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Encyclopedia > Bootleg recording

A bootleg recording is an audio and/or video recording of a performance that was not officially released by the artist, or under other legal authority. The process of making and distributing such recordings is known as bootlegging. A great many such recordings are simply copied and traded among fans of the artist without financial exchange, but some bootleggers are able to sell these rarities for profit, sometimes by adding professional-quality sound engineering and packaging to the raw material. Bootlegging is an informal term for smuggling, sale or transport of illicit goods. ... Methods and media for sound recording are varied and have undergone significant changes between the first time sound was actually recorded for later playback until now. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Fans of Janet Jackson, at Much Music in Toronto The word fan refers to someone who has an intense, occasionally overwhelming liking of a person, group of persons, work of art, idea, or trend. ...


Bootlegs can consist of recordings of live performances, or material created in private or professional recording sessions. Changing technologies have had a great impact on the recording, distribution, and varying profitability of the underground industry.


Although distinct from unauthorized copying ("piracy") and counterfeiting, as it involves material which has never been offered for commercial release, bootlegging is considered infringement in many jurisdictions. The copyrights for the song and the right to authorize recordings often reside with the artist, according to several international copyright treaties. The recording, trading and sale of bootlegs continues to thrive, however, even as artists and record companies attempt to provide "authorized" alternatives to satisfy the demand. For other uses, see Counterfeit (disambiguation). ... Not to be confused with copywriting. ... Various copyright treaties were created as a result of different requirements of the various countries, This is a list of what countries are signatory to which copyright treaties. ...

The audio cassette greatly increased the distribution of bootleg recordings in the 1980s.
The audio cassette greatly increased the distribution of bootleg recordings in the 1980s.

Contents

typical Audio Cassette - File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... typical Audio Cassette - File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... For the meaning of cassette in genetics, see cassette (genetics). ...

Definitions

Some artists consider any release for which they do not receive royalties to be equivalent to a bootleg, even if it is an officially licensed release. This is often the case with artists whose recordings have either become public domain or whose original agreements did not include reissue royalties (which was a common occurrence before the 1960s). This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The public domain comprises the body of all creative works and other knowledge—writing, artwork, music, science, inventions, and others—in which no person or organization has any proprietary interest. ... A reissue or re-release is the new or repeated issue of an item. ... The 1960s decade refers to the years from 1960 to 1969, inclusive. ...


Many bootlegs consist of private or professional studio recordings distributed without the artist's involvement, including demos, works-in-progress or discarded material. These might be made from private recordings not meant to be widely shared, or from master recordings stolen or copied from an artist's home, a recording studio or the offices of a record label. A number of bootlegs originated with FM radio broadcasts of live or previously-recorded live performances. For other uses, see demo. ... A recording studio is a facility for sound recording. ... In the music industry, a record label is a brand and a trademark associated with the marketing of music recordings and music videos. ... FM broadcasting is a broadcast technology invented by Edwin Howard Armstrong that uses frequency modulation (FM) to provide high-fidelity sound over broadcast radio. ...


However, the most common type is the live bootleg, or audience recording, which is created with sound recording equipment smuggled into a live concert. Many artists and most live venues prohibit this form of recording, but from the 1970s onwards the increased availability of portable technology made such bootlegging increasingly easy, and as this technology has improved so too has the general quality of these recordings. Methods and media for sound recording are varied and have undergone significant changes between the first time sound was actually recorded for later playback until now. ... A classical music concert in the Rod Laver Arena, Melbourne 2005 Kasia Kowalska concert in Warsaw A concert is a live performance, usually of music, before an audience. ...


The alternate term ROIO or RoIO, an acronym meaning "Record of Indeterminate Origin", or "Record of Illegitimate Origin", arose among Pink Floyd collectors trying to clarify the differences between counterfeits, pirate copies, live bootlegs, and "ROIOs", meaning recordings whose legal status was difficult or even impossible to determine. The term has spread beyond Pink Floyd fans but its recognition and usage depends largely on the individual community. It is also sometimes used to denote a Pink Floyd recording of any kind. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Backronym and Apronym (Discuss) Acronyms and initialisms are abbreviations, such as NATO, laser, and ABC, written as the initial letter or letters of words, and pronounced on the basis of this abbreviated written form. ... Pink Floyd are an English rock band that initially earned recognition for their psychedelic rock music, and, as they evolved, for their progressive rock music. ...


In the early 2000s, "bootleg" became an alternate term[citation needed] for "mashups" or "bastard pop", a style of remix in which two or more musical recordings are melded into new piece of music. Early examples often copied sound clips without paying royalties to the original artist. The tone or style of this article or section may not be appropriate for Wikipedia. ... A remix is an alternative version of a song, different from the original version. ...


History of bootlegging

The early years

Unauthorized recordings can be traced back to the early days of opera, jazz, and blues music. The first recognised rock bootleg in the United States was a double-LP known as The Great White Wonder, for the plain white cover, sleeve and labels. This was a 1969 collection of Bob Dylan recordings and studio out-takes, as well as seven tracks from sessions made with members of The Band (released many years later in The Basement Tapes), put out by a pair known as "Ken" and "Dub". The album was in great demand since these unreleased tracks were otherwise unavailable. Hundreds of other bootleg LP's of Dylan's music, including several volumes of Little White Wonder would be released over the ensuing years. One notable release was Ten of Swords, a 10-LP box set that was issued shortly after the 5-LP Biograph was released in 1985. Unlike most major artists, whose bootlegs were usually recorded in large concert venues, the Dylan bootlegs were typically taken from unreleased songs, demo tapes, or live performances made in intimate settings or during interviews. For other uses, see Opera (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Jazz (disambiguation). ... “Blues music” redirects here. ... Great White Wonder, a double album released in July 1969 of a Bob Dylan recording session, was the first bootleg of the rock-and-roll era. ... Also: 1969 (Stargate SG-1) episode. ... This article is about the recording artist. ... For other uses, see Band. ... The Basement Tapes are a series of recordings by North American folk-rockers Bob Dylan and The Band, recorded in mid-1967. ... Biograph may refer to: American Mutoscope and Biograph Company, a silent movie era production company widely known as Biograph or Biograph Studios. ...

Album cover for the early Led Zeppelin bootleg Live On Blueberry Hill

Other early bootleg recordings that date from the same time period as The Great White Wonder include Kum Back / The World's Greatest by The Beatles, Live On Blueberry Hill by Led Zeppelin and The Greatest Group on Earth by the Rolling Stones. Soon thereafter, bootleg recordings began to emerge from Britain as well, with an unofficial release of a live recording of Jimi Hendrix at the Royal Albert Hall.[1] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Live On Blueberry Hill (also known as Blueberry Hill) is a bootleg recording of the English rock group Led Zeppelins performance at the Los Angeles Forum on September 4, 1970. ... The White Album, see The Beatles (album). ... Live On Blueberry Hill (also known as Blueberry Hill) is a bootleg recording of the English rock group Led Zeppelins performance at the Los Angeles Forum on September 4, 1970. ... For the bands 1969 self-titled debut album, see Led Zeppelin (album). ... Rolling Stones redirects here. ... Jimi Hendrix (November 27, 1942 – September 18, 1970) was an American guitar virtuoso, singer and songwriter. ... “Albert Hall” redirects here. ...


Another famous bootleg is Brian Wilson's famous unfinished masterpiece for the Beach Boys, Smile. When the project was scrapped in Spring 1967, sleeves for the album had already been printed by Capitol Records, listing about a dozen songs supposed to be on the album followed by the disclaimer "See label for correct running order," as Wilson was never able to assemble a running order. Many different bootleg versions of the album have surfaced over the years, each one with its own guess at a correct running order based on the material available, yet generally retaining the "Smile Shop" cover art from the Capitol-printed sleeves. An official release of Smile – but under Brian Wilson's name – finally occurred in 2004. For other persons named Brian Wilson, see Brian Wilson (disambiguation). ... The Beach Boys, originally the Beech Boys, a small team of four brothers from the south of Poland, emigrated to America in the early 1950s in search of a fortune to be made in the Arizonian logging industry. When it soon became evident they had been the victims of... Smile (sometimes spelled with the idiosyncratic partial capitalization SMiLE) is an album by the Beach Boys, and perhaps the most famous unreleased rock and roll album of all time. ... Capitol Records is a major United States-based record label, owned by EMI. // The Capitol Records company was founded by the songwriter Johnny Mercer in 1942, with the financial help of movie producer Buddy DeSylva and the business acumen of Glenn Wallichs, (1910-1971) (owner of Music City, at the... Smile is a solo album by Brian Wilson, with lyrics by Van Dyke Parks. ...


Early live recordings typically contained a great deal of crowd noise, with screams and whistles from audience members close to the microphone sometimes drowning out the performance. Bootleggers gradually found ways to minimize this, sometimes just by choosing their position in the crowd carefully, by elevating the microphone above the crowd on an extensible pole, or by taping it to a light or speaker pole. Others found ways to connect recording equipment directly into the Front of House mixing console or soundboard, with or without the cooperation of the performer's sound crew. “Microphones” redirects here. ... In theatre and live music venues, Front of house (or FOH) refers to areas of the building that the audience has access to, generally excluding stage and backstage areas, and including the auditorium and foyer. ... In professional audio, a mixing console, digital mixing console, mixing desk (Brit. ...


Blank album covers and labels were commonplace in the early years of bootlegging; the album was often identified only by a xeroxed page inside the shrink wrap listing the artist and songs, sometimes with a photograph or two. Some albums would have phony labels or covers that listed songs and artists that were in no way related to the actual music on the album. In an attempt to legitimize the practice, many LP's purported to have been made in Italy, West Germany, Australia and other countries so that they could be marketed as "imports" rather than bootlegs.


After having many of their albums available in bootleg, the Who decided to put out their first live album (Live at Leeds) in 1970 with a brown, cardboard looking cover with "The Who Live at Leeds" stamped on the cover to make it appear as though it were a bootleg. The songs were written on the album (by Townshend's hand) to further the joke. On the other hand, the sound quality of this album was actually better and cleaner than most live recordings of rock bands that had been officially released prior to that date. The Who are an English rock band that first formed in 1964, and grew to be considered one of the greatest[1] and most influential[2] bands in the world. ... Live at Leeds (1970) is The Whos first live album, and indeed is their only live album that was released while the band was still recording and performing regularly. ... Peter Dennis Blandford Townshend (born May 19, 1945 in Chiswick, London), is an award-winning English rock guitarist, singer, songwriter, and composer. ...


Many years later, and for the same reason, Aerosmith released their first official live album, Live! Bootleg in 1978. In addition to imitating bootleg cover designs, the album also gives an incorrect track listing (which is also common in bootleg recordings): the song "Draw The Line" is included on the record but does not appear listed. This article is about the band Aerosmith. ... Live! Bootleg is a live album by American hard rock band Aerosmith, released in 1978 (see 1978 in music). ...


1970s and 1980s

During the 1970s the bootleg industry in the United States expanded rapidly, coinciding with the era of stadium or arena rock. Vast numbers of recordings were issued for profit by bootleg labels such as Kornyfone and Trade Mark of Quality.[2] The large followings of bands such as Led Zeppelin, The Rolling Stones and Pink Floyd created a lucrative market for the mass production of unofficial recordings on vinyl, as it became evident that more and more fans were willing to purchase them. In addition, the huge crowds which turned up to these concerts made the effective policing of the audience for the presence of recording equipment virtually impossible. The 1970s decade refers to the years from 1970 to 1979, also called The Seventies. ... Stadium Rock was a term that referred to a large concert usually held in stadiums. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Amazing Kornyfone Record Lable (TAKRL) was one of the first bootlegging record lables in America. ... TMOQ or Trademark Of Quality was a bootleg record label that originated in the Los Angeles, California area during the late 60s and early 70s. ... For the bands 1969 self-titled debut album, see Led Zeppelin (album). ... Rolling Stones redirects here. ... Pink Floyd are an English rock band that initially earned recognition for their psychedelic rock music, and, as they evolved, for their progressive rock music. ... A 12-inch record (left), a 7-inch record (right), and a CD (above) Two 7 singles (left), two colored 7 singles (middle), and two 7 singles with large spindle holes (right). ...


In Los Angeles there were a number of record mastering and pressing plants that were not "first in line" to press records for the major labels, usually only getting work when the larger plants were overloaded. These pressing plants were more than happy to generate income by pressing bootlegs of dubious legality. Sometimes they simply hid the bootleg work when record company executives would come around (in which case the printed label could show the artist and song names) and other times secrecy required labels with fictitious names. For example, a 1972 Pink Floyd bootleg called Brain Damage was released under the name The Screaming Abdabs.[2] Flag Seal Nickname: City of Angels Location Location within Los Angeles County in the state of California Coordinates , Government State County California Los Angeles County Mayor Antonio Villaraigosa (D) Geographical characteristics Area     City 1,290. ... Sigma 6 was a rhythm and blues band formed in 1964 by Roger Waters while he was studying architecture at a college in Cambridge. ...


Bootleg collectors in this era generally relied on Hot Wacks, an annual underground magazine catalog of known bootlegs, for information about recently-released bootleg albums. It provided the true information on releases with fictitious labels, and included details on artists and track listings, as well as the source and sound quality of the various recordings. Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ...


The market outlets for bootlegs-for-sale were varied. In the early years, bootlegs could be bought from vendors lurking in the alleys and parking lots around live venues, as well as at swap meets, street markets, record collector shows, and smaller record stores. Mail order sources were advertised by word of mouth, and in many cases uniquely associated with individual bands. There were major markets in Japan and Europe for Led Zeppelin bootleg recordings, Beatles bootlegs, and rarities from The Rolling Stones, Pink Floyd, KISS, and Queen, among others. Swap Meet is a song by the grunge band, Nirvana. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Mail order is a term which describes the buying of goods or services by mail delivery. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... English rock band Led Zeppelin were, throughout the decade of the 1970s, one of the worlds most frequently bootlegged performers. ... The cover of Kum Back; the first ever Beatles bootleg album to hit the market. ... Kiss is an American rock band formed in New York City in 1972 (see 1972 in music). ... Queen are an English rock band formed in 1970 in London by guitarist Brian May, singer Freddie Mercury and drummer Roger Taylor, with bassist John Deacon joining the following year. ...


Throughout the 1970s most bootleg records were of poor quality, with many of the album covers consisting of nothing more than cheap photocopies. However, later in the decade a number of unofficial "labels" such as Swinging Pig emerged in Europe, which released limited editions of better quality recordings, with improved album artwork. This trend in enhanced audio and packaging standards continued into the 1980s.[1] This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... The 1980s refers to the years from 1980 to 1989. ...


The 1980s saw the increased use of audio cassettes and videotapes for the dissemination of bootleg recordings, as the affordability of private dubbing equipment made the production of multiple copies significantly easier. Cassettes were also smaller, easier to ship, and could be sold or traded more affordably than vinyl. Cassette culture and tape trading, propelled by the DIY ethic of the punk subculture, relied on an honor system where people who received tapes from fellow traders made multiple copies to pass on to others within the community. The 1980s refers to the years from 1980 to 1989. ... For the meaning of cassette in genetics, see cassette (genetics). ... Bottom view of VHS videotape cassette with magnetic tape exposed Videotape is a means of recording images and sound onto magnetic tape as opposed to movie film. ... Dubbing is a term used to describe the transfer of audio or video information from one media to another. ... Cassette culture was in part an offshoot of the mail art movement of the 1970s and 1980s. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The DIY ethic (do it yourself ethic) refers to the ethic of being self-reliant and doing things yourself as opposed to paying others to do it. ... Punks at a music festival The punk subculture is a subculture that is based around punk rock music. ... This article is about a code of practice based on trust. ...


For a while, stalls at major music gatherings such as the Glastonbury Festival sold mass copies of bootleg soundboard recordings of bands who, in many cases, had played only a matter of hours beforehand. However, officials soon began to counteract this illegal activity by making raids on the stalls and, by the end of the 1980s, the number of festival bootlegs had consequently dwindled.[1] The Glastonbury Festival of Contemporary Performing Arts, commonly abbreviated to Glastonbury or Glasto, is the largest[1] greenfield music and performing arts festival in the world. ...


According to Clinton Heylin, author of Bootleg: The Rise & Fall of the Secret Recording History, the five most bootlegged artists are The Beatles, Led Zeppelin, The Rolling Stones, Bob Dylan and Bruce Springsteen.[3] Probably the most celebrated bootleg recording is The Black Album by Prince. The album was to have been a conventional major-label release but was pulled back from the market almost immediately after its initial release in November 1987. Bootlegs appeared shortly thereafter from a variety of sources and with widely different sound qualities. Reportedly, over 500,000 copies were sold. The Black Album is a Prince record that was originally planned for November of 1987 as the follow-up to Sign O the Times. ... The term prince, from the Latin root princeps, is used for a member of the highest ranks of the aristocracy or the nobility. ...


1990s and 2000s

In the 1990s there was a widespread conversion of many of the older bootlegs onto the compact disc format. Unofficial recordings became more readily available than ever before, resulting in thousands of bootlegs being circulated on CD amongst avid collectors and fans, in many cases of shows which had been originally recorded over thirty years previously. In particular, companies in Germany and Italy exploited the more relaxed copyright laws in those countries by pressing large numbers of CDs and including catalogs of other titles on the inlays, making it easier for fans to find and order shows direct.[1] Similarly, relaxed copyright laws in Australia meant that the most serious legal challenge to unauthorized releases were made on the grounds of trademark law by Sony Music Entertainment in 1993. Court findings were in favor of allowing the release of unauthorized recordings clearly marked as "unauthorised." However, the updated GATT 1994 soon closed this so-called "protection gap" in all three aforementioned countries effective January 1, 1995.[3] For the band, see 1990s (band). ... “CD” redirects here. ... Not to be confused with copywriting. ... “(TM)” redirects here. ... Sony Music Entertainment is a major global record label controlled by the Sony Corporation. ... Year 1993 (MCMXCIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1993 Gregorian calendar). ... The General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (typically abbreviated GATT) was originally created by the Bretton Woods Conference as part of a larger plan for economic recovery after World War II. The GATTs main objective was the reduction of barriers to international trade. ... is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1995 (MCMXCV) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full 1995 Gregorian calendar). ...


Filling in the vacuum, with the Internet expanding, bootleg websites and mailing lists began to appear, including public websites catering to collectors who exchanged tapes and CDs free of charge, and surreptitious ones devoted to the sale of bootlegs for profit.


The tightening of laws and increased enforcement by police on behalf of the British Phonographic Industry (BPI), Recording Industry Association of America (RIAA) and other industry groups—often for peripheral issues such as tax evasion—gradually drove the distributors of for-profit vinyl and CD bootlegs further underground.[1] Physical bootlegging largely shifted to less regulated countries such as Hong Kong, Russia, and Brazil, with the results distributed through existing underground channels, open market sites such as eBay, and other specialized websites. The British Phonographic Industry was founded in 1973 to represent the interests of British music companies and to fight the growing problem of music piracy. ... The RIAA Logo. ... This article contrasts tax evasion, tax avoidance, tax resistance and tax mitigation. ... This article is about the online auction center. ...


However, the late 1990s and early 2000s saw an increase in the free trading of digital bootlegs, sharply decreasing the demand for and profitability of physical bootlegs. The rise of standard audio file formats such as MP3 (although it should be noted that most of the traders, if not all of them, highly discourage trading bootleg recordings encoded by lossy compression schemes - storing the recordings in lossless formats, such as FLAC, is preferred), combined with the ability to share files between computers via e-mail, FTP, instant messaging, and specialized peer-to-peer file sharing networks such as Napster (now defunct as p2p), Limewire, and BitTorrent, made it simpler than ever for bootleg collectors to exchange rarities. Older analog recordings were converted to digital format for the first time, tracks from bootleg CDs were ripped to computer hard disks, and new material was created with digital recording of various types, and all of these types could now be easily shared. One notable change caused by this shift in technology was the unit of exchange: instead of album-length collections or live recordings of entire shows, aficionados often now had the option of searching for and downloading bootlegs of individual songs.[4] The 2000s are the current decade, spanning from 2000 to 2009. ... An audio file format is a container format for storing audio data on a computer system. ... For other uses, see MP3 (disambiguation). ... Original Image (lossless PNG, 60. ... Lossless data compression is a class of data compression algorithms that allows the exact original data to be reconstructed from the compressed data. ... Free Lossless Audio Codec (FLAC) is a popular file format for audio data compression. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... This article is about the File Transfer Protocol standardised by the IETF. For other file transfer protocols, see File transfer protocol (disambiguation). ... // Instant messaging (IM) is a form of real-time communication between two or more people based on typed text. ... A peer-to-peer (or P2P) computer network is a network that relies on the computing power and bandwidth of the participants in the network rather than concentrating it in a relatively few servers. ... File sharing is the activity of making files available to other users for download over the Internet, but also over smaller networks. ... Napster was a file sharing service that paved the way for decentralized P2P file-sharing programs such as Kazaa, Limewire, iMesh, Morpheus, and BearShare, which are now used for many of the same reasons and can download music, pictures, and other files. ... A peer-to-peer (or P2P) computer network is a network that relies on the computing power and bandwidth of the participants in the network rather than concentrating it in a relatively few servers. ... LimeWire is a peer-to-peer file sharing client for the Java Platform, which uses the Gnutella network to locate and share files. ... This article is about the protocol. ... For the process of sawing wood along the grain, see Rip saw. ... In digital recording, the analog signal of a motion-picture/sound is converted into a stream of discrete numbers, representing the changes in air pressure (chroma and luminace values in case of video) through time; thus making an abstract template for the original sound. ... This article is about the computer terms. ...


Legal issues

Bootlegging vs. piracy vs. counterfeiting

Bootlegging is often incorrectly referred to as piracy but there are important differences between the two terms. Bootlegging is trafficking in recordings that the record companies have not commercially released, whereas piracy is the illegal copying/sale of recordings that are (or have been) available commercially or are planned/scheduled for commercial release. Historically, pirate releases were widespread in the 8-track cartridge format, many with labels spuriously claiming that "all royalties have been paid." The Cathach of St. ... The Cathach of St. ... The 8-track cartridge or Stereo 8 is a magnetic tape technology for audio storage, popular from the mid-1960s to the early 1980s. ...


A pirate release is further distinguished from a counterfeit. Counterfeits attempt to mimic the look of officially released product; pirate releases do not necessarily do so, possibly substituting cover art or creating new compilations of a group's released songs. A counterfeit is always a pirate but a pirate is not necessarily a counterfeit. For other uses, see Counterfeit (disambiguation). ...


"Bootlegging" is sometimes also used to refer to the unlicensed file sharing of copyrighted music but the term piracy is usually more appropriate. In the same vein, "bootlegging" has become the default term amongst Japanese anime fans to describe the piracy or counterfeiting of CDs, DVDs, computer and video games, arcade games, and other merchandise. These increasingly sophisticated imitation goods from Hong Kong are much reviled by fans and the industry alike, and many anime fan conventions have adopted a strict non-bootleg policy for vendors and attendees. File sharing is the activity of making files available to other users for download over the Internet, but also over smaller networks. ... Not to be confused with copywriting. ... “Animé” redirects here. ... “CD” redirects here. ... Size comparison: A 12 cm Sony DVD+RW and a 19 cm Dixon Ticonderoga pencil. ... “Computer and video games” redirects here. ... Centipede by Atari is a typical example of a 1980s era arcade game. ... A fan convention, or con, is an event in which the fans of a particular TV show, comic book, or actor, or an entire style of entertainment such as science fiction or anime, gather together to meet famous personalities (and each other) face-to-face. ...


Laws and court rulings

The Berne Convention for the Protection of Literary and Artistic Works has protected the copyrights on literary, scientific, and artistic works since 1886. Article 9 of the Convention states that: Authors of literary and artistic works protected by this Convention shall have the exclusive right of authorizing the reproduction of these works, in any manner or form. [...] Any sound or visual recording shall be considered as a reproduction for the purposes of this Convention.[5] For the treaty establishing the General Postal Union, see Treaty of Bern. ...


The World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO), founded in 1967, is one of the specialized agencies of the United Nations, aiming for the international protection of intellectual property rights. According to Article 6 of the international WIPO Performances and Phonograms Treaty of 1996, all performers own the rights to their own performances: "Performers shall enjoy the exclusive right of authorizing, as regards their performances: (i) the broadcasting and communication to the public of their unfixed performances except where the performance is already a broadcast performance; and (ii) the fixation of their unfixed performances."[6] The WIPO Copyright and Performances and Phonograms Treaties Implementation Act in the United States says "(a), unless authorized by the owners of copyright in the sound recording or [...] in the musical works embodied therein, neither the owner of a particular phonorecord [...] may, for the purposes of direct or indirect commercial advantage, dispose of, or authorize the disposal of, the possession of that phonorecord [...] by rental, lease, or lending, or by any other act or practice in the nature of rental, lease, or lending."[7] The World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) (French: Organisation mondiale de la propriété intellectuelle or OMPI) is one of the specialized agencies of the United Nations. ... UN and U.N. redirect here. ... For the 2006 film, see Intellectual Property (film). ... The WIPO Performances and Phonograms Treaty (WPPT) was adopted in Geneva on December 20, 1996. ... The WIPO Copyright and Performances and Phonograms Treaties Implementation Act, is a part of the Digital Millennium Copyright Act (DMCA), a 1998 U.S. law. ...


Most artists have made little effort to pursue legal action about bootleg recordings, viewing such "rarities trading" as harmless provided that it is not being done for profit. The benefits of interfering with such trading are fairly minimal compared to the potential ill-will generated against the artist, as the illicit works are generally circulated among the artist's most loyal fans, which have the most interest. Most record companies also have not shown an interest in pursuing or prosecuting small-scale bootleggers, but this could change at any time.


However, in 2004 U.S. District Judge Harold Baer Jr. struck down a 1994 law banning the sale of bootleg recordings of live music, ruling that the law unfairly grants a seemingly perpetual copyright period to the original performances.[8] He dismissed a federal indictment of Jean Martignon, who was running a Manhattan mail-order and Internet business that sells bootleg recordings. The Recording Industry Association of America disagreed with the ruling, saying the decision "stands in marked contrast to existing law and prior decisions that have determined that Congress was well within its constitutional authority to adopt legislation that prevented trafficking in copies of unauthorized recordings of live performances", according to spokesman Jonathan Lamy.[9] In 2007, Judge Baer's ruling was overruled, and the 2nd Circuit of the US Court of Appeals found that the anti-bootlegging statute was within the power of congress. 492 F. 3d 140


Legal alternatives to illicit bootlegging

Artists and record companies have attempted to find ways to provide authorized alternatives to satisfy consumer demand for bootleg recordings, including the marketing of their own live albums and rarities collections. // Many successful recording artists release at least one live album at some point during their career. ...


Authorized live bootlegs

Further information: Category:Taper-friendly musicians

An increasing number of artists have decided to allow and encourage live audience recording, although they and their fans generally consider the selling of such recordings—as opposed to keeping them for one's own personal enjoyment or trading them for other audience recordings—to be illegitimate bootlegging. Fans cite the encouragement of these recordings as a key factor in their long-term loyalty to these bands.


In addition, many performers have made joking suggestions to bootleggers presumably in the audience, especially when a new or unusual song is about to be performed. Fans often hopefully cite such comments as evidence of permission to make bootleg recordings.


The Grateful Dead is well known for explicitly allowing their shows to be taped. Jerry Garcia later in life The Grateful Dead was an American rock band, which was formed in 1965 in San Francisco from the remnants of another band, Mother McCrees Uptown Jug Champions. ...


Instant live bootlegs

In the early 2000s, artists responded to the demand for bootleg concert recordings by experimenting with the sale of authorized bootlegs made directly from the unmixed soundboard feeds, or from on the fly multitrack mixes, and thus superior to surreptitious audience recordings which are typically marred by crowd noise. These releases were generally available a few days to a few weeks after the concert.[10] In professional audio, a mixing console, digital mixing console, mixing desk (Brit. ... In relation to computer technology, on the fly describes activities that develop or occur dynamically rather than as the result of something that is statically predefined. ... The Tascam 85 16B analogue tape recorder can record 16 tracks of audio on 1 inch (2. ...


In the mid-2000s, improving technology in high-speed CD reproduction made some of these "official boots" available to audience members immediately as they leave the concert; some companies can begin selling complete concert CDs less than ten minutes after the end of the show.[11] However, a key patent in the process (that of dividing the single recording into discrete digitally marked tracks during recording) was bought by media giant Clear Channel Communications, which sued smaller competitors for patent infringement to force them out of the business. When Clear Channel divested its live entertainment business into the spin off company Live Nation in 2005, the patents were transferred as well. The patent (U.S. Patent 6,917,566 ) was revoked by the USPTO in 2007 after challenges filed by the Electronic Frontier Foundation.[12] Not to be confused with clear channel radio stations, which are AM radio stations with certain technical parameters. ... The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ... Live Nation NYSE: LYV is a concert company based in the United States of America. ... EFF Logo The Electronic Frontier Foundation (EFF) is an international non-profit advocacy and legal organization based in the United States with the stated purpose of being dedicated to preserving free speech rights such as those protected by the First Amendment to the United States Constitution in the context of...


Commercially released bootlegs

Many recordings first distributed as bootleg albums were later released officially by the copyright holder; for instance, the release of the 1996 Anthology series effectively killed the demand for many of The Beatles bootlegs previously available. In 2002 Dave Matthews Band released Busted Stuff in response to the Internet-fueled success of The Lillywhite Sessions which they had not intended to release. The Beatles Anthology 1 was released in late 1995, and includes rarites and alternatives tracks from their days as the Quarry Men, through the Decca auditions and the album Beatles for Sale. ... The White Album, see The Beatles (album). ... Dave Matthews Band (also known by the initialism DMB) is a United States rock band, originally formed in Charlottesville, Virginia, in 1991 by singer, songwriter, and guitarist Dave Matthews. ... The Lillywhite Sessions is a collection of songs recorded by Dave Matthews Band in 1999 and 2000 and produced by Steve Lillywhite. ...

Artist Release(s) Notes
Nirvana
Bob Dylan
  • The Bootleg Series Volumes 1-3 (1991)
  • The Bootleg Series Vol. 4 (1998)
  • The Bootleg Series Vol. 5 (2002)
  • The Bootleg Series Vol. 6 (2004)
  • The Bootleg Series Vol. 7 (2005)
Seven volumes (but only five discrete releases).
Frank Zappa Remastered directly from bootleg discs. Zappa also copied the packaging directly from the bootleg releases, adding no additional material other than a cardboard box.
Prince Studio album initially shelved in 1987 and widely bootlegged since.
Led Zeppelin Material from three different 1969 sessions and a 1971 concert from the Paris Theatre in London, recorded by the BBC. Countless bootlegs of these recordings circulated for years before the official release.
The Smashing Pumpkins Released independently to fans on vinyl and the Internet as a gesture of defiance to Virgin Records.
Mike Portnoy Portnoy founded the YtseJam Records bootleg label, and is one of the most vocal pro-bootleg musicians despite his band not having a clear audience taping policy.
Sex Pistols Bootleg of demos originally released in 1977, officially released by Sanctuary Records in 2006.
The Velvet Underground
  • Bootleg Series Volume 1: The Quine Tapes (2001)
Recorded by Robert Quine at assorted shows in 1969.
Swans Most Swans live albums began as bootleg recordings made by band members.
Pink Floyd Special features include Bootlegging the Bootleggers, assembled from video provided by Pink Floyd historian Vernon Fitch, combined with official soundboard recordings, and edited together. The bootleg of Dark Side of the Moon was issued a mere six weeks after the concert, about a full year prior to an official release. Professionally packaged, the unit reportedly sold in excess of 100,000 copies, many thinking it was the real thing.
Iron Maiden
  • Europe 1992 (1992)
A Real Live Dead One is the most similar "real" album for that.
Deep Purple
  • Scandinavian Nights (1988)
Scandinavian Nights (recorded in Stockholm in 1970) and several other bootlegs of early Deep Purple performances have been remastered and "officially" released by the Deep Purple Appreciation Society and Purple Records, including Aachen 1970, Montreux 1969, and the In Concert 1970/72 recordings, which were taken from BBC Radio Broadcasts.

This article is about the American rock band. ... Incesticide is a compilation album of rare songs, b-sides and studio outtakes released by Nirvana on December 14, 1992 in Europe, and December 15, 1992 in the U.S. It was released through Geffen Records. ... With the Lights Out is a box set, containing 3 CDs and 1 DVD, from the American grunge band, Nirvana. ... This article is about the recording artist. ... The Bootleg Series Volumes 1-3 (Rare & Unreleased) 1961-1991 is a compilation box set by Bob Dylan. ... Frank Vincent Zappa[1] (December 21, 1940 – December 4, 1993) was an American composer, musician, and film director. ... Beat the Boots is a collection of bootleg recordings by Frank Zappa which were originally distributed illegally but were released officially by Rhino Entertainment in 1991. ... Beat the Boots II is a box set by Frank Zappa. ... For another person sometimes known as The Artist, see Michael Haynes III. Prince Rogers Nelson (born June 7, 1958 in Minneapolis, Minnesota) is an American musician. ... The Black Album is a Prince record that was originally planned for November of 1987 as the follow-up to Sign ☮ the Times. ... For the bands 1969 self-titled debut album, see Led Zeppelin (album). ... Led Zeppelin BBC Sessions is an album featuring, as the title suggests, BBC studio session and concert recordings of Led Zeppelin. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... For other uses, see BBC (disambiguation). ... The Smashing Pumpkins are an American alternative rock band that formed in Chicago in 1988. ... Machina II/The Friends & Enemies of Modern Music is an album by The Smashing Pumpkins that was released for free on the Internet on September 5, 2000. ... Virgin Records was a British recording label founded by English entrepreneur Richard Branson, and Nik Powell in 1972. ... Michael Stephen Mike Portnoy (born April 20, 1967) is an American drummer primarily known for his work with the progressive metal band Dream Theater. ... Dream Theater is an American progressive metal band comprising James LaBrie, John Petrucci, Jordan Rudess, John Myung, and Mike Portnoy. ... The YtseJam Records logo YtseJam Records is a semi-independent record label set up by Dream Theater drummer Mike Portnoy in 2003. ... The Sex Pistols were an iconic and highly influential English punk rock band, formed in London in 1975. ... Spunk is the title of a bootleg album by Sex Pistols, originally released in the UK during September or October 1977 (see 1977 in music). ... Sanctuary Records is a record label based in the United Kingdom and a subsidiary of Universal Records. ... This article is about the rock band. ... Robert Quine (December 30, 1942 - May 31, 2004), a native of Akron, Ohio, was a guitarist known for his innovative guitar solos. ... Swans were an influential American rock, experimental, folk and post-industrial band active from 1982 to 1997, led by singer, songwriter and multi-instrumentalist Michael Gira. ... Swans were an influential American rock, experimental, folk and post-industrial band active from 1982 to 1997, led by singer, songwriter and multi-instrumentalist Michael Gira. ... Pink Floyd are an English rock band that initially earned recognition for their psychedelic rock music, and, as they evolved, for their progressive rock music. ... P*U*L*S*E is a Pink Floyd concert video taken from the October 20, 1994 concert at Earls Court Exhibition Centre, London, in The Division Bell tour, which is currently available on DVD. There was considerable delay in the release of the DVD edition of P*U*L... Pink Floyd are an English rock band that initially earned recognition for their psychedelic rock music, and, as they evolved, for their progressive rock music. ... This article is about the Pink Floyd album. ... This article is about the band. ... This article is about the rock band. ...

See also

Magnitizdat (in Russian магнитиздат) is a term used to describe the process of re-copying and self distributing live audio tape recordings in the Soviet Union that were not available commercially. ... Bulat Okudzhava, a pioneer of the Bard genre For other meanings of the word, see Bard (disambiguation). ...

References

  1. ^ a b c d e Galloway, Simon (1999). Bootlegs, an insight into the shady side of music collecting. More Music e-zine. Retrieved on 2006-09-23.
  2. ^ a b Slugbelch. A Brief History Of Bootlegs. The Pink Floyd Vinyl Bootleg Guide. Backtrax Records. Retrieved on 2006-09-23.
  3. ^ a b Heylin, Clinton (2004). Bootleg! The Rise & Fall of the Secret Recording Industry. Omnibus Press. 
  4. ^ Jordan, Keith. "T'Internet - A Bootleg Fan's Paradise" - The Past, Present and Future of Bootlegs considering the internet. NPF Magazine. November 2006.
  5. ^ Berne Convention for the Protection of Literary and Artistic Works, Article 9. World Intellectual Property Organization (September 1886). Retrieved on 2006-09-23.
  6. ^ WIPO Performances and Phonograms Treaty, Article 6. World Intellectual Property Organization (December 1996). Retrieved on 2006-09-23.
  7. ^ WIPO Copyright and Performances and Phonograms Treaties Implementation Act, Title 17, Chapter 1, § 109 (portions involving computer programs elided for readability).
  8. ^ Landau, Michael (April 2005). Constitutional Impediments to Protecting the Live Musical Performance Right in the United States. IPRinfo Magazine. IPR University Center. Retrieved on 2006-09-23.
  9. ^ McClam, Erin (September 2004). N.Y. judge strikes down anti-bootleg law. USA Today. Associated Press. Retrieved on 2006-09-23.
  10. ^ TheMusic.com Encore Series. Authorized "bootleg" CDs sanctioned and recorded off the soundboard by the artists (2002). Retrieved on 2006-09-23.
  11. ^ Instant Live official website. Live Nation (2003). Retrieved on 2006-09-22.
  12. ^ EFF Kills Bogus Clear Channel Patent (13 March 2007). Retrieved on 2007-06-30.

Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 266th day of the year (267th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 266th day of the year (267th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 266th day of the year (267th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 266th day of the year (267th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 266th day of the year (267th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 266th day of the year (267th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 266th day of the year (267th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 265th day of the year (266th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 72nd day of the year (73rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 181st day of the year (182nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Further reading

  • Heylin, Clinton. The Great White Wonders: The Story of Rock Bootlegs. Viking Press, September 1994. (ISBN 0670857777)
  • Heylin, Clinton. Bootleg! The Rise & Fall of the Secret Recording Industry. Omnibus Press, 2004.
  • Thompson, Dave. A Music Lover's Guide to Record Collecting. Backbeat Books, September 2002. (ISBN 0879307137)

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Bootleg recording - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (902 words)
A bootleg recording is a audio or video recording of a performance that was not officially released by the artist or under other legal authority.
Some bootlegs consist of works-in-progress or discarded material distributed against the artist's will; these might be made from master recordings stolen or copied from a recording studio or a record label's offices, or from demo recordings not meant to be shared with a wide audience.
Bootlegs can also be recorded "unofficially" with gear smuggled into a live concert—many artists and most live venues prohibit this form of recording, but modern portable technology has made such bootlegging increasingly easy and has dramatically improved the quality of "audience" recordings.
bootleg - definition of bootleg in Encyclopedia (841 words)
A bootleg recording is one that was not officially released by the artist (or their associated management or production companies).
This is often the case with artists whose recordings have either become public domain or whose original agreements did not include reissue royalties (which was a common occurrence in the 1950s).
Bootlegging is trading in recordings that the record companies either do not own or are unwilling to release.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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