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Encyclopedia > Books of Samuel
Tanakh
Torah | Nevi'im | Ketuvim
Books of Nevi'im
First Prophets
1. Joshua
2. Judges
3. Samuel
4. Kings
Later Prophets
5. Isaiah
6. Jeremiah
7. Ezekiel
8. 12 minor prophets

The Books of Samuel (Hebrew: Sefer Sh'muel ספר שמואל), are part of the Tanakh (part of Judaism's Hebrew Bible) and also of the Old Testament (of Christianity). The work was originally written in Hebrew, and the Book(s) of Samuel originally formed a single text, as they are often considered today in Hebrew bibles. Note: Judaism commonly uses the term Tanakh to refer to its canon, which corresponds to the Protestant Old Testament. ... A biblical canon is a list of Biblical books which establishes the set of books which are considered to be authoritative as scripture by a particular Jewish or Christian community. ... 11th century manuscript of the Hebrew Bible with Targum Hebrew Bible is a term that refers to the common portions of the Jewish canon and the Christian canons. ... For the musical collective, see Tanakh (band). ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is... For other uses, see Genesis (disambiguation). ... This article is about the second book in the Torah. ... Leviticus is the third book of the Hebrew Bible, also the third book in the Torah (five books of Moses). ... The Book of Numbers is the fourth of the books of the Pentateuch, called in the Hebrew ba-midbar במדבר, i. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Book of Joshua is the sixth book in both the Hebrew Tanakh and the Old Testament of the Christian Bible. ... Book of Judges (Hebrew: Sefer Shoftim ספר שופטים) is a book of the Bible originally written in Hebrew. ... Naomi entreating Ruth and Orpah to return to the land of Moab by William Blake, 1795 Julius Schnorr von Carolsfeld: Ruth in Boazs Field, 1828 The Book of Ruth (Hebrew: מגילת רות, Megilat Rut, the Scroll of Ruth) is one of the books of the Ketuvim (Writings) of the Tanakh (the... The Books of Kings (‎) is a part of Judaisms Tanakh, the Hebrew Bible. ... The Book of Chronicles is a book in the Hebrew Bible (also see Old Testament). ... The Book of Ezra is a book of the Bible in the Old Testament and Hebrew Tanakh. ... 1. ... The Book of Nehemiah is a book of the Hebrew Bible, known to Jews as the Tanach and to Christians as the Old Testament. ... Megillah redirects here. ... The Book of Job (איוב) is one of the books of the Hebrew Bible. ... Psalms (from the Greek: Psalmoi) (originally meaning songs sung to a harp, from psallein play on a stringed instrument, Ψαλμοί; Hebrew: Tehilim, תהילים, or praises) is a book of the Hebrew Bible, Tanakh or Old Testament. ... The Book of Proverbs is one of the books of the Ketuvim of the Tanakh and of the Writings of the Old Testament. ... Ecclesiastes, Qohelet in Hebrew, is a book of the Hebrew Bible. ... Song of Solomon is also the title of a novel by Toni Morrison. ... This article is about the Book of Isaiah. ... The Book of Jeremiah, or Jeremiah (יִרְמְיָהוּ YirmÉ™yāhÅ« in Hebrew), is part of the Hebrew Bible, Judaisms Tanakh, and later became a part of Christianitys Old Testament. ... The Book of Lamentations (Hebrew מגילת איכה) is a book of the Bible Old Testament and Jewish Tanakh. ... Book Of Ezekiel is rapper Freekey Zekeys debut album and debut on Diplomat Records/Asylum. ... For other uses, see Book of Daniel (disambiguation). ... A minor prophet is a book in Minor Prophets section of the Hebrew Bible also known to Christians as the Old Testament. ... Tobias and the Angel, by Filippino Lippi The Book of Tobit (or Book of Tobias in older Catholic Bibles) is a book of scripture that is part of the Catholic and Orthodox and Anglican biblical canon, pronounced canonical by the Council of Carthage of 397 and confirmed for Roman Catholics... Judith with the Head of Holophernes, by Christophano Allori, 1613 (Pitti Palace, Florence) The Book of Judith is a deuterocanonical book, included in the Septuagint and in the Roman Catholic and Eastern Orthodox Christian Old Testament of the Bible, but excluded by Jews and Protestants. ... 1 Maccabees is a deuterocanonical book of the Bible which was written by a Jewish (pre-Christian) author, probably about 100 BC, after the restoration of an independent Jewish kingdom. ... 2 Maccabees is a deuterocanonical book of the Bible which focuses on the Jews revolt against Antiochus and concludes with the defeat of the Syrian general Nicanor in 161 BC by Judas Maccabeus, the hero of the work. ... Wisdom or the Wisdom of Solomon is one of the deuterocanonical books of the Bible. ... The Wisdom of Ben Sira (or The Wisdom of Jesus son of Sirach or merely Sirach), also called Ecclesiasticus (not to be confused with Ecclesiastes) by some Christians, is a book written circa 180–175 BC. The author, Yeshua ben Sira, was a Jew who had been living in Jerusalem... It has been suggested that Epistle of Jeremy be merged into this article or section. ... Letter of Jeremiah is an Apocryphal book consisting of a letter ascribed to Jeremiah to the Jews in exile in Babylon warning them against idolatry by demonstrating its unreasonableness. ... The Book of Jeremiah, or Jeremiah (יִרְמְיָהוּ YirmÉ™yāhÅ« in Hebrew), is part of the Hebrew Bible, Judaisms Tanakh, and later became a part of Christianitys Old Testament. ... The additions to Daniel comprise of three additional chapters appended to the Hebrew/Aramaic text of Daniel from the Greek Septuagint. ... Megillah redirects here. ... By far the most important of the many synods held at Jerusalem (see Wetzer and Welte, Kirchenlexikon, 2nd ed. ... 1 Esdras is a book from the Septuagint (LXX) translation of the Old Testament regarded as a deuterocanonical book in Eastern and Oriental Orthodoxy, but rejected as apocryphal by Jews, Catholics, and most Protestants. ... 1. ... The Biblical book 3 Maccabees is found in most Orthodox Bibles as a part of the deuterocanonical books. ... The book of 4 Maccabees is a homily or philosophic discourse praising the supremacy of pious reason over passion. ... This short work of only 15 verses purports to be the penitential prayer of the Judean king Manasseh, who is recorded in the Bible as one of the most idolatrous (2 Kings 21:1-18). ... This article or section is missing references or citation of sources. ... The Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahido Church is an Oriental Orthodox church in Ethiopia that was part of the Coptic Church until it was granted its own Patriarch by Cyril VI, the Coptic Pope, in 1959. ... In the Septuagint and for Eastern Orthodox Christians, 2 Esdras refers to the combination of Ezra and Nehemiah. ... The Book of Jubilees (ספר היובלים), sometimes called the Lesser Genesis (Leptogenesis), is an ancient Jewish religious work. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... A series of three books in the Ethiopian Biblical canon. ... 4 Baruch, also known as the Paraleipomena of Jeremiah when combined with the Epistle of Jeremy, is a text regarded as apocryphal by all Christian denominations except for the Ethiopian Orthodox Church. ... Syriac is an Eastern Aramaic language that was once spoken across much of the Fertile Crescent. ... The Peshitta is the standard version of the Bible in the Syriac language. ... Psalms 152 to 155 are additional Psalms found in the Syriac Peshitta, in Greek Septuagint manuscripts, and in the Qumran scrolls: 11QPs(a)154,155. ... 2 Baruch or the Syriac Apocalypse of Baruch is a Jewish pseudepigraphical text written in the late 1st century CE or early 2nd century CE, after the fall of Jerusalem to the Romans in 70 CE. It is not part of the canon of either the Jewish or most Christian... For the musical collective, see Tanakh (band). ... The Torah () is the most important document in Judaism, revered as the inspired word of G-d (the vocal is never spelled), traditionally said to have been revealed to Moses. ... Neviim [נביאים] (Heb: Prophets) is the second of the three major sections in the Tanakh (Hebrew Bible), following the Torah and preceding Ketuvim (writings). ... Ketuvim is the third and final section of the Tanakh (Hebrew Bible). ... Neviim [נביאים] (Heb: Prophets) is the second of the three major sections in the Tanakh (Hebrew Bible), following the Torah and preceding Ketuvim (writings). ... The Book of Joshua is the sixth book in both the Hebrew Tanakh and the Old Testament of the Christian Bible. ... Book of Judges (Hebrew: Sefer Shoftim ספר שופטים) is a book of the Bible originally written in Hebrew. ... The Books of Kings (‎) is a part of Judaisms Tanakh, the Hebrew Bible. ... This article is about the Book of Isaiah. ... The Book of Jeremiah, or Jeremiah (יִרְמְיָהוּ YirmÉ™yāhÅ« in Hebrew), is part of the Hebrew Bible, Judaisms Tanakh, and later became a part of Christianitys Old Testament. ... Book Of Ezekiel is rapper Freekey Zekeys debut album and debut on Diplomat Records/Asylum. ... A minor prophet is a book in Minor Prophets section of the Hebrew Bible also known to Christians as the Old Testament. ... Hosea: Salvation The Book of Hosea is one of the books of the Hebrew Bible and of the Christian Old Testament. ... The Book of Joel is part of the Jewish Tanakh, and also the Old Testament of the Christian Bible. ... The Book of Amos is one of the books of the Neviim and of the Old Testament. ... The Book of Obadiah is found in both the Hebrew Bible and the Old Testament of the Christian Bible, where it is the shortest book, only one chapter long. ... In the Hebrew Bible, the Book of Jonah is the fifth book in a series of books called the Minor Prophets (itself a subsection of the Nevi’im or Prophets). ... The Book of Micah (Hebrew: ספר מיכה) is one of the books of the Hebrew Bible and the Christian Old Testament, traditionally attributed to Micah the Prophet. ... The book of Nahum is a book in the Bibles Old Testament and Jewish Tanakh. ... // The Prophet There is not much biographical information on the prophet Habakkuk; in fact less is known about this prophet than any other. ... // Who wrote it? The superscription of the Book of Zephaniah attributes its authorship to “Zephaniah son of Cushi son of Gedaliah son of Amariah son of Hezekiah, in the days of King Josiah son of Amon of Judah” (1:1, NRSV). ... The Book of Haggai is a book of the Tanakh (Hebrew Bible) and of the Old Testament, written by the prophet Haggai. ... The Book of Zechariah is a book of the Bible Old Testament and Jewish Tanakh attributed to the prophet Zechariah. ... Malachi (or Malachias, מַלְאָכִי, Malʾaḫi, Málakhî) is a book of the Bible Old Testament and Jewish Tanakh, written by the prophet Malachi. ... “Hebrew” redirects here. ... For the musical collective, see Tanakh (band). ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... 11th century manuscript of the Hebrew Bible with Targum Hebrew Bible is a term that refers to the common portions of the Jewish canon and the Christian canons. ... Note: Judaism commonly uses the term Tanakh to refer to its canon, which corresponds to the Protestant Old Testament. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is... “Hebrew” redirects here. ...


Together with what is now referred to as the Book(s) of Kings, the translators who created the Greek Septuagint divided the text into four books, which they named the Books of the Kingdoms. In the Latin Vulgate version, these then became the Books of the Kings, thus 1 and 2 Samuel were referred to as 1 and 2 Kings, with 3 and 4 Kings being what are called 1 and 2 Kings by the King James Bible and its successors. The Books of Kings (‎) is a part of Judaisms Tanakh, the Hebrew Bible. ... The Septuagint: A column of uncial text from 1 Esdras in the Codex Vaticanus, the basis of Sir Lancelot Charles Lee Brentons Greek edition and English translation. ... For other uses, see Latin (disambiguation). ... The Vulgate Bible is an early 5th century version in Latin, partly revised and partly translated by Jerome on the orders of Pope Damasus I in 382. ... (Redirected from 1 Kings) The Books of Kings (also known as [The Book of] Kings in Hebrew: Sefer Melachim מלכים) is a part of Judaisms Tanakh, the Hebrew Bible. ... The Books of Kings (also known as [The Book of] Kings in Hebrew: Sefer Melachim מלכים) is a part of Judaisms Tanakh, the Hebrew Bible. ... (Redirected from 1 Kings) The Books of Kings (also known as [The Book of] Kings in Hebrew: Sefer Melachim מלכים) is a part of Judaisms Tanakh, the Hebrew Bible. ... The Books of Kings (also known as [The Book of] Kings in Hebrew: Sefer Melachim מלכים) is a part of Judaisms Tanakh, the Hebrew Bible. ... This page is about the version of the Bible; for the Harvey Danger album, see King James Version (album). ... There are many attempts to translate the Bible into modern English which is defined as the form of English in use after 1800. ...

Contents

Contents

The two books can be essentially broken down into five parts:

  • The period of Yahweh's rejection of Eli, Samuel's birth, and subsequent judgment (1 Samuel 1:1–7:17)
  • The period of the life of Saul prior to meeting David (1 Samuel 8:1–15:35)
  • The period of Saul's interaction with David (1 Samuel 16:1–2 Samuel 1:27)
  • The period of David's reign and the rebellions he suffers (2 Samuel 2:1–20:22)
  • An appendix of material concerning David in no particular order, and out of sequence with the rest of the text (2 Samuel 22:1–24:25)

A conclusion of sorts appears at 1 Kings 1–2, concerning Solomon enacting a final revenge on those who did what David perceived as wrongdoing, and having a similar narrative style. While the subject matter in the Book(s) of Samuel is also covered by the narrative in Chronicles, it is noticeable that the section (2 Sam. 11:2–12:29) containing an account of the matter of Bathsheba is omitted in the corresponding passage in 1 Chr. 20. Eli (Hebrew: עֵלִי, Standard Tiberian  ; Ascent) was, according to the Books of Samuel, the name of a priest of Shiloh, and one of the last Israelite Judges before the rule of kings in ancient Israel. ... Samuel or Shmuel (Hebrew: שְׁמוּאֵל, Standard Tiberian ) is an important leader of ancient Israel in the Book(s) of Samuel in the Hebrew Bible. ... Saul (שאול המלך) (or Shaul) (Hebrew: , Standard  Tiberian  ; asked for) is identified in the Books of Samuel, 1 Chronicles and the Quran as the first king of the ancient Kingdom of Israel. ... This article is about the Biblical king of Israel. ... (Redirected from 1 Kings) The Books of Kings (also known as [The Book of] Kings in Hebrew: Sefer Melachim מלכים) is a part of Judaisms Tanakh, the Hebrew Bible. ... This article is about the Biblical figure. ... The Book of Chronicles is a book in the Hebrew Bible (also see Old Testament). ... Bathsheba (בת שבע) is the wife of Uriah the Hittite and later of King David in the Hebrew Bible. ...


Samuel

  • Story of Eli (portions of 1 Samuel 1:1–4:22): Eli's sons are the priests at Shiloh, but they abuse their position. A man of God comes to Eli and tells him that owing to this behaviour, Yahweh has revoked his promise of perpetual priesthood for his family, and Eli's sons will die on the same day. Samuel confirms that there is no way for them to avoid the fate. His sons duly die on the same day during a battle, and the Holy Ark is captured by the Philistines. Upon hearing the latter, Eli drops dead from shock.
  • Story of Hannah (remainder of 1 Samuel 1:1–1:28): Hannah is childless, but then makes a vow promising that if she has a son, he will be dedicated to Yahweh and be a Nazarite. Eli blesses her and a child is soon born. The child is identified as Samuel, though many modern academics think this is a later edit to the story and it was originally the birth narrative of Saul.
  • Song of Hannah (1 Samuel 2:1–10): Hannah pronounces a poem concerning Yahweh's magnificence that has strong similarities to the later Magnificat
  • The Philistine captivity of the Ark (1 Samuel 4:1–7:1): The Philistines attack Ebenezer and capture the ark, taking it to their temple to Dagon. Eli's daughter-in-law, Pinchas's wife, goes into labour. After hearing the Eli died, the agony of labour overwhelms her and she dies, yet gives birth to a child named Ichabod (without glory). The next morning, the Dagon statue is found prostrate before it, so they adjust it, but the morning after it is found broken into pieces. The town surrounding it falls victim to a plague, so the Philistines resign themselves to get rid of the ark, first sending it on to Gath, and then to Ekron, both of which fall victim to the plague. On the advice of fortune tellers, the Philistines put the ark, and additional offerings, on a cow driven cart, and send it off, driverless, it getting to Beth Shemesh. The locals celebrate, and ask the people of Kiriath-Jearim to collect the ark, which they do, taking it to the house of Abinadab.
  • The battle of Ebenezer (1 Samuel 7:3–14). The Philistines attack the Israelites who have gathered at Mizpah. Samuel appeals to Yahweh, and so the Philistines are decisively beaten. Samuel sets up a stone at Ebenezer in memory. The Israelites then attack Ekron and Gath, freeing the people, and make peace with the Amorites.

Eli (Hebrew: עֵלִי, Standard Tiberian  ; Ascent) was, according to the Books of Samuel, the name of a priest of Shiloh, and one of the last Israelite Judges before the rule of kings in ancient Israel. ... Shiloh may be: A name mentioned in the Bible: Shiloh (Biblical), meaning peace or: // Shiloh (river), stream in the Samarian mountains, originating at Biblical Shiloh. ... For other uses, see Yahweh (disambiguation). ... The Ark of the Covenant (ארון הברית in Hebrew: aron habrit) is described in the Hebrew Bible as a sacred container, wherein rested the stone tablets containing the Ten Commandments as well as other sacred Israelite objects. ... Hannah (or Chana) (Hebrew: ×—× ×” - Grace [of God]) was a wife of Elkanah and the mother of the prophet Samuel as recorded in the Book of Samuel. ... A Nazarite or Nazirite, Nazir in Hebrew, was a Jew who took an ascetic vow described in the Book of Numbers at 6:1-21. ... Samuel or Shmuel (Hebrew: שְׁמוּאֵל, Standard Tiberian ) is an important leader of ancient Israel in the Book(s) of Samuel in the Hebrew Bible. ... Saul (שאול המלך) (or Shaul) (Hebrew: , Standard  Tiberian  ; asked for) is identified in the Books of Samuel, 1 Chronicles and the Quran as the first king of the ancient Kingdom of Israel. ... The Song of Hannah is a poem interrupting the prose text of the Books of Samuel. ... The Visitation in the Book of Hours of the Duc of Berry For the David and the Giants album, see Magnificat (album) The Magnificat (also known as the Song of Mary) is a canticle frequently sung (or said) liturgically in Christian church services. ... The Ark of the Covenant (ארון הברית in Hebrew: aron habrit) is described in the Hebrew Bible as a sacred container, wherein rested the stone tablets containing the Ten Commandments as well as other sacred Israelite objects. ... Ebenezer may refer to Eben-Ezer, a place name mentioned by the Books of Samuel, in the Hebrew Bible Ebenezer, New South Wales, a town near Sydney Ebenezer, a mans name, originally in reference to the Biblical location, of which notable owners are: Ebenezer Scrooge, a fictional character created... Dagon was a major northwest Semitic god, reportedly of grain and agriculture. ... Ichabod, in the Bible, is the son of Phinehas. ... Gath (גת Hebrew: winepress), a common place name in ancient Israel and the surrounding regions. ... The city of Ekron (Hebrew עֶקְרוֹן, Standard Hebrew Ê»Eqron, Tiberian Hebrew Ê»Eqrôn) was one of the five Philistine cities in southwestern Canaan. ... Bet Shemesh is a large Jewish neighborhood near Jerusalem in the modern State of Israel. ... Kiriath-Jearim - city of woods - was a city in ancient Israel. ... This entry incorporates text from Eastons Bible Dictionary, 1897, with some modernisation. ...

Saul

The period of Saul's life before he meets David involves
  • The appointment of Saul (1 Samuel 8:1–11:15): In Samuel's old age, he appoints his sons as Judges, but they do not follow his example, so the people clamour for a king. God begrudgingly accedes and Samuel gives the people a list of regulations about the king. Meanwhile, Saul, who is handsome, is searching for the donkeys of his family and when his search takes him to Zuph, he seeks out the wise man who lives there, on the advice of his servant and some girls. Samuel comes toward Saul as he enters the town, and realises that Saul is the man that Yahweh has chosen to be king, so he is hospitable to him. The next day, Samuel anoints him, and gives three prophecies of events on Saul's journey home. The third prophecy, that Samuel will meet a band of prophets preceded by musical instruments, comes true, leading to the proverb Is Saul also among the Prophets? (cf. 1 Samuel 10:12). After calling the people together at Mizpah, Samuel whittles them down by lot to Saul, and announces that he is king. Saul tries to hide but is much taller than everyone else. Some people criticise the decision.
  • The story of Nahash (1 Samuel 11:1–11): Nahash, an Ammonite, lays siege to Jabesh-gilead, so its people request a treaty, but Nahash is arrogant and requires that each person must have their right eye gouged out. The people request that Nahash let them send out messengers in search of a savior, and Nahash, unaware that Israel has a king, and believing that the tribes are still separated, agrees. After hearing of the siege, Saul orders the people of Israel to join him in an attack on Nahash, and threatens them by sending out a piece of a cow to each of the 12 tribes. Saul consequently gathers an army and attacks that of Nahash, obliterating it. The people take this as evidence of Saul's ability to lead, and so consequently they are told by Samuel to appoint him king, which he does.
  • Saul's rejection (1 Samuel 12:1–13:15, and 15:1–35): Samuel gives a speech reminding the Israelites not to fall into heathenism like their previous generations have done. The Hebrews/Jonathan (depending on the text—Masoretic has Jonathan, Septuagint has Hebrews) overcome the Philistines in Gibeah. Saul sounds the trumpet to tell all Israel that he (Saul) has overcome the Philistines there. The Philistines assemble for battle, frightening the Israelites, but, in accordance with Samuel's instructions, Saul waits seven days for Samuel to arrive, before giving up his wait and making a sacrifice. Samuel turns up and castigates Saul for not waiting, telling him that as a result his kingdom will not last. Saul, successful and brave, defeats Amalek. Samuel orders Saul to exterminate Amalek, but although Saul subsequently slaughters the Amalekites, he does not slaughter the animals, and captures the king, Agag, alive. Saul also erects a trophy at Carmel in his own honour. Samuel berates him for not carrying out the mass extermination completely, so Saul repents and begs Samuel to go with him. Samuel refuses, and leaves, but Saul grabs at him, tearing part of Samuel's mantle, for which Samuel says that part of Saul's kingdom will be torn off and given to another. Samuel kills Agag himself, by hacking him into pieces (wa-yeshassef).
  • The Battle of Michmash (1 Samuel 13:16–14:46): While Saul and his son occupy Geba, the philistines raid the nearby land. Previously, the Philistines had ensured that there were no smiths in the land, causing the people of Israel to be devoid of weaponry, excepting Saul and Jonathan. Jonathan secretly heads to the Philistine outpost at Michmash with his armour bearer, first crossing a ravine, and manage between them to slaughter large numbers of Philistines who panic and scatter. Saul notices and eventually sends his army to help. The Hebrews were previously on the Philistine side (some translations add the words some of, making this refer only to a sub group of Hebrews), but decide to join the forces of Israel. In a moment of foolishness, Saul curses anyone that eats anything before the evening, but Jonathan does not notice and consumes some honey he finds. This rapidly leads to others following suit, and ignoring Saul's curse. Saul builds an altar, insisting that it be used to sacrifice before the food is eaten, and condemns the whomever Yahweh decides is at fault, for violating his curse, to death. Saul uses Urim and Thummim to find out that Yahweh has pointed the finger at Jonathan, so reluctantly condemns him, but the army say they will revolt if Saul kills him, so he does not.

Zuph - honeycomb - is in the Bible name of: A Kohathite Levite, ancestor of Elkanah and Samuel (1 Sam. ... This entry incorporates text from Eastons Bible Dictionary, 1897, with some modernisation. ... For other uses, see Ammonite (disambiguation). ... Jabesh-Gilead, an ancient town in the territory of the Tribe of Gad. ... The Masoretic Text (MT) is the Hebrew text of the Tanakh approved for general use in Judaism. ... The Septuagint: A column of uncial text from 1 Esdras in the Codex Vaticanus, the basis of Sir Lancelot Charles Lee Brentons Greek edition and English translation. ... According to the Book of Genesis and 1 Chronicles, Amalek (Hebrew: , Standard  Tiberian ) was the son of Eliphaz and the grandson of Esau (Gen. ... Agag - flame, the usual title of the Amalekite kings, as Pharaoh was of the Egyptian. ... Michmash - something hidden, a town of Benjamin (Ezra 2:27), east of Bethel and south of Migron, on the road to Jerusalem (Isa. ... For the ancient city of Urim see Ur. ... For the ancient city of Urim see Ur. ...

The ascent of David

  • David's rise from obscurity (1 Samuel 16:1–17:58): Samuel is told to go to Bethlehem by Yahweh, to find a replacement for Saul. Each of the sons of Jesse are rejected in turn, except David, the youngest, whom Samuel is told to anoint. A demon is sent by Yahweh to torment Saul, so Saul's servants try to find a harpist to sooth his temper. David is known for his skill in the art and so is brought to court. The Philistines rally against Israel, and the, imposing, Goliath of Gath steps out and suggests that rather than fight a battle, the Israelites should just send a champion to fight him. David, who is bringing provisions to his brothers in Israel's army, speaks against Goliath to his brothers, and Saul overhears him. David persuades a reluctant Saul to let him challenge Goliath. David takes down Goliath with a single stone from a sling, and killed him by decapitation with Goliath's own sword, and so the Philistines flee.
  • Details of David in Saul's court (1 Samuel 18:1–20:42): Jonathan takes a shine to David, and since David succeeds in everything Saul tasks him with, women praise David as greater than Saul. To get rid of this perceived threat, Saul promises David the hand of his daughter, Merob, in marriage if he becomes Saul's champion, but Merob is married off to someone else before David accepts. Saul notices that Michal, his other daughter, is in love with David, so, in order to send him on to his death, offers her to him in exchange for 200 foreskins of the Philistines, but David successfully kills 200 Philistines, so weds Michal. Saul talks to Jonathan about his plans to kill David, but owing to Jonathan's relationship with David, Jonathan dissuades Saul and informs David. While David is in Saul's court, Saul throws a spear at David, but misses. Saul then sends guards to David's house, but Michal makes David escape, and places a statue in the bed and pretends to the guards that it is him. On discovering David's location, Saul sends out successive guards, but they all meet a group of prophets and join them instead, as does Saul when he eventually decides to go himself, hence the phrase Is Saul also among the prophets? (c.f. 1 Samuel 19:24). David then meets Jonathan and asks him to secretly find out Saul's intentions, but Saul tells Jonathan that he knows that Jonathan is David's companion, and that he intends to kill David. Jonathan is so hurt that he stops eating, and then later goes off to tell David.
  • The story of Ahimelech (1 Samuel 21:2–9, and 22:6–23) David flees to Ahimelech, priest of Nob, who only has holy bread. As David abstains from the company of women on such journeys, Ahimelech allows David to take the bread, and Goliath's sword which Ahimelech had been keeping. David then flees. Saul's chief henchman, Doeg, witnessed Ahimelech assisting David, so Saul has Doeg kill him, and all the people in Nob, though Ahimelech's son, Abiathar, escapes to tell David.
  • Saul's pursuit of David (1 Samuel 22:1–5, and 23:1–28) David has fled to the cave of Adullam, where he amasses a band of outlaws. David decides to leave his parents in the care of the king of Moab, where the prophet, Gad, tells him to flee, so David moves to the forest of Hereth. The people of Keilah are attacked by the Philistines so David rescues them, but Saul hears of it and sets out against him, so David flees. Jonathan briefly visits David at Horesh, and returns home. The people of Ziph tell Saul where David is, so Saul chases David into a gorge, but is forced to break off pursuit when the Philistines invade elsewhere and he must fight them. The gorge becomes known as Sela-hammahlekoth (gorge of divisions)
  • David's reconciliation with Saul (1 Samuel 24:1–25:1a, and 26:1–27). David hides in the caves near Engedi, and Saul hears of this and pursues him. Saul enters the cave where David hides, and David sneaks up on him and cuts off the end of his mantle (coincidentally, Saul has also done this to Samuel, above). As Saul has been anointed, David regrets this, and forbids his men from harming Saul, and then steps out of the cave to show himself. David convinces Saul that he is not a threat, and the two reconcile. The two depart from one another, and Samuel dies. Men from Ziph tell Saul that David is hiding at Hachilah, so goes to search for him. David, and Abishai, sneak into Saul's camp and steal Saul's spear. They then go a long way away and shout back what they have just done, and persuade Saul that David is not a threat, the two consequently being reconciled.
  • The story of Abigail (1 Samuel 25:1b–43): David tries to get hospitality from a man at Maon, named Nabal, who owns property in Carmel, but Nabal is miserly and refuses. Angered, David prepares to attack Nabal and kill those surrounding him. Nabal's clever and pretty wife, Abigail, sends David provisions, causing David to relent. She tells Nabal, once he has sobered up, and Nabal is soon after struck dead by Yahweh. David thus proposes marriage to Abigail, who accepts. David also marries Ahinoam of Jezreel, though meanwhile Michal, his original wife, is transferred by Saul to another man, Palti.
  • The story of Achish (1 Samuel 21:10–16, 27:1–28:2, and 29:1–11): David decides that it is better to be on the safe side, and so chooses to reside amongst the Philistines, staying with the king of Gath, Achish. Previously David had briefly fled to Achish having left Ahimelech, where he feigned insanity to avoid attracting attention, but this time he lets Achish realise that he is an enemy of Saul. However, David continues to make raids against the surrounding population, slaughtering everyone he meets so that none will tell Achish what he has done. When he brings back spoils, he tells the king of Gath that he has raided against some foreign group or the Israelites or Judah. Achish trusts him implicitly, and so requests that David join him in an attack on Jezreel. The Philistines encamp against the Israelites, but are curious why the Hebrews (some translations have "some of the Hebrews") are amongst the Philistines. Uneasy about David's presence they tell Achish to send him away, and so Achish reluctantly does so.
  • The Witch of Endor (1 Samuel 28:3–25): Samuel dies (c.f. 1 Samuel 25), and Saul sees the Philistines encamping at Shunem, and is disheartened. Saul tries to consult God for advice but receives no reply, and as he has banned necromancy and prophecy, in accordance with the mitzvah, he is forced to disguise himself and go to the Witch of Endor. He asks her to bring up Samuel from the dead, which she does, and Samuel admonishes Saul for acting this way, and tells him that owing to Saul's past failure to commit complete genocide regarding Amalek, Saul is already condemned. Saul becomes deeply shaken, and refuses to eat, but is eventually persuaded.
  • The story of Ziklag (1 Samuel 30:1–31): Ziklag is burnt to the ground by the Amalekites, though they take the people, including David's wives, captive. David and his men therefore set off in pursuit, though some give up on the way. The men meet a slave of the Amalekites who has escaped and who leads them to the Amalekite raiders. David slaughters all but 400 of the raiders, and recovers his property and wives, as well as extra spoil which he divides amongst his followers, except those that gave up, and sends a portion of the spoil to Judah, city by city.
  • The death of Saul and Jonathan (1 Samuel 31:1–2 Samuel 1:27): the Philistines attack the Israelites at Gilboa, and kill Jonathan and inflict a mortal wound on Saul. Saul asks his armour bearer to finish him off. His armour bearer refuses so Saul falls on his own sword. The armour bearer then kills himself. The Philistines cut the bodies into pieces, displaying them on the wall of Bethshan, though the inhabitants of Jabesh-gilead later rescue the bodies, cremating them and burying the bones under a tamarisk tree. An Amalekite comes to David and tells him that Saul and Jonathan are dead, and that Saul was mortally wounded and asked him to finish him, so he did so. David is incensed and orders the Amalekite to be killed, delivering a eulogy about Jonathan and Saul, which is recorded in the Book of Jasher.

Central Bethlehem This article is about the city in the West Bank. ... For other uses, see Jesse (disambiguation). ... This article is about the Biblical king of Israel. ... Harp is also a slang term for the diatonic harmonica. ... This article is about the biblical warrior. ... Gath (גת Hebrew: winepress), a common place name in ancient Israel and the surrounding regions. ... Home-made sling. ... Gustave Doré, 1865, Michal helps young David escape. ... David and Jonathan were heroic figures of the Kingdom of Israel, whose intimate relationship was recorded favorably in the Old Testament books of Samuel. ... This entry incorporates text from Eastons Bible Dictionary, 1897, with some modernisation. ... Adullam is a town referred to in the Hebrew Bible. ... Keilah (Citadel) was a city in the lowlands of Judah (Joshua 15:44). ... Abigail (אֲבִיגַיִל / אֲבִיגָיִל her Fathers joy or, fountain of joy ;leader of/is dance/, Standard Hebrew Avigáyil, Tiberian Hebrew ʾĂḇîḡáyil / ʾĂḇîḡāyil), once Abigal (Samuel 2 3:3), is a female character in the Bible. ... In particle physics, preons are postulated point-like particles, that are subparticles of quarks and leptons. ... Nabal (נבל הכרמלי) is a person in the Hebrew Bible who defies the order of King David of the Kingdom of Israel, and is reportedly killed by God as a punishment for his disobedience. ... Carmel may refer to: // Barri del Carmel, district in the city of Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain Carmel, Indiana, city in Hamilton County, Indiana, United States Carmel, New York, town located in Putnam County, New York, USA Carmel, Western Australia, suburb of Perth, Western Australia Carmel Hamlet, New York, hamlet located in... Palti is the name of two individuals in the Hebrew Bible. ... This entry incorporates text from Eastons Bible Dictionary, 1897, with some modernisation. ... The Witch of Endor: from the frontispiece to Sadducismus Triumphatus by Joseph Glanvill In the Hebrew Bible, the Witch of Endor of the First book of Samuel, chapter 28:4–25, was a witch, a woman who possesses a talisman, through which she called up the ghost of the recently... This article is about commandments in Judaism. ... This entry incorporates text from Eastons Bible Dictionary, 1897, with some modernisation. ... Jabesh-Gilead, an ancient town in the territory of the Tribe of Gad. ... This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ...

The Court of David

  • The story of Ishbaal (2 Samuel 2:1–3:1, 3:6–4:3, and 4:5–5:5): David is anointed king in Hebron, but only over Judah. Saul's son, Ishbaal, is taken by Abner to Mahanaim and appointed king of Israel. The two sides meet at Gibeon and stage some form of activity between 12 men on each side, thrusting swords into their opponents, hence the place became known as Helkath-hazzurim (field of sides). After a fierce battle, David's side wins. Asahel, brother of Joab, David's commander, sets out after Abner, but Abner twice tells him to stop, but since he does not listen, Abner thrusts his javelin into Asahel, who dies. Joab continues the chase as far as Ammah, where Abner warns him to stop to avoid more bad blood, so Joab stops the pursuit. However, there was a war between the two groups that lasted for ages with David's side gradually winning. Abner is accused of being intimate with Rizpah, one of Saul's concubines, by Ishbaal. Abner decides to change sides due to this accusation, and brings Michal back to David, sending Paltiel, her other husband, back home weeping. Abner persuades the elders of Israel to change to David's side as well. When Abner arrives in David's court, Joab secretly follows him, and stabs him in revenge for killing his brother. David however curses Joab for this, and sings a eulogy to Abner. Ishbaal is killed in his sleep by his own leaders, the sons of Rimmon, who cut off his head and take it to David, but David has them killed for killing a king. David is anointed King of Israel in Hebron.
  • A list of the sons of David (2 Samuel 3:2–5 and 5:13–16): During Ishbaal's rebellion, David has some children. Later, David takes more concubines and has further children.
  • The conquest of Jerusalem (2 Samuel 5:6–12, and 5:17–7:29): David sets out for Jerusalem, and manages to take the stronghold of Zion. Since he was told by the Jebusites that the blind and the lame would turn him away, he makes the blind and the lame his personal enemy. David instructs his people to attack the Jebusites via the water shaft. Hiram, king of Tyre, sends master craftsmen to David to build him a palace, and David also builds up the area surrounding it. The Philistines attack, overrunning the valley of Rephaim, but he defeats them at a place that becomes known as Baal-perazim (lord of scatterings). The second attack by the Philistines is defeated when David approaches via the rear, and they are routed. David then requests the Ark be moved to Jerusalem, but when it reaches Nodan it is unsteady, and Uzzah puts his hand on it to steady it, but is struck dead for this by Yahweh. David becomes more cautious and leaves the ark with Obed-edom for three months, though noting Obed-edom's subsequent good fortune, brings the Ark to Zion. David joins the subsequent celebrations, but is castigated for doing so by Michal, who accuses him of exposing himself, and hence Michal is made permanently infertile by Yahweh. David asks Nathan whether the Ark should be housed in grander settings, but Nathan tells him that where it is fine for the moment and prophecies that one of David's sons will be the one to build a new home for it.
  • The story of David's vassal states (2 Samuel 8:1–15): David attacks the Philistines, taking their methegammah (literally bridle of the cubit though many translations render this as chief cities). David also defeats Moab and executes a proportion (either ⅓ or ⅔) of their entire population, making Moab a vassal. David then defeats Hadadezer, and though the Aramaeans come to Hadadezer's aid, David slaughters them, making the Aramaeans vassals. King Toi of Hamath, Hadadezer's enemy, congratulates David and adds to his spoils of precious metals. On his return (from an unspecified location), David becomes famous for slaughtering 18,000 Edomites, whereupon Edom becomes a vassal state.
  • A list of officers in David's court (2 Samuel 8:16–18, and 20:23–26): A list of officers in David's court is given on two occasions. The list includes the head of the army, chancellor (Jehoshaphat), master of the slaves, and commander of foreign troops, as well as the two priests—Zadok and Abiathar, David's personal priest—Ira the Jairite, and the name of a scribe—Shawsha.
  • The story of the mercenaries of the Ammonites (2 Samuel 10:1–19): The king of the Ammonites dies, and is succeeded by Hanun, so, reflecting the prior king's kindness to David, David sends messengers to Hanun to give his condolences. However, they are interpreted by Hanun as spies, so he has the base of their beards cut off, and the base of their garments below their buttocks, giving them a Babylonian appearance. When they return, David tells them to wait in Jericho until their beards grow. The Ammonites then prepare for war, and hire a mercenary army from Aram, Tob, and Maacah, but it does not reach the Ammonites before David's army are too close. Joab splits David's army into two groups, one to attack the Aramaeans, and one to attack the Ammonites. The Aramaeans flee before David's army, and so the Ammonites, now without help, withdraw. Hadadezer hires Aramaeans that live beyond the Euphrates, and they attack the Israelites at Helam. Shobach, Hadadezer's general, is defeated and killed, and so Hadadezer's vassal states decide to become David's vassals instead.
  • The story of Bathsheba (11:1–12:31) David sends his army to besiege Rabbah. From his rooftop, he spots a pretty woman, and later finds out that she is Bathsheba, the wife of Uriah, Joab's armour bearer. David has relations with her, and she becomes pregnant, so he orders Uriah to be placed in the heaviest part of the fighting, and for the army to draw back from him. Uriah is consequently killed by an archer, and David marries Bathsheba. Nathan, a prophet, tells David a parable, asking him for an analysis. When Nathan reveals that the parable describes his actions over Uriah, David realises that by his analysis he has condemned himself. Nathan tells him that the house of David will be cursed with always falling victim to the sword. More directly, Bathsheba's child dies as punishment. David has relations with her again, and she has a son that she names Solomon, but Nathan names Jedediah. Joab finally captures Rabbah and the bejewelled crown of Milcom is taken and given to David for his own head.
  • The rape of Tamar[disambiguation needed] (13:1–14:33). David's son, Amnon, becomes lovesick for his half-sister, Tamar. His cousin advises him to feign illness and have Tamar be his sick nurse, which he does. Persuading Tamar to feed him at his bedside, Amnon rapes her. Tamar complains to her brother, Absalom, but as Amnon is his eldest son, David will not do anything. Absalom holds a party and invites all the princes, and Amnon is sent there on David's behalf. When Amnon becomes drunk, he is killed by Absalom's servants, under the order of Absalom. The princes flee back to David, and Absalom flees to the king of Geshur. Over time, David becomes reconciled to Amnon, and so Joab hatches a plan. Joab gets a woman to visit David and feign sorrow about a situation that mirrors that of David, tricking him into acknowledging that Absalom should be brought back and not harmed. When Absalom is brought back, David orders him to remain in his own home, but Absalom keeps asking Joab to see David. Joab does not respond so Absalom sets Joab's field on fire, and when Joab turns up, persuades him to let him see David, who becomes reconciled to Absalom.
  • The rebellion of Absalom (15:1–37, 16:5–19:24, and 19:32–41): Absalom builds up a gradual following, eventually having enough supporters that he plans a coup against David. An informant tells David, who tells his supporters to flee Jerusalem to the Mount of Olives. At the Mount of Olives, David tells his foreign mercenaries to go back to Jerusalem as they owe no allegiance, but they insist on going with David. David also sends back Zadok and Abiathar, the priests, and his friend, Hushai, to act as an informant. A man, Shimei, throws stones at David and curses him, so Abishai asks David to kill Shimei, but David will not let him, claiming that Yahweh has made Shimei do this. On the advice of Ahithophel, Absalom has relations with David's concubines, on his roof, so that the whole nation can see his contempt for David. After receiving counsel from both Ahithophel and Hushai, Absalom chooses Hushai's plan to send all Israel to attack David over Ahithophel's, so Ahithophel commits suicide in shame. Hushai sends word to David of the plan via spies hidden in a cistern at En-rogel. Absalom sends his army across the Jordan, and David prepares his own troops, asking that Absalom be treated gently. A huge battle erupts between the armies in the forests near Mahanaim, but while riding on his mule, Absalom gets caught in a tree by his hair, and is stuck hanging there. Although the first people from David's side to discover Absalom like this refuse to harm him, owing to David's request, Joab has no such qualms and kills Absalom. David becomes extremely upset, but pulls himself together and returns victorious to Jerusalem, accompanied by Judah.
  • The story of Meribbaal (2 Samuel 4:4, 9:1–13, 16:1–4, and 19:25–31): Jonathan had a son named Meribbaal, who was 5 when Jonathan and Saul were killed. When she heard the news of this, Meribaal's nurse took him and fled, but he fell and became crippled. In memory of Jonathan, David shows Meribbaal kindness, gives him Saul's lands, and lets him dine at David's table. He also tells Ziba, a servant of Saul, that Ziba, and his family, must now serve Meribbaal. During Absalom's revolt, Meribbaal remained in Jerusalem, Ziba telling David that this was because Meribbaal hoped that the people of Israel would restore him to his father's throne. Meribbaal does not wash his feet, or his clothes, or even trim his moustache, until David returns to the throne in Jerusalem. On meeting David, Meribbaal tells him that Ziba was lying about his motive for remaining, and reminds David that Meribbaal is lame. David does not care, and orders Meribbaal to split his property with Ziba.
  • The Rebellion of Sheba (2 Samuel 19:42–20:22): The people of Israel feel slighted that those of Judah were preferred by David to accompany him back to the throne, so a war of words breaks out between them. A man named Sheba sounds a horn rallying the people of Israel to him. David asks Amasa to summon the people of Judah to him, and go after Sheba. At the great stone in Gibeon, Amasa meets Joab and them, and while asking how he is, Joab stabs Amasa to death, and drag the body to the side of the road. Joab leads the amassed army of Judah against Sheba who has amassed his own army of Israel at Abel Beth-maachah. Joab lays siege to the town, but a wise woman tells Joab of an ancient expression and that Joab is effectively trying to destroy Yahweh's inheritance. Joab tells her they are only after Sheba, so she gets the townspeople to cut off Sheba's head and throw it over the wall to Joab. Joab then returns to Jerusalem and the rebellion ends.

Ish-bosheth (also called Eshbaal or Ashbaal), appears in the Hebrew Bible. ... Mahanaim - two camps, a place near Jabbok, beyond Jordan River, where Jacob was met by the angels of God, and where he divided his retinue into two hosts on his return from Padan-aram (Gen. ... Zion (Hebrew: צִיּוֹן, tziyyon; Tiberian vocalization: tsiyyôn; transliterated Zion or Sion) is a term that most often designates the Land of Israel and its capital Jerusalem. ... Hiram is the name of some places in the United States of America: Hiram, Georgia Hiram, Maine Hiram, Ohio Other notable people and things named Hiram (Hebrew חִירָם high-born, Standard Hebrew , Tiberian Hebrew ) include: Hiram I, king of Tyrus, 969–936 BC Hiram II, king of Tyrus, 739–730 BC... Baal-Perazim - Owner of Breakings Through - was a place in ancient Israel. ... For pre-Islamic goddess, see Uzza Uzzah - strength, a son of Abinadab, in whose house the men of Kirjath-jearim placed the ark when it was brought back from the land of the Philistines (1 Sam. ... Obed-Edom - servant of Edom. ... The Nathan the Prophet was a seer who lived in the time of King David and his wife Bathsheba. ... Hadadezer (or Hadad-Ezer or Adad-Idri) was the king of Damascus at the time of The Battle of Qarqar. ... In the Bible, Jehoshaphat or Josaphat or Yehoshafat (יְהוֹשָׁפָט The LORD is judge, Standard Hebrew Yəhošafat, Tiberian Hebrew Yəhôšāp̄āṭ) was the son and successor of Asa, king of... This article is being considered for deletion in accordance with Wikipedias deletion policy. ... Abiathar (Heb. ... Look up IRA in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Havoth-Jair is the name used by the Bible to refer to a certain group or groups of villages on the east of the Jordan. ... The term Aram can refer to: Aram (אֲרָם or ), the son of Shem, according to the Table of nations of Genesis 10 in the Hebrew Bible. ... TOB or Tob may refer to: TOB (KTOB) – IATA airport code for Dodge Center Airport – Dodge Center, Minnesota, United States TOB , takeover bid), an acronym used in Japan. ... Maacah has many biblical references: Small Aramean kingdom east of the Sea of Galilee (I Chronicles 19:6). ... Bathsheba (בת שבע) is the wife of Uriah the Hittite and later of King David in the Hebrew Bible. ... This entry incorporates text from Eastons Bible Dictionary, 1897, with some modernisation. ... Uriah or Urijah (Hebrew: , Standard  Tiberian  ; (My) light/flame of/is the ) was the name of several men in the Hebrew Bible. ... The Nathan the Prophet was a seer who lived in the time of King David and his wife Bathsheba. ... This article is about the Biblical figure. ... Moloch or Molech or Molekh representing Hebrew מלך mlk is either the name of a god or the name of a particular kind of sacrifice associated historically with Phoenician and related cultures in north Africa and the Levant. ... The name Tamar has a number of different meanings: Tamar of Georgia Tamar (biblical figure) Tamar - palm tree, Arecaceae River Tamar, Devon, England Tamar River, Tasmania, Australia Tamar, Slovenia, the end of the Planica valley This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might... Absalom or Avshalom (אַבְשָׁלוֹם Father/Leader of/is peace, Standard Hebrew AvÅ¡alom, Tiberian Hebrew ʾAḇšālôm), in the Bible, is the third son of David, king of Israel. ... A coup détat, or simply a coup, is the sudden overthrow of a government, usually done by a small group that just replaces the top power figures. ... This article is being considered for deletion in accordance with Wikipedias deletion policy. ... Shimei is referenced in the Bible and Rabbinical literature. ...

Appendix

(The last section of the books contains miscellaneous material)

  • Gibeon avenged' (2 Samuel 21:1–14): A famine arises which David blames on Saul having put many of the Gibeonites to death. David asks the Gibeonites what he should do as atonement, and they ask to dismember seven men from among Saul's descendants on Yahweh's mountain. David gives seven of Sauls descendants to them, and they are dismembered. Rizpah, the mother of two of them, uses a sackcloth to protect the remains from scavengers, and so David collects the bones of Saul, Jonathon, and those of the seven, and buries them at the tomb of Kish. The famine consequently ends.
  • The Rephaim (2 Samuel 21:15–22) There are four battles against the Philistines, in each one a Rephaim being killed. Goliath (specified as the "brother of Goliath" in 1 Chronicles 20:5) is one of these, and is killed by Elhanan.
  • The Song of David (2 Samuel 22): a psalm, which also constitutes Psalm 18, with minor variations, and involves an obscure reference to leaping over a wall, and another to Yahweh riding a Cherub.
  • The Last words of David (2 Samuel 23:1–7): an enigmatic poem purporting to be David's last words, but lacking context, ending abruptly, and occurring some way before David's death.
  • The Exploits of the Three and the Thirty (2 Samuel 23:8–24a): Several warriors of David are listed, with a gloss covering some of their deeds. A significance is attached to the Thirty and the Three, all the warriors being in at least one of these groups, with the Three being the more significant. The last part of the text is presumed lost, since after naming Ashahel it abruptly breaks off.
  • The The Thirty (2 Samuel 23:24b–39): a list of the Thirty. Despite the name of the group, 37 people are listed, and it is made explicit that there are 37. As 23:23–24 is ...David put him in command of his bodyguard. Ashahel, brother of Joab. Among the thirty....., the middle of verse 23:24 (between the words Joab and Among) is generally presumed to have been lost.
  • The Census of David (2 Samuel 24:1–25). Yahweh becomes angry with the people and Satan tempts David to order a census (this story is also told in 1 Chronicles 21:1ff,). The census makes Yahweh angry, so Gad, the prophet, tells David that Yahweh has given David three options of punishment . David chooses the pestilence option, and so an angel duly goes out and starts killing people. When the angel approaches Jerusalem, Yahweh commands the angel to stop. David buys the land where the angel halted from its owner, Araunah, and builds an altar upon it.

This entry incorporates text from Eastons Bible Dictionary, 1897, with some modernisation. ... This entry incorporates text from Eastons Bible Dictionary, 1897, with some modernisation. ... This article is about the biblical warrior. ... This article is about the biblical warrior. ... (Redirected from 1 Chronicles) The Book of Chronicles is a book in the Hebrew Bible (also see Old Testament). ... The biblical Elhanan was the son of Jaareoregim. ... The Thirty are an order of Warrior Monks from David Gemmells Drenai series. ... Image:1870 census Lindauer Weber 01. ... Grim Reaper redirects here. ... Araunah is the name given by the Books of Samuel to a Jebusite who owned a threshing floor that was purchased by David and turned into an altar. ...

Authorship

Traditionally, the authors of the books of Samuel have been held to be Samuel, Gad, and Nathan. Samuel is believed to have penned the first twenty-four chapters of the first book. Gad, the companion of David (1 Sam. 22:5), is believed to have continued the history thus commenced; and Nathan is believed to have completed it, probably arranging the whole in the form in which we now have it (1 Chronicles 29:29). Samuel or Shmuel (Hebrew: שְׁמוּאֵל, Standard Tiberian ) is an important leader of ancient Israel in the Book(s) of Samuel in the Hebrew Bible. ... Gad was a seer or more commonly understood, a prophet in the Bible. ... The Nathan the Prophet was a seer who lived in the time of King David and his wife Bathsheba. ... The Book of Chronicles is a book in the Hebrew Bible (also see Old Testament). ...


This theory is not supported by some modern scholars, who consider that the text is clearly not the work of men contemporary with the events chronicled. Even the Book of Chronicles explicitly refers to multiple source texts for the information, naming several. Roughly in the order they are believed to have been created historically, the sources that modern scholarship considers to have been interlaced to construct 1 & 2 Samuel are:

  • Jerusalem source: a fairly brief source discussing David conquering Jerusalem from the Jebusites
  • republican source: a source with an anti-monarchial bias. This source first describes Samuel as decisively ridding the people of the Philistines, and begrudgingly appointing an individual, chosen by God, to be king, namely Saul. David is described as someone renowned for his skill at playing the harp, and consequently summoned to Saul's court to calm his moods. Saul's son, Jonathon, takes a shine to David, which many commentators view as romantic, and later acts as his protector against Saul's more violent intentions. At a later point, having been deserted by God on the eve of battle, Saul consults the Witch of Endor, only to be condemned for doing so by Samuel's ghost, and told he and his sons will be killed. David is heartbroken on discovering the death of Jonathon, tearing his clothes apart.
  • court history of David a continuous source covering the history of David's kingship, and believed to be the source going by this name in the Book of Chronicles. This source continuously describes Israel and Judah as two separate kingdoms, with David originally being king of Judah only. David conquers Israel, but Israel rebels under Absalom, identified as David's son, and David is forced into exile. Israel's forces attack David while he is in exile, but he wins, and Judah accompanies him back to Jerusalem. Israel makes another rebellion, but David lays siege to a city housing the leader, and wins.
  • sanctuaries source: a short source which interrupts the narrative in order to recount an episode concerning the capture of the Ark by the Philistines, and their subsequent voluntary return of it. The source demonstrates a bias toward the viewpoint of the kingdom of Israel.
  • monarchial source: a source with a pro-monarchial bias and covering many of the same details as the republican source. This source begins with the divinely appointed birth of Samuel (many scholars think this originally referred to Saul, see below). It then describes Saul as leading a war against the Ammonites, being chosen by the people to be king, and leading them against the Philistines. David is described as a shepherd boy arriving at the battlefield to aid his brothers, and is overheard by Saul, leading to David challenging Goliath and defeating the Philistines. David's warrior credentials lead to women falling in love with him, including Michal, Saul's daughter, who later acts to protect David against Saul. David eventually gains two new wives as a result of threatening to raid a village, and Michal is redistributed to another husband. At a later point, David finds himself seeking sanctuary amongst the Philistine army and facing the Israelites as an enemy. David is incensed that anyone should have killed Saul, even as an act of mercy, since Saul was anointed by Samuel, and has the individual responsible killed.
  • redactions: additions by the redactor to harmonise the sources together; many of the uncertain passages may be part of this editing.
  • various: several short sources, none of which have much connection to each other, and are fairly independent of the rest of the text. Many are poems or pure lists.

The relationship between these sources is uncertain, though it is generally agreed that many of the various shorter sources were embedded into the larger ones before these were in turn redacted together. Though some scholars disagree, many academics have proposed that several of the sources are continuations of others, such as the Jerusalem source, and royal source being in some way continuous with one another, and the prophetic source and sanctuaries source being likewise continuous with each other. Some, most recently Richard Elliott Friedman, have proposed that the sources were originally parts of the same texts as the Elohist, Yahwist, and possibly Priestly, sources of the Torah, with the court history of David being considered part of the Yahwist text. What is considered likely is that the Deuteronomist is the one which redacted together these sources into the Books of Samuel. David and Jonathan were heroic figures of the Kingdom of Israel, whose intimate relationship was recorded favorably in the Old Testament books of Samuel. ... According to most modern Biblical critics, this is one of the source documents of the Hebrew Bible. ... Redaction generally refers to the editing of text to turn it into a form suitable for publication, or to the result of such an effort. ... Richard Elliot Friedman is a writer and Professor of Hebrew and Comparative Literature at UCSD. He is also Katzin Professor of Jewish Civilization: Hebrew Bible; Near Eastern Languages and Literatures. ... The Elohist (E) is one of the sources of the Torah postulated by the documentary hypothesis. ... The factual accuracy of this article is disputed. ... The Priestly Source (P) is the most recent of the four sources of the Torah postulated by the documentary hypothesis. ... The Torah () is the most important document in Judaism, revered as the inspired word of G-d (the vocal is never spelled), traditionally said to have been revealed to Moses. ... The Deuteronomist (D) is one of the sources of the Torah postulated by the documentary hypothesis that treats the texts of Scripture as products of human intellect, working in time. ...


Currently, the verses attributed to these sources are:

  • Jerusalem source: 2 Samuel 5:6-16, 6:9-20
  • republican source: 1 Samuel 9:1-10:16, 11:1-11, 11:15, 13:1-14:52, 16:14-23, 18:6-11, 18:20-27, 19:11-21:1, 21:11-16, 25:1b-25:43, 28:3-25, 31:1-13, 2 Samuel 1:1-5, 1:8-12, 2:1-3:1, 3:6-33a, 3:34b-5:2, 5:17-25, 21:15-22
  • court history of David: 2 Samuel 9:1-20:26, 1 Kings 1:1-2:46
  • sanctuaries source: 1 Samuel 4:1-7:1
  • monarchial source: 1 Samuel 1:1-3:21, 8:1-22. 10:17-24, 17:1-18:5, 18:12-19, 18:28-19:10, 21:2-10, 22:1-23, 26:1-28:2, 29:1-30:31, 2 Samuel 1:6-7, 1:13-16
  • redactions: 1 Samuel 2:27-36, 7:2b-16, 11:12-14, 12:1-25, 15:1-35, 2 Samuel 7:1-29
  • various: 2 Samuel 1:17-27; 3:2-5; 3:33b-34a; 22:1-51; 23:1-7; 23:8-24a; 23:24b-39; 24:1-25
  • uncertain: 1 Samuel 7:2a, 7:17, 10:25-27, 16:1-13, 23:1-25:1a, 2 Samuel 6:1-8, 6:21-23, 8:1-18, 21:1-14

Within these, there are sometimes what appear to be very minor redactions. For example, 1 Samuel 1:20 explains that Samuel is so called because his mother had asked Yahweh for him; however Samuel means name of God, while Saul means asked; this has suggested to many biblical critics that the narrative originally concerned Saul at this point, a later editor substituting Samuel's name. There are also several points in the Masoretic text that appear more obviously corrupted in comparison to the Septuagint version. The Masoretic Text (MT) is the Hebrew text of the Tanakh approved for general use in Judaism. ... The Septuagint: A column of uncial text from 1 Esdras in the Codex Vaticanus, the basis of Sir Lancelot Charles Lee Brentons Greek edition and English translation. ...


Tribes and peoples

Although most traditional interpretations of Jewish history view the Israelites as the ancestors of both the Kingdom of Israel and that of Judah, which arose only after David's rule, and Hebrews as an alternative name for them, the text makes a strong distinction between Hebrews, Judahites, and Israelites:

  • Israelites consistently refers to Saul's forces. It also is used to refer to the supporters of the rebellions against David's reign, in contrast to his supportes.
  • Judahites consistently refers to David's supporters during the rebellions against his rule, in contrast to the rebels.
  • Hebrews is consistently used to designate a group distinct from both Israelites and Judahites, and who sometimes take the side of the Philistines against Israel and Judah. It is weakly associated with Jonathan initially, and then more strongly with David's band of outlaws. None of the three terms are ever described as representing groups which were ever part of one another, suggesting that Israel, Judah, and the Hebrews, had always been three distinct groups.

Gilead and Jezreel are listed as tribes of Israel, rather than being treated strictly as locations. In accordance with evidence of this kind elsewhere, all attributed by scholars to the earliest sources, such as in the Song of Deborah, scholars have concluded that the tribal system known as the tribes of Israel evolved over a period of time: From the Scriptures, Gilead means hill of testimony or mound of witness, (Gen. ... The Jezreel Valley (Hebrew: עמק יזרעאל; Emek Yizrael) is a large plain and inland valley in the north of Israel. ... For information on the nurse of Rebeccah, mentioned in Genesis, see Deborah (Genesis) Deborah or Dvora (דְּבוֹרָה Bee, Standard Hebrew Dəvora, Tiberian Hebrew Dəḇôrāh) was a prophetess and the fourth Judge and only female Judge of pre-monarchic Israel in the Old Testament (Tanakh). ... This is a list of the Tribes of Israel. ...

  • Gilead, Jezreel, and Joseph were originally three tribes in the confederation
  • Jezreel later split into Zebulon and Issachar
  • Gilead later split into Machir, Gad, and Reuben
  • Machir later merged with part of Joseph to form Manasseh, while the other part split off to become Ephraim

Zebulon is a town located in Wake County, North Carolina. ... Issachar or Yissachar (יִשָּׂשׁכָר Reward; recompense, Standard Hebrew Yissaḫar, Tiberian Hebrew Yiśśâḵār) was the fifth son of Jacob and his first wife Leah. ... Machir (Makir) - selling; bartered - is a personal name in the Bible. ... Gad can refer to: Gad (see Gad Guard), a metallic cube artifact that figures prominantly in the anime Gad Guard Gad (Bible character), the sixth son of Jacob as related in Genesis 29 - 30 Tribe of Gad, one of the Hebrew tribes founded by Gad GAD as a three-letter... Reuben may refer to: People Ruben Zambrano,Basketball player for Houston Rockets]] Reuben, the first-born son of Jacob and the founder of the Tribe of Reuben mentioned in the Book of Genesis tried to save his brother. ... This entry incorporates text from the public domain Eastons Bible Dictionary, originally published in 1897. ... This entry incorporates text from the public domain Eastons Bible Dictionary, originally published in 1897. ...

Trivia

Samuel himself does not appear in the Second Book of Samuel.


In Islam

The Qur'an also contains elements of the books of Samuel. The stories of David and Goliath and the appointment of King Saul are told (see Similarities between the Bible and the Qur'an). The Qur’ān [1] (Arabic: , literally the recitation; also sometimes transliterated as Quran, Koran, or Al-Quran) is the central religious text of Islam. ... The Quran and Bible possess many similarities as the holy scriptures of Islam and Christianity, respectively. ...


External links

Wikisource has original text related to this article:
1 Samuel
Wikisource has original text related to this article:
2 Samuel

This entry incorporates text from the public domain Easton's Bible Dictionary, originally published in 1897. Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... The original Wikisource logo. ... Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... The original Wikisource logo. ... The Masoretic Text (MT) is the Hebrew text of the Tanakh approved for general use in Judaism. ... “Hebrew” redirects here. ... “Hebrew” redirects here. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Rashi (1040-1105) (Artists imagination) Rashi רשי is a Hebrew acronym for רבי שלמה יצחקי (Rabbi Shlomo Yitzhaqi), (February 22, 1040 – July 13, 1105), a rabbi in France, famed as the author of the first comprehensive commentaries on the Talmud and Tanakh. ... Rashi (1040-1105) (Artists imagination) Rashi רשי is a Hebrew acronym for רבי שלמה יצחקי (Rabbi Shlomo Yitzhaqi), (February 22, 1040 – July 13, 1105), a rabbi in France, famed as the author of the first comprehensive commentaries on the Talmud and Tanakh. ... For other uses, see Christian (disambiguation). ... Eastons Bible Dictionary generally refers to the Illustrated Bible Dictionary, Third Edition, by Matthew George Easton M.A., D.D. (1823-1894), published three years after Eastons death in 1897 by Thomas Nelson. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Books of Samuel - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (6695 words)
The death of Saul and Jonathan (1 Samuel 31:1-2 Samuel 1:27) - the Philistines attack the Israelites at Gilboa, and kill Jonathan and inflict a mortal wound on Saul.
Traditionally, the authors of the books of Samuel have been held to be Samuel, Gad, and Nathan.
Samuel is believed to have penned the first twenty-four chapters of the first book.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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