post-1976 phenomenon. ... Jacques Hemmer is a Bordeaux wine shipper who was caught in 2002 blending inferior wines from southern France into much more expensive Bordeaux wines. ... Until 1976, France was generally regarded as having an unchallenged reputation as the foremost producer of the worlds best wines. ...

External links

References

  1. ^ Jancis Robinson, "Oxford Companion to Wine", Second Edition pg 397. Oxford University Press 1999
  2. ^ a b K. MacNeil The Wine Bible pg 118 Workman Publishing 2001 ISBN 1563054345
  3. ^ K. MacNeil The Wine Bible pg 120 Workman Publishing 2001 ISBN 1563054345
  4. ^ K. MacNeil The Wine Bible pg 122 Workman Publishing 2001 ISBN 1563054345
  5. ^ Hugh Johnson, Vintage: The Story of Wine pg 50. Simon and Schuster 1989
  6. ^ Hugh Johnson, Vintage: The Story of Wine pg 50. Simon and Schuster 1989
  7. ^ Hugh Johnson, Vintage: The Story of Wine pg 48. Simon and Schuster 1989
  8. ^ a b c d e f g h i Official Bordeaux website (April 18, 2007).
  9. ^ Hugh Johnson, Vintage: The Story of Wine pg 149. Simon and Schuster 1989
  10. ^ a b H. Johnson & J. Robinson The World Atlas of Wine pg 82 Mitchell Beazley Publishing 2005 ISBN 1840003324
  11. ^ B. Sanderson "A Master Class in Cabernet" pg 62 Wine Spectator May 15, 2007

Further reading

  • Echikson, William. Noble Rot: A Bordeaux Wine Revolution. NY: Norton, 2004.
  • EU Attacking French AOC System. Chez Mistral [1]
  • Teichgraeber. Bordeaux for less dough. San Francisco chronicle, June 8, 2006 [2]

For other uses, see Wine (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Wine (disambiguation). ... For the song by The Feeling, see Rosé (song). ... A glass of sparkling wine A Sparkling wine cork It has been suggested that Spumante, Frizzante, Sekt and Cremant be merged into this article or section. ... Dessert wines (or pudding wines) are sweet wines typically served with dessert, such as Sauternes and Tokaji Aszú. Despite the name, they are often best appreciated alone, or with fruit or bakery sweets. ... A fortified wine is a wine to which additional alcohol has been added, most commonly in the form of brandy (a spirit distilled from wine). ... Fruit wines are wine-like beverages made from fruits other than grapes. ... Grapes for ice wine, still frozen on the vine. ... Albariño (ahl-bar-EEN-yoh – Galician) or Alvarinho (ahl-vah-REE-nyoh – Portuguese) is a variety of white wine grape grown in Galicia (northwest Spain) and northern Portugal, where it is used to make varietal white wines. ... Oak-aged Chardonnay is particularly popular in the United States. ... Chenin Blanc (or often simply Chenin) is a widely grown wine grape variety, also known as Steen in South Africa, Pineau de la Loire in the Loire region of France. ... Gewürztraminer grapes on the vine Gewürztraminer (IPA: , sounds like guh-VERTS-truh-MEE-ner; IPA: in German; Croatian: ; Hungarian: ), sometimes referred to as Gewürz or Traminer, is a white wine grape variety that performs best in cooler climates. ... For other uses, see Muscat (disambiguation). ... Pinot Blanc is a white wine grape. ... Pinot Gris (or Tokay Pinot Gris) is a white wine grape of species Vitis vinifera related to Pinot noir which goes by a lot of other names: Pinot Grigio (Italy) Pinot Beurot (Loire Valley, France) Ruländer (Austria and Germany, Romania, sweet) Grauburgunder or Grauer burgunder (Austria and Germany, dry... Riesling is a white grape variety and varietal appellation of wines grown historically in Germany (see German wine), Alsace (France), Austria, and northern Italy. ... Sauvignon blanc is a green-skinned grape variety which originates from the Bordeaux region of France. ... Sémillon is a golden-skinned grape used to make dry and sweet white wines, most notably in France and Australia. ... Viognier (pronounced vee-own-YAY[1]) is a white wine grape. ... Barbera is a wine grape variety from Monferrato in Piemonte, Italy. ... Cabernet Franc is a red wine grape variety similar to and a parent of Cabernet Sauvignon. ... Old vine Cabernet Sauvignon at Chateau Montelena in Napa Valley. ... For the Spanish wine region, see Cariñena (DO). ... Dolcetto is a well-known wine grape variety widely grown in Piedmont region of Italy. ... A California Gamay Gamay is a purple-colored grape variety used to make red wines, most notably grown in Beaujolais. ... Grenache is a sweet red grape variety grown primarily for the making of wine. ... Malbec is a black, mellow grape variety originally grown in France, in the Loire Valley and Cahors. ... Merlot grapes on the vine. ... Mourvèdre is a variety of wine grape grown around the world, and is Spains second-most important red wine grape after Garnacha, and was once Provences most popular grape. ... Nebbiolo is the most important wine grape variety of Italys Piedmont region. ... Durif (or Duriff) is a minor variety of red wine grape grown in France, California and Australia. ... Petit verdot is a variety of red wine grape, principally in classic Bordeaux blends. ... Pinot noir (pi no nwar) is a red wine grape variety of the species Vitis vinifera. ... Pinotage is a wine grape that is a cross between Pinot Noir and Cinsault (called Hermitage in South Africa and parts of Europe, hence the portmanteau name of this grape variety). ... Sangiovese (synonyms: Sangiovese grosso, Brunello, Uva brunella, Morellino, Prugnolo, Prugnolo gentile, Sangioveto, Tignolo and Uva Canina) is a red wine grape variety originating in Italy where it is now recognised as a superior variety. ... Shiraz grapes have a characteristically deep purple color that is reflected in their wine. ... Tempranillo is a variety of vitis vinifera, the red grape used commonly in winemaking. ... Zinfandel, also known as Zin, is a red-skinned wine grape popular in California for its intense fruitiness and lush texture. ... Amarone della Valpolicella is an often powerful Italian wine made from dried grapes of the Corvina, Rondinella, and Molinara varieties. ... Asti is a DOCG sparkling wine produced in the Asti region in Piedmont, Italy. ... A classic northern Italian wine, Barbaresco is a powerful wine that is made purely from the Nebbiolo grape. ... Barbera dAsti Superiore DOC Tre Vescovi 2003 Vinchio e Vaglio Barbera dAsti is a red wine variety. ... Castle and Village of Barolo. ... It has been suggested that Barossa Shiraz be merged into this article or section. ... A Beaujolais label Beaujolais is a historical province and a wine-producing region in France. ... Chardonnay vineyards in the south of the Côte de Beaune surrounding the town of Meursault. ... The Chablis wine region is the northernmost sector of Burgundy, France, and also the name of a town located there. ... This article is about Champagne, the alcoholic beverage. ... Chianti is Italys most famous red wine. ... Commandaria is an amber-colored dessert wine made from the indigenous Mavro and Xynistery varieties of red grapes in the Commandaria region of Cyprus (centered near the city of Kolossi). ... Dão Wine (or Vinho do Dão) is from the Região Demarcada do Dão, a region demarcated in 1908, but already in 1390 there were taken some measures to protect this wine. ... Egri Bikavér (Bulls Blood) is one of the most reputed and traditional Hungarian wines besides the Tokaji wines. ... Madeira is a fortified wine made in the Madeira Islands of Portugal, which is prized equally for drinking and cooking; the latter use including the dessert plum in Madeira. ... Marsala is the name for a wine produced in the region surrounding the Italian city of Marsala in Sicily. ... Mosel is a German wine-growing region (Anbaugebiet) that takes its name from the river Mosel (or Moselle). ... Muscadet is a type of dry French white wine. ... A glass of tawny port. ... Retsina is a Greek resinated white (or rosé) wine dating back at least 2700 years. ... Rheingau valley with the River Rhein The Rheingau (in English: Rhine District) is the hill country on the north side of the Rhine River between Wiesbaden and Rüdesheim near Frankfurt, reaching from the western Taunus to the Rhine. ... Rheinhessen (in English: Rhenish Hesse) refers to the part of the former Grand Duchy of Hesse-Darmstadt located west of the Rhine river and now part of Rhineland-Palatinate. ... The Rhône wine region is first divided into north and south. ... Rioja Wine Rioja is a wine from a region named after the Rio Oja in Spain, a tributary of the Ebro. ... Sancerre is one of the most famous white wines in France named from the town Sancerre. ... A half bottle of Sauternes from Château dYquem Sauternes is a type of dessert wine made from Sémillon, Sauvignon Blanc, and Muscadelle grapes that have been affected by Botrytis cinerea, also known as noble rot. ... Sherry solera For other uses, see Sherry (disambiguation). ... Tokaj cellar Tokaji, meaning of Tokaj in Hungarian, is used to label wines from the wine region of Tokaj-Hegyalja in Hungary. ... Valpolicella is a zone of the province of Verona, Italy, east of Lake Garda. ... It has been suggested that Punt e mes be merged into this article or section. ... Vinho Verde is Portuguese and literally means Green Wine. There are red, white and, more rarely, rosé varieties of the appellation Vinho Verde, but only the white wines are exported. ... Vouvray, from the region of the same name is made through the vinification of the Chenin Blanc grape. ... The Glossary of wine terms lists the definitions of many terms used within the wine industry. ... This is a list of varieties of cultivated grapes, whether used for wine, or eating as a Table grape, fresh or dried (raisin, currant, sultana). ... This list of wine-producing regions catalogues significant growing regions where vineyards are planted. ... The following is a list of wine-producing countries and their volume of wine production for the year 2005 in metric tonnes. ... Natural wine is wine made with as little chemical and technological intervention as possible, either in the way the grapes are grown or the way they are made into wine. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into wine. ... Polyphenols are a group of chemical substances found in plants, characterized by the presence of more than one phenol group per molecule. ... Varietal describes wines made from a single named grape variety. ... A Wine accessory is generally any equipment that may be used in the storing or serving of wine. ... This is a list of varieties of cultivated grapes, whether used for wine, or eating as a Table grape, fresh or dried (raisin, currant, sultana). ... Winemakers often use carboys like these to ferment smaller quantities of wine Winemaking, or vinification, is the process of wine production, from the selection of grapes to the bottling of finished wine. ...


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Bordeaux wine - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (4967 words)
Bordeaux wine, refers to all wine produced in the Bordeaux region of France.
Wine laws have been established in nearly all of the world's wine producing countries to help protect established traditions and practices, to provide the consumer with a system of checks and balances against fraudulent activity and greed, and to protect the economic interests of those in the wine industry.
Bordeaux Grand Crus wines are classed as among the finest in the world and whilst the exportation of wine from Bordeaux has declined by 4.5% between 2003 and 2004, exportation of the Premiers Crus de Bordeaux have increased.
Bordeaux - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1879 words)
Bordeaux is located near the European Atlantic coast, in the southwest of France and in the north of the Aquitaine region.
Bordeaux is the largest wine region in the world with about 117 000 hectares of vineyards, 57 appellations, 9,000 wine-producing châteaux, 13,000 grape growers, 400 traders and sales of 14,5 billion euros annually.
Bordeaux is served by an international airport, Aéroport de Bordeaux Mérignac, located 8km from downtown in the suburban city of Mérignac.
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