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Encyclopedia > Book of Revelation
Visions of John of Patmos, as depicted in the Très Riches Heures du Duc de Berry. Four seraphim surround the throne; the twenty-four elders sit to the left and right. They are dressed in white robes, representing pureness, and have crowns of gold on their heads, denoting royalty and honor (Rev 4:4). The book of Revelation does not specifically identify who the twenty-four elders are, though they are thought to be the twelve sons of Jacob and the twelve Disciples of Jesus.
Visions of John of Patmos, as depicted in the Très Riches Heures du Duc de Berry. Four seraphim surround the throne; the twenty-four elders sit to the left and right. They are dressed in white robes, representing pureness, and have crowns of gold on their heads, denoting royalty and honor (Rev 4:4). The book of Revelation does not specifically identify who the twenty-four elders are, though they are thought to be the twelve sons of Jacob and the twelve Disciples of Jesus.

The Book of Revelation, also called Revelation to John or Apocalypse of John, (literally, apocalypse of John; Greek, Αποκαλυψις Ιωαννου, Apokalupsis Iōannou) (IPA: [əˈpɑkəlɪps]) is the last canonical book of the New Testament in the Bible. It is the only biblical book that is wholly composed of apocalyptic literature. Other apocalypses popular in the early Christian era did not achieve canonical status, except for the 2 Esdras (Apocalypse of Ezra), which is canonical in the Russian Orthodox and Ethiopian Orthodox Churches. Download high resolution version (941x1420, 274 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (941x1420, 274 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Saint John on Patmos by Hans Baldung Grien, 1511 Saint John of Patmos, by Jean Fouquet John of Patmos is the name given to the author of the Book of Revelation (or Book of the Apocalypse) in the New Testament. ... An illuminated page from the Très Riches Heures showing the day for exchanging gifts from the month of January The Très Riches Heures du Duc de Berry (or simply the Très Riches Heures) is probably the most important illuminated manuscript of the 15th century, le roi des... 六翼天使 Seraphim(六翼天使) is a Taiwanese symphonic metal band similar to Nightwish and Therion. ... ... A crown is a symbolic form of headgear worn by a monarch or by a god, for whom the crown is traditionally one of the symbols of power and legitimacy (See Regalia for a broader treatment). ... General Name, Symbol, Number gold, Au, 79 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 11, 6, d Appearance metallic yellow Standard atomic weight 196. ... Honor (or honor) comprises the reputation, self-perception or moral identity of an individual or of a group. ... An Israelite is a member of the Twelve Tribes of Israel, descended from the twelve sons of the Biblical patriarch Jacob who was renamed Israel by God in the book of Genesis, 32:28 The Israelites were a group of Hebrews, as described in the Bible. ... Jacob Wrestling with the Angel – Gustave Doré, 1855 Jacob or Yaakov, (Hebrew: יַעֲקֹב, Standard  Tiberian ; Arabic: يعقوب, ; holds the heel), also known as Israel (Hebrew: יִשְׂרָאֵל, Standard  Tiberian ; Arabic: اسرائيل, ; Struggled with God), is the third Biblical patriarch. ... Alternate meaning: See Apostle (Mormonism) The Christian Apostles were Jewish men chosen from among the disciples, who were sent forth (as indicated by the Greek word απόστολος apostolos= messenger), by Jesus to preach the Gospel to both Jews and Gentiles, across the... Look up Apocalypse in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Articles with similar titles include the NATO phonetic alphabet, which has also informally been called the “International Phonetic Alphabet”. For information on how to read IPA transcriptions of English words, see IPA chart for English. ... A biblical canon is a list of Biblical books which establishes the set of books which are considered to be authoritative as scripture by a particular Jewish or Christian community. ... This article is about the Christian scriptures. ... This Gutenberg Bible is displayed by the United States Library. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Early Christians is a term used to refer to the early followers of Jesus of Nazareth, before the emergence of established Christian orthodoxy. ... In the Septuagint and for Eastern Orthodox Christians, 2 Esdras refers to the combination of Ezra and Nehemiah. ... The Russian Orthodox Church (Русская Православная церковь) is that body of Christians who are united under the Patriarch of Moscow, who in turn is in communion with... The Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahido Church is an Oriental Orthodox church in Ethiopia that was part of the Coptic Church until it was granted its own Patriarch by Cyril VI, the Coptic Pope, in 1959. ...

Contents

Naming

New Testament

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The book is frequently called "Revelation"; however, the title found on some of the earliest manuscripts is "The Apocalypse/Revelation of John" (ΑΠΟΚΑΛΥΨΙΣ ΙΩΑΝΝΟΥ), and the most common title found on later manuscripts is "The Apocalypse/Revelation of the theologian" (ΑΠΟΚΑΛΥΨΙΣ ΤΟΥ ΘΕΟΛΟΓΟΥ).[1] This article is about the Christian scriptures. ... The Gospel of Matthew (literally, according to Matthew; Greek, Κατά Μαθθαίον or Κατά Ματθαίον, Kata Maththaion or Kata Matthaion) is a synoptic gospel in the New Testament, one of four canonical gospels. ... The Gospel of Mark (literally, according to Mark; Greek, Κατά Μαρκον, Kata Markon),(anonymous[1] but ascribed to Mark the Evangelist) is a Gospel of the New Testament. ... The Gospel of Luke (literally, according to Luke; Greek, Κατά Λουκαν, Kata Loukan) is a synoptic Gospel, and the third and longest of the four canonical Gospels of the New Testament. ... The Gospel of John is the fourth gospel in the canon of the New Testament, traditionally ascribed to John the Evangelist. ... The Acts of the Apostles is a book of the Bible, which now stands fifth in the New Testament. ... The Epistle to the Romans is one of the letters of the New Testament canon of the Christian Bible. ... The First Epistle to the Corinthians is a book of the Bible in the New Testament. ... The Second Epistle to the Corinthians is a book of the Bible New Testament. ... The Epistle to the Galatians is a book of the New Testament. ... The Epistle to the Ephesians is one of the books of the Bible in the New Testament. ... Philippians redirects here. ... The Epistle to the Colossians is a book of the Bible New Testament. ... The First Epistle to the Thessalonians, also known as the First Letter to the Thessalonians, is a book from the New Testament of the Christian Bible. ... The Second Epistle to the Thessalonians, also known as the Second Letter to the Thessalonians, is a book from the New Testament of the Christian Bible. ... The First Epistle to Timothy is one of the three Pastoral Epistles, traditionally attributed to Saint Paul and part of the New Testament of the Bible. ... The Second Epistle to Timothy is one of the three Pastoral Epistles, normally attributed to Saint Paul, and is part of the canonical New Testament. ... The Pastoral Epistles are often considered together, as each throws light upon the others. ... The Epistle to Philemon is a book of the Bible in the New Testament. ... Christians believe that Jesus is the mediator of the New Covenant (see Hebrews 8:6). ... The Epistle of James Engelbert is a book in the Christian New Testament. ... In Christianity, the First Epistle of Peter is a book of the New Testament. ... The Second Epistle of Peter is a book of the New Testament of the Bible. ... The First Epistle of John is a book of the Bible New Testament, the fourth of the catholic or general epistles. ... The Second Epistle of John (normally just called 2nd John or 2 John) is a book of the Bible New Testament. ... The New Testament Third Epistle of John (often referred to as 3 John) is the 64th book of the Bible. ... The brief Epistle of Jude is a book in the Christian New Testament canon. ... A manuscript (Latin manu scriptus, written by hand), strictly speaking, is any written document that is put down by hand, in contrast to being printed or reproduced some other way. ... Theology is literally rational discourse concerning God (Greek θεος, theos, God, + λογος, logos, rational discourse). By extension, it also refers to the study of other religious topics. ...


Many people mistakenly call the book "Revelations" or "The Book of Revelations" due to the long series of events which unfold throughout the manuscript. However, the events are part of only one revelation (that of the End Times). The first sentence of the book, The Revelation of Jesus Christ ... unto his servant John, is also sometimes used as a title.[2] // In the three Abrahamic Religions (Islam, Judaism, and Christianity), the End Times are depicted as a time of tribulation that precede the predicted coming of a Messiah figure. ...


Introduction

After a short introduction (ch. 1:1–10), the book presents an account of the author, who identifies himself as John, and of two visions that he received on the isle of Patmos. The first vision (chs. 1:11–3:22), related by "one like unto the Son of man, clothed with a garment down to the foot, and girt about the paps with a golden girdle", speaking with "a great voice, as of a trumpet", is a statement addressed to the seven churches of Asia. The second vision, which makes up the rest of the book (chs. 4–22), begins with "a door … opened in the sky" and describes the end of the world—involving the final rebellion by Satan at Armageddon, God's final defeat of Satan, and the restoration of peace to the world. Skala viewed from the Monastery of Agios Ioannis Theologos, one of the UN World Heritage Sites. ... The phrase suck my dick is a primarily Semitic idiom that originated in Ancient Mesopotamia, used to let a woman know how he wants it up the ass. ... The seven churches of Asia are seven churches mentioned in the Book of Revelation of the New Testament. ... Many religious faiths teach that the end of the world will occur at some point in the future. ... Gustave Dorés depiction of Satan from John Miltons Paradise Lost Satan, from the Hebrew word for adversary (Standard Hebrew: , Satan; Tiberian Hebrew ; Koine Greek: Σατανάς Satanás, Persian: , Satanás; Aramaic: , ; Arabic: , , Geez: , Turkish: Åžeytan), is a term that originates from the Abrahamic faiths, being traditionally applied to... The evangelist John of Patmos writes the Book of Revelation. ... This article discusses the term God in the context of monotheism and henotheism. ... A peace dove, widely known as a symbol for peace, featuring an olive branch in the doves beak. ...


Revelation is considered one of the most controversial and difficult books of the Bible, with many diverse interpretations of the meanings of the various names and events in the account. Protestant founder Martin Luther at first considered Revelation to be "neither apostolic nor prophetic" and stated that "Christ is neither taught nor known in it",[3] and placed it in his Antilegomena. However, he later changed his mind, believing the book to be divinely inspired.[4] John Calvin believed the book to be canonical, yet it was the only New Testament book on which he did not write a commentary.[5] Protestantism is a general grouping of denominations within Christianity. ... Martin Luther (November 10, 1483 – February 18, 1546) was a German monk,[1] priest, professor, theologian, and church reformer. ... Antilegomena (αντιλεγομενα, contradicted or disputed), an epithet used by the early Christian writers to denote those books of the New Testament which, although sometimes publicly read in the churches, were not for a considerable amount of time considered to be genuine, or received into the canon of Scripture. ... Biblical inspiration is the doctrine in Christian theology concerned with the divine origin of the Bible and what the Bible teaches about itself. ... John Calvin (July 10, 1509 – May 27, 1564) was a French Protestant theologian during the Protestant Reformation and was a central developer of the system of Christian theology called Calvinism or Reformed theology. ...


In the 4th century, St. John Chrysostom and other bishops argued against including this book in the New Testament canon, chiefly because of the difficulties of interpreting it and the danger for abuse.[citation needed] Christians in Syria also reject it because of the Montanists' heavy reliance on it.[6] In the 9th century, it was included with the Apocalypse of Peter among "disputed" books in the Stichometry of St. Nicephorus, Patriarch of Constantinople.[citation needed] In the end it was included in the accepted canon, although it remains the only book of the New Testament that is not read within the Divine Liturgy of the Eastern Orthodox Church. See Biblical canon for details. As a means of recording the passage of time, the 4th century was that century which lasted from 301 to 400. ... John Chrysostom (349– ca. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      This article is about a title... A biblical canon is a list of Biblical books which establishes the set of books which are considered to be authoritative as scripture by a particular Jewish or Christian community. ... Montanism was an early Christian sectarian movement of the mid-2nd century A.D., named after its founder Montanus. ... As a means of recording the passage of time the 9th century was the century that lasted from 801 to 900. ... The recovered Apocalypse of Peter or Revelation of Peter is extant in two translations of a lost original, one Greek, one Ethiopic, which diverge considerably. ... Saint Nicephorus (c. ... The Patriarch of Constantinople is the Ecumenical Patriarch, ranking as the first among equals in the Eastern Orthodox communion. ... The Divine Liturgy is the common term for the Eucharistic service of the Byzantine tradition of Christian liturgy. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      The Eastern Orthodox Church (including Greek... A biblical canon is a list of Biblical books which establishes the set of books which are considered to be authoritative as scripture by a particular Jewish or Christian community. ...


Religious skeptics have typically been highly critical of Revelation, often considering it the work of a mentally ill author. Typical in this vein is nineteenth-century agnostic Robert G. Ingersoll, who famously branded Revelation "the insanest of all books".[7] A mental illness or mental disorder refers to one of many mental health conditions characterized by distress, impaired cognitive functioning, atypical behavior, emotional dysregulation, and/or maladaptive behavior. ... The term agnosticism and the related agnostic were coined by Thomas Henry Huxley in 1869. ... NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ...


Authorship

A series of articles on

"John" in the Bible

Johannine literature
Gospel of John
First Epistle of John
Second Epistle of John
Third Epistle of John
Revelation
Authorship of literature
Johannine literature is the collection of New Testament works that are attached by tradition to the person of John the Evangelist. ... The Gospel of John is the fourth gospel in the canon of the New Testament, traditionally ascribed to John the Evangelist. ... The First Epistle of John is a book of the Bible New Testament, the fourth of the catholic or general epistles. ... The Second Epistle of John (normally just called 2nd John or 2 John) is a book of the Bible New Testament. ... The New Testament Third Epistle of John (often referred to as 3 John) is the 64th book of the Bible. ... El Grecos rendition of John the Apostle shows the traditional author of the Johannine works as a young man. ...

Names
John the Apostle
Disciple whom Jesus loved
John the Presbyter
John the Evangelist
John of Patmos ‹ The template below has been proposed for deletion. ... John the Apostle (Hebrew: Johanan ;Greek Ιωάννης, see names of John) was one of the twelve apostles of Jesus. ... Jesus and the Beloved Disciple, polychromed and gilded wood, c 1320 The phrase the disciple whom Jesus loved or Beloved Disciple is used several times in the Gospel of John, but in none of the other accounts of Jesus. ... For the mythical king, see Presbyter John John the Presbyter is an obscure figure in early Christian tradition, who is either distinguished from, or identified with, the Apostle John. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Names of John. ... Saint John on Patmos by Hans Baldung Grien, 1511 Saint John of Patmos, by Jean Fouquet John of Patmos is the name given to the author of the Book of Revelation (or Book of the Apocalypse) in the New Testament. ...

Communities
Twelve Apostles
The Early Church
Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      For other uses, see Twelve Apostles... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      The term Early Christianity here refers...

Related Literature
Homosexual Reading
Apocryphon of John
Egerton Gospel
Signs Gospel
Logos
Jesus and the Beloved Disciple, polychromed and gilded wood, c 1320[1]. A long-standing, heretical tradition has interpreted the story of Jesus and John the Apostle as an erotic romance and their love has been held up as an exemplar of same sex love that created a social and... The Secret Book of John (Apocryphon of John)[1] is a second-century Sethian gnostic text of secret teachings. ... The Egerton Gospel (British Library Egerton Papyrus 2) refers to a group of fragments of a codex of a previously unknown gospel, found in Egypt and sold to the British Museum in 1934; the physical fragments are now dated to the very end of the 2nd century AD, although the... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... In Christology, the conception that Jesus Christ is the Logos (a Greek word meaning word, wisdom, or reason) has been important in establishing the doctrine of Jesus divinity, as well as that of the Trinity, as set forth in the Chalcedonian Creed. ...

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El Grecos rendition of John the Apostle shows the traditional author of the Johannine works as a young man. ...

Traditional view

The author of Revelation identifies himself several times as "John" (1:1, 4, 9; 22:8). The author also states that he was in exile on the island of Patmos when he received his first vision (1:9; 4:1–2). As a result, the author of Revelation is referred to as John of Patmos. John explicitly addresses Revelation to seven churches of Asia Minor: Ephesus, Smyrna, Pergamum, Thyatira, Sardis, Philadelphia, and Laodicea (1:4, 11). All of these sites are located in what is now Turkey. Skala viewed from the Monastery of Agios Ioannis Theologos, one of the UN World Heritage Sites. ... Saint John on Patmos by Hans Baldung Grien, 1511 Saint John of Patmos, by Jean Fouquet John of Patmos is the name given to the author of the Book of Revelation (or Book of the Apocalypse) in the New Testament. ... The seven churches of Asia are seven churches mentioned in the Book of Revelation of the New Testament. ... Anatolia (Greek: ανατολη anatole, rising of the sun or East; compare Orient and Levant, by popular etymology Turkish Anadolu to ana mother and dolu filled), also called by the Latin name of Asia Minor, is a region of Southwest Asia which corresponds today to... Historical Map of Ephesus, from Meyers Konversationslexikon 1888 Ephesus (Greek: , Turkish: ), was one of the cities of Ionia in Asia Minor, located in Lydia where the Cayster River (Küçük Menderes) flows into the Aegean Sea. ... Agora of Smyrna Smyrna (Greek: Σμύρνη) is an ancient city (today Ä°zmir in Turkey) that was founded at a very early period at a central and strategic point on the Aegean coast of Anatolia. ... Pergamon or Pergamum (modern day Bergama in Turkey) was a Greek city, in northwestern Anatolia, 16 miles from the Aegean Sea, located on a promontory on the north side of the river Caicus (modern day Bakir), that became an important kingdom during the Hellenistic period, under the Attalid dynasty, 282... Thyateira (also Thyatira) is the ancient name of the modern Turkish city of Akhisar (white castle). The Turkish equivalent ot Thyateira is Tepe Mezarligi. ... A recent view of the ceremonial court of the thermae–gymnasium complex in Sardis, dated to 211—212 AD Sardis, also Sardes (Lydian: Sfard, Greek: Σάρδεις, Persian: Sparda), modern Sart in the Manisa province of Turkey, was the capital of the ancient kingdom of Lydia, the seat of a proconsul under... Alasehir, Turkey, began as perhaps one of the first ancient cities with the name Philadelphia. ... Laodicea on the Lycus was the ancient metropolis of Phrygia Pacatiana, built on the river Lycus, in the Roman province of Asia Minor near the modern city of Denizli, Turkey. ...


The traditional view holds that John the Apostle — considered to have written the Gospel and epistles by the same name — was exiled on Patmos in the Aegean archipelago during the reign of Emperor Domitian, and wrote the Revelation there. Those in favor of a single common author point to similarities between the Gospel and Revelation. For example, both works are soteriological (e.g. referring to Jesus as a lamb) and possess a high Christology, stressing Jesus' divine side as opposed to the human side stressed by the Synoptic Gospels. In the Gospel of John and in Revelation, Jesus is referred to as "the Word of God" (Ő λογος του θεου). Explanations of the differences among John's work by proponents of the single-author view include factoring in underlying motifs and purposes, authorial target audience, the author's collaboration with or utilization of different scribes and the advanced age of John the Apostle when he wrote Revelation. John the Apostle (Hebrew: Johanan ;Greek Ιωάννης, see names of John) was one of the twelve apostles of Jesus. ... The Gospel of John is the fourth gospel in the canon of the New Testament, traditionally ascribed to John the Evangelist. ... There are three books in the New Testament called Epistles of John: First Epistle of John Second Epistle of John Third Epistle of John This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Titus Flavius Domitianus (24 October 51 – 18 September 96), commonly known as Domitian, was a Roman Emperor of the gens Flavia. ... In theology, salvation can mean three related things: being saved from something, such as suffering or the punishment of sin - also called deliverance; being saved for something, such as an afterlife or participating in the Reign of God - also called redemption Salvation can also be understood in terms of social... It has been suggested that Lambing be merged into this article or section. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      Christology is a field of study... In the New Testament of the Christian Bible, gospels Matthew, Mark, and Luke are so similar that they are called the synoptic gospels (from Greek, συν, syn, together, and οψις, opsis, seeing). ... Look up logos in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


A natural reading of the text would reveal that John is writing literally as he sees the vision (Rev 1:11; 10:4; 14:3; 19:9; 21:5) and that he is warned by an angel not to alter the text through a subsequent edit (Rev 22:18-19), in order to maintain the textual integrity of the book.[8]


Early views

A number of Church Fathers weighed in on the authorship of Revelation. Justin Martyr avows his belief in its apostolic origin. Irenaeus (178) assumes it as a conceded point. At the end of the 2nd century, we find it accepted at Antioch, by Theophilus, and in Africa by Tertullian. At the beginning of the 3rd century, it is adopted by Clement of Alexandria and by Origen, later by Methodius, Cyprian, and Lactantius. Dionysius of Alexandria (247) rejected it, upon doctrinal rather than critical grounds. Eusebius (315) suspended his judgment, hesitating between the external and internal evidence. Some canons, especially in the Eastern Church, rejected the book, while most others included it. Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      The Church Fathers, Early Church Fathers... Justin Martyr (also Justin the Martyr, Justin of Caesarea, Justin the Philosopher) (100–165) was an early Christian apologist and saint. ... Irenaeus (Greek: Εἰρηναῖος), (b. ... Commodus and Marcus Aurelius travel to the Danube to engage the Marcomanni. ... The 2nd century is the period from 101 - 200 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Christian Era. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Antakya. ... Quintus Septimius Florens Tertullianus, anglicised as Tertullian, (ca. ... // Overview Events 212: Constitutio Antoniniana grants citizenship to all free Roman men 212-216: Baths of Caracalla 230-232: Sassanid dynasty of Persia launches a war to reconquer lost lands in the Roman east 235-284: Crisis of the Third Century shakes Roman Empire 250-538: Kofun era, the first... Clement of Alexandria (Titus Flavius Clemens), was the first member of the Church of Alexandria to be more than a name, and one of its most distinguished teachers. ... Origen Origen (Greek: ÅŒrigénÄ“s, 185–ca. ... Saint Methodius was a bishop of Great Moravia (Moravia) (born Thessaloniki, Greece, 826; he died in the (unknown) capital of Great Moravia, April 6, 885). ... Dionysius served as Patriarch of Alexandria (head of the church that became the Coptic Church and the Orthodox Church of Alexandria) between 248 and 264. ... Events Births Deaths Categories: 247 ... Eusebius is the name of several significant historical people: Pope Eusebius - Pope in AD 309 - 310. ... Events Eusebius becomes bishop of Caesarea (approximate date). ... A biblical canon is a list of Biblical books which establishes the set of books which are considered to be authoritative as scripture by a particular Jewish or Christian community. ...


Modern views

Although the traditional view still has many adherents, some modern scholars[citation needed] believe that John the Apostle, John the Evangelist, and John of Patmos refer to three separate individuals. Certain lines of evidence suggest that John of Patmos wrote only Revelation, not the Gospel of John nor the Epistles of John. For one, the author of Revelation identifies himself as "John" several times, but the author of the Gospel of John never identifies himself directly. While both works liken Jesus to a lamb, they consistently use different words for lamb when referring to him — the Gospel uses amnos, Revelation uses arnion.[9] Lastly, the Gospel is written in nearly flawless Greek, but Revelation contains grammatical errors and stylistic abnormalities which indicate its author may not have been as familiar with the Greek language as the Gospel's author.[citation needed] John the Apostle (Hebrew: Johanan ;Greek Ιωάννης, see names of John) was one of the twelve apostles of Jesus. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Names of John. ... Saint John on Patmos by Hans Baldung Grien, 1511 Saint John of Patmos, by Jean Fouquet John of Patmos is the name given to the author of the Book of Revelation (or Book of the Apocalypse) in the New Testament. ...


Dating

According to early tradition, the writing of this book took place near the very end of Domitian's reign, around 95 or 96. Others contend for an earlier date, 68 or 69, in the reign of Nero or shortly thereafter.[10] The majority of modern scholars also use these dates.[11]Those who are in favor of the later date appeal to the external testimony of the Christian father Irenaeus (d. 185), who stated that he had received information relative to this book from those who had seen John face to face. He says that the Apocalypse "was seen no very long time since, but almost in our day, towards the end of Domitian's reign" (A.H. 5.30.3), who according to Eusebius had started the persecution referred to in the book. However, recent scholars dispute that the book is situated in a time of ongoing persecution and have also doubted the reality of a large-scale Domitian persecution.[12] Centuries: 1st century BC - 1st century - 2nd century Decades: 0s BC - 0s - 10s - 20s - 30s - 40s - 50s - 60s - 70s - 80s - 90s - 100s Years: 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 // Events Frontinus is appointed superintendent of the aqueducts (curator aquarum) in Rome. ... For other uses, see number 96. ... Centuries: 1st century BCE - 1st century - 2nd century Decades: 10s 20s 30s 40s 50s - 60s - 70s 80s 90s 100s 110s Years: 63 64 65 66 67 - 68 - 69 70 71 72 73 Events June 9 - Roman Emperor Nero commits suicide. ... The Year of the four emperors: After Neros death, Galba, Otho and Vitellius all serve as emperor for a short time each before Vespasian takes over. ... Nero[1] Claudius Caesar Augustus Germanicus (December 15, 37 – June 9, 68)[2], born Lucius Domitius Ahenobarbus, also called Nero Claudius Caesar Drusus Germanicus, was the fifth and last Roman Emperor of the Julio-Claudian dynasty. ... Irenaeus (Greek: Εἰρηναῖος), (b. ... For other uses, see number 185. ... Eusebius of Caesarea Eusebius of Caesarea (c. ... A Converted British Family sheltering a Christian Priest from the Persecution of the Druids, an imaginary scene of persecution by druids in ancient Britain painted by William Holman Hunt. ...


Some exegetes (Paul Touilleux, Albert Gelin, André Feuillet) distinguish two dates: publication (under Domitian) and date of the visions (under Vespasian). Various editors would have a hand in the formation of the document, according to these theories. The dating of the work is still widely debated in the scholarly community. Imperator Caesar Vespasianus Augustus (born November 17, 9, died June 23, 79), known originally as Titus Flavius Vespasianus and usually referred to in English as Vespasian, was emperor of Rome from 69 to 79. ...


Eschatology

Some Protestant theologians argue that the Gospel of John contains a realized eschatology which contradicts the futurist eschatology contained in Revelation (e.g., chs. 21–22). Against this Protestant view, however, stands the Protestant proposition that, properly interpreted, even realized eschatology is not fully realized eschatology: God's kingdom has been initiated but is not entirely implemented. The Gospel of John is the fourth gospel in the canon of the New Testament, traditionally ascribed to John the Evangelist. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      In Christian theology, Christian eschatology is the... Futurism is an interpretation of the Bible in Christian eschatology placing the fulfillment of the prophecies of the Book of Revelation and the Book of Daniel in the future as literal, physical, apocalyptic and global rather in the past as literal, physical and localised (i. ...


The second opinion is the Catholic and Orthodox view. Both churches hold the differing opinion that they are the visible kingdom and Government spoken of in Isaiah that God setup entirely and until the end of time. Therefore they do not fall under that previous Protestant opinion, and their joint view of the historicity of the entire prophecy of both books (John and Revelation), and also of the prophecy contained in Matthew 23, is entirely defensible. The basis for this arguments is, amongst other passages, Matthew 23:36, "Till this generation passes" and Chapters 11:19 to 12:18 of the Book of Revelation, which Catholics believe is both a showing by Christ to John, of the spiritual meaning of the Virgin Mary's escape from Jerusalem and eventual Coronation in Heaven, which John originally took part in but didn't understand. The narrative is at the same time also considered a metaphor for the Church and its followers and how they will be protected by God.


The "whore of Babylon" and "666" is generally therefore considered to be apostolic code for pre-Christian Rome and the Emperor Nero respectively. For Catholics and Orthodox Christians, the only prophecy yet to be realized in the book of Revelation and in the Bible altogether is the Second Coming of Christ.[citation needed] The Whore of Babylon rides the seven-headed Beast. ... The Number of the Beast is a concept from the Book of Revelation of the New Testament of the Christian Bible. ...


Chronology

Revelation is divided into seven cycles of events, with the number seven also appearing frequently as a symbol within the Book of Revelation. The chapters of Revelation present a series of events, full of imagery and metaphor, which detail the chronology of God's judgment on the world. The Chronology of Revelation details a series of events which take place in the Book of Revelation, detailing (by some accounts) the final judgement of God on the world. ... Seven Days of Creation - 1765 book, title page 7 (seven) is the natural number following 6 and preceding 8. ...


Exact interpretations of the chronology of Revelation vary extensively. Literal biblical scholars often see the events portrayed as a "laundry list," to be checked off one by one as the time of Revelation grows near. Others feel that the many images in Revelation are figurative or perhaps even commentaries on the world during the time when Revelation was written.


Schools of thought

There are several schools of thought concerned with how the symbolism, imagery, and contents of the book of Revelation should be interpreted.

  • The Biblical prophecy school of thought holds that the contents of Revelation, especially when interpreted in conjunction with the Book of Daniel and other eschatological sections of the Bible, constitute a prophecy of the end times. This school can be further subdivided into the preterist view, which sees the book concerned with 1st-century events; the futurist view, which applies most of the events in the book into the end times (namely from chapter 6 onwards); and the historicist view, which regards the book as spanning history from the first century through the second coming.
  • A second Biblical Prophecy school of thought exists, believing that Revelation is a rewriting of the various prophetic books of the Old Testament and that it was originally located at the end of the Old Testament with several other, since removed, prophetic books. This school also maintains that many of these same prophetic books are merely different rewrites of each other (in the same way that Matthew, Mark, and Luke are thought to be by some scholars).[citation needed]
  • The historical-critical approach, which became dominant among critical scholars of religion since the end of the 18th century, attempts to understand Revelation within the genre of apocalyptic literature, which was popular in both Jewish and Christian tradition since the Babylonian diaspora, following the pattern of the Book of Daniel. There is further information on these topics in the entries on higher criticism and apocalyptic literature.
  • The long-standing and highly controversial view of the esoteric schools is that Revelation, like all scriptures, bears seven levels of meaning, the lowest being the literal or "dead-letter." Those who are instructed in the esoteric knowledge enter gradually into more subtle levels of understanding. From this perspective, it can be understood that Revelation, as a very difficult scripture to grasp intellectually, is more directly concerned with guiding those who have some degree of esoteric knowledge, which requires going beyond the use of the intellect. The Gnostic Kabbalist believes that Revelation (like Genesis) is a very profound book of Kabbalistic symbolism, written by a Kabbalist, for Kabbalist disciples. With the Kabbalah in hand, the disciple can more easily grasp the simultaneous presence of multiple levels of meaning contained in one symbol or allegory. This view is held by schools related to teachers such as H.P. Blavatsky, Eliphas Levi, Rudolf Steiner and Samael Aun Weor.[citation needed]
  • Recently, aesthetic and literary modes of interpretation focus on Revelation as a work of art and imagination, viewing the imagery as symbolic depictions of timeless truths and the victory of good over evil.
  • Neo-Ebionites and other Neo-Essenes regard Revelation as a description of the Destruction of The Temple in 70 and the subsequent Imperial Roman persecution of Jews and Christians.
  • The "Patristic Interpretation", or the view held by St. Augustine[citation needed] , Jerome[citation needed], and other early Church Fathers, views Revelation as an attempt to describe a spiritual reality and heavenly worship and compare it to the liturgy of the Christian Church. Although all but forgotten today, this interpretation is alluded to in the Catechism of the Catholic Church[citation needed] and has been avidly promoted by modern theologians such as Scott Hahn [13].

These schools of thought are not mutually exclusive, and many Christians adopt a combination of these approaches in the manner they find most meaningful. However, certain tendencies may be observed. The Biblical Prophecy school of thought is popular among Protestant fundamentalists, other evangelicals (many of whom also find value in the other approaches), and amongst Rastafarians, who interpret the book very differently from fundamentalist Christians but definitely belong to the Biblical Prophecy school. (Rastafarians believe Haile Selassie I to be the Messiah and God incarnate.) Members of more mainline and liberal churches tend to prefer the historical-critical and aesthetic approaches. Moreover, Roman and Orthodox churches have delimited their own specific positions on Revelation. For other uses, see Book of Daniel (disambiguation). ... This Gutenberg Bible is displayed by the United States Library. ... This article or section seems to describe future events as if they have already occurred. ... // In the three Abrahamic Religions (Islam, Judaism, and Christianity), the End Times are depicted as a time of tribulation that precede the predicted coming of a Messiah figure. ... Preterism is a variant of Christian eschatology which holds that some or all of the biblical prophecies concerning the Last Days (or End Times) refer to events which actually happened in the first century after Christs birth. ... The 1st century was that century which lasted from 1 to 100 according the Gregorian calendar. ... The Second Coming refers to the Christian belief in the return of Jesus Christ, an event that will fulfill aspects of Messianic prophecy such as the resurrection of the dead, last judgment and full establishment of the Kingdom of God on earth (also called the Reign of God), including the... (17th century - 18th century - 19th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 18th century refers to the century that lasted from 1701 through 1800. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For other uses, see Diaspora (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Book of Daniel (disambiguation). ... Higher criticism, also known as historical criticism, is a branch of literary analysis that attempts to investigate the origins of a text, especially the text of the Bible. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article is about traditional Jewish Kabbalah. ... Helena Blavatsky Helena Petrovna Hahn (also Hélène) (July 31, 1831 (O.S.) (August 12, 1831 (N.S.)) - May 8, 1891 London, England), better known as Helena Blavatsky or Madame Blavatsky was the founder of Theosophy. ... Eliphas Lévi Eliphas Lévi, born Alphonse Louis Constant, (February 8, 1810 - May 31, 1875) was a French occult author and magician. ... Rudolf Steiner. ... Samael Aun Weor Samael Aun Weor (March 16, 1917 - December 24, 1977) was a prolific writer, lecturer and teacher of occultism. ... The Ebionites (Greek: Ebionaioi from Hebrew; , , the Poor Ones) were an early Jewish Christian sect that lived in and around the land of Israel in the 1st to the 5th century CE.[1] Without authenticated archaeological evidence for the existence of the Ebionites, their views and practices can only be... The Essenes (Issiim) were a Jewish religious sect of Zadokites that flourished from the 2nd century BC to the 1st century AD. The name Essene, itself, is either a version of the Greek word for Holy, or various Aramaic dialect words for pious, and is probably not what the... This article is about the year 70. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... A Converted British Family sheltering a Christian Priest from the Persecution of the Druids, an imaginary scene of persecution by druids in ancient Britain painted by William Holman Hunt. ... “Augustinus” redirects here. ... “Saint Jerome” redirects here. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      The Church Fathers, Early Church Fathers... The Catechism of the Catholic Church, or CCC, is an official exposition of the teachings of the Catholic Church, first published in French in 1992 by the authority of Pope John Paul II.[1] Subsequently, in 1997, a Latin text was issued which is now the official text of reference... Scott Hahn - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Protestantism is a general grouping of denominations within Christianity. ... Look up fundamentalism in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      The word evangelicalism often refers to... Haile Selassie I Rasta, or the Rastafari movement, is a religion that accepts Haile Selassie I, the former Emperor of Ethiopia, as God incarnate, whom they call Jah. ... Haile Selassie I (Geez: , Power of the Trinity; July 23, 1892 – August 27, 1975) was de jure Emperor of Ethiopia from 1930 to 1974 and de facto from 1916 to 1936 and 1941 to 1974. ... In Judaism, the Messiah (Hebrew: , Standard  Tiberian  ; Arabic: ,  ; Aramaic:  ; the Anointed One) at first meant any person who was anointed with oil on rising to a certain position among the ancient Israelites, at first that of High priest, later that of King and also that of a prophet. ... This article discusses the term God in the context of monotheism and henotheism. ... Incarnation, which literally means enfleshment, refers to the DNA-encoding, conception, and live birth of a sentient creature (generally human) who is the material manifestation of an entity or force whose original nature is immaterial. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      The Roman Catholic Church or Catholic... ...


Schools of interpretation

There are four major schools of interpretation.


Preterist view

Preterism holds that the contents of Revelation constitute a prophecy of events that were fulfilled in the 1st century.[14] This view depends critically on an early date of Revelation, c. 68, since any later date makes the "prophecy" postdate the events prophesied. Even accepting that date leaves a narrow margin of one to two years before the fulfillment occurs. Preterist interpretations generally identify either Jerusalem or Pagan Rome as the persecutor of the Church, "Babylon", the "Mother of Harlots", etc. They see Armageddon as God's judgment on the Jews, carried out by the Roman army, which is identified as "the beast". Some preterists see the second half of Revelation as changing focus to Rome, its persecution of Christians, and the fall of the Roman Empire. It sees the Revelation being fulfilled in 70, thereby bringing the full presence of God to dwell with all humanity. It also holds, especially in the Catholic belief, that the Emperor Nero, who blamed the Rome fire on the Christians in Rome, sparking a wave of persecution, was possibly the Antichrist mentioned in the book as his name equals 666 in Roman numerals.[15] Also, if using the Latin spelling of Nero's name, but using the Hebrew symbols with their assigned numeric values (an ancient method known as gematria), the total of the numeric values equals 666. However, a few ancient manuscripts of the Revelation say the number is 616, fifty less than the more well known numeral. A possible method to this problem lies in early translation. In the assumption that the Revelation was meant to be distributed among the early Christians, it could very well be assumed that occasionally someone may have used the Hebrew spelling of Nero's name and not the Latin spelling, so the total value of the gematria would be 616.[16] Catholics generally believe chapters 11:19 to 12:18 are the true story of the Journey to Ephesus (and then later to Heaven) of the Virgin Mary (who they believe is the Second ark of the Covenant), and a possible metaphor for the plight of the early church.[citation needed] All that remains for Catholic preterists is Christ's second coming.[citation needed] Preterism is a variant of Christian eschatology which holds that some or all of the biblical prophecies concerning the Last Days (or End Times) refer to events which actually happened in the first century after Christs birth. ... Historical re-enactors as soldiers of the Roman Army on manoeuvres. ... Motto Senatus Populusque Romanus (SPQR) The Roman Empire at its greatest extent. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Another view of the book of Revelation is known as Partial Preterism. This view, much like modern dispensationalism, splits end-times prophecy into multiple parts. Whereas in some of the many varieties of dispensationalism, part of the Book of Revelation is literal where as other parts are figurative, Partial-Preterism does the same and holds Matthew 24 to be partially speaking of the fall of Jerusalem in 70, where as other parts are fulfilled at the final return of Christ.[citation needed] Partial preterism is a form of Christian eschatology that holds much in common with but is distinct from Full preterism (or consistent or hyper preterism) in that it places the events of most of the Book of Revelation as occurring during the destruction of Jerusalem in 70 AD (and/or... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      As a current in Protestant Christian theology... The Second Coming refers to the Christian belief in the return of Jesus Christ, an event that will fulfill aspects of Messianic prophecy such as the resurrection of the dead, last judgment and full establishment of the Kingdom of God on earth (also called the Reign of God), including the...


Futurist view

The futurist view assigns all or most of the prophecy to the future, shortly before the second coming. Futurist interpretations generally predict a resurrection of the dead and a Rapture of the living, wherein all true Christians and those who have not reached an age of accountability are gathered to Christ at the time God's kingdom comes on earth. They also believe a Great Tribulation will occur - a seven year period of time when believers will experience worldwide persecution and martyrdom, and be purified and strengthened by it. Futurists differ on when believers will be raptured ("caught up"), but there are three primary views: 1) before the Tribulation; 2) near or at the midpoint of the Tribulation; or 3) at the end of the Tribulation. There is also a fourth view of multiple raptures throughout the Tribulation, but this view does not have a mainstream following. The Second Coming refers to the Christian belief in the return of Jesus Christ, an event that will fulfill aspects of Messianic prophecy such as the resurrection of the dead, last judgment and full establishment of the Kingdom of God on earth (also called the Reign of God), including the... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      In conservative Christian eschatology, rapture is... the hersemen of the apocaleps, the entities that bring false peace, War, famine, pestilence, and death. ...


Pretribulationists believe that all Christians then alive will be taken bodily up to meet Christ before the Tribulation begins. In doing so, Christians are "kept" from the Tribulation, much as Noah was removed before God judged the antediluvian world. Pretribulationists believe the Dispensation of Grace concludes when Christians are taken up. Midtribulationists believe that the rapture of the faithful will occur approximately halfway through the Tribulation, after it begins but before the worst part of it occurs. Some midtribulationists, particularly those holding to a "pre-wrath rapture" of the church, believe that God's wrath is poured out during a "Great Tribulation" that is limited to the last 3-1/2 years of the Tribulation, after believers have been caught up to Christ. Posttribulationists believe that Christians will not be taken up into Heaven, but will be gathered in the sky and received into the Kingdom at the end of the Tribulation. (Pretribulationist Tim LaHaye admits a post-tribulation rapture is the closest of the three views to that held by the early church.) All three views hold that Christians will return with Christ at the end of the Tribulation. Proponents of all three views also generally portray Israel as unwittingly signing a seven year peace treaty with the Antichrist, which initiates the seven year Tribulation. Many also tend to view the Antichrist as head of a revived Roman Empire, but the geographic location of this empire is unknown. Hal Lindsey suggests that this revived Roman Empire will be centered in western Europe, with Rome as its capital. Tim LaHaye promotes the belief that Babylon will be the capital of a world-wide empire. Joel Richardson and Walid Shoebat have both recently written books proposing a revived eastern Roman Empire, which will fall with the boundaries of the Ottoman Empire. (Istanbul also has seven hills, was a capital of the Roman Empire and is known as the Golden Horn - notable given the escatological references to the "Little Horn".) There is also a variant Futuristic view that the Tribulation can occur in any generation, meaning Satan always has an antichrist in the wings and there is always a nation-state that can become the revived Roman Empire. This variant view is developed by Angela Hunt in her fictional work, The Immortal. Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      As a current in Protestant Christian theology... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      In Christian eschatology, the Post Tribulation... Revelation 13:16-18 And he causeth all, both small and great, rich and poor, free and bond, to receive a mark in their right hand, or in their foreheads: And that no man might buy or sell, save he that had the mark, or the name of the beast... Harold Lee Hal Lindsey (born 1929) is an American evangelist and Christian writer. ... View of Golden Horn from Eyup Sultan Cemetery The Golden Horn (in Turkish Haliç, in Greek Khrysokeras or Chrysoceras or Χρυσοκερας) is an estuary dividing the city of Istanbul. ...


The futurist view was first proposed by two Catholic writers, Manuel Lacunza and Ribera. Lacunza wrote under the pen name "Ben Ezra", and his work was banned by the Catholic Church. It has grown in popularity in the 19th and 20th centuries, so that today it is probably most readily recognized. Books about the "rapture" by authors like Hal Lindsey, and the more recent Left Behind novels (by Jerry Jenkins and Tim LaHaye) and movies, have done much to popularize this school of thought. Manuel de Lacunza (born Santiago, Chile, 1731; died Imola, Italy around June 18, 1801) was a Jesuit priest who used the pen-name Juan Josafat Ben-Ezra for his main work. ... Ribera is a Spanish word meaning the basin of a river has several meanings. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      In conservative Christian eschatology, rapture is... Harold Lee Hal Lindsey (born 1929) is an American evangelist and Christian writer. ... Left Behind is a series of novels by Tim LaHaye and Jerry B. Jenkins, dealing with Christian dispensationalist End Times: pretribulation, premillennial, Christian eschatology viewpoint of the end of the world. ... Jerry B. Jenkins (born September 23, 1949 in Kalamazoo, Michigan) is a novelist and biographer whose books usually feature evangelical Christians as protagonists. ... A panel from Tim LaHaye’s multi-million selling ‘’Left Behind’’ series, depicting the fate LaHaye anticipates for those who do not follow Jesus Christ. ...


The Rastafarians hold a futurist view of the book of Revelation, relating it both to 20th-century events such as the crowning of Ethiopian Emperor Haile Selassie and the Second Italo-Ethiopian War, and also to future events such as the second coming of Selassie on the day of judgment. Rasta hairstyle Rastafarianism is a religious movement that believes in the divinity of former emperor Haile Selassie of Ethiopia. ... Haile Selassie Haile Selassie (Power of Trinity) (July 23, 1892 – August 27, 1975) was the last Emperor (1930–1936; 1941–1974) of Ethiopia, and is a religious symbol in the Rastafarian movement. ... Italian troops fortify a position in Abyssinia Lasting seven months from 1935-1936, the Second Italo-Abyssinian War is often seen as a precursor to World War II and a demonstration of the inefficiency of the League of Nations. ...


The various views on tribulation are actually a subset of theological interpretations on the Millennium, mentioned in Revelation 20. There are three main interpretations: Premillennialism, Amillennialism, and Postmillennialism. Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      This article is about Premillennialism in Christian... Amillennialism (from the Latin prefix a meaning no, mille meaning thousand, and annum meaning year) is a view in Christian eschatology named for its denial of a future, thousand-year, physical reign of Jesus Christ on the earth, as espoused in the premillennial and some postmillennial views of the Book... It has been suggested that Reconstructionist Postmillennialism be merged into this article or section. ...


Premillennialism believes that Christ will return to the earth, bind Satan, and reign for a literal thousand years on earth with Jerusalem as his capital. Thus Christ returns before ("pre-") the thousand years mentioned in chapter 20. There are generally two subclasses of Premillennialism: Dispensational and Historic. Some form of premillennialism is thought to be the oldest millennial view in church history.[citation needed] Papias, believed to be a disciple of the Apostle John, was a premillenialist, according to Eusebius. Papias (working in the 1st half of the 2nd century) was one of the early leaders of the Christian church, canonized as a saint. ... Eusebius is the name of several significant historical people: Pope Eusebius - Pope in AD 309 - 310. ...


Amillennialism, the traditional view for Roman Catholicism and Protestantism, believes that the thousand years mentioned are not ("a-") a literal thousand years, but is figurative for what is now the church age, usually, the time between Christ's first ascension and second coming. This view is often associated with Augustine of Hippo. Amillennialists differ on the time frame of the millennium as some say it started with Pentecost, others say it started with the fulfillment of Jesus' prophecy regarding the destruction temple in Jerusalem (70), and other starting points have also been proposed. Whether this eschatology is the result of caesaropapism, which may have also been the reason that premillennialism was condemned, is sharply disputed. “Augustinus” redirects here. ... Caesaropapism is the concept of combining the power of secular government with, or making it supreme to, the spiritual authority of the Christian Church; most especially, the inter-penetration of the theological authority of the Christian Church with the legal/juridical authority of the government; in its extreme form, it...


Postmillennialism believes that Christ will return after ("post-") a literal/figurative thousand years, in which the world will have essentially become a Christendom. This view was held by Jonathan Edwards. This view gained momentum through the nineteenth century, but World Wars I and II dealt a setback to this approach. Jonathan Edwards (October 5, 1703 – March 22, 1758) was a colonial American Congregational preacher, theologian, and missionary to Native Americans. ...


Historicist view

The historicist view regards the prophecy as spanning the time from the end of the first century through the second coming of Christ.


Politically, historicist interpretations apply the symbols of Revelation to the gradual division and collapse of the Roman Empire, the emergence of a divided Europe in the West and a Muslim empire in the East, and the collapse of the Eastern Empire while Europe attempts to reunite and recreate the Roman Empire. Motto Senatus Populusque Romanus (SPQR) The Roman Empire at its greatest extent. ...


Ecclesiastically, historicist interpretations see Revelation as teaching that the Church would expand, despite persecution, until it "conquered" the whole world—but in the process, would gradually evolve into an apostate system within which true Christians would be a persecuted minority. The apostate Church is associated with the symbols of the "Mother of Harlots" and with "Babylon". It is seen as an "Antichrist system" which exists for much of history rather than expecting a single "Antichrist" in the last days, as futurist interpretations do. Apostasy (Greek απο, apo, away, apart, στασις, stasis, standing) is the formal renunciation of ones religion. ...


According to historicist interpretations, the second coming of Christ occurs about the time that a partly reunited Europe starts to wage war against Israel. This view is held mainly by Fundamentalist Protestant Christians. The exact constitution of this confederacy differs between interpretations: in some it is mainly composed of Eastern European countries, notably Russia; in others, Western European; some include Britain, while others suggest that Britain and former Commonwealth nations will oppose the confederacy. In all historicist interpretations, Christ defeats this confederacy, rescues Israel from certain destruction, judges apostate Christianity and vindicates the true believers, and sets up a kingdom on earth. The Second Coming refers to the Christian belief in the return of Jesus Christ, an event that will fulfill aspects of Messianic prophecy such as the resurrection of the dead, last judgment and full establishment of the Kingdom of God on earth (also called the Reign of God), including the... Fundamentalist Christianity, or Christian fundamentalism, is a movement that arose mainly within British and American Protestantism in the late 19th and early 20th centuries by conservative evangelical Christians, who, in a reaction to modernism, actively affirmed a fundamental set of Christian beliefs: the inerrancy of the Bible, Sola Scriptura, the... A confederation is an association of sovereign states or communities, usually created by treaty but often later adopting a common constitution. ... Pre-1989 division between the West (grey) and Eastern Bloc (orange) superimposed on current national boundaries: Russia (dark orange), other countries of the former USSR (medium orange),members of the Warsaw pact (light orange), and other former Communist regimes not aligned with Moscow (lightest orange). ... The borders of Western Europe were largely defined by the Cold War. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ...


The earliest Christian writers adopted a historicist viewpoint, though at such an early date, the distinction between historicist and futurist views was less pronounced. Historicist interpretations tend to be millenarian, emphasizing the literal reign of Christ on earth, and as that doctrine receded in importance, so too did the historicist focus in interpretation. Today, historicist interpretations are favored in the most ardently millenarian sects. Millenarianism or millenarism is the belief by a religious, social, or political group or movement in a coming major transformation of society after which all things will be changed in a positive (or sometimes negative or ambiguous) direction. ...


Some Protestant writers today use this school of interpretation as the foundation for an anti-Catholic polemic, but it should be noted that such is not an inherent property of historical interpretations. Many Catholic writers in the fourth and fifth centuries applied the notion of future apostasy to their own church, in various ways. Some argued that an apostasy would arise within the church. Others argued that this had already happened, and cited one or another sect which arose over some theological dispute. What differs between interpretations is the identity of the apostasy. Apostasy (from Greek αποστασία, meaning a defection or revolt, from απο, apo, away, apart, στασις, stasis, standing) is a term generally employed to describe the formal renunciation of ones religion, especially if the motive is deemed unworthy. ...


Spiritual or idealist view

The Spiritual view (also called Idealist by some writers) does not see the book of Revelation as predicting specific events in history. Rather it sees the visions as expressing eternal spiritual truths that find expression throughout history. Only in the last few chapters are specifically predictive eschatological issues taken up.[citation needed]


Interpretations

Eastern Orthodox view

Eastern Orthodoxy has an interpretation that does not fit well into any of the above classifications. It treats the text as simultaneously describing contemporaneous events and as prophecy of events to come, for which the contemporaneous events were a form of foreshadow. It rejects attempts to determine, before the fact, if the events of Revelation are occurring by mapping them onto present-day events, taking to heart the Scriptural warning against those who proclaim "He is here!" prematurely. Instead, the book is seen as a warning to be spiritually and morally ready for the end times, whenever they may come ("as a thief in the night"), but they will come at the time of God's choosing, not something that can be precipitated nor trivially deduced by mortals. The Book of Revelation is the only book of the New Testament that is not publicly read by the Eastern Orthodox Church. ... This article discusses the term God in the context of monotheism and henotheism. ...


Anglican view

The Anglican/Episcopal view is that this book should be seen as a book of hope and also a book of warning. It gives hope to those Christians who are being persecuted, assuring them that their suffering is not in vain. It also warns those non-Christians of the coming events and what will happen to them. Revelation is an example of typical Jewish Apocalyptic literature. It uses symbolic imagery to communicate hope to those in the midst of persecution. The events which occur in Revelation are ordered according to literary, rather than strictly chronological patterns.


Latter-day Saint view

Mormonism believes that the Book of Revelation reveals important prophecy about the last days, the millennium, judgement, the destruction of Babylon (Satan's forces of evil), and the triumph of Christ's forces of good. Distinctly Mormon views involve the nature of a divine inheritance in the afterlife for those who overcome by faith in Jesus Christ. Book of Mormon, see Latter Day Saint movement. ...


Paschal Liturgical view

This view, put forth by a few Catholic theologians, considers the liturgical worship, particularly the Easter rites, of early Christianity as background and context for understanding the Book of Revelation's structure and significance. It is explained in The Paschal Liturgy and the Apocalypse by Massey H. Shepherd and in Scott Hahn's The Lamb's Supper - the Mass as Heaven on Earth, in which he states that Revelation in form, is structured after creation, fall, judgment and redemption. Those who hold this view say that the Temple’s destruction had a profound effect on the Jewish people, not only in Jerusalem but among the Greek-speaking Jews of the Mediterranean. They believe Revelation is intended to give insight into the early Eucharist, saying that it is the new Temple worship in the New Heaven and Earth. Scott Hahn - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ...


Esoteric view

The esoterist views the Book as delivering both a series of warnings for humanity and a detailed account of internal, spiritual processes of the individual soul. The seven seals are the seven chakras and the consequence of opening them is the unleashing of the physiological forces that reside there. The Second Coming is thus a personal event, the integration of your spiritual self with your animal self, resulting in a fully conscious human.[17] Seven Seals is the newest album by the german Powermetal-Band Primal Fear, released in November 2005. ...


Some scholars have noted the similarities of the myth of Revelation about a rider on a white horse with the Buddhist and Hindu myths of Kalki who is considered the last avatar in the cycle of ages and is also associated with the end of time.[18] A replica of an ancient statue found among the ruins of a temple at Sarnath Buddhism is a philosophy based on the teachings of the Buddha, Siddhārtha Gautama, a prince of the Shakyas, whose lifetime is traditionally given as 566 to 486 BCE. It had subsequently been accepted by... A Hindu ( , Devanagari: हिन्दु), as per modern definition, is an adherent of the philosophies and scriptures of Hinduism, and the religious, philosophical and cultural system that originated in the Indian subcontinent. ... In Hindu traditions, Kalki (Sanskrit: कल्कि; also rendered by some as Kalkin and Kalaki) is the tenth and final Maha Avatara (great incarnation) of Vishnu the Preserver, who will come to end the Kali Yuga, (The Age of Darkness and Destruction). ...


The esoteric view also presents the Book as the Christian yoga (union) practices text on death and rebirth in Christ. The four horsemen are described as the four elemental forces (fire, water, air, earth) and are used in the spiritual purification of the body and mind. The characters of Revelation are considered anthropomorphized aspects of human consciousness. [19]


Edgar Cayce had a similar interpretation.[20] Edgar Cayce (March 18, 1877 – January 3, 1945) (pronounced or like Casey) was an American who claimed psychic abilities. ...


New Church view

The doctrine of the New Church includes a work called Apocalypse Revealed [21], written by Emanuel Swedenborg. This view considers the Book of Revelation a prophetical account of the judgment on the Christian church and the establishment of a new Christian church. The imagery in the visions are seen as symbolic depictions of the spiritual event of Jesus' second coming, and the resistance to his advent among those in the Christian church who are in love of power, and in dead faith. Those who believe Jesus is God, and follow his commandments are seen as those who are of the new church. The struggle between the new Christian church with the established church is the seen as the spiritual theme underlying Revelation. Apocalypse Revealed goes through a detailed exposition of the correspondences of each figure in the book.[22] Swedenborgianism is a term based on the ecclesiastical organization of certain beliefs relating to Emanuel Swedenborgs writings and, as such, is considered a religious movement by some. ... Emanuel Swedenborg, 75, holding the manuscript of Apocalypsis Revelata (1766). ... The Second Coming refers to the Christian belief in the return of Jesus Christ, an event that will fulfill aspects of Messianic prophecy such as the resurrection of the dead, last judgment and full establishment of the Kingdom of God on earth (also called the Reign of God), including the...


Radical discipleship

The radical discipleship view asserts that the Book of Revelation is best understood as a handbook for radical discipleship; i.e. how to remain faithful to the teachings of Jesus and avoid getting lured by worldly ways. In this view, the primary agenda of the book is to expose the worldly powers as impostors which seek to oppose the ways of God. The chief temptation for Christians in the 1st Century, and today, is to fail to hold fast to the teachings of Jesus and instead be lured into adopting worldly ways, values, and priorities - imperialism being the most dangerous and insidious. This perspective (closely related to Liberation theology) draws on the approach of radical Bible scholars such as Ched Myers, William Stringfellow, and Daniel Berrigan.[23] For the computer game, see Imperialism (computer game). ... Liberation theology is a school of theology that focuses on Jesus Christ as not only the Redeemer but also the Liberator of the Oppressed. ...


Alternative

Some interpreters surmise that the Vision of Heaven in Chapter 4 resembles a calendar and clock representation to set up the rest of the Chronology of Revelation. This timeless model includes distinct correlations to cyclic events such as the 24 hours of a day, (24 elders) the seven days of the week (seven lamps of fire) and the four seasons of the year (the four living creatures). This somewhat literal interpretation asserts that John is referring back to the Book of Genesis beginning at the rainbow (halo), "the sign of the covenant which I have established between me and all flesh that is upon the earth" as an affirmation that the covenant still stands. In this covenant God promises to Noah that the Earth will remain and that the seasons would continue as periodic periods of warm and cool.[24] The Chronology of Revelation details a series of events which take place in the Book of Revelation, detailing (by some accounts) the final judgement of God on the world. ... The Chronology of Revelation details a series of events which take place in the Book of Revelation, detailing (by some accounts) the final judgement of God on the world. ... Genesis (Greek: Γένεσις, having the meanings of birth, creation, cause, beginning, source and origin) is the first book of the Torah (five books of Moses) and hence the first book of the Tanakh, part of the Hebrew Bible; it is also the first book of the Christian Old Testament. ... Full featured double rainbow in Wrangell-St. ... It has been suggested that Moon dog be merged into this article or section. ... A covenant, in its most general sense, is a solemn promise to do or not do something specified. ... Noahs Ark, Französischer Meister (The French Master), Magyar Szépművészeti Múzeum, Budapest. ...


The interpretation expands to include the notion of the hour (1/24;th of a day) and the nearly universal acceptance of a seven-day week are symbolized here in a static form palpable to Mediterranean readers. Further treatment along these lines illuminate this passage as a timeless preface to the chronology to follow, establishing the principle that God exists outside of time: "who was and is and is to come", but is aware of the Human concepts that allow the marking of time. John's notion here supports also that Jesus is "the same yesterday, today, and forever" (Hebrews 13:8). See also Hour and Calculating the day of the week[25] The hour (symbol: h) is a unit of time. ... Occident has a number of meanings. ... For the TV station in the Peoria-Bloomington, Illinois market, see WEEK-TV. A week is a unit of time longer than a day and shorter than a month. ... The hour (symbol: h) is a unit of time. ... This article details various mathematical algorithms to calculate the day of the week for any particular date in the past or future. ...


In this school of thought, John is appointed by Jesus as a scribe after the order referred to in Matthew 13:52: "Therefore every scribe who has been made a disciple to the kingdom of Heaven, is like unto a householder who brings forth of his treasure things new and old" (KJV). As such, he delivers to his readers a context based in the Alpha (gr. protos-beginning-Genesis) as a basis for the Omega (gr. eschatos-end-Revelation) and the prophetic scriptures that follow to the end of the apocolype.[26] This is about scribe, the profession. ... The Gospel of Matthew (literally, according to Matthew; Greek, Κατά Μαθθαίον or Κατά Ματθαίον, Kata Maththaion or Kata Matthaion) is a synoptic gospel in the New Testament, one of four canonical gospels. ... This page is about the version of the Bible; for the Harvey Danger album, see King James Version (album). ... Look up alfa, alpha in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Genesis (‎, Greek: Γένεσις, meaning birth, creation, cause, beginning, source or origin) is the first book of the Torah, the Tanakh, and the Old Testament. ... Look up Ω, ω in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Revelation This article is about prophecy. ...


Further transliteration indicates that the institution of periodic worship is practiced in Heaven by the four "living creatures" and the twenty-four elders. This interpretation supports the Earthly institution of daily and weekly worship that pervades the entirety of the Bible. Setting up a conceptual framework for periodicity allows the continuation of the text in the prophetic verses sequentially laid out in the opening of the seven seals on the scroll that follows...[27] Taken during a Hindu prayer ceremony on the eve of Diwali. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This Gutenberg Bible is displayed by the United States Library. ... Periodicity is the quality of occurring at regular intervals (e. ... Seven Seals is the newest album by the german Powermetal-Band Primal Fear, released in November 2005. ... Authority- is a very talented rocknroll band out of Columbia, S.C. This power rock trio has its roots in rock, funk, hardcore, and a dash of hip hop. ...


Historical-critical method

The historical-critical interpretation takes as axiomatic some qualities that would be considered commonplace in a non-Christian or non-Rastafarian context, first of all that Revelation is a text, which is embodied and transmitted in manuscripts, which have their own histories. Such texts are subject to changes, such as miscopying, repetition of lines already entered, excision, interpolation or emendation. Motivations for such changes run the whole gamut of human motivations, and need also to be assessed in their historical context. Higher criticism is a branch of literary analysis that attempts to investigate the origins of a text, especially the text of the Bible. ... An axiom is a sentence or proposition that is not proved or demonstrated and is considered as obvious or as an initial necessary consensus for a theory building or acceptation. ...


The acceptance of Revelation into the canon is itself the result of a historical process, essentially no different from the career of other texts. The eventual exclusion of other contemporary apocalyptic literature from the canon may throw light on the unfolding historical processes of what was officially considered orthodox, what was heterodox, what was even heretical. A biblical canon is a list of Biblical books which establishes the set of books which are considered to be authoritative as scripture by a particular Jewish or Christian community. ... Heterodox literally means pertaining to other doctrines or other worship. ...


The historical-critical interpretation also elucidates a central, pastoral message from Revelation relevant to the modern world. While interpretation of meanings and imagery is limited to what the historical author intended and what his contemporary audience inferred, a message to Christians not to assimilate into the Roman Imperial Culture was John's central message. Thus, his letter (written in the apocalyptic genre) is pastoral in nature; though the symbolism of Revelation is to be understood entirely within its historical literary and social context. Critics study the conventions of apocalyptic literature and events of the 1st century to make sense of what the author may have intended. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The 1st century was that century which lasted from 1 to 100 according the Gregorian calendar. ...


During a discussion about Revelation on 23 August 2006, Pope Benedict XVI remarked: "The seer of Patmos, identified with the apostle, is granted a series of visions meant to reassure the Christians of Asia amid the persecutions and trials of the end of the first century."[28] is the 235th day of the year (236th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays full 2006 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is becoming very long. ...


Nevertheless, many interpretative questions remain: Is the structure of the book linear, resumptive, or thematic? How does the imagery relate to historical events? Did the author intend one or multiple meanings in the text? The plurality of answers to these (and other) questions is plain to see both from the text of this article and scholarly opinion. Historical-criticism does not sit well within this plurality, but contemporary approaches to biblical texts, notably the literary-critical method, revel in this uncertainty. Different questions are asked, and as a result, the focus shifts from author to reader. What does it matter who wrote Revelation? Why can't the structure be linear, resumptive and thematic simultaneously? What stops the imagery relating to just 1st-century events and not 21st-century events as well? Fundamentally, what stops Revelation having more than one valid meaning? (For more related information, see Literary criticism, but see also Historical-grammatical hermeneutics.) Literary criticism is the study, discussion, evaluation, and interpretation of literature. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


See also

Directly related

The Number of the Beast is a concept from the Book of Revelation of the New Testament of the Christian Bible. ... Four horsemen redirects here. ... The Whore of Babylon rides the seven-headed Beast. ... Look up Apocalypse in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The Fifth Monarchy Men were a radical Puritan politico-religious party active from 1649 to 1661 (the Interregnum) during Oliver Cromwells government. ... The Laodicean Church was a Christian community established in the ancient city of Laodiceia (on the river Lycus, in the Roman province of Asia Minor). ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... This Article is the authors translation of the German version In the month of March in 1907 the Russian astronomer Nikolai Alexandrovich Morozov (Морозов Николай Александрович, 1854-1946) published the book Revelation within Thunderstorm and Tempest. ...

General

Caesaropapism is the concept of combining the power of secular government with, or making it supreme to, the spiritual authority of the Christian Church; most especially, the inter-penetration of the theological authority of the Christian Church with the legal/juridical authority of the government; in its extreme form, it... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      In Christian theology, Christian eschatology is the... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Apocalypticism is a worldview based on the idea that important matters are esoteric in nature (hidden) and they will soon be revealed in a major confrontation of earth-shaking magnitude that will change the course of history. ... Bible codes, also known as Torah codes, are words, phrases and clusters of words and phrases that some people believe are meaningful and exist intentionally in coded form in the text of the Bible. ... // In the three Abrahamic Religions (Islam, Judaism, and Christianity), the End Times are depicted as a time of tribulation that precede the predicted coming of a Messiah figure. ... Millennialism (or chiliasm), from millennium, which literally means thousand years, is primarily a belief expressed in some Christian denominations, and literature, that there will be a Golden Age or Paradise on Earth where Christ will reign prior to the final judgment and future eternal state, primarily derived from the book... Left Behind is a series of novels by Tim LaHaye and Jerry B. Jenkins, dealing with Christian dispensationalist End Times: pretribulation, premillennial, Christian eschatology viewpoint of the end of the world. ... This does not cite any references or sources. ... Endtime Ministries is an American evangelical ministry founded and headed by Irvin Baxter Jr. ... This article describes an alleged conspiracy to establish a unitary world government. ...

Footnotes

  1. ^ The former is found in Codex Sinaiticus and Codex Alexandrinus, among other manuscripts, while the later is found in the Majority Text and others, however a number of other variations of the title do exist. Nestle-Aland. Novum Testamentum Graece. 27th ed. Deutsche Bibelgesellschaft, Druck: 1996, p. 632.
  2. ^ "The Revelation of Jesus Christ, which God gave unto him, to shew unto his servants things which must shortly come to pass; and he sent and signified it by his angel unto his servant John..." (Revelation 1:1 KJV)
  3. ^ Luther's Treatment of the 'Disputed Books' of the New Testament
  4. ^ Tuveson, Ernest Lee, Millennium and Utopia: 24-25
  5. ^ Anthony A. Hoekema,The Bible and the future, P.297. ISBN 0802835163 ISBN 9780802835161, Grand Rapids, Mich.: Eerdmans, 1979.
  6. ^ see N. B. Stonehouse, Apocalypse in the Ancient Church, (c. 1929), pp. 139-142, esp. p. 138
  7. ^ Robert G. Ingersoll - The Devil
  8. ^ Guthrie, D: "New Testament Introduction - Hebrews to Revelation", page 260ff. The Tyndale Press: London, 1966
  9. ^ New Testament Greek Lexicon based on Strong's Concordance
  10. ^ Before Jerusalem Fell, ISBN 0930464206. Powder Springs, GA: American Vision, 1989.
  11. ^ Robert Mounce. The Book of Revelation. Cambridge: Eerdman's.
  12. ^ Brown 1997, p. 806-809
  13. ^ Scott Hahn, The Lamb's Supper: The Mass as Heaven on Earth, ISBN 0385496591. New York, NY: Doubleday, 1999.
  14. ^ This is the view which is held by the overwhelming majority of Catholics[citation needed]. The Whore of Babylon. Catholic Answers. Retrieved on 2007-05-11.
  15. ^ Apocalypse. Catholic encyclopeadia. Retrieved on 2007-05-11.
  16. ^ Hanegraaff, Hank. 2007. The Apocalypse Code (ISBN 0-8499-0184-7) Nashville, TN: Thomas Nelson, Inc.
  17. ^ Aun Weor, 1960
  18. ^ Aun Weor, 1960
  19. ^ Hudson, 2006
  20. ^ Interpretating the Revelation by John Van Auken
  21. ^ The Book of the Apocalypse Revealed - Uncovering the Secrets That Were Foretold There and Have Lain Hidden until Now, Small Canon Search, accessed April 30, 2007.
  22. ^ 1766,(Apocalypse Revealed) Latin: Apocalypsis Revelata, in quae detegunter Arcana quae ibi preedicta sunt.
  23. ^ Howard-Brook, Wes; Gwyther, Anthony (1999). Unveiling Empire: Reading Revelation Then and Now. Orbis Books. ISBN 9781570752872. 
  24. ^ God’s Covenant With Noah
  25. ^ Book of Revelation Chapter Four (Objectives in studying this chapter)
  26. ^ Sermon 24 on the New Testament
  27. ^ Jesus' Teaching on God's Law
  28. ^ http://www.catholic.org/international/international_story.php?id=20995

A portion of the Codex Sinaiticus, containing Esther 2:3-8. ... Folio 65v from the Codex Alexandrinus contains the end of the Gospel of Luke with the decorative tailpiece found at the end of each book. ... The Byzantine text-type (also called Constantinopolitan, Syrian, ecclesiastical, and majority) is the largest group of Greek manuscripts of the New Testament. ... Novum Testamentum Graece is the name (in the Latin language) of the Greek language version of the New Testament. ... The King James or Authorized Version of the Bible is an English translation of the Christian Bible first published in 1611. ... James Strong (1822-1894) Strongs Concordance (strictly Strongs Exhaustive Concordance of the Bible) is a concordance of the King James Bible (KJV) that was constructed under the direction of Dr. James Strong (1822–1894) and first published in 1890. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 131st day of the year (132nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 131st day of the year (132nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Hendrik Hank Hanegraaff is an American author, radio talk-show host and advocate of evangelical Christianity. ... Orbis Books, the imprint of the Maryknoll order, has been a small but influential publisher of liberation theology works, founded by Nicaraguan Maryknoll priest Miguel DEscoto with Philip J. Scharper in 1970. ...

References

  • Bass, Ralph E., Jr. 2004. Back to the Future: A Study in the Book of Revelation (ISBN 0-9759547-0-9) Greenville, SC: Living Hope Press.
  • Understanding Prophecy and Typology http://www.inplainsite.org/html/prophecy_and_typology.html
  • Brown, Raymond E. (October 3, 1997). Introduction to the New Testament. Anchor Bible. ISBN 0-385-24767-2. 
  • Gentry, Kenneth L., Jr. 1998. Before Jerusalem Fell: Dating the Book of Revelation (ISBN 0-915815-43-5) Powder Springs, GA: American Vision.
  • Gentry, Kenneth L., Jr. 2002. The Beast of Revelation (ISBN 0-915815-41-9) Powder Springs, GA: American Vision.
  • Samael Aun Weor [1960] (2004). The Aquarian Message: Gnostic Kabbalah and Tarot in the Apocalypse of St. John. Thelema Press. ISBN 0-9745916-5-3. 
  • Hahn, Scott. "The Lamb's Supper - Mass as Heaven on Earth". Darton, Longman, Todd. 1999. ISBN 0-232-52500-5
  • Shepherd, Massey H. 2004. "The Paschal Liturgy and the Apocalypse" ISBN 0-227-17005-9
  • Stonehouse, Ned B., The Apocalypse in the Ancient Church. A Study in the History of the New Testament Canon, n.d. (c. 1929) Goes: Oosterbaan & Le Cointre. [Major discussion of the controversy surrounding the acceptance/rejection of Revelation into the New Testament canon.]
  • Hudson, Gary W., Revelation: Awakening The Christ Within,Vesica Press,2006 ISBN 0977851729

Raymond Edward Brown (May 22, 1928 - August 8, 1998), was an American Roman Catholic priest and Biblical scholar. ... Samael Aun Weor Samael Aun Weor (March 16, 1917 - December 24, 1977) was a prolific writer, lecturer and teacher of occultism. ... Scott Hahn - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ...

External links

Wikisource has original text related to this article:

Commentaries on Revelation: Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... The original Wikisource logo. ...

Articles:

Preceded by
Jude
Books of the Bible Succeeded by
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The brief Epistle of Jude is a book in the Christian New Testament canon. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Book of Revelation - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (3674 words)
The book of Revelation or The Apocalypse of John (IPA: [əˈpɑkəlɪps], from Greek ἀποκάλυψις ἀπο or apo- ["away from"] and κάλυψις or kalupsis ["a covering"]—meaning literally "pulling the cover away from")[1] is the last canonical book of the New Testament in the Bible.
Politically, historicist interpretations apply the symbols of Revelation to the gradual division and collapse of the Roman Empire, the emergence of a divided Europe in the West and a Muslim empire in the East, and the collapse of the Eastern Empire while Europe attempts to reunite and recreate the Roman Empire.
The Zodiacal Interpretation of the Book of Revelations contends that the language of the Zodiac is a key to understanding the vision of John.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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