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Encyclopedia > Books of Kings
Books of the Old Testament
(For details see Biblical canon)
Hebrew Bible or Tanakh
Common to Judaism
and Christianity
Included by Orthodox and Roman Catholics, but excluded by Jews, Protestants, and other Christian denominations:
Included by Orthodox (Synod of Jerusalem):
Included by Russian and Ethiopian Orthodox:
Included by Ethiopian Orthodox:
Included by Syriac Peshitta Bible:
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Tanakh
Torah | Nevi'im | Ketuvim
Books of Nevi'im
First Prophets
1. Joshua
2. Judges
3. Samuel
4. Kings
Later Prophets
5. Isaiah
6. Jeremiah
7. Ezekiel
8. 12 minor prophets

The Books of Kings (Hebrew: Sefer Melachim, ספר מלכים‎) is a part of Judaism's Tanakh, the Hebrew Bible. It was originally written in Hebrew, and it was later included by Christianity as part of the Old Testament. According to Biblical chronology, the events in the Book of Kings occurred sometime around the 9th and 10th centuries BCE. Note: Judaism commonly uses the term Tanakh to refer to its canon, which corresponds to the Protestant Old Testament. ... A biblical canon is a list of Biblical books which establishes the set of books which are considered to be authoritative as scripture by a particular Jewish or Christian community. ... 11th century manuscript of the Hebrew Bible with Targum Hebrew Bible is a term that refers to the common portions of the Jewish canon and the Christian canons. ... For the musical collective, see Tanakh (band). ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is... For other uses, see Genesis (disambiguation). ... This article is about the second book in the Torah. ... Leviticus is the third book of the Hebrew Bible, also the third book in the Torah (five books of Moses). ... The Book of Numbers is the fourth of the books of the Pentateuch, called in the Hebrew ba-midbar במדבר, i. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Book of Joshua is the sixth book in both the Hebrew Tanakh and the Old Testament of the Christian Bible. ... Book of Judges (Hebrew: Sefer Shoftim ספר שופטים) is a book of the Bible originally written in Hebrew. ... Naomi entreating Ruth and Orpah to return to the land of Moab by William Blake, 1795 Julius Schnorr von Carolsfeld: Ruth in Boazs Field, 1828 The Book of Ruth (Hebrew: מגילת רות, Megilat Rut, the Scroll of Ruth) is one of the books of the Ketuvim (Writings) of the Tanakh (the... The Books of Samuel (Hebrew: Sefer Shmuel ספר שמואל), are part of the Tanakh (part of Judaisms Hebrew Bible) and also of the Old Testament (of Christianity). ... The Book of Chronicles is a book in the Hebrew Bible (also see Old Testament). ... The Book of Ezra is a book of the Bible in the Old Testament and Hebrew Tanakh. ... 1. ... The Book of Nehemiah is a book of the Hebrew Bible, known to Jews as the Tanach and to Christians as the Old Testament. ... Megillah redirects here. ... The Book of Job (איוב) is one of the books of the Hebrew Bible. ... Psalms (from the Greek: Psalmoi) (originally meaning songs sung to a harp, from psallein play on a stringed instrument, Ψαλμοί; Hebrew: Tehilim, תהילים, or praises) is a book of the Hebrew Bible, Tanakh or Old Testament. ... The Book of Proverbs is one of the books of the Ketuvim of the Tanakh and of the Writings of the Old Testament. ... Ecclesiastes, Qohelet in Hebrew, is a book of the Hebrew Bible. ... Song of Solomon is also the title of a novel by Toni Morrison. ... This article is about the Book of Isaiah. ... The Book of Jeremiah, or Jeremiah (יִרְמְיָהוּ YirmÉ™yāhÅ« in Hebrew), is part of the Hebrew Bible, Judaisms Tanakh, and later became a part of Christianitys Old Testament. ... The Book of Lamentations (Hebrew מגילת איכה) is a book of the Bible Old Testament and Jewish Tanakh. ... Book Of Ezekiel is rapper Freekey Zekeys debut album and debut on Diplomat Records/Asylum. ... For other uses, see Book of Daniel (disambiguation). ... A minor prophet is a book in Minor Prophets section of the Hebrew Bible also known to Christians as the Old Testament. ... Tobias and the Angel, by Filippino Lippi The Book of Tobit (or Book of Tobias in older Catholic Bibles) is a book of scripture that is part of the Catholic and Orthodox and Anglican biblical canon, pronounced canonical by the Council of Carthage of 397 and confirmed for Roman Catholics... Judith with the Head of Holophernes, by Christophano Allori, 1613 (Pitti Palace, Florence) The Book of Judith is a deuterocanonical book, included in the Septuagint and in the Roman Catholic and Eastern Orthodox Christian Old Testament of the Bible, but excluded by Jews and Protestants. ... 1 Maccabees is a deuterocanonical book of the Bible which was written by a Jewish (pre-Christian) author, probably about 100 BC, after the restoration of an independent Jewish kingdom. ... 2 Maccabees is a deuterocanonical book of the Bible which focuses on the Jews revolt against Antiochus and concludes with the defeat of the Syrian general Nicanor in 161 BC by Judas Maccabeus, the hero of the work. ... Wisdom or the Wisdom of Solomon is one of the deuterocanonical books of the Bible. ... The Wisdom of Ben Sira (or The Wisdom of Jesus son of Sirach or merely Sirach), also called Ecclesiasticus (not to be confused with Ecclesiastes) by some Christians, is a book written circa 180–175 BC. The author, Yeshua ben Sira, was a Jew who had been living in Jerusalem... It has been suggested that Epistle of Jeremy be merged into this article or section. ... Letter of Jeremiah is an Apocryphal book consisting of a letter ascribed to Jeremiah to the Jews in exile in Babylon warning them against idolatry by demonstrating its unreasonableness. ... The Book of Jeremiah, or Jeremiah (יִרְמְיָהוּ YirmÉ™yāhÅ« in Hebrew), is part of the Hebrew Bible, Judaisms Tanakh, and later became a part of Christianitys Old Testament. ... The additions to Daniel comprise of three additional chapters appended to the Hebrew/Aramaic text of Daniel from the Greek Septuagint. ... Megillah redirects here. ... By far the most important of the many synods held at Jerusalem (see Wetzer and Welte, Kirchenlexikon, 2nd ed. ... 1 Esdras is a book from the Septuagint (LXX) translation of the Old Testament regarded as a deuterocanonical book in Eastern and Oriental Orthodoxy, but rejected as apocryphal by Jews, Catholics, and most Protestants. ... 1. ... The Biblical book 3 Maccabees is found in most Orthodox Bibles as a part of the deuterocanonical books. ... The book of 4 Maccabees is a homily or philosophic discourse praising the supremacy of pious reason over passion. ... This short work of only 15 verses purports to be the penitential prayer of the Judean king Manasseh, who is recorded in the Bible as one of the most idolatrous (2 Kings 21:1-18). ... This article or section is missing references or citation of sources. ... The Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahido Church is an Oriental Orthodox church in Ethiopia that was part of the Coptic Church until it was granted its own Patriarch by Cyril VI, the Coptic Pope, in 1959. ... In the Septuagint and for Eastern Orthodox Christians, 2 Esdras refers to the combination of Ezra and Nehemiah. ... The Book of Jubilees (ספר היובלים), sometimes called the Lesser Genesis (Leptogenesis), is an ancient Jewish religious work. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... A series of three books in the Ethiopian Biblical canon. ... 4 Baruch, also known as the Paraleipomena of Jeremiah when combined with the Epistle of Jeremy, is a text regarded as apocryphal by all Christian denominations except for the Ethiopian Orthodox Church. ... Syriac is an Eastern Aramaic language that was once spoken across much of the Fertile Crescent. ... The Peshitta is the standard version of the Bible in the Syriac language. ... Psalms 152 to 155 are additional Psalms found in the Syriac Peshitta, in Greek Septuagint manuscripts, and in the Qumran scrolls: 11QPs(a)154,155. ... 2 Baruch or the Syriac Apocalypse of Baruch is a Jewish pseudepigraphical text written in the late 1st century CE or early 2nd century CE, after the fall of Jerusalem to the Romans in 70 CE. It is not part of the canon of either the Jewish or most Christian... For the musical collective, see Tanakh (band). ... The Torah () is the most important document in Judaism, revered as the inspired word of G-d (the vocal is never spelled), traditionally said to have been revealed to Moses. ... Neviim [נביאים] (Heb: Prophets) is the second of the three major sections in the Tanakh (Hebrew Bible), following the Torah and preceding Ketuvim (writings). ... Ketuvim is the third and final section of the Tanakh (Hebrew Bible). ... Neviim [נביאים] (Heb: Prophets) is the second of the three major sections in the Tanakh (Hebrew Bible), following the Torah and preceding Ketuvim (writings). ... The Book of Joshua is the sixth book in both the Hebrew Tanakh and the Old Testament of the Christian Bible. ... Book of Judges (Hebrew: Sefer Shoftim ספר שופטים) is a book of the Bible originally written in Hebrew. ... The Books of Samuel (Hebrew: Sefer Shmuel ספר שמואל), are part of the Tanakh (part of Judaisms Hebrew Bible) and also of the Old Testament (of Christianity). ... This article is about the Book of Isaiah. ... The Book of Jeremiah, or Jeremiah (יִרְמְיָהוּ YirmÉ™yāhÅ« in Hebrew), is part of the Hebrew Bible, Judaisms Tanakh, and later became a part of Christianitys Old Testament. ... Book Of Ezekiel is rapper Freekey Zekeys debut album and debut on Diplomat Records/Asylum. ... A minor prophet is a book in Minor Prophets section of the Hebrew Bible also known to Christians as the Old Testament. ... Hosea: Salvation The Book of Hosea is one of the books of the Hebrew Bible and of the Christian Old Testament. ... The Book of Joel is part of the Jewish Tanakh, and also the Old Testament of the Christian Bible. ... The Book of Amos is one of the books of the Neviim and of the Old Testament. ... The Book of Obadiah is found in both the Hebrew Bible and the Old Testament of the Christian Bible, where it is the shortest book, only one chapter long. ... In the Hebrew Bible, the Book of Jonah is the fifth book in a series of books called the Minor Prophets (itself a subsection of the Nevi’im or Prophets). ... The Book of Micah (Hebrew: ספר מיכה) is one of the books of the Hebrew Bible and the Christian Old Testament, traditionally attributed to Micah the Prophet. ... The book of Nahum is a book in the Bibles Old Testament and Jewish Tanakh. ... // The Prophet There is not much biographical information on the prophet Habakkuk; in fact less is known about this prophet than any other. ... // Who wrote it? The superscription of the Book of Zephaniah attributes its authorship to “Zephaniah son of Cushi son of Gedaliah son of Amariah son of Hezekiah, in the days of King Josiah son of Amon of Judah” (1:1, NRSV). ... The Book of Haggai is a book of the Tanakh (Hebrew Bible) and of the Old Testament, written by the prophet Haggai. ... The Book of Zechariah is a book of the Bible Old Testament and Jewish Tanakh attributed to the prophet Zechariah. ... Malachi (or Malachias, מַלְאָכִי, Malʾaḫi, Málakhî) is a book of the Bible Old Testament and Jewish Tanakh, written by the prophet Malachi. ... “Hebrew” redirects here. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... For the musical collective, see Tanakh (band). ... 11th century manuscript of the Hebrew Bible with Targum Hebrew Bible is a term that refers to the common portions of the Jewish canon and the Christian canons. ... “Hebrew” redirects here. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is... Note: Judaism commonly uses the term Tanakh to refer to its canon, which corresponds to the Protestant Old Testament. ... Biblical chronology is the academic discipline of identifying the Gregorian calendar dates for events mentioned by the Bible. ... (10th century BC - 9th century BC - 8th century BC - other centuries) (900s BC - 890s BC - 880s BC - 870s BC - 860s BC - 850s BC - 840s BC - 830s BC - 820s BC - 810s BC - 800s BC - other decades) (2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC - 1st millennium AD) Events Kingdom of Kush (900 BC... (Redirected from 10th century BCE) (11th century BC - 10th century BC - 9th century BC - other centuries) (1000s BC - 990s BC - 980s BC - 970s BC - 960s BC - 950s BC - 940s BC - 930s BC - 920s BC - 910s BC - 900s BC - other decades) (3rd millennium BC - 2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC) Events...

Contents

Contents

It contains accounts of the kings of the ancient Kingdom of Israel and the Kingdom of Judah. 10th century BCE: The Land of Israel, including the United Kingdom of Israel Commonwealth of Israel redirects here. ... Kingdom of Judah (Hebrew מַלְכוּת יְהוּדָה, Standard Hebrew Malḫut Yəhuda, Tiberian Hebrew Malḵûṯ Yəhûḏāh) in the times of the Hebrew Bible, was the nation formed from the territories of the tribes of Judah, Simeon, and Benjamin after the Kingdom of Israel was divided, and was named after Judah...


They contain the annals of the Jewish commonwealth from the accession of Solomon until the subjugation of the kingdom by Nebuchadnezzar and the Babylonians (apparently a period of about four hundred and fifty-three years). The Books of Kings synchronize with 1 Chronicles 28 – 2 Chronicles 36:21. While in the Chronicles greater prominence is given to the priestly or Levitical office, in the Kings greater prominence is given to the royal office. Kings appears to have been written considerably earlier than Chronicles, and as such is generally considered a more reliable historical source. Annals (Latin Annales, from annus, a year) are a concise form of historical writing which record events chronologically, year by year. ... This article is about the Biblical figure. ... Nebuchadnezzar (or Nebudchadrezzar) II (ca. ... Babylonia was an ancient state in Iraq), combining the territories of Sumer and Akkad. ... In the Jewish tradition, a Levite (לֵוִי Attached, Standard Hebrew , Tiberian Hebrew ) is a member of the Hebrew tribe of Levi. ...


David and Solomon

  • The story of Adonijah (1 Kings 1:1–2:46) — During his old age, David spends his nights with Abishag, a woman appointed for the purpose of keeping him warm. Adonijah, a son of David, gathers attendants and persuades Joab and Abiathar to support his claim to be David's heir. Opposed to this are Zadok, Benaiah, Nathan, and Shimei, as well as the army generals, who favour Solomon, another son of David. Adonijah invites his supporters, neutral court officials, and his other brothers excepting Solomon, to the Zoheleth stone. Nathan persuades Bathsheba, the mother of Solomon, to trick David into announcing that Solomon is his heir. After having done this, David has Solomon anointed as the next king. When Adonijah is told, he and his guests flee, and Adonijah seeks sanctuary at the Jerusalem altar. Begging not to be harmed by Solomon, Adonijah is only told that he won't be harmed if he is guiltless. Dying, David instructs Solomon to take revenge on Joab, a supporter of Adonijah, and Shimei, and to be kind to the sons of Barzillai. Adonijah approaches Bathsheba asking for a conciliatory gesture from Solomon, namely he asks for Abishag, but when Bathsheba asks Solomon about this, Solomon has Benaiah slaughter Adonijah. Abiathar, who had supported Adonijah, is then deposed from being head priest of the Jerusalem altar, and exiled to his homeland, and is replaced by Zadok. Joab, another of Adonijah's supporters, seeks sanctuary at the Jerusalem altar, but Solomon has Benaiah slaughter Joab at the altar itself. As for Shimei, Solomon orders him to remain in Jerusalem, but when Shimei later retrieves his servants who had fled to Gath, Solomon has Benaiah slaughter Shimei for leaving.
  • The Wisdom of Solomon (1 Kings 3:1–15 and 5:9–14) — After having cemented an alliance with Egypt by marrying the daughter of Pharaoh, Solomon went to Gibeon, to make sacrifices, as it was the most prominent of the high places at the time. Once Solomon has made the sacrifices, in a dream God appears to Solomon and grants him a wish, so Solomon asks for wisdom. Since Solomon asked wisely rather than asking for riches, his wish for wisdom is granted, and Solomon surpassed the Egyptians and Cedemites in wisdom, his fame spreading among the neighbouring nations. Solomon also uttered thousands of songs and proverbs.
    • Solomon's judgment (1 Kings 3:16–28) — Two prostitutes come to Solomon and ask him to settle an argument between them as to who is the mother of a particular baby. Solomon asks for a sword to cut the baby in half to be split between the two women. When the first prostitute tells him to give the baby to the other rather than kill it she proves herself to be the mother with her love for the child. Solomon gives her the baby.
  • Solomon's officials (1 Kings 4:1–19, and 5:7–8) — An extensive list is given of the officials of Solomon's court. The commissaries, one for each month of the year, provide the food for Solomon and his guests, as well as for his horses, and the various locations are listed that they source the food from.
  • The story of the construction of the Temple of Solomon (1 Kings 5:15–7:51): Hiram of Tyre, a "friend" (that is, political ally) of David's, sends an embassy to Solomon, causing Solomon to propose to build a temple. Solomon and Hiram enter into a trade agreement so that Solomon can obtain the necessary raw materials. Solomon enlists several workers via conscription, and Solomon's men, those of Hiram, and the Gebalites (that is, from Biblos), prepare the temple, of which an extensive description is given. Solomon also builds a palace for himself, which is described as well. A bronze worker, somewhat confusingly also called Hiram (named Hiram-abi by Chronicles, i.e. Hiram is my father), is brought from Tyre to do Solomon's metal work. Two columns — named Jachin and Boaz — are built next to the temple door, and the temple is generally designed like those of Hadad in Tyre's vassal states.
  • The story of the moving the Ark to the Temple (1 Kings 8:1–9:9) — The elders of Israel, and the Israelite princes, come to Solomon for the moving of the ark from Zion. While the priests move the ark, a sacrifice is made which is so substantial that it cannot be counted. Finally, when the ark arrives in the Temple, and the priests that had been carrying it return outside, a dark cloud fills the temple, which Solomon says is where Yahweh intends to dwell forever. Solomon then extracts a promise from Yahweh to uphold the Davidic covenant, and to return to the aid of the people if they sin but later repent.
  • The story of Cabul (1 Kings 9:10–14) — After twenty years of giving Solomon the supplies that he wished for, Hiram is given twenty cities in Galilee by Solomon, which became known as Cabul, since Hiram wasn't satisfied with them.
  • An account of Solomon's building projects (1 Kings 9:15–25) — Solomon uses slave labour to build several cities for storing supplies. Amongst these is Gezer, which had previously existed but was burnt to the ground by Pharaoh, who returned it to Solomon's ownership as a dowry. For this building programme, Solomon enslaved every Canaanite still living in the land. Solomon also builds Millo as soon as Pharaoh's daughter moves from Zion to her newly built palace.
  • The story of the Queen of Sheba (1 Kings 10:1–10, and 10:13) — The Queen of Sheba visits Solomon and tests his wisdom, bringing with her a large retinue, and precious expensive things. Solomon's replies leave her breathless at his wisdom, and she is further impressed by his waiters, and banquet, and therefore gives Solomon some of her precious things. Before she returns to her homeland, Solomon gives her everything that she asks for, and other presents.
  • Solomon's wealth (1 Kings 4:20–5:6, 9:26–28, 10:11–12, and 10:14–29) — Solomon's empire stretched all the way from the Euphrates to Egypt (though quite how it got this big is not explained), and the many vassal states paid him tribute. He also had extravagant banquets every day, and owned thousands of horses. Solomon built a fleet in Ezion-geber, near Elath, and Hiram staffs him with seamen, who collect a large amount of gold from Ophir and bring it to Solomon. Solomon uses the gold to make goblets and utensils and so forth, even creating a throne made from ivory and inlaid with gold. Hiram's fleet brings further expensive materials from Ophir besides the gold, such as ivory, silver (which, according to the text, at the time was worthless), and monkeys. In addition to the gold from Hiram's fleet, from merchants, and from the Arab kings, all the visitors to Solomon's court bring with them expensive tributes, hence Solomon grew richer than anyone else on earth. Solomon also traded horses.
  • Solomon's harem (1 Kings 11:1–13) — Apart from his Egyptian wife, Solomon also had over 700 wives and 300 concubines from nations that the Mizvot forbid intermarriage with. The wives make Solomon polytheistic, worshipping the gods of his wives, such as Astarte, Milcom, and Chemosh, even building high places to them opposite Jerusalem. So Yahweh promises Solomon that a part of the kingdom will be removed and given to another during the reign of Solomon's descendants.
  • The story of Hadad (1 Kings 11:14–22 and 11:25b) — Hadad, the sole male survivor of the Edomite royal family after King David conquered that land, fled to Egypt. Having won favour with the Pharaoh, Hadad was given in marriage to the sister of Queen Tahpenes, the wife of Pharaoh. Hadad and his wife have a son, whom Pharaoh brings up as his own. Hadad later requests permission from Pharaoh to return to his own country, and he becomes king of Edom.
  • Rezon (1 Kings 11:23–25a) — A man named Rezon fled from Hadadezer, the king of Zobah, when King David defeats Hazadezer's army. Rezon gathered a group of men and took over as king of Damascus, seceding from Solomon's empire.

Adonijah is a Hebrew name, meaning YHVH is my lord. A number of characters in the Bible bear this name. ... This entry incorporates text from the public domain Eastons Bible Dictionary, originally published in 1897. ... Joab (יוֹאָב The LORD is father, Standard Hebrew Yoʾav, Tiberian Hebrew Yôʾāḇ) was the nephew of King David, the son of Zeruiah in the Bible. ... Abiathar (Heb. ... This article is being considered for deletion in accordance with Wikipedias deletion policy. ... Benaiah, son of the priest Jehoiada, was Davids general for the army of the Kingdom of Israel. ... The Nathan the Prophet was a seer who lived in the time of King David and his wife Bathsheba. ... Shimei is referenced in the Bible and Rabbinical literature. ... This article is about the Biblical figure. ... This entry incorporates text from Eastons Bible Dictionary, 1897, with some modernisation. ... Gath (גת Hebrew: winepress), a common place name in ancient Israel and the surrounding regions. ... Wisdom, also known as the Wisdom of Solomon, is one of the deuterocanonical books of the Bible that are not translations of Hebrew originals. ... The city of Gibeon in Canaan (about 6 miles north of the center of Jerusalem in the West Bank) was one of the four cities of the Hivites, which did not easily fall to the Hebrews. ... Solomons Temple was the first Jewish temple in Jerusalem which functioned as a religious focal point for worship and the sacrifices known as the korbanot in ancient Judaism. ... Hiram is the name of some places in the United States of America: Hiram, Georgia Hiram, Maine Hiram, Ohio Other notable people and things named Hiram (Hebrew חִירָם high-born, Standard Hebrew , Tiberian Hebrew ) include: Hiram I, king of Tyrus, 969–936 BC Hiram II, king of Tyrus, 739–730 BC... The Triumphal Arch Tyre (Arabic , Phoenician , Hebrew Tzor, Tiberian Hebrew , Akkadian , Greek Týros) is a city in the South Governorate of Lebanon. ... Jachin may refer to: Jachin, the first high priest of King Solomons Temple. ... Boaz (Heb. ... Haddad - בעל הדד - حداد (in Ugaritic Haddu) was a very important northwest Semitic storm god and rain god, cognate in name and origin with the Akkadian god Adad. ... The Ark of the Covenant (ארון הברית in Hebrew: aron habrit) is described in the Hebrew Bible as a sacred container, wherein rested the stone tablets containing the Ten Commandments as well as other sacred Israelite objects. ... Zion (Hebrew: צִיּוֹן, tziyyon; Tiberian vocalization: tsiyyôn; transliterated Zion or Sion) is a term that most often designates the Land of Israel and its capital Jerusalem. ... Cabul is the name of two places in ancient Israel mentioned in the Bible: A district in the north-west of Galilee, near to Tyre, containing twenty cities given to Hiram by Solomon as a reward for various services rendered to him in building the temple. ... The large building built by Solomon. ... The Queen of Sheba, (Hebrew מלכת שבא , Arabic ملكة سبأ , Geez: ንግሥተ ሳባ Nigista Saba), referred to in the Hebrew scriputures (Old Testament), Bible books of 1 Kings and 2 Chronicles, the New Testament, the Quran, and Ethiopian history, was the ruler of Sheba, an ancient kingdom mentioned in the Jewish scriptures (Old Testament). ... Approximate worldwide distribution of monkeys. ... A swampy marsh area ... Main article: Mitzvah The 613 Mitzvot or 613 Commandments (‎ transliterated as Taryag mitzvot; TaRYaG is the acronym for the numeric value of 613) are a list of commandments from God in the Torah. ... Astarte on a car with four branches protruding from roof. ... Moloch or Molech or Molekh representing Hebrew מלך mlk is either the name of a god or the name of a particular kind of sacrifice associated historically with Phoenician and related cultures in north Africa and the Levant. ... For other uses, see Chemosh (disambiguation). ... Haddad - בעל הדד - حداد (in Ugaritic Haddu) was a very important northwest Semitic storm god and rain god, cognate in name and origin with the Akkadian god Adad. ... Hadadezer (Hadad helps) the son of Rehob (Heb. ...

The Division of the Kingdom

The genealogy of the Books of Kings (based on a literal interpretation)
  • The story of Rehoboam (1 Kings 11:41–12:1, 12:3–19, 12:20b–24, and 14:21–31a) — When Solomon died, his son, Rehoboam, was proclaimed king at Shechem. The people appeal to Rehoboam to have their servitude lightened, and so he seeks the advice first of the elders and then of the youths. The elders suggest complying with the people's wishes, but Rehoboam decides to go with the advice of the youths, namely to enforce even heavier servitude. This results in rebellion, and when Rehoboam sends out Adoram, the man in charge of forced labour, the people stone Adoram to death. Rehoboam is forced to flee to Jerusalem as only Judah remains loyal to him, and there he plans an attack using the army of Benjamin and Judah against the forces of Israel. However, a man of God, named Shemiah, is told by God to tell Rehoboam not to fight, and when Rehoboam is told this, he complies. Later in his reign, Shishak, the Pharaoh, attacks, looting the temple and palace, leaving Rehoboam compelled to use bronze to replace the golden shields of Solomon that Shishak had taken.
  • The story of Jeroboam (1 Kings 11:26–40, 12:2, and 12:25–32) — The man in charge of the work force from the house of Joseph, Jeroboam, bumps into Ahijah, a prophet from Shiloh, when Jeroboam's task, the construction of Millo, is complete. Ahijah spontaneously tore his cloak into twelve parts and gave ten pieces to Jeroboam as a symbol of God's will, explaining that the division is owing to Solomon turning to heathen practices. Solomon subsequently tries to have Jeroboam killed for treason, but he escapes to the protection of the Egyptian Pharaoh, only returning when he hears that Solomon's son has succeeded him as king. When Israel rebels against Rehoboam, they appoint Jeroboam as their new king, and Jeroboam establishes Shechem as his capital and then moves to Penuel. However, Jeroboam perceives that a religion centralised at Jerusalem, particularly the annual pilgrimage to there, is a threat to independence, and so establishes cult centres at the very edges of his own kingdom, putting up golden calves at Bethel and at Dan, saying "here is your God". Jeroboam also appoints non-Levites to the priesthood.
  • The story of the fasting man of God (1 Kings 12:33–13:34) — At a rival ceremony in Bethel to the traditional one at Jerusalem, Jeroboam prepares to make a sacrifice. At that moment, a man of God (who is not named), prophesies to Jeroboam about a future destruction of the priests and worship at Bethel. Jeroboam orders that the man be seized, but his arm freezes and the altar collapses, so Jeroboam takes this as a sign and appeals to the man of God. The man of God restores Jeroboam's arm, but refuses Jeroboam's hospitality as the man of God was ordered to fast by God, and to return home immediately. An old prophet from Bethel (who is not named) follows the man of God, and offers his own hospitality, but it too is rejected. Then the old prophet states that God had told him to offer his hospitality, so the man of God accepts, but is killed by a lion as he had broken the fast. Then the old prophet mourns the man, buries him, and requests to be buried in the same grave.
  • The story of Abijah of Israel (1 Kings 14:1–20) — Jeroboam's son and heir, Abijah, becomes sick, so Jeroboam sends his wife, in disguise, to the prophet Ahijah, to ask what can be done. Ahijah replies that Jeroboam's Canaanite practices have condemned his dynasty to destruction, and Abijah is doomed from the moment the wife returns to the son. Duly, when the wife returns to Tirzah and enters her house, the son dies.
  • The story of Abijah of Judah (1 Kings 14:31b–15:8a) — After Rehoboam dies, Abijah (named as Abijam in Kings but Abijah in Chronicles), his son, succeeds him as king of Judah. Abijam appears to be the grandson (or otherwise a descendant) of Absalom by his mother's side. Abijam continued the war against Jeroboam to conquer Israel. A fuller account of the war is given in Chronicles.
  • The story of Asa of Judah (1 Kings 15:8b–24a): Abijah's son, Asa, succeeds him as king of Judah, and he quickly deposed Maacah, his grandmother, from having any authority, as she supports the Canaanite religious practices. Asa also burns his grandmother's asherah. During Asa's reign there is a perpetual war between him and king Baasha of Israel, who had support from Ben-hadad, king of Aram. Asa buys Ben-hadad's loyalty by sending him what remained of the treasures of the temple and his palace, so Ben-hadad changes sides and attacks several cities in the regions of the tribes of Dan and Naphtali. Baasha retreats to his capital rather than continue fortifying Raamah, so Asa dismantles the fortifications and uses them to build Geba. In his old age, Asa had infirm feet.
  • The story of Baasha (1 Kings 15:25–16:6a) — When Jeroboam died, his son, Nadab, took over as king of Israel. However, Baasha, the son of Ahijah, plots against Nadab, and while Nadab is besieging Gibbethon. Becoming king in Nadab's stead, Baasha then slaughters all the remaining relatives of Jeroboam. During Baasha's reign, there is a permanent war between Asa and Baasha, and although Ben-hadad originally supported Baasha, he changed to Asa's side, capturing several large areas of the land, and causing Baasha to retreat back to his capital, Tirzah. A prophet, named Jehu, is told by Yahweh that Baasha's actions are to be condemned, so Jehu tells Baasha.
  • The story of Zimri (1 Kings 16:6b–20) — After the death of Baasa, he is succeeded by his son, Elah. However, one of his leading commanders, Zimri, plots against him, and while Elah is getting drunk, Zimri strikes him dead. Zimri then slaughters all the remaining relatives of Baasa and takes over the throne of Israel. The army, however, proclaim Omri, their general, as the king, and lay siege to Tirzah, where Zimri is located. Zimri decides to burn his palace to the ground, killing himself.

Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 533 pixelsFull resolution (1200 × 800 pixel, file size: 49 KB, MIME type: image/png) Recreated by me based on an image by User:FDuffy to fix errors, simplify, and improve overall. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 533 pixelsFull resolution (1200 × 800 pixel, file size: 49 KB, MIME type: image/png) Recreated by me based on an image by User:FDuffy to fix errors, simplify, and improve overall. ... For other uses, see Wine bottle nomenclature. ... Adoniram - (Adoram, 1 Kings 12:18), the son of Abda, was the tax collecter of King Rehoboam. ... nomen or birth name Shoshenq I [alt. ... For other uses, see Pharaoh (disambiguation). ... The United Kingdom of Solomon breaks up, with Jeroboam ruling over the Northern Kingdom of Israel (in green on the map). ... This entry incorporates text from Eastons Bible Dictionary, 1897, with some modernisation. ... This entry incorporates text from Eastons Bible Dictionary, 1897, with some modernisation. ... Abijah means father (i. ... This entry incorporates text from Eastons Bible Dictionary, 1897, with some modernisation. ... This entry incorporates text from Eastons Bible Dictionary, 1897, with some modernisation. ... Absalom or Avshalom (אַבְשָׁלוֹם Father/Leader of/is peace, Standard Hebrew Avšalom, Tiberian Hebrew ʾAḇšālôm), in the Bible, is the third son of David, king of Israel. ... Asa (Standard Hebrewאָסָא, Tiberian Hebrew ʾĀsâ) was the fifth king of the House of David and the third of the Kingdom of Judah. ... For the small research submarine, see Asherah (submarine). ... Ramaah means thunder in ???. Used in the Bible, it has two meanings: A son of Cush, mentioned in Gen. ... Baasha (Hebrew Basha; Baal hears) was the third king of the northern kingdom of Israel. ... This entry incorporates text from the public domain Eastons Bible Dictionary, originally published in 1897. ... Tirzah (Arabic and Hebrew origin) was a town in the Samarian highlands northeast of Shechem; it has been identified with Tell el-Farah (North). ... Zimri (praiseworthy), was king of Israel for seven days. ... Elah was a son of Baasha, who succeeded him as king of Israel. ...

Elijah and the House of Omri

  • The story of Omri (1 Kings 16:15b–19, 16:21–28a) Having been proclaimed king by the army, Omri besieges Zimri, who then dies in a fire. Subsequently, only half of Israel support Omri, the other half supporting a man named Tibni, to be king. The civil war ends with Omri and his supporters as victor. Omri later constructs a new capital at Samaria, and moves there. Despite the many monumental achievements and constructions that are archaeologically attributed to the period normally identified for his reign, the Book of Kings neglects to mention any of these, preferring to portray Omri as an insignificant heretic that happened to become king and then, later, die.
  • The story of Elijah and the widow (1 Kings 17:1–24) God ordains that no rain shall fall while he is served by a man from Tishbe, named Elijah, or at least this is the case according to Elijah. Elijah is sent to a stream, and fed by ravens, day and night, but when the stream dries up, due to the lack of rain, he is sent on to a widow, who will wait on him. Demanding from the widow water and bread, Elijah is met with the response that there is not enough flour or oil. Elijah, however, promises that the flour and oil will last until the rains return, which comes true. The widow's son later grows sick, and stops breathing, so she accuses Elijah of making this happen. Elijah responds by laying out the son's body on his own bed, stretching himself over on the body three times, and then praying, whereupon the son comes back to life.
  • The story of Elijah and the prophets of Ba'al (1 Kings 16:28b–33, and 18:1–46) — After the death of Omri, his son, Ahab, becomes the king. Ahab marries Jezebel, and worships Hadad (often referred to by the epithet Ba'al — meaning lord), building a totem and temple to his worship. Jezebel slaughters the prophets of Yahweh, though some are rescued by Obadiah, Ahab's vizier. Meanwhile, the famine grows bitter, and Elijah is sent by God to Ahab, with Obadiah joining him on his way. When Elijah and Ahab meet, they trade insults, with Elijah calling Ahab a sinner due to his religious practices, and Ahab calling Elijah the disturber of Israel. Elijah then challenges Hadad worship, demanding all of Israel attend mount Carmel. At Carmel, Elijah announces he will sacrifice a bull to Yahweh, and he expects that the worshippers of Hadad will sacrifice a bull to Hadad, stating that the real god will respond. When there is no response from the sacrifice to Baal, which Elijah mercilessly mocks, he rebuilds the older altar to Yahweh, makes the sacrifice, and a fire appears from heaven and consumes it. The people convert from worship of Hadad to that of Yahweh en-masse, and Elijah has the throats of the prophets of Hadad slit at a river. A storm subsequently gathers, and Elijah and Ahab race to Jezreel, Elijah staying in front.
  • The story of Hiel and the rebuilding of Jericho (1 Kings 16:34) — During the reign of Ahab, a man named Hiel rebuilds Jericho from its ruins. However, his sons die during construction, fulfilling a prophecy that Joshua had made.
  • The story of Elijah's flight to Horeb (1 Kings 19:1–21) — After Ahab has told Jezebel what has happened, she seeks revenge against Elijah, who flees Beer-sheba, and goes into the desert. Elijah prays for death, but is ordered by an angel to eat and drink, so he walks for 40 days and nights to Horeb. On the mountain, there are a series of phenomena (that could easily be a dramatic description of a volcano), and then a faint whisper asking Elijah why he is present. After Elijah explains, he is ordered to go to anoint Hazael as the next king of Aram (Elisha does this as well), Jehu as king of Israel (Elisha does this as well), and Elisha as his own successor, and to demand that they slaughter everyone except those who devoutly worship Yahweh. Elisha, a plowman, readily follows Elijah, even killing his oxen, and burning them as a sacrifice, having broken up his plowing equipment to use as fuel.
  • The story of the first siege of Samaria (1 Kings 20:1–21) — Ben-hadad, the king of Aram, lays siege to Samaria, and Ahab gives up his treasure, harem, and sons. Ben-hadad then further demands to be allowed to ransack Ahab's property, but the elders of Israel dissuade Ahab from agreeing, angering Ben-hadad. A prophet arrives and tells Ahab that he will win, so Ahab gathers the army of Israel together, and they launch a surprise attack, causing the Aramaeans to flee.
  • The story of the battle of Aphek (1 Kings 20:22–43) — The servants of Ben-hadad tell him to attack on the plains, as the God of Israel is one of mountains, so Ben-hadad does just this, going to Aphek (probably Antipatris), but the prophet returns and tells Ahab that he will win, so Ahab gathers his army, and strikes down the enemy. The Aramaeans flee into the city of Aphek, but its walls collapse. The servants of Ben-hadad tell him that the kings of Israel are merciful, so they are sent to Ahab to beg for mercy, and Ahab grants it. Meanwhile, on the orders of Yahweh, a prophet tells a companion to strike him, but the companion refuses, so the companion is killed by a lion. Once again the prophet tells a (different) companion to strike him, but this time the companion does so, and wounds him. The prophet pretends to the king that he was wounded in battle, and that he had been told to guard another man, on pain of death, but the other man escaped. The king of Israel consequently tells the prophet that he has condemned himself, but the prophet tells the king that the king has condemned himself, as the prophet had doomed Ben-hadad to destruction, and mercy wasn't approved by God.
  • The story of Naboth's vineyard (1 Kings 21:1–29) — A vineyard by the palace of Ahab is owned by a man named Naboth, but Ahab tries to buy it for a reasonable price and exchange of land, so that he can turn it into a vegetable garden. Naboth, however, refuses to give up his ancestral land, which angers Ahab, and causes Jezebel to arranges for Naboth to be falsely accused of blasphemy and treason, and for him to be stoned to death. Once Naboth has been killed, Jezebel tells Ahab, and he sets off for Naboth's vineyard, but meets Elijah there. Elijah prophecies that Ahab's dynasty will be eaten by dogs and by the birds. Ahab then tears his clothes, so Elijah is told by Yahweh that Ahab's penitance has bought him time.
  • The story of the Battle of Ramoth-gilead (1 Kings 22:1–40a, and 22:54) — After a period of peace between Aram and Israel, Jehoshaphat of Judah approaches the king of Israel (Ahab) and enters a pact to help take back Ramoth-gilead from Aram. Jehoshaphat asks for consultation with a prophet that is not one of the yes-men, the only one meeting this requirement being Micaiah (son of Imlah), who Ahab hates. Zedekiah (son of Chenaanah) made horns of iron to kill the king of Aram with. Despite the other prophets predicting success, Micaiah predicts total failure, so Zedekiah slaps him. The king of Israel orders Micaiah to be seized and put in prison until the king returns from the war, and then disguises himself to enter the battle. Conversely, the king of Aram orders his men to only attack the king of Israel, and though some mistake Jehoshaphat for the king, his battle cry makes them realise he is not. A randomly fired arrow, by fluke, hits the disguised king of Israel, and he eventually dies from blood loss as the battle rages around him. The king's body is washed at the pool of Samaria, and the blood on his chariot is licked up by the dogs, fulfilling Elijah's prophecy about Ahab.
  • The story of Jehoshaphat (1 Kings 15:24b and 22:41–51a): Jehosaphat succeeds his father, Asa, as king of Judah. Although Jehoshaphat worships Yahweh, he permits the high places to continue existing. Like Solomon, Jehoshaphat sent ships to Ophir for gold, but this time they were wrecked at Ezion-gezer.
  • The story of Ahaziah of Israel (1 Kings 22:40b, and 1 Kings 22:52–2 Kings 1:18) — Ahaziah, Ahab's son, succeeds him as king of Israel. Ahaziah falls through the lattice of his roof terrace, and so sends messengers to ask the god of Ekron that he worships, Hadad (referred to as Ba'al and Baalzebub, a satirical corruption of Baalzebulprince Baal), if he would recover from the injury. Elijah is sent by an angel to intercept the messengers, and to tell them that Ahaziah is doomed. The men are duly informed by Elijah, and are sent back to Ahaziah. After hearing them describe Elijah, Ahaziah recognises that Elijah gave them the message, so he sends men to ask Elijah to visit him. Elijah then prophecies that the men will be killed by divine fire, and this duly occurs. Ahaziah again sends men to Elijah, and again Elijah prophecies, and the men are immediately killed by divine fire. The third time men are sent, their leader begs Elijah to listen, and an angel tells Elijah to go with them, so he does, and tells Ahaziah that he will die to his face, which comes true.
  • The story of the last days of Elijah (2 Kings 2:1–18) — Elisha and Elijah are on their way to Gilgal, but Elijah tells Elisha to remain, but Elisha insists on going with him. On reaching Bethel, the prophets there tell Elisha that God is due to take Elijah on that day, but Elisha insists he already knows. Elijah tells Elisha to remain, but Elisha again insists on going with him. And so they go to Jericho, where the same events occur. At the Jordan, Elijah rolls up his mantle and touches the waters, which duly part, and the two cross on dry land. A flaming chariot and horses then come and collect Elijah and take him to heaven. Elisha then picks up Elijah's mantle, which had fallen, strikes the waters of the Jordan, which part, and then crosses back over.

Omri (Hebrew: , Standard  Tiberian ; short for Hebrew: , Standard  Tiberian  ; The is my life) was king of Israel and father of Ahab. ... Tibni (building of Jehovah) was a claimant to the throne of the Israel, and the son of Ginath, a man of some position. ... “Shomron” redirects here. ... Elijah, 1638, by José de Ribera This article is about the prophet in the Hebrew Bible. ... Traditionally the town of Listib, located 8 miles North of the Jabbok River. ... Elijah, 1638, by José de Ribera This article is about the prophet in the Hebrew Bible. ... Elijah, 1638, by José de Ribera This article is about the prophet in the Hebrew Bible. ... Ahab or Achav (אַחְאָב Brother of the father, Standard Hebrew Aḥʼav, Tiberian Hebrew ʼAḥăʼāḇ, ʼAḫʼāḇ) was King of the province of Samaria in the greater Kingdom of Israel, and the son and successor of Omri (1 Kings 16:29-34). ... For other uses, see Jezebel. ... Haddad - בעל הדד - حداد (in Ugaritic Haddu) was a very important northwest Semitic storm god and rain god, cognate in name and origin with the Akkadian god Adad. ... Obadiah (עֹבַדְיָה Servant of the LORD, Standard Hebrew Ê¿Ovadya, Tiberian Hebrew ʿŌḇaḏyāh, Vulgate Abdias) is the name of many people mentioned in the Hebrew Bible, the Old Testament. ... ik ben jaaapie A Vizier (Persian,وزير - wazÄ«r) (sometimes also spelled Vazir, Vizir, Vasir, Wazir, Vesir, or Vezir - grammatical vowel changes are common in many oriental languages), literally burden-bearer or helper, is a term, originally Persian, for a high-ranking political (and sometimes religious) advisor or minister, often to... Carmel may refer to: // Barri del Carmel, district in the city of Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain Carmel, Indiana, city in Hamilton County, Indiana, United States Carmel, New York, town located in Putnam County, New York, USA Carmel, Western Australia, suburb of Perth, Western Australia Carmel Hamlet, New York, hamlet located in... Hiel can refer to: The heel, the prominence at the posterior end of the foot. ... Horeb, Chorev in Hebrew, חורב Mount Horeb is another name sometimes used for Mount Sinai. ... Cleveland Volcano in the Aleutian Islands of Alaska photographed from the International Space Station For other uses, see Volcano (disambiguation). ... Hazael (Hebrew Hazael, meaning God has seen) was a court official and later an Aramean king who appeared in the Bible. ... Not to be confused with Elishah. ... The name Aphek refers to either: Locations mentioned by the bible as the scenes of a number of battles, which have been thought since the turn of the 20th century to refer to the same location. ... This entry incorporates text from Eastons Bible Dictionary, 1897, with some modernisation. ... This article needs cleanup. ... Ramoth Gilead is a Filipino Christian rock band from Bacolod City, Negros Occidental. ... In the Bible, Jehoshaphat or Josaphat or Yehoshafat (יְהוֹשָׁפָט The LORD is judge, Standard Hebrew Yəhošafat, Tiberian Hebrew Yəhôšāp̄āṭ) was the son and successor of Asa, king of... This entry is not about King Ahaziah of Judah. ...

Miracles of Elisha

  • Stories of the minor miracles of Elisha (2 Kings 2:19–24, 4:1–7, 4:38–44, and 6:1–7) Once, the inhabitants of the city (not explicitly identified, but implicitly assumable to be Jericho) complain to Elisha about the poor state of the water and the land, so Elisha sprinkles salt on a spring to purify it, as it is "to this day". Elisha goes to Bethel, where a large number of small boys shout "baldy" at him, so Elisha curses them. Because of this insult, God sends two bears come out of the forest to tear 42 of the boys to pieces, killing them. A widow of a member of the prophet's guild complains to Elisha that her husband's creditors want to enslave her children to pay his debts, so Elisha tells her to fill as many vessels as possible with the oil that she owns, and to sell it, and miraculously the small amount of oil fills all the containers that she is able to find. During a famine, Elisha has his servants make vegetable stew for the guild of prophets at Gilgal, but one of them adds wild gourds to the stew. When realising that they have been poisoned, the guild complains to Elisha, who adds grain to the pot, and serves it to the people instead, who suffer no ills. A man from Baal-shalishah brings Elisha twenty loaves, and Elisha manages to feed a hundred people with them, miraculously dividing each loaf between five people, and there are some left-overs. The guild of prophets move to the Jordan to build themselves a larger home, and while doing so the head slips off an axe into the river, but Elisha throws a stick in and the iron axe head floats to the surface.
  • The story of Jehoram of Israel (2 Kings 1:17b and 3:1–27): — Due to Ahaziah (king of Israel) being childless, upon his death, his brother, Jehoram, succeeds him as king of Israel. Moab stops sending tribute to Israel once Jehoram takes over, and raises its army against Israel. Jehoram responds by makes a pact with Judah, and the combined forces of Israel, Judah, and Edom (a vassal of Judah), set out to attack Moab. However, the water supply dries up, and they consult Elisha for help. Elisha reluctantly agrees to assist them, and, going into a trance, prophecies water and victory. Vast quantities of water then come from the direction of Edom, filling the wells, and covering the ground. From a distance, the Moabites, mistaking the water for blood, think that Israel, Judah, and Edom, have attacked each other, so the Moabites seek out the spoils. When the Moabites reach the camp of Israel, the Israelites launch a surprise attack, vanquish the Moabites, and cast stones on their fields and block their springs. The Moabites are entrapped in a city, and is besieged, so the king, having failed to escape to get reinforcements, sacrifices his son to Chemosh. The sacrifice results in Israel being defeated. Jehoram later joins Ahaziah (king of Judah) in battle against Aram, but while recovering from the wounds inflicted in the battle is killed in a conspiracy, in which Ahaziah is also killed.
  • The story of Elisha and the Shunemite woman (2 Kings 4:8–37 and 8:1–6) — When Elisha visits Shunem, an influential woman asks him to dine with her, and consequently he dined with her each time he was in Shunem. The woman decides to prepare a room for him so that he can stay overnight, and so Elisha asks his servant how he can repay the woman. The servant tells Elisha that the woman is childless and her husband is old, so Elisha tells the woman that she will become pregnant, which comes true. Years later, while reaping the fields, the child, a boy, complains that his head hurts, and then abruptly dies. The mother sets off to find Elisha to tell him, and when Elisha is informed, he sends his servant to put the staff of Elisha on top of the boy. The boy remains dead, so Elisha himself goes to the boy, and twice lies on top of him, placing his hands in the boy's hands and his lips on the boy's lips, and the boy's body becomes warm. The third time he lies on the boy, the boy sneezes and awakens. Elisha later warns the woman, who has become a widow, of an approaching seven year famine, so she leaves the land. After the famine is over, the woman returns, and happens to pass the king at exactly the same moment that Elisha's servant is telling the king about the resurrection of the woman's son. The king consequently assigns an official to her, and orders that the woman's land be restored to her.
  • The story of Naaman (2 Kings 5:1–27) — Naaman, commander of Aram's forces, captured a girl from Israel during one of his campaigns. The girl tells Naaman, who suffers from leprosy, that Elisha can heal him. The king of Aram therefore sends Naaman to Elisha with letters of recommendation. Elisha orders Naaman to wash in the Jordan sevenfold, which angers Naaman, since there were closer rivers, but he is persuaded to wash in the Jordan anyway, and is cured. Naaman asks Elisha how he can be repayed, but all Elisha will accept is dedication to Yahweh alone, which Naaman agrees to. Elisha's servant thinks this a bit too light, so he goes after Naaman and suggests he donate money and two festal garments, which Naaman does. However, when the servant returns to Elisha, Elisha is angry about his action and curses Gehazi with the leprosy that Naaman had had.
  • The story of the Battle of Dothan (2 Kings 6:8–23) Once upon a time (c.f. the masoretic text of 2 Kings 6:8), the (unidentified) king of Aram was at war with the (unidentified) king of Israel, but Elisha told the king of Israel all of the secret plans that the king of Aram had made, so undermining his tactics. The king of Aram is angered by this and so sends an army to kill Elisha at Dothan. Elisha is not worried by this turn of events, and shows his servant that he is defended by a mountainside full of chariots of fire and horses, that were hidden from the servant's view. Elisha, by a prayer, strikes the army of Aram blind, then leads them to Samaria, where he restores their sight. At Samaria, Elisha orders the king of Israel to be hospitable to the Aramaean army, and not to harm them. After a feast, the Aramaeans leave, and their raiding parties cease harassing Israel.
  • The story of the second siege of Samaria (2 Kings 6:24–7:20) Ben-hadad, king of Aram, lays siege to Samaria, (with an army, not raiding parties). The siege causes hyperinflation, and a famine that is so severe that some people have started eating other people's children. The (unnamed) king of Israel blames Yahweh for the tragedy, and refuses to trust Yahweh anymore, but Elisha prophecies that the famine will end, and the inflation reverse. Four lepers realise that staying neutral, or entering the famished Israelite city, is a no-win situation for them, so they decide to go to the king of Aram, since there is at least a chance of survival. The lepers discover that the Aramaeans had fled, (having mistaken some sounds for a large army, and fearing that Israel had hired Hittite and borderland mercenaries). After helping themselves to the food and treasure, the lepers decide to tell the people of Samaria that the Aramaeans have gone. Although the king of Israel does not believe them, his servants check for themselves, and when it becomes known to the rest of the population, the Aramaean camp is plundered, ending the famine.
  • The story of the accession of Hazael (2 Kings 8:7–15) — When Ben-hadad, king of Aram, lies sick, Elisha happens to be visiting Aram by chance. The king therefore sends Hazael to consult Elisha about the king's illness. Elisha is uneasy, prophesying that the king will not survive, and Hazael will become the new king and slaughter the Israelites. Hazael is shocked, and questions how he could become king (despite Elijah already having anointed him as the next king of Aram, some while ago), but when he returns, he lies to Ben-hadad and says that Elisha had prophesied a recovery. The next day, Hazael smothers the king to death with a water soaked cloth, and becomes king in his place.
  • The story of Jehoram of Judah (1 Kings 22:51b and 2 Kings 8:16–24a) — Jehoram, the son of Jehoshaphat, succeeds him as king of Judah. Jehoram makes a pact with Israel, marrying into their royal family, though this results in him following their religious practices rather than the more Yahwistic ones of his own father. Edom, previously on Judah's side, revolts, and so Jehoram battles them, but is surrounded. Jehoram manages to escape, but his army flees, and Edom gains its independence. The town of Libnah also revolts against Jehoram.
  • The story of Ahaziah/Jehoahaz of Judah (2 Kings 8:24b–29 and 9:27–29) When Jehoram (king of Judah) dies, his son, named as Ahaziah in Kings and as Jehoahaz in Chronicles (both names are equivalent, they are the same theophory as suffix and prefix respectively), rules over Judah in his place. Due to their family connection, Ahaziah supports Jehoram (king of Israel) at the battle of Ramoth-Gilead against Hazael, and later visits Jehoram while he is convalescing from his battle wounds. While visiting the convalescent, the forces of Jehu attack him and he flees, but is fatally wounded, and dies at Megiddo.

Look up forty-two in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Gilgal is a place name in the Hebrew Bible. ... Jehoram (or Joram) was the king of Israel (2 Kings 8:16, 25, 28f), and he was the son of Ahab. ... Not to be confused with Elishah. ... This entry incorporates text from the public domain Eastons Bible Dictionary, originally published in 1897. ... Naaman the Syrian is mentioned in the Books of Kings in the Bible. ... Dothan was a city located at north of Shechem, and about 100 km north of Hebron, house of Jacob. ... Look up Accession in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Hazael (Hebrew Hazael, meaning God has seen) was a court official and later an Aramean king who appeared in the Bible. ... Jehoram of Judah was the king of Judah, and the son of Jehoshaphat (2 Kings 8:16). ... This entry is not about King Ahaziah of Israel. ... Theophory is a reference to the naming practice of adding a gods name (or the local equivalent of the generic term for god) to an individuals proper name. ... Ramoth Gilead is a Filipino Christian rock band from Bacolod City, Negros Occidental. ...

Elisha and the House of Jehu

  • The story of Jehu (2 Kings 9:1–10:31) — Elisha sends a prophet to anoint Jehu, a son of Jehoshaphat, as the king (despite Elijah already having done this). Once the prophet does this, Jehu organises a conspiracy against Jehoram (king of Israel), who was recovering at Jezreel from wounds inflicted by Hazael. When Jehu's troops approach Joram, Joram sends messengers to meet Jehu, but as Jehu forbids them to return to Joram, Joram is forced to meet Jehu himself. They meet in the field of Naboth, and Jehu accuses Jehoram's mother, Jezebel, of fornication and witchcraft, so Jehoram flees shouting that this is treason. However, on his way back, Jehoram is shot dead by Jehu with an arrow, and his body is taken to the field of Naboth in order to fulfil a prophecy. Ahaziah, the king of Judah, sees this, and flees, but is mortally wounded by Jehu, and dies at Meggido. Jehu heads to Jezreel, and when she learns of this, Jezebel puts on makeup, and calls down accusing him of murder, and asking if all is well. Jehu shouts out and persuades the palace eunuchs to defenestrate Jezebel, sending her to a gory death. Jehu challenges Israel to oppose him, but, frightened by him, they submit, and in accordance with his wishes, decapitate all the descendants of Ahab, sending Jehu the heads. Jehu also slaughters every descendant in Jezreel, and kills the kinsmen of Ahaziah (king of Judah) in a pit. Jehu then tricks the worshippers of Hadad (also known as Ba'al) by promising that he will worship Hadad, asking for them to gather at the temple of Hadad to make a sacrifice, evicting all the worshippers of Yahweh from the temple, closing the doors, and then slaughtering everyone inside. The temple of Hadad is then destroyed, and turned into a toilet.
  • The story of Jehoahaz of Israel (2 Kings 10:32–35a, and 13:1–9a) During Jehu's reign, Hazael conquers Gilead. After Jehu dies, his son, Jehoahaz, becomes the new king, of the much reduced Israel. Under the yoke of Hazael, Jehoahaz appeals to Yahweh, and a saviour is sent to free Israel from Hazael (at no point does it explain who this saviour is, or what they do to save Israel). Hazael's aggression has resulted in Jehoahaz's army being reduced to a pittance.
  • The story of Athaliah (2 Kings 11:1–20) — Athaliah, the mother of Ahaziah, on discovering the death of her son, sets out to kill the entire remaining royal family, and take the throne herself. However, her sister manages to hide Jehoash (sometimes abbreviated as Joash), the son of Ahaziah, in the temple of Yahweh. Six years later, the priest summons the captain of the guards and Carian mercenaries, and shows them Jehoash. The priest has the guards and mercenaries surround the temple and defend it, while he publicly anoints Jehoash as king. Although Athaliah discovers this, and shouts that this is treason, the priest has Athaliah taken away and killed. The people then go and obliterate the temple of Hadad, and slaughter its priest.
  • The story of Jehoash of Judah (2 Kings 12:1–22a) — Jehoash becomes a king loyal to the worship of Yahweh, though not insistent on centralised worship, and passes a law that the temple priests should get to keep the money offered at the temple, on the condition that they also take responsibility for carrying out repairs to it. While they keep the money, they fail to make repairs, so the king complains, and the priests choose to reject the money rather than be responsible for repairs. The money is put into a chest and when it becomes full, the contents are smelted together and used to pay for repairs, which a separate individual is given oversight of. Ironically, after Hazael successfully besieges Gath, when he mounts an attack on Jerusalem, Jehoash is forced to buy him off with the treasures from the temple. In a later conspiracy, Jehoash is killed by his own men.
  • The story of Jehoash of Israel (2 Kings 13:9b–13a, 13:13c–25 and 14:13–16a): Jehoash succeeds Jehoahaz, his father, as king of Israel. Jehoash goes to Elisha, who is dying, for help against Hazael. Elisha forces Jehoash to shoot an arrow through the window, and then prophecies that his doing so has ensured victory against Hazael. Elisha also makes Jehoash strike the ground with some arrows, and so Jehoash does so three times. Elisha states that this will ensure three victories, but by not striking the ground five or six times, has denied himself total outright victory. Elisha then dies, and is buried. While another funeral is taking place, Moabite raiders attack, so the mourners drop the body into Elisha's grave and flee, but when the body touches Elisha's, the man comes back to life. Hazael dies and is succeeded by the weaker Ben-hadad, who is defeated thrice by Jehoash, fulfilling Elisha's promise. Jehoash is later forced to fight the aggressive king of Judah, but succeeds and captures him. Jehoash goes on to Jerusalem where part of the walls are torn down, and Jehoash takes the treasure of the palace and temple.
  • The story of Amaziah (2 Kings 12:1–22b, 14:1–14 and 14:17–21) — Amaziah, the son of Jehoash (the king of Judah), succeeds him as king of Judah. Amaziah slaughters those who killed his father, though is merciful enough to spare their descendants. Amaziah then goes on military campaigns, conquering the Edomites. Amaziah challenges Jehoash (the king of Israel), but Jehoash responds with a parable about the Thistle of Lebanon. Amaziah attacks anyway, and the two sides meet in battle, but Judah is defeated, and Amaziah is captured. Later, Amaziah, now free (without explanation), hears of a conspiracy against him, so flees to Lachish, but is pursued there and killed.
  • The story of Jeroboam (II) (2 Kings 13:13b and 14:23–29a) — Jeroboam becomes king of Israel after the death of Jehoash (the king of Israel), his father. Despite following Canaanite religion (for which the books of Kings, Chronicles, Hosea, Joel, Amos, and Jonah, condemn him), Jeroboam is otherwise a hero, as he manages to expand the boundaries of Israel as far as the Arabah, and defeats Aram, returning Hamath to Israelite control, as had been prophesied.
  • The story of Uzziah (2 Kings 14:22, 14:29b–15:7b, 15:32–36, and 15:38a) — The son of Amaziah, Uzziah (Kings mistakenly names him Azariah, which in Chronicles is instead the name of his high priest), succeeds him as king of Judah, and rebuilds Elath. However, Uzziah suffers from leprosy, so his son, Jotham, reigns as regent (Chronicles states that Uzziah was deposed by a rebellion of the priesthood, and was cursed with leprosy as a result, and sent to live with the lepers). The construction of a gate of the temple is attributed to Jotham's mother. Jotham formally becomes king when Uzziah actually dies.
  • The story of Zechariah (2 Kings 15:8–12) — Zechariah succeeds his father, Jeroboam, as king of Israel, but is soon killed by Shallum, who reigns in his place.

Jehu son of Omri kneeling at the feet of Shalmaneser III on the Black Obelisk. ... Look up defenestration in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Toilet (disambiguation). ... Jehoahaz of Israel was king of Israel and the son of Jehu (2 Kings 10:35). ... Athaliah (Hebrew Atalyahu (עתליה), God is exalted) was the queen of Judah during the reign of King Jehoram, and later became sole ruler of Judah for five years. ... Jehoash (Jehovah-given), was king of Judah, and sole surviving son of Ahaziah. ... For other uses, see Yahweh (disambiguation). ... Temple of Hephaestus, an Doric Greek temple in Athens with the original entrance facing east, 449 BC (western face depicted) For other uses, see Temple (disambiguation). ... This article is about religious workers. ... Gath (גת Hebrew: winepress), a common place name in ancient Israel and the surrounding regions. ... Jehoash (Jehovah-given), was king of Israel and the son of Jehoahaz, (2 Kings 14:1; compare 12:1; 13:10). ... Ben Hadad means Son of Hadad in Hebrew, and may refer to: Any king of Aram Damascus. ... Amaziah (strengthened by God) was the name of several individuals in the Hebrew Bible. ... Jeroboam II was the son and successor of Jehoash, and the fourteenth king of Israel, over which he ruled for forty-one years (2 Kings 14:23). ... Hosea: Salvation The Book of Hosea is one of the books of the Hebrew Bible and of the Christian Old Testament. ... The Book of Joel is part of the Jewish Tanakh, and also the Old Testament of the Christian Bible. ... The Book of Amos is one of the books of the Neviim and of the Old Testament. ... In the Hebrew Bible, the Book of Jonah is the fifth book in a series of books called the Minor Prophets (itself a subsection of the Nevi’im or Prophets). ... Cloudbreak over Wadi Araba, Jordan. ... Hama is a province of Syria with currently approximately 350,000 inhabitants. ... Uzziah of Judah was king of Judah, and one of Amaziahs sons, whom the people appointed to replace his father (2 Kings 14:21; 2 Chronicles 26:1). ... Aqaba (Arabic: العقبة al-ʿAqabah; Standard Hebrew עקבה) is a coastal town in the far south of Jordan. ... Zechariah (spelled Zachariah in the King James Version of the Bible) was a king of the ancient Kingdom of Israel, and son of Jeroboam II. His name in Hebrew (זכריה) means remembered by the Lord. William F. Albright has dated his reign to 746 BC-745 BC, while E. R. Thiele... Zechariah (spelled Zachariah in the King James Version of the Bible) was a king of the ancient Kingdom of Israel, and son of Jeroboam II. His name in Hebrew (זכריה) means remembered by the Lord. William F. Albright has dated his reign to 746 BC-745 BC, while E. R. Thiele...

The end of the Northern Kingdom

  • The story of Shallum and Menahem (2 Kings 15:10, 13–22a) — Menahem hears about Zechariah's assassination, and sets off to kill Shallum, but is held up by the people of Tappuah. After finally reaching Shallum, and killing him, Menahem exacts revenge on the people of Tappuah by slaughtering their entire population. Now that Menahem has become king, the king of Assyria, Tiglath-pileser (referred to in 15:16–22a as if a different individual named Pul, though this is actually just the throne name of Tiglath-pileser) invades and Menahem gives him money to employ him to strengthen Menahem's own reign over Israel, but Tiglath-pileser just leaves with the money (In an inscription, Tiglath-pileser describes this simply as him invading, forcing Menahem to become a vassal, and receiving tribute). Menahem taxes the population to raise the funds for the tribute.
  • The story of Pekah (2 Kings 15:22b–31 and 15:37) — When Menahem dies, his son, Pekahiah, succeeds him as king. However, Pekah, the adjutant to Pekahiah, conspires with the people from the eastern half of Israel, Gilead, and kills Pekahiah, becoming king in his place. Pekah enters into an alliance with Rezin, the king of Aram, to attack Judah. Supporting Judah, now a vassal of Assyria, Tiglath-pileser invades Israel, capturing several cities, and deporting their populations. Hoshea conspires against Pekah, killing him and becoming king in his place (though an inscription by Tiglath-pileser states that he killed Pekah and placed Hoshea on the throne himself).
  • The story of Ahaz (2 Kings 15:38b–16:20a) — Ahaz becomes king of Judah when Jotham, his father, dies. The alliance between Aram and Israel besiege Ahaz, and Edom is able to recover Elath, so Ahaz responds by becomes a vassal of Tiglath-pileser, who is subjugating Israel. Tiglath-pileser then attacks Damascus (capital of Aram), killing Rezin, and deporting the inhabitants to another part of Assyria. Ahaz follows Canaanite religious practices, sacrificing at the high places and Asherah groves, and even immolating his son through the fire to Moloch. As a consequence, when Ahaz goes to Damascus to meet Tiglath-pileser, he is so impressed by the altar that he has a new altar made to the same design, and replaces the altar at the Jerusalem temple with it. Ahaz makes further alterations to the temple layout, even removing the throne emplacement, in deference to the Assyrian king.
  • The story of the Lost Ten Tribes (2 Kings 17:1–41 and 18:9–12) After taking control of what remained of Israel, Hoshea is forced to become a vassal of the Assyrians, due to aggressive behaviour by Shalmaneser V (unnumbered in the Bible). However, Hoshea resents this, and not only fails to send the annual tribute to Assyria, but also sends envoys to Sais, the Egyptian king, for help. In consequence, Shalmaneser occupies Israel and besieges Samaria for three years. Samaria falls to Sargon II (the new king of Assyria after Shalmaneser dies during the siege, though the Bible does not indicate this, and refers to him simply as the king of Assyria without acknowledging that this is not Shalmaneser), and the nine tribes of Israel are completely deported to other regions of the Assyrian empire, becoming the Lost Ten Tribes (tradition considers there to be ten lost tribes, though Israel contained only nine). The writer remarks that the exile of Israel is punishment for it following heathen practices. Sargon uses other Assyrian people to populate the now fairly empty Israel, and they worship their own gods, though Sargon sends a few Israelite priests back to teach the Israelite religion, which becomes regarded by the new population polytheistically.

Shallum of Israel was king of Israel, and son of Jabesh. ... Menahem (Hebrew מְנַחֵם comforting, Standard Hebrew Mənaḥem, Tiberian Hebrew Mənaḥēm) was king of Israel and the son of Gadi. ... Menahem (Hebrew מְנַחֵם comforting, Standard Hebrew Mənaḥem, Tiberian Hebrew Mənaḥēm) was king of Israel and the son of Gadi. ... Tappuah is a Biblical name with several meanings: Taffah, formerly (Beth-)Tappuah, was a town on the West Bank 4 miles west of Hebron. ... Tiglath-Pileser is the name of several kings of Assyria Tiglath-Pileser I (1115- 1077 BC) Tiglath-Pileser II (967 - 935 BC) Tiglath-Pileser III (744 - 727 BC) Tiglath-Pileser IV (also known as Tiglath-Pileser III, see above) This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists... Categories: People stubs | Kings of ancient Israel ... Adjutant is a military rank or appointment. ... See also Hosea, who has the same name in Biblical Hebrew. ... This entry incorporates text from Eastons Bible Dictionary, 1897, with some modernisation. ... Aqaba (Arabic: العقبة al-ʿAqabah; Standard Hebrew עקבה) is a coastal town in the far south of Jordan. ... Molech Moloch, Molech or Molekh, representing Hebrew מלך mlk, (translated directly into king) is either the name of a god or the name of a particular kind of sacrifice associated historically with Phoenician and related cultures in north Africa and the Levant. ... Lost Ten Tribes, also referenced as the Ten Lost Tribes or the Lost Ten Tribes of Israel, usually refers to the tribes of the ancient Kingdom of Israel that disappear from the Biblical account after the Kingdom of Israel was totally destroyed, enslaved and exiled by ancient Assyria. ... Shalmaneser V (Akkadian: Shulmanu-asharid) was King of Assyria from 727 to 722 BC. He first appears as governor of Zimirra in Phoenicia in the reign of his father, Tiglath-Pileser III. At all events, on the death of Tiglath-Pileser, he succeeded to the throne as the 25th king... Look up sais in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Sargon II (right), king of Assyria (r. ... Polytheism is belief in or worship of multiple gods or deities. ...

The end of the Southern Kingdom

  • The story of Hezekiah's reform (2 Kings 16:20b, and 18:1–6) The son of Ahaz, Hezekiah, succeeds him as king of Judah, and institutes a far reaching religious reform, centralising the religion to the temple at Jerusalem. In iconoclastic pursuit of the reform, Hezekiah destroyed the high places, pillars, and Asherah, as well as the Nehustan, which Moses himself is alleged to have created.
  • An account of the Assyrian Siege of Jerusalem (2 Kings 18:13–19:37) — Hezekiah rebels against Assyria and partially subjugates the land of the Philistines (2 Kings 18:8). However, Sennacherib, the king of Assyria, captures several cities in Judah, and so Hezekiah uses the temple funds, even breaking up the gold plated doors, to pay tribute to Sennacherib. Sennacherib sends messengers to Jerusalem to say that Hezekiah's ally Egypt is weak, that Hezekiah has offended Israel's God, and that Jerusalem couldn't even muster two thousand men to fight against the oncoming Assyrians (he makes his point by offering to supply the horses if Jerusalem can find the men). Sennacherib offers a the people a life of ease if they will submit, but the people of Judah respond with silence, as Hezekiah has ordered them. Sennacherib is briefly distracted by battling the Ethiopians that have launched an attack upon him, and so sends Hezekiah a letter reminding him that other nations' gods have not saved them from him. Apparently by way of preparation for any siege, Hezekiah constructs a conduit and pool providing water to Jerusalem. (Note: This pool is not mentioned in the account of the siege in 2 Kings, but may be referenced in 2 Kings 20:20b and 2 Chronicles 32:3–5.) Hezekiah sends messengers to Isaiah who prophecies that Yahweh will protect Jerusalem for the sake of the promise made to David, and the Assyrians will not be able to besiege Jerusalem. That night an angel kills one hundred eighty-five thousand men of the Assyrian army, and the survivors return to Assyria. (There is an interesting interplay between this account and the Assyrian account which states that Hezekiah was "locked up like a caged bird", and paid tribute to Sennacherib--though the Assyrians put a good face on things, the desired end of a siege is usually to break into a city, not to keep the inhabitants pent up within it.) Fulfilling Isaiah's prophecy of divine retribution (or simply fulfilling the internal politics of Assyria), Sennacherib is killed by two of his own sons, and a third becomes king in his place.
  • The story of Hezekiah's shadow (2 Kings 20:1–20a, and 20:20c–21a): Isaiah visits Hezekiah on his deathbed to tell him to prepare for death, but when Hezekiah prays that his faithfulness will be remembered by Yahweh, Yahweh instructs Isaiah that 15 years have just been added to Hezekiah's life. Consequently, Isaiah gets a poultice to apply to Hezekiah's boil, and Hezekiah miraculously recovers. At Isaiah's instigation, Yahweh causes the shadow on Ahaz's sundial (early translations into English instead have Hezekiah's shadow on Ahaz's steps) to suddenly and noticeably extend backwards by an extra ten measures. Merodach-baladan, the son of the Babylonian king, sends get-well gifts to Hezekiah, and so, from politeness, Hezekiah shows the Merodach-baladan's messengers his treasures. Isaiah prophecies that having seen the treasure, Babylon's greed will cause them to invade and take it away, and deport the people at the same time.
  • The story of Manasseh and Amon (2 Kings 20:21b–21:23 and 21:25–26a) — Manasseh, son of Hezekiah, becomes the next king, and completely reverts Hezekiah's religious changes, which the writer blames for the later destruction of Judah by Babylon. The story of Manasseh is abridged at this point, though the Book of Chronicles records that Manasseh was taken prisoner by the Babylonians, and treated so badly that, when released, he was a reformed man. Many copies of the vulgate translation additionally record a Prayer of Manasseh which supposedly records Manasseh's repentance. After his death, his penitance is shown to be in vain when his son, Amon, perpetuates the rejection of Hezekiah's reform, and refuses to repent. However, Amon becomes the victim of a conspiracy when he is killed by his own servants.
  • The story of Josiah 2 Kings 21:24, and 21:26b–23:30a — A counter-conspiracy results in Josiah, son of Amon, being placed on the throne of Judah. During his godly reign, Josiah institutes repairs of the temple, during which the chief priest, Hilkiah, discovers a book of the law. This newly discovered book is verified as genuine by the prophetess Huldah, and the penitent Josiah vows to enact all the newly discovered mitzvah within it (most scholars, both critical and apologetic, view the book as an early version of deuteronomy, for which reason, Josiah's reform is often referred to as the deuteronomic reform). According to the narrative, no king before Josiah was ever as devout or fulfilled all of the torah, and Josiah is particularly zealous about his iconoclasm. Necho II leads an Egyptian army to join that of Assyria in attacking Babylon, and Josiah rides out and meets Necho at the Battle of Megiddo, but is killed.
  • The story of Jehoiakim (2 Kings 23:30b–24:6a and 24:7) — The people appoint Jehoahaz, a son of Josiah, as the king in place of Josiah, but Necho imprisons Jehoahaz, and deports him. Necho appoints another son of Josiah as the new king, who duly changes his name to Jehoiakim. Jehoiakim taxes the land to give tribute to Necho, but the land is soon attacked by Nebudchadnezzar, the Babylonian king. Easily defeated, Jehoiakim becomes the vassal of Babylon rather than Egypt, and the Babylonian empire reaches to the border of Egypt, so Egypt makes no further attempt to dominate the region. However, three years later, Jehoiakim rebels, and raiders from the surrounding nations are sent by Nebuchadnezzar to attack Judah. Though the account of Jehoiakim is somewhat abridged and goes no further in the Book of Kings, an account of his rebellion, Nebuchadnezzar's response, and Jehoiakim's violent death at the hands of his own people, is present in the Book of Jeremiah.
  • The story of Jeconiah (2 Kings 24:6b, 24:8–12, and 25:27–30) — Nebuchadnezzar appoints the son of Jehoiakim, namely Jeconiah, as the new king of Judah. Nebuchadnezzar attacks Jerusalem (for an unexplained reason) and besieges it, so Jehoniah and his court surrender and Jehoiachim is taken captive. Many decades later, Evil-merodach, a later king of Babylon, releases Jehoaichin from prison, give him an allowance, and generally treats him favourably, for the rest of his days.
  • The story of Zedekiah (2 Kings 24:17–25:7) — Nebuchadnezzar appoints the uncle of Jehoiachim as the new king of Judah, who duly changes his name to Zedekiah (Yahweh is Zedek / Yahweh is righteous). However, Zedekiah rebels, and so Nebuchadnezzar besieges Jerusalem and breaches the city walls. After Zedekiah and his children flee through a tunnel, he is captured and taken to Nebuchadnezzar, who has the sons of Zedekiah killed in front of him, and then has Zedekiah's eyes put out so that it is the last thing he has seen. Zedekiah is then bound in chains and taken to Babylon.
  • The story of the Babylonian captivity (2 Kings 24:13–16 and 25:8–21) — After Jehoiachim's surrender, Nebuchadnezzar deports everyone of any worth to Babylon, including the army, the people of Jerusalem, nobles, and craftsmen, as well as the treasures of Jerusalem. Once Zedekiah's later rebellion is suppressed, Nebudchadnezzar sends Nebuzaradan to Jerusalem, where he burns down the temple, palace, houses, and walls, and deports the treasures of the temple, and the population (excepting some of the poor), to Babylon. The two highest priests of the temple, a scribe, a courtiers, five personal servants to Zedekiah, and 60 people remaining in Jerusalem, are taken to Nebudchadnezzar and killed.
  • The story of Gedaliah (2 Kings 25:22–26) — The few people remaining in Judah are put under the command of Gedaliah, who promises the commanders of the army of Judah that they will not be harmed as long as they remain loyal to Babylon. However, one of the commanders, of royal descent, conspires against Gedaliah, and has him killed, but the people are so afraid of what Nebuchadnezzar's reaction might be, that almost the entire population of Judah flee to Egypt.

Hezekiah (or Ezekias) (Hebrew: חזקיה or חזקיהו, God has strengthened) was the 13th king of indepedent Judah and the son of King Ahaz and Abijah (2 Chronicles 29:1), who was a daughter of a man (who was not the prophet) named Zechariah. ... Hezekiah (or Ezekias) (Hebrew: חזקיה or חזקיהו, God has strengthened) was the 13th king of indepedent Judah and the son of King Ahaz and Abijah (2 Chronicles 29:1), who was a daughter of a man (who was not the prophet) named Zechariah. ... Statues in the Cathedral of Saint Martin, Utrecht, attacked in Reformation iconoclasm in the 16th century. ... The Nehustan is a bronze snake which the Bible alleges was created by Moses, and had the power to heal snake-bites. ... The hexagonal prism detailing the campaign of Sennacherib against Judah In 721 BCE, the Assyrian army captured the Israelite capital at Samaria and carried away the citizens of the northern kingdom into captivity. ... Sennacherib during his Babylonian war, relief from his palace in Nineveh Sennacherib (in Akkadian Śïn-ahhe-eriba (The moon god) Śïn has Replaced (Lost) Brothers for Me) was the son of Sargon II, whom he succeeded on the throne of Assyria (705 BC–681 BC). ... Pool of Siloam (Hebrew sent or sending) is a landmark mentioned several times in the Bible. ... Isaiah the Prophet in Hebrew Scriptures was depicted on the Sistine Chapel ceiling by Michelangelo. ... This article is about the Biblical king of Israel. ... Sennacheribs Prism is a hexagonal stone prism, containing six paragraphs of cuneiform written Akkadian. ... Hezekiah (or Ezekias) (Hebrew: חזקיה or חזקיהו, God has strengthened) was the 13th king of indepedent Judah and the son of King Ahaz and Abijah (2 Chronicles 29:1), who was a daughter of a man (who was not the prophet) named Zechariah. ... A poultice is a soft moist mass, often heated and medicated, that is spread on cloth over the skin to treat an aching, inflamed, or painful part of the body. ... Marduk-apal-iddina II (the biblical Merodach-baladan, also called Marduk-baladan, Baladan and Berodach-baladan) (722–702 BCE), Chaldean prince, who usurped the Babylonian throne in 721. ... Manasseh of Judah was the king of Judah and only son and successor of Hezekiah. ... Categories: Stub | Kings of ancient Judah ... The Book of Chronicles is a book in the Hebrew Bible (also see Old Testament). ... The Vulgate Bible is an early 5th century version in Latin, partly revised and partly translated by Jerome on the orders of Pope Damasus I in 382. ... This short work of only 15 verses purports to be the penitential prayer of the Judean king Manasseh, who is recorded in the Bible as one of the most idolatrous (2 Kings 21:1-18). ... Josiah listening to the reading of the law by Julius Schnoor von Carolsfeld Josiah or Yoshiyahu (Hebrew: , Standard  Tiberian  ; supported of the Lord) was king of Judah, and son of Amon and Jedidah, the daughter of Adaiah of Bozkath. ... Hilkiah was a Hebrew Priest at the time of King Josiah. ... Huldah was a prophetess mentioned briefly in the Second Book of Kings, Chapter 22. ... This article is about commandments in Judaism. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Torah () is the most important document in Judaism, revered as the inspired word of G-d (the vocal is never spelled), traditionally said to have been revealed to Moses. ... Statues in the Cathedral of Saint Martin, Utrecht, attacked in Reformation iconoclasm in the 16th century. ... Wahemibre Nomen Necho Horus name Maaib Nebty name Maakheru Golden Horus Merynetjeru Consort(s) Khedebarbenet Died 595 BC Necho II (or more accurately, Nekau II) was a king of the Twenty-sixth dynasty of Egypt (610 - 595 BC), and the son of Psammetichus I. His prenomen or royal name Wahemibre... In the Battle of Megiddo of 609 BCE, the forces of Egypt fought those of the Kingdom of Judah. ... King Jehoiakim (he whom God has set up, Hebrew language: יהוֹיָקִים) is a biblical character, whose original name was Eliakim. ... Jehoahaz (meaning Jehovah his sustainer, or he whom Jehovah holdeth) was the name of several people mentioned in the Old Testament. ... For other uses, see Babylon (disambiguation). ... The Book of Jeremiah, or Jeremiah (יִרְמְיָהוּ YirmÉ™yāhÅ« in Hebrew), is part of the Hebrew Bible, Judaisms Tanakh, and later became a part of Christianitys Old Testament. ... Jeconiah (also known as Jehoiachin, Joachin, and Coniah) was king of Judah. ... Amel-Marduk (or Evil-merodach, Merodachs man) (? BC - ca. ... Tzidkiyahu (‎, Åžidhqiyyāhû; Greek: ζεδεκιας, Zedekias; traditional English: Zedekiah; Arabic: صدقيا, Åžidqiyyā) was the last king of Judah. ... For other uses, see Yahweh (disambiguation). ... Zedek or Tzedek, West Semitic for Justice, was probably the name of the chief god of the Jebusites, and possibly of other Canaanite people. ... Babylonian captivity also refers to the permanence of the Avignon Papacy. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article may require cleanup. ...

Authorship

The authorship, or rather compilation, of these books is uncertain. The sources of the narrative are explicitly given as:

  1. The "book of the acts of Solomon" (1 Kings 11:41)
  2. The "book of the chronicles of the kings of Judah" (14:29; 15:7, 23, etc.)
  3. The "book of the chronicles of the kings of Israel" (14:19; 15:31; 16:14, 20, 27, etc.).

The date of its composition was perhaps some time between 561 BC, the date of the last chapter (2 Kings 25), when Jehoiachin was released from captivity by Evil-merodach, and 538 BC, the date of the decree of deliverance by Cyrus the Great. Centuries: 7th century BC - 6th century BC - 5th century BC Decades: 610s BC 600s BC 590s BC 580s BC 570s BC - 560s BC - 550s BC 540s BC 530s BC 520s BC 510s BC Events and Trends 562 BC - Amel-Marduk succeeds Nebuchadnezzar as king of Babylon 560 BC - Neriglissar succeeds... Jeconiah (also known as Jehoiachin, Joachin, and Coniah) was king of Judah. ... Amel-Marduk (or Evil-merodach, Merodachs man) (? BC - ca. ... Centuries: 7th century BC - 6th century BC - 5th century BC Decades: 580s BC - 570s BC - 560s BC - 550s BC - 540s BC - 530s BC - 520s BC - 510s BC - 500s BC - 490s BC - 480s BC Events and Trends 538 BC - Babylon occupied by Jews transported to Babylon are allowed to return to... “Cyrus” redirects here. ...


There are some portions that are almost identical to the Book of Jeremiah, for example, 2 Kings 24:18-25 and Jeremiah 52; 39:1-10; 40:7-41:10. There are also many undesigned coincidences between Jeremiah and Kings (2 Kings 21-23 and Jer. 7:15; 15:4; 19:3, etc.), and events recorded in Kings of which Jeremiah had personal knowledge. Because of this, traditionally Jeremiah was credited the author of the books of Kings. The Book of Jeremiah, or Jeremiah (יִרְמְיָהוּ Yirməyāhū in Hebrew), is part of the Hebrew Bible, Judaisms Tanakh, and later became a part of Christianitys Old Testament. ... This entry incorporates text from Eastons Bible Dictionary, 1897, with some modernisation. ...


However, the book(s) plainly acknowledge several source texts in several places, and it is hence self evidently a compilation from earlier sources rather than an original work. A superficial examination of the Books of Kings makes clear the fact that they are a compilation and not an original composition, and the compiler (usually referred to as the redactor) constantly cites certain of his sources. In the case of Solomon it is the book of the acts of Solomon (1 Kings 11:41); for the Northern Kingdom it is the book of the chronicles of the kings of Israel, which is cited seventeen times, that is, for all the kings except Jehoram and Hoshea (e.g. 1 Kings 15:31); and for the kings of Judah it is the book of the chronicles of the kings of Judah, which is cited fifteen times, that is, for all the kings except Ahaziah, Athaliah, Jehoahaz, Jehoiachin, and Zedekiah (e.g. 1 Kings 15:7). As well as the text's own admission, the idea of the text being composed from multiple earlier sources is also supported by textual criticism. Whether the editor had access to these chronicles, as they were deposited in the state archives, or simply to a history based upon them, can not with certainty be determined, though it is generally assumed that the latter was the case.


An early supposition was that Ezra, after the Babylonian captivity, compiled them from official court chronicles of David, Solomon, Nathan, Gad, and Iddo, and that he arranged them in the order in which they now exist. However, it is more usually said that Ezra was the compiler of the Books of Chronicles, an alternate history of the period of the kings, which was earlier in history treated as a single book together with the Book of Ezra and the Book of Nehemiah. For other uses, see Ezra (disambiguation). ... Babylonian captivity also refers to the permanence of the Avignon Papacy. ... This article is about the Biblical king of Israel. ... This article is about the Biblical figure. ... The Nathan the Prophet was a seer who lived in the time of King David and his wife Bathsheba. ... Gad can refer to: Gad (see Gad Guard), a metallic cube artifact that figures prominantly in the anime Gad Guard Gad (Bible character), the sixth son of Jacob as related in Genesis 29 - 30 Tribe of Gad, one of the Hebrew tribes founded by Gad GAD as a three-letter... Iddo (עדו also יעדו) was a minor biblical prophet, who appears to have lived during the reigns of King Solomon and his heirs, Rehoboam and Abijah in the Kingdom of Judah. ... The Book of Chronicles is a book in the Hebrew Bible (also see Old Testament). ... The Book of Ezra is a book of the Bible in the Old Testament and Hebrew Tanakh. ... The Book of Nehemiah is a book of the Hebrew Bible, known to Jews as the Tanach and to Christians as the Old Testament. ...


The majority of textual criticism is of the belief that, with the majority of Deuteronomy, Joshua, Judges, and Samuel, these works were originally compiled into a single text, the Deuteronomic history, by a single redactor, the Deuteronomist. The similarities between the text of Deuteronomy and that of the Book of Jeremiah are so strong that many critical scholars view Jeremiah as the Deuteronomist, hence agreeing, in a round about sort of way, and for different reasons, with the traditional view concerning the authorship of Kings. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Book of Joshua is the sixth book in both the Hebrew Tanakh and the Old Testament of the Christian Bible. ... Book of Judges (Hebrew: Sefer Shoftim ספר שופטים) is a book of the Bible originally written in Hebrew. ... The Books of Samuel (Hebrew: Sefer Shmuel ספר שמואל), are part of the Tanakh (part of Judaisms Hebrew Bible) and also of the Old Testament (of Christianity). ... The Deuteronomist (D) is one of the sources of the Torah postulated by the documentary hypothesis that treats the texts of Scripture as products of human intellect, working in time. ... Redaction generally refers to the editing of text to turn it into a form suitable for publication, or to the result of such an effort. ... The Deuteronomist (D) is one of the sources of the Torah postulated by the documentary hypothesis that treats the texts of Scripture as products of human intellect, working in time. ... The Book of Jeremiah, or Jeremiah (יִרְמְיָהוּ Yirməyāhū in Hebrew), is part of the Hebrew Bible, Judaisms Tanakh, and later became a part of Christianitys Old Testament. ...


Object and method of work

It was not the purpose of the compiler to give a complete history of the period covered by his work; for he constantly refers to these sources for additional details. He mentions as a rule a few important events which are sufficient to illustrate the attitude of the king toward the Deuteronomic law, or some feature of it, such as the central sanctuary and the high places, and then proceeds to pronounce judgment upon him accordingly. Each reign is introduced with a regular formula; then follows a short excerpt from one of his sources; after which an estimate of the character of the monarch is given in stereotyped phraseology; and the whole concludes with a statement of the king's death and burial, according to a regular formula (for example, compare 1 Kings 15:1-9 with 1 Kings 15:25-32).


The standpoint of the judgments passed upon the various kings as well as the vocabulary of the compiler indicates that he lived after the reforms of Josiah (621 B.C.) had brought the Deuteronomic law into prominence. How much later than this the book in its present form was composed, may be inferred from the fact that it concludes with a notice of Jehoiachin's release from prison by Evil-merodach (Amil-Marduk) after the death of Nebuchadnezzar in 562. The book must have taken its present form, therefore, during the Exile, and probably in Babylonia. As no mention is made of the hopes of return which are set forth in Isaiah 40-55, the work was probably concluded before 550. Besides the concluding chapters there are allusions in the body of the work which imply an exilic date (e.g. 1 Kings 8:34, 9:39; 2 Kings 17:19-20, 23:26-27).


Time of redaction

On the other hand, there are indications which imply that the first redaction of Kings must have occurred before the downfall of the Judean monarchy. The phrase unto this day occurs in 1 Kings 8:8, 9:21, 12:19; 2 Kings 8:22, 16:6, where it seems to have been added by an editor who was condensing material from older annals, but described conditions still existing when he was writing. Again, in 1 Kings 9:36, 15:4, and 2 Kings 8:19, which come from the hand of a Deuteronomic editor, David has, and is to have, a lamp burning in Jerusalem; that is, the Davidic dynasty is still reigning. Finally, 1 Kings 8:29-31, 8:33, 8:35, 8:38, 8:42, 8:44, 8:48, 9:3, 11:36 imply that the Temple is still standing. There was accordingly a pre-exilic Book of Kings. The work in this earlier form must have been composed between 621 and 586. As the glamour of Josiah's reforms was strong upon the compiler, perhaps he wrote before 600. To this original work 2 Kings 24:10-25:30 was added in the Exile, and, perhaps, 23:31-24:9. In addition to the supplement which the exilic editor appended, a comparison of the Masoretic text with the Septuagint as represented in codices B and L shows that the Hebrew text was retouched by another hand after the exemplars which underlie the Alexandrine text had been made. Thus in B and L, 1 Kings 5:7 follows on 4:19; 6:12-14 is omitted; 9:26 follows on 9:14, so that the account of Solomon's dealings with Hiram is continuous, most of the omitted portion being inserted after 10:22. 1 Kings 21, the history of Naboth, precedes ch. 20, so that 20 and 22, which are excerpts from the same source, come together. Such discrepancies prove sufficient late editorial work to justify the assumption of two recensions. The Masoretic Text (MT) is the Hebrew text of the Tanakh approved for general use in Judaism. ... The Septuagint: A column of uncial text from 1 Esdras in the Codex Vaticanus, the basis of Sir Lancelot Charles Lee Brentons Greek edition and English translation. ...


Sources

In brief outline the sources of the books appear to have been these:

  • 1 Kings 1-2 are extracted bodily from the a source now known as the court history of David, which largely also constitutes 2 Samuel 9-20. The redactor has added notes at 1 Kings 2:2-4 and 2:10-12.
  • For the reign of Solomon the text names its source as the book of the acts of Solomon (11:41); but other sources were employed, and much was added by the redactor.
    • 1 Kings 3 is a prophetic narrative of relatively early origin, worked over by the redactor, who added verses 2-3, and 14-15.
    • 1 Kings 4:1-19 is presumably derived from the Chronicle of Solomon.
    • 1 Kings 4:20-5:14, "Solomon's Wealth and Wisdom" (1 Ki 4:20-34 ESB), contains a small kernel of prophetic narrative which has been retouched by many hands, some of them later than the Septuagint.
    • The basis of 5:15-7:51 was apparently a document from the Temple archives; but this was freely expanded by the redactor, and 6:11-14 also by a later annotator.
    • 1 Kings 8:1-13, the account of the dedication of the Temple, is from an old narrative, slightly expanded by later hands under the influence of the Priestly source of the Torah.
    • 1 Kings 8:14-66 is in its present form the work of the redactor slightly retouched in the Exile.
    • 1 Kings 9:1-9 is the work of the redactor, but whether before the Exile or during it is disputed.
    • 1 Kings 9:10-10:29 consists of extracts from an old source, presumably the book of the acts of Solomon, pieced together and expanded by later editors. The order in the Masoretic text differs from that in the Septuagint.
    • 1 Kings 11:1-13 is the work of the redactor;
    • 1 Kings 11:14-22 is a confused account, perhaps based on two older narratives;
    • 1 Kings 11:26-31 and 39-40 probably formed a part of a history of Jeroboam from which 12:1-20 and 14:1-18 were also taken. The extracts in chapter 11 have been set and retouched by later editors.

According to most modern Biblical critics, this is one of the source documents of the Hebrew Bible. ... The Priestly Source (P) is the most recent of the four sources of the Torah postulated by the documentary hypothesis. ... The Torah () is the most important document in Judaism, revered as the inspired word of G-d (the vocal is never spelled), traditionally said to have been revealed to Moses. ...

Narratives and epitomes

From chapter 12 of 1 Kings onward, both 1&2 Kings are characterized by an alternation of short notices which give epitomes of historical events, with longer narratives extracted from various sources. The following sections are short epitomes:

  • 1 Kings 14:21-16:34
  • 1 Kings 22:41-53
  • 2 Kings 8:16-29
  • 2 Kings 10:32-36
  • 2 Kings 12:18-13:13
  • 2 Kings 13:22-17:6

In some cases short extracts are even here made in full, as in 14:8-14 and 16:10-16.


The longer narratives, which are frequently retouched and expanded by the redactor, are as follows:

  • 1 Kings 12:1-20, 14:1-18, from an older narrative of Jeroboam, to which 12:21-32 and 14:19-20 are additions
  • 12:33-13:34, a comparatively late story of a prophet
  • 17:1-19:21 and 21:1-29, an early prophetic narrative written in the Northern Kingdom (c.f. 19:3). 16:29-34 is sometimes regarded as part of this source as well.
  • 20:1-43 and 22:1-40, an early north-Israelitish history of the Syrian war in which Ahab lost his life
  • 2 Kings 1:1-8:15 and 9:1-10:31, north-Israelitish narratives, not all from one hand, which are retouched here and there, as in 3:1-3, by the redactor
  • 11:1-12:17, a Judean narrative of the overthrow of Athaliah and the accession of Joash
  • 13:14-21 and 14:8-14, two excerpts from material written in the Northern Kingdom (c.f. 14:11)
  • 17:7-23 is the redactor's commentary on the historical notice with which the chapter opens
  • 17:24-41 is composite (c.f. 17:32, 17:34, and 17:41), probably written in the Exile and retouched after the time of Nehemiah
  • 18:1-20:21 is compiled by the redactor from three sources, the redactor himself prefixing, inserting, and adding some material. This is often called the "Isaiah Source" because of its similarity to that prophetic book (2 Kings 18:13-19:37 = Isaiah 36-37). The opening section (2 Ki 18:13-16) comes from an early annalistic source, and agrees remarkably well with corresponding Assyrian accounts. Then follows two accounts of the negotiations between Sennacharib's officer Rabshakeh and Jerusalem in 701 BCE. The first version (2 Ki 18:17-19:7) seems to be older and shows less elaboration from Prophetic and Deuteronomistic traditions. The other version (2 Ki 19:8-34) appears later and evidences elaboration from Prophetic (c.f. 2 Ki 19:20-34), as well as Deuteronomistic (c.f. 2 Ki 19:14-19), circles. See "Ancient Israel: From Abraham to the Roman Destruction of the Temple" pp. 179, 330 n.130.
  • 21:1-26 is, throughout, the work of the redactor
  • 22:1-23:25 is an extract from the Temple archives with slight editing
  • 23:29-25:30, the appendix of the exilic editor, is based on Jeremiah 40:7-53:6. From Jeremiah, too, the exilic editor drew his information, which he presented in briefer form.

Numbering

The numbering of the Bible is usually considered to be fairly consistent throughout translations. However, most Hebrew versions, as well as the New American Bible, differ in the numbering of 1 Kings 4-5 from other translations such as the King James Version. One set of translations regards chapter 4 as ending at verse 20, while the other continues it for 14 verses that are placed at the start of chapter 5 in the first set. I.e. In 1970, the New American Bible (NAB) was first published. ... This page is about the version of the Bible; for the Harvey Danger album, see King James Version (album). ...

  • 1 Kings 5:1-14 in the first set is 1 Kings 4:21-34 in the second set
  • 1 Kings 5:15-32 in the first set is 1 Kings 5:1-18 in the second set
  • 1 Kings 4:21-34 does not exist in the first set, while 1 Kings 5:19-32 does not exist in the second set

This article follows the numbering of the Hebrew versions and the NAB, i.e. where 1 Kings 4:21-34 does not exist, and 1 Kings 5 has 32 verses.


Peculiar textual features

Problems of dates

The chronology of Kings has several problematic areas. The duration of reigns for the kings of Judah does not correspond correctly to their supposed times of accession compared to the reigns of the kings of Israel. Assigning the number of years after Solomon that each king of Judah reigned, by comparing the figure for their predecessor and the length of their predecessor's reign, simply does not equal the figure that you would obtain by comparing the figures for the kings of Israel and which year the king of Judah began to rule compared to the reign of the contemporary king of Israel. The same issue, transposed, obviously applies to the kings of Israel, and hence there are multiple different chronologies proposed for the period.


There are also external difficulties for the dating. The king that the Book of Kings names as Ahaz is claimed within it to reign for only 16 years. However, some of the events during his reign are recorded elsewhere, and have an almost absolute consensus as to their dates, requiring Ahaz to have at least ruled between 735BC and 715BC, a period of 20 years.


One resolution of this issue is provided based on the knowledge that the Jewish calendrical system counted as one year the period of time from the date of the king's ascension until the beginning of the following month of Nisan; conversely, the final year of a king's reign was counted from the beginning of the month of Nissan until the date of his death (see Tractate Rosh Hashanah 2a). Thus, the calculation of the reigns of the kings of Israel and Judah often differ from one another. Nisan (Hebrew: נִיסָן, Standard Nisan Tiberian Nîsān ; from Akkadian , from Sumerian nisag First fruits) is the first month of the civil year and the seventh month (eighth, in leap year) of the ecclesiastical year on the Hebrew calendar. ...


Problems of names

The name Hadad and compounds of it occur at several locations within the text. Hadad is the name of the Canaanite deity that is often who the term Ba'al (which means lord) refers to. Consequently many kings from the region surrounding Israel and Judah would take throne names that were theophory in Hadad (or Ba'al), which has can lead to much confusion in the text, and some difficulty in identifying which people are the same individuals and which are different: Haddad - בעל הדד - حداد (in Ugaritic Haddu) was a very important northwest Semitic storm god and rain god, cognate in name and origin with the Akkadian god Adad. ... Baal (בַּעַל / בָּעַל, Standard Hebrew Báʿal, Tiberian Hebrew Báʿal / Báʿal) is a northwest Semitic word signifying The Lord, master, owner (male), husband cognate with Akkadian Bēl of the same meanings. ... Theophory is a reference to the naming practice of adding a gods name (or the local equivalent of the generic term for god) to an individuals proper name. ...

  • Hadadezer (Hadad+ezer) is an Assyrian king
  • Hadad is the name of a king of Edom
  • Ben-hadad is the name of one or more kings of Aram. Although this name simply means son of Hadad it does not necessarily mean that Hadad was the name of the king's father, but simply that the king was a king (i.e. a son of Hadad - the god)
  • King Hadad is the name of a god (according to the text), i.e. Hadad

In addition, while Ba'al is usually used to refer to Hadad, the term Baalzebub also appears as the name of a deity. Ba'alzebub, meaning lord of the flies, is most likely to be a deliberate pun, by the anti-Hadad writer, on the term Ba'alzebul, meaning prince Ba'al, i.e. Hadad. Even more confusing is the fact that some passages refer to a single king of Assyria by two different names, whereas others refer simply to the king of Assyria in several places but are actually talking about 2 separate historically attested kings, not the same individual. Beelzebub (also known as Belzebud, Belzaboul, Beelzeboul, Baalsebul, Baalzebubg, Beelzebuth, Beelzebus; more accurately Ba‘al Zebûb or Ba‘al Zəbûb, Hebrew בעל זבוב), appears as the name of a deity worshipped in the Philistine city of Ekron. ... For other uses, see Pun (disambiguation). ...


This problem is compounded in the names of Israelite and Judahite kings, where theophoric suffixes and prefixes exist in El and Yah/Yahweh, namely Ja...., Jeho..., ....iah, ...el, and El..... It was common to drop the theophory in ordinary day to day life, so that, for example, Daniel becomes simply Dan. In some cases double theophory occurred, as for example in the name of the king of Judah that contemporary cuneiform inscriptions record as Jeconiah (Je+Con+Iah), which the Book of Jeremiah drops one of the theophories to make the name simply Choniah (Chon+Iah), while the Book of Kings moves both theophories next to each other making his name Jehoiachin (Jeho+Iah+chon). Similarly theophory was often flexible as to which end of names it occurred at for a single individual, so that the king of Judah which the Book of Kings of names as Ahaziah (Ahaz + iah) is named by the Book of Chronicles as Jehoahaz (Jeho + ahaz) - ultimately this is the same name as had by the later king referred to as Ahaz. The Book of Jeremiah, or Jeremiah (יִרְמְיָהוּ Yirməyāhū in Hebrew), is part of the Hebrew Bible, Judaisms Tanakh, and later became a part of Christianitys Old Testament. ...


Genealogical problems

Version of the Omride genealogy using the Masoretic Text only
Version of the Omride genealogy using the Masoretic Text only

In the region of the Omrides (that is the descendants of Omri), there are remarkable co-incidences between the names of the kings of Judah and those of Israel, in that they are often identical; Jehoram was king of Israel while another Jehoram was king of Judah; Jehoash son of Jehoahaz was king of Israel while another Jehoash son of another Jehoahaz was king of Judah. As a consequence a number of scholars have proposed that this was a period in which Judah and Israel were united under one king, and by combining two different accounts of the same individual from the point of view of Israel and of Judah, the redactor of Kings has split one historic set of individuals into two copies. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ...


This feature is compounded by the fact that unlike the masoretic text, on which most English bible translations are based, the Septuagint version refers to Athaliah as daughter of Omri, rather than as daughter of the house of Omri. A number of scholars have suggested that the Septuagint represents the more original version, and hence that Athaliah was in reality either the sister, half-sister, or wife, of Ahab. Since her character and the manner of her death are described by the bible to be similar to Jezebel, the possibility that Jezebel is merely a descriptive slur or nickname for Athaliah has been raised. By equating the two, the genealogy can be simplified and a number of name duplications no longer occur. It is also possible that Athaliah was daughter of Jehoshaphat, and it was her marriage to Ahab that formed the Israel-Judah alliance, with the biblical form of the genealogy being later censorship to make Judah appear to have remained fairly religiously pure; this would explain how it was that she became queen over Judah, in contrast to how the bible portrays her as a biological daughter of the king of Israel. The Masoretic Text (MT) is the Hebrew text of the Tanakh approved for general use in Judaism. ... The Septuagint: A column of uncial text from 1 Esdras in the Codex Vaticanus, the basis of Sir Lancelot Charles Lee Brentons Greek edition and English translation. ... Athaliah (Hebrew Atalyahu (עתליה), God is exalted) was the queen of Judah during the reign of King Jehoram, and later became sole ruler of Judah for five years. ... Jezebel has several meanings: Jezebel (Bible) is a person in the Bible Jezebel (film) is a 1938 film Jezebel (Japanese band) is a Japanese visual kei band Common Jezebel (Butterfly) Anita ODay was billed as the Jezebel of Jazz Jezebel, a song by Iron & Wine from the Woman King...

Version of the Omride genealogy using the Septuagint text and the Black Obelisk of Shalmaneser
Version of the Omride genealogy using the Septuagint text and the Black Obelisk of Shalmaneser

The Black Obelisk of Shalmaneser also refers to Jehu as son of Omri, rather than son of Jehoshaphat as the bible would prefer it, especially since the bible portrays Jehu as destroying the house of Omri rather than helping perpetuate it. By treating the Black Obelisk as historically accurate, and thus making Jehu a brother or half-brother to Ahab, it becomes much clearer why Jehu, who the bible portrays as a son of the king of Judah, would become the head of a dynasty of kings over Israel. Jehu would in this situation be the wicked uncle who killed the rightful kings of Israel and Judah, attempting to usurp power, but only managing to hold onto Israel, to which he had an ancestral claim. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The Black Obelisk of Shalmaneser III (reigned 858-824 BC) is a black limestone Neo-Assyrian bas-relief sculpture from Nimrud (ancient Kalhu), in northern Iraq. ... Jehu son of Omri kneeling at the feet of Shalmaneser III on the Black Obelisk. ...


Organization

The two books of Kings comprise the fourth book in the second canonical division of Hebrew Scriptures: in the threefold division of the Tanach, these books are ranked among the Prophets. The present division into two books was first made by the Septuagint, which numbers them as the third and fourth books of "Kingdoms", the two books of Samuel being considered the first and second books of Kingdoms; this numbering was also followed in the Vulgate with 1-4 Kings, but most modern Christian Bibles have two books of Samuel and two of Kings.[1] “Hebrew” redirects here. ... The Septuagint: A column of uncial text from 1 Esdras in the Codex Vaticanus, the basis of Sir Lancelot Charles Lee Brentons Greek edition and English translation. ... The Books of Samuel (Hebrew: Sefer Shmuel ספר שמואל), are part of the Tanakh (part of Judaisms Hebrew Bible) and also of the Old Testament (of Christianity). ... The Vulgate Bible is an early 5th century version in Latin, partly revised and partly translated by Jerome on the orders of Pope Damasus I in 382. ...


In Christianity

The Books of Kings are frequently quoted or alluded to by (Matthew 6:29; Matthew 12:42; Luke 4:25-26, Luke 10:4; comp. 2 Kings 4:29; Mark 1:6; comp. 2 Kings 1:8; and Matthew 3:4, etc.).


External links

Online translations of the Books of Kings:

Other Links “Hebrew” redirects here. ... “Hebrew” redirects here. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Rashi (1040-1105) (Artists imagination) Rashi רשי is a Hebrew acronym for רבי שלמה יצחקי (Rabbi Shlomo Yitzhaqi), (February 22, 1040 – July 13, 1105), a rabbi in France, famed as the author of the first comprehensive commentaries on the Talmud and Tanakh. ... Rashi (1040-1105) (Artists imagination) Rashi רשי is a Hebrew acronym for רבי שלמה יצחקי (Rabbi Shlomo Yitzhaqi), (February 22, 1040 – July 13, 1105), a rabbi in France, famed as the author of the first comprehensive commentaries on the Talmud and Tanakh. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is...

  • An online encyclopedia of everybody in Tanakh (Hebrew/English). This site also provides a chart of the Kings of Israel and Judah and translations of names.

This entry incorporates text from the public domain Easton's Bible Dictionary, originally published in 1897. Eastons Bible Dictionary generally refers to the Illustrated Bible Dictionary, Third Edition, by Matthew George Easton M.A., D.D. (1823-1894), published three years after Eastons death in 1897 by Thomas Nelson. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Kids.Net.Au - Encyclopedia > Books of Kings (432 words)
The Books of Kings are two books of the Christian Bible Old Testament and Jewish Tanach.
Two books of Kings were originally one book in the Hebrew Scriptures.
The present division into two books was first made by the Septuagint, which now, with the Vulgate, numbers them as the third and fourth books of Kings, the two books of Samuel being the first and second books of Kings.
NationMaster - Encyclopedia: Second Book of Kings (720 words)
The two books of Kings comprise the fourth book in the second canonical division of Hebrew Scriptures: in the threefold division of the Tanach, these books are ranked among the Prophets.
2 Kings 2: 1‑12 The Ascension of Elijah
The wife of Jehoram of Judah was Athaliah, the daugh­ter of Ahab (2 Kings 8: 18); Ahaziah was the son of Athaliah (2 Kings 8: 26).
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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