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Encyclopedia > Book of Optics
The title page of a 1572 Latin manuscript of Ibn al-Haytham's Book of Optics

The Book of Optics (Arabic: Kitab al-Manazir, Latin: De Aspectibus or Perspectiva) was a seven volume treatise on optics written by the Iraqi Muslim scientist Ibn al-Haytham (Latinized as Alhacen or Alhazen in Europe) from 1011 to 1021, when he was under house arrest in Cairo, Egypt. The book had an important influence on the development of optics, and science in general, as it drastically transformed the understanding of light and vision, and introduced the modern experimental scientific method. As a result, Ibn al-Haytham has been described as the "father of optics", the "pioneer of the modern scientific method", and the "first scientist".[1] Image File history File links Download high resolution version (713x1000, 156 KB) Summary 1572 C.E. Latin Frontpage of Ibn Haithems book. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (713x1000, 156 KB) Summary 1572 C.E. Latin Frontpage of Ibn Haithems book. ... January 16 - Thomas Howard, 4th Duke of Norfolk is tried for treason for his part in the Ridolfi plot to restore Catholicism in England. ... Latin is an ancient Indo-European language originally spoken in Latium, the region immediately surrounding Rome. ... Alhazen Abu Ali al-Hasan Ibn Al-Haitham, (965-1040) was a Arab Muslim mathematician; he is sometimes called al-Basri, after his birthplace. ... Arabic ( or just ) is the largest living member of the Semitic language family in terms of speakers. ... Latin is an ancient Indo-European language originally spoken in Latium, the region immediately surrounding Rome. ... For the book by Sir Isaac Newton, see Opticks. ... This is a subarticle to Islamic studies and science. ... Alhazen Abu Ali al-Hasan Ibn Al-Haitham, (965-1040) was a Arab Muslim mathematician; he is sometimes called al-Basri, after his birthplace. ... World map showing the location of Europe. ... Events Emperor Sanjo ascends to the throne of Japan. ... // Events Al-Hakim bi-Amr Allah, sixth Fatimid Caliph of Egypt disappears on a trip to al-Muqattam hills. ... In justice and law, house arrest is the situation where a person is confined (by the authorities) to his or her residence. ... Nickname: Egypt: Site of Cairo (top center) Coordinates: Government  - Governor Dr. Abdul Azim Wazir Area  - City 214 km²  (82. ... Part of a scientific laboratory at the University of Cologne. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This does not cite any references or sources. ... In the scientific method, an experiment (Latin: ex-+-periri, of (or from) trying), is a set of actions concerning phenomena. ... Scientific method is a body of techniques for investigating phenomena and acquiring new knowledge, as well as for correcting and integrating previous knowledge. ... The following tables list men and women described as father or mother of something[1]. Exceptions are those people described as fathers or mothers of nations; these are listed at Father and Mother of the Nation. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...


The Book of Optics also contains the earliest discussions on the psychology of visual perception and the earliest descriptions of a camera obscura, a precursor to the modern camera. The work also had an influence on the use of optical aids in Renaissance art and the development of the telescope and microscope.[2] Psychology (from Greek: ψυχή, psukhē, spirit, soul; and λόγος, logos, knowledge) is an academic/ applied discipline involving the scientific study of mental processes and behavior. ... This does not cite any references or sources. ... The camera obscura (Lat. ... Large format camera lens. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... A telescope (from the Greek tele = far and skopein = to look or see; teleskopos = far-seeing) is an instrument designed for the observation of remote objects. ... Robert Hookes microscope (1665) - an engineered device used to study living systems. ...


Robert S. Elliot wrote the following on the Book of Optics:

"Alhazen was one of the ablest students of optics of all times and published a seven-volume treatise on this subject which had great celebrity throughout the medieval period and strongly influenced Western thought, notably that of Roger Bacon and Kepler. This treatise discussed concave and convex mirrors in both cylindrical and spherical geometries, anticipated Fermat's law of least time, and considered refraction and the magnifying power of lenses. It contained a remarkably lucid description of the optical system of the eye, which study led Alhazen to the belief that light consists of rays which originate in the object seen, and not in the eye, a view contrary to that of Euclid and Ptolemy."[3] For the Nova Scotia premier see Roger Bacon (politician). ... Johannes Kepler (December 27, 1571 – November 15, 1630) was a German Lutheran mathematician, astronomer and astrologer, and a key figure in the 17th century astronomical revolution. ... Look up Concave in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Look up convex in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A mirror, reflecting a vase. ... Look up cylinder in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A sphere is a perfectly symmetrical geometrical object. ... Fermats principle assures that the angles given by Snells law always reflect lights quickest path between P and Q. Fermats principle in optics states: This principle was first stated by Pierre de Fermat. ... A lens. ... In optics, a ray is an idealized narrow beam of light. ... Euclid (Greek: ), also known as Euclid of Alexandria, was a Hellenistic mathematician who flourished in Alexandria, Egypt, almost certainly during the reign of Ptolemy I (323–283 BC). ... A medieval artists rendition of Claudius Ptolemaeus Claudius Ptolemaeus (Greek: ; ca. ...

Rosanna Gorini wrote the following on the Book of Optic's introduction of the scientific method: Scientific method is a body of techniques for investigating phenomena and acquiring new knowledge, as well as for correcting and integrating previous knowledge. ...

"According to the majority of the historians al-Haytham was the pioneer of the modern scientific method. With his book he changed the meaning of the term optics and established experiments as the norm of proof in the field. His investigations are based not on abstract theories, but on experimental evidences and his experiments were systematic and repeatable."[4]

George Sarton, the "father of the history of science", wrote in the Introduction to the History of Science: George Alfred Leon Sarton (1884-1956) was a seminal Belgian-American polymath and historian of science. ...

"Ibn Haytham's writings reveal his fine development of the experimental faculty. His tables of corresponding angles of incidence and refraction of light passing from one medium to another show how closely he had approached discovering the law of constancy of ratio of sines, later attributed to Snell. He accounted correctly for twilight as due to atmospheric refraction, estimating the sun's depression to be 19 degrees below the horizon, at the commencement of the phenomenon in the mornings or at its termination in the evenings."[5] Fig. ... Refraction of light at the interface between two media of different refractive indices, with n2 > n1. ... Willebrord Snellius Willebrord Snellius (Willebrord Snel van Royen) (1580–October 30, 1626) was a Dutch astronomer and mathematician, most famous for the law of refraction now known as Snells law. ... Atmospheric refraction is the deviation of light or other electromagnetic wave from a straight line as it passes through the atmosphere due to the variation in air density as a function of altitude. ...

Contents

Overview

The author of the Book of Optics, Ibn al-Haytham (Alhazen), has been described as the "father of optics", the "pioneer of the modern scientific method", and the "first scientist".

In classical antiquity, there were two major theories on vision. The first theory, the emission theory, was supported by such thinkers as Euclid and Ptolemy, who believed that sight worked by the eye emitting rays of light. The second theory, the intromission theory, supported by Aristotle and his followers, had physical forms entering the eye from an object. Alhacen argued on the basis of common observations (such as the eye being dazzled or even injured if we look at a very bright light) and logical arguments (such as how a ray could proceeding from the eyes reach the distant stars the instant after we open our eye) to maintain that we cannot see by rays being emitted from the eye nor through physical forms entering the eye. Alhacen instead developed a highly successful theory which explained the process of vision by rays of light proceeding to the eye from each point on an object, which he proved through the use of experimentation.[6] Image File history File linksMetadata Ibn_haithem_portrait. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Ibn_haithem_portrait. ... Alhazen Abu Ali al-Hasan Ibn Al-Haitham, (965-1040) was a Arab Muslim mathematician; he is sometimes called al-Basri, after his birthplace. ... The following tables list men and women described as father or mother of something[1]. Exceptions are those people described as fathers or mothers of nations; these are listed at Father and Mother of the Nation. ... For the book by Sir Isaac Newton, see Opticks. ... Scientific method is a body of techniques for investigating phenomena and acquiring new knowledge, as well as for correcting and integrating previous knowledge. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Classical antiquity is a broad term for a long period of cultural history centered on the Mediterranean Sea, which begins roughly with the earliest-recorded Greek poetry of Homer (7th century BC), and continues through the rise of Christianity and the fall of the Western Roman Empire (5th century AD... This does not cite any references or sources. ... Emission theory has at least two meanings: First, it refers to Newtons proposal that light is emitted from luminous objects in the form of particles or corpuscles. ... Euclid (Greek: ), also known as Euclid of Alexandria, was a Hellenistic mathematician who flourished in Alexandria, Egypt, almost certainly during the reign of Ptolemy I (323–283 BC). ... A medieval artists rendition of Claudius Ptolemaeus Claudius Ptolemaeus (Greek: ; ca. ... In optics, a ray is an idealized narrow beam of light. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Aristotle (Greek: Aristotélēs) (384 BC – 322 BC) was a Greek philosopher, a student of Plato and teacher of Alexander the Great. ... In the scientific method, an experiment (Latin: ex-+-periri, of (or from) trying), is a set of actions concerning phenomena. ...


Ibn al-Haytham proved that rays of light travel in straight lines, and carried out a number of experimnts with lenses, mirrors, refraction, and reflection.[7] He was also the first to reduce reflected and refracted light rays into vertical and horizontal components, which was a fundamental development in geometric optics.[8] He also discovered a result similar to Snell's law of sines, but did not quantify it and derive the law mathematically.[9] Ibn al-Haytham is also credited with the invention of the camera obscura and pinhole camera.[10] Alhacen also wrote on the refraction of light, especially on atmospheric refraction, for example, the cause of morning and evening twilight. He solved the problem of finding the point on a convex mirror at which a ray coming from one point is reflected to another point. He also experimented on the dispersion of light into its constituent colours,[7] speculated on the finite speed, rectilinear propagation and electromagnetic aspects of light,[11] and argued that rays of light are streams of tiny particles travelling in straight lines.[12] A lens. ... A mirror, reflecting a vase. ... The straw seems to be broken, due to refraction of light as it emerges into the air. ... The reflection of a bridge in Indianapolis, Indianas Central Canal. ... Refraction of light at the interface between two media of different refractive indices, with n2 > n1. ... The camera obscura (Lat. ... Principle of a pinhole camera. ... The straw seems to be broken, due to refraction of light as it emerges into the air. ... Reflections in a spherical convex mirror. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Ceremonies The British Royal Navy calls colours the flag-raising ceremony that happens every day when a ship is in harbour - Colours! Face aft and salute. ... A line showing the speed of light on a scale model of Earth and the Moon The speed of light in a vacuum is an important physical constant denoted by the letter c for constant or the Latin word celeritas meaning swiftness. It is the speed of all electromagnetic radiation... Rectilinear propagation is a wave property which states that waves propagate (move or spread out) in straight lines. ... Electromagnetism is the physics of the electromagnetic field: a field which exerts a force on particles that possess the property of electric charge, and is in turn affected by the presence and motion of those particles. ... In optics, a ray is an idealized narrow beam of light. ... A particle is Look up Particle in Wiktionary, the free dictionary In particle physics, a basic unit of matter or energy. ...


In his work on optics, Alhacen described sight as the inference of distinct properties of two similar and dissimilar objects. The eye perceives the size, shape, transparency (color and light), position, and motion from cognitive distinction which is entirely different from perceiving by mere sensation the characteristics of the object. The faculty of the mind, for Alhacen, includes perceiving through judgement and inference of distinct properties of similar objects outline and structure. Alhacen continues this body of work by concluding that the discrimination performed by the faculty of judgment and inference is in addition to sensing the objects visible form and not by pure sensation alone. We recognize visible objects that we frequently see. Recognition of an object is not pure sensation because we do not recognize everything we see. Ultimately, recognition does not take place without remembering. Recognition is due to the inference because of our mental capacity to conclude what objects are. Alhacen uses our ability to recognize species and likening their characteristics to that of similar individuals to support recognition associated and processed by inference. Alhacen further concludes that we are processing visual stimuli in very short intervals which allows us to recognize and associate objects through inference but we do not need syllogism to recognize it. These premises are stored infinitely in our souls.


Sami Hamarneh writes several examples of Ibn al-Haytham's descriptions which are correct according to modern optics:[11] For the book by Sir Isaac Newton, see Opticks. ...

  1. "He explained that sight results from the light penetrating the eye from the object, thus initiating a revolt against the ancient belief that visionary rays emanate from the eye." This article does not cite any references or sources. ... // A human eye. ... In optics, a ray is an idealized narrow beam of light. ... Emission theory has at least two meanings: First, it refers to Newtons proposal that light is emitted from luminous objects in the form of particles or corpuscles. ...

  2. "He showed that the corneal region of the eye is curved and is close to the conjunctiva; but the cornea do not coalesce with the conjunctiva." The cornea is the transparent front part of the eye that covers the iris, pupil, and anterior chamber, providing most of an eyes optical power [1]. Together with the lens, the cornea refracts light and, as a result, helps the eye to focus. ... The conjunctiva is a membrane that covers the sclera (white part of the eye) and lines the inside of the eyelids. ... Coalesce (from Kansas City, Missouri) were a 4-piece band whose latest and absolutely final break-up occurred in 2005. ...

  3. "He suggested that the inner surface of the cornea at the point where it joins the foramen of the eye becomes concave in accordance with the curvature of its outer surface. The edges of the surfaces of the foramen and the middle part of the corneal regions become even but not one." In anatomy, a foramen is any opening. ... Look up Concave in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Curvature refers to a number of loosely related concepts in different areas of geometry. ...

  4. "He endeavored by use of hyperbola and geometric optics to chart and formulate basic laws on reflection, and on atmospheric and light-ray refraction. He speculated on electromagnetic aspects of light, its velocity, and its rectilinear propagation. He recorded formation of an image in a camera obscura during an eclipse of the sun (the principle of the pinhole camera)." In mathematics, a hyperbola (Greek literally overshooting or excess) is a type of conic section defined as the intersection between a right circular conical surface and a plane which cuts through both halves of the cone. ... For the book by Sir Isaac Newton, see Opticks. ... Look up reflection in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Atmospheric refraction is the deviation of light or other electromagnetic wave from a straight line as it passes through the atmosphere due to the variation in air density as a function of altitude. ... The straw seems to be broken, due to refraction of light as it emerges into the air. ... Electromagnetism is the physics of the electromagnetic field: a field which exerts a force on particles that possess the property of electric charge, and is in turn affected by the presence and motion of those particles. ... A line showing the speed of light on a scale model of Earth and the Moon The speed of light in a vacuum is an important physical constant denoted by the letter c for constant or the Latin word celeritas meaning swiftness. It is the speed of all electromagnetic radiation... Rectilinear propagation is a wave property which states that waves propagate (move or spread out) in straight lines. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into image (disambiguation). ... The camera obscura (Lat. ... Photo taken during the 1999 eclipse. ... Principle of a pinhole camera. ...

  5. "He stated that the lens is that part of the eye where vision is felt first." Look up lens in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This does not cite any references or sources. ...

  6. "He theorized on how the image is transmitted through the optic nerve to the brain and made a distinction between luminous and nonluminous bodies." This article is about the anatomical structure. ... Italic text // ahh addiing sum spiice iin hurr`` For other uses, see Brain (disambiguation). ... Luminance (also called luminosity) is a photometric measure of the density of luminous intensity in a given direction. ...

Volumes

Book I

In Book I of the treatise, Ibn al-Haytham begins by writing an introduction to the systematic approach he will use for his investigations on optics, and correctly explains how vision is perceived by rays of light travelling in straight lines from an object to the eye:[13]

"We should distinguish the properties of particulars, and gather by induction what pertains to the eye when vision takes place and what is found in the manner of sensation to be uniform, unchanging, manifest, and not subject to doubt. After which we should ascend in our inquiry and reasonings, gradually and orderly, criticizing premises and exercising caution in regard to conclusions—our aim in all that we make subject to inspection and review being to employ justice, not to follow prejudice, and to take care in all that we judge and criticize that we seek the truth and not be swayed by opinion." Aristotle appears first to establish the mental behaviour of induction as a category of reasoning. ...

"Straight lines [exist between] the surface of the eye [and] each point on the seen surface of the object. An accurate experimental examination of this fact may be easily made with the help of rulers and tubes. [...] If…he covers any part of the opening, then there will be screened off only that portion…that lies on a straight line with the eye and the screening body—this straightness being secured by the ruler and the straightness of the tube, [...] It follows from this experiment, with a necessity that dispels doubt, that sight does not perceive any visible object existing with it in the same atmosphere, this perception being not by reflection, except through straight lines alone that can be imagined to extend between the surface of the object and the surface of the eye. Sight does not perceive any visible object unless there exists in the object some light, which the object possesses of itself or which radiates upon it from another object." A variety of rulers A 2 metre carpenters rule Retractable flexible rule A ruler or rule is an instrument used in geometry, technical drawing and engineering/building to measure distances and/or to rule straight lines. ... Tubing refers to a flexible hose or pipe used in plumbing, irrigation, and other industries. ...

He also states that his investigation of light will be based on experimental evidence rather than on abstract theory, and notes that light is always the same from every source, using sunlight, fire, and a mirror as examples. He then examines the anatomical structure of the eye, and proposes the first use of a camera obscura.[7] In the scientific method, an experiment (Latin: ex-+-periri, of (or from) trying), is a set of actions concerning phenomena. ... abstraction in general. ... Prism splitting light High Resolution Solar Spectrum Sunlight in the broad sense is the total spectrum of the electromagnetic radiation given off by the Sun. ... A forest fire Fire is a rapid oxidation process that creates light, heat, smoke, and releases energy in varying intensities. ... A mirror, reflecting a vase. ...


Books II-III

Book II of the treatise contains a discussion on visual perception.[7] In Book III, he pioneered the psychology of visual perception, being the first scientist to argue that vision occurs in the brain, rather than the eyes. He pointed out that personal experience has an affect on what people see and how they see, and that vision and perception are subjective. He explained possible errors in vision in detail, and as an example, describes how a small child with less experience may have more difficulty interpreting what he/she sees. He also gives an example of an adult that can make mistakes in vision because of how one's experience suggests that he/she is seeing one thing, when he/she is really seeing something else.[13] This does not cite any references or sources. ... Psychology (from Greek: ψυχή, psukhē, spirit, soul; and λόγος, logos, knowledge) is an academic/ applied discipline involving the scientific study of mental processes and behavior. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...


Books IV-VII

Book IV deals with the theory of reflection mathematically, while Book V deals with the influential Alhazen's problem. Book VI examines errors in vision due to reflection, while the final volume, Book VII, examines refraction.[7] Look up reflection in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The straw seems to be broken, due to refraction of light as it emerges into the air. ...


Alhazen's problem

Ibn al-Haytham's work on catoptrics in Book V of the Book of Optics contains the important mathematical problem known as Alhazen's problem. It comprises drawing lines from two points in the plane of a circle meeting at a point on the circumference and making equal angles with the normal at that point. This leads to an equation of the fourth degree. This eventually led Ibn al-Haytham to derive the earliest formula for the sum of the fourth powers, and using an early proof by mathematical induction, he developed a method for determining the general formula for the sum of any integral powers, which was fundamental to the development of infinitesimal and integral calculus.[14] This article belongs in one or more categories. ... Islamic mathematics is the profession of Muslim Mathematicians. ... The circumference is the distance around a closed curve. ... In mathematics, a quartic equation is the result of setting a quartic function equal to zero. ... In mathematics, the fourth powers are given by the expression a4 = a × a × a × a The sequence of fourth powers of integers goes: 1, 16, 81, 256, 625, 1296, 2401, 4096, 6561, 10000, ... They are also formed by multiplying a number by its cube. ... Look up proof in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Mathematical induction is a method of mathematical proof typically used to establish that a given statement is true of all natural numbers. ... In calculus, the integral of a function is an extension of the concept of a sum. ... Exponentiation is a mathematical operation, written an, involving two numbers, the base a and the exponent n. ... In mathematics, an infinitesimal, or infinitely small number, is a number that is smaller in absolute value than any positive real number. ... In calculus, the integral of a function is an extension of the concept of a sum. ... Calculus (from Latin, pebble or little stone) is a mathematical subject that includes the study of limits, derivatives, integrals, and power series and constitutes a major part of modern university curriculum. ...


Ibn al-Haytham solved the problem using conic sections and a geometric proof, but Alhazen's problem remained influential in Europe, when later mathematicians such as Christiaan Huygens, James Gregory, Guillaume de l'Hôpital, Isaac Barrow, and many others, attempted to find an algebraic solution to the problem, using various methods, including analytic methods of geometry and derivation by complex numbers.[15] Mathematicians were not able to find an algebraic solution to the problem until the end of the 20th century.[13] Wikibooks has more on the topic of Conic section Types of conic sections Table of conics, Cyclopaedia, 1728 In mathematics, a conic section (or just conic) is a curve that can be formed by intersecting a cone (more precisely, a right circular conical surface) with a plane. ... Christiaan Huygens (pronounced in English (IPA): ; in Dutch: ) (April 14, 1629 – July 8, 1695), was a Dutch mathematician, astronomer and physicist; born in The Hague as the son of Constantijn Huygens. ... Several notable persons have been named James Gregory: James Gregory (astronomer and mathematician) James Gregory (mineralogist) James Gregory (actor) This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Guillaume de lHôpital Guillaume François Antoine, Marquis de lHôpital (1661 – February 2, 1704) was a French mathematician. ... Isaac Barrow (October 1630 - May 4, 1677) was an English divine, scholar and mathematician who is generally given minor credit for his role in the development of modern calculus; in particular, for his work regarding the tangent; for example, Barrow is given credit for being the first to calculate the... Analytic geometry, also called coordinate geometry and earlier referred to as Cartesian geometry or analytical geometry, is the study of geometry using the principles of algebra. ... In mathematics, a complex number is a number of the form where a and b are real numbers, and i is the imaginary unit, with the property i 2 = −1. ...


Latin translations

Optics was translated into Latin by an unknown scholar at the end of the 12th century or the beginning of the 13th century.[16] It was printed by Friedrich Risner in 1572, with the title Opticae thesaurus: Alhazeni Arabis libri septem, nuncprimum editi; Eiusdem liber De Crepusculis et nubium ascensionibus [2]. Risner is also the author of the name variant "Alhazen", before him he was known in the west as Alhacen, which is correct transcription of the Arabic name.[17] This work enjoyed a great reputation during the Middle Ages. Works by Alhacen on geometrical subjects were discovered in the Bibliothèque nationale in Paris in 1834 by E. A. Sedillot. Other manuscripts are preserved in the Bodleian Library at Oxford and in the library of Leiden. Ibn al-Haytham's optical studies were influential in a number of later developments, such as the telescope, which laid the foundations of telescopic astronomy.[18] The 12th century saw a major search by European scholars for new learning, which led them to the Arabic fringes of Europe, especially to Spain and Sicily. ... Friedrich Risner (died 1580) was a German mathematician from Hersfeld [1], Hesse who spent much of his scholarly life at the University of Paris. ... January 16 - Thomas Howard, 4th Duke of Norfolk is tried for treason for his part in the Ridolfi plot to restore Catholicism in England. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... The new buildings of the library. ... City flag City coat of arms Motto: Fluctuat nec mergitur (Latin: Tossed by the waves, she does not sink) Paris Eiffel tower as seen from the esplanade du Trocadéro. ... Year 1834 (MDCCCXXXIV) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Entrance to the Library, with the coats-of-arms of several Oxford colleges The Bodleian Library, the main research library of the University of Oxford, is one of the oldest libraries in Europe, and in England is second in size only to the British Library. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Leyden redirects here. ... A telescope (from the Greek tele = far and skopein = to look or see; teleskopos = far-seeing) is an instrument designed for the observation of remote objects. ...


Hockney-Falco thesis

Main article: Hockney-Falco thesis

At a scientific conference in February 2007, Charles M. Falco argued that Ibn al-Haytham's work on optics may have influenced the use of optical aids by Renaissance artists. Falco said that his and David Hockney's examples of Renaissance art "demonstrate a continuum in the use of optics by artists from c. 1430, arguably initiated as a result of Ibn al-Haytham's influence, until today."[19] A diagram of the camera obscura from 1772. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... We Two Boys Together Clinging, 1961. ...


See also

Alhazen Abu Ali al-Hasan Ibn Al-Haitham, (965-1040) was a Arab Muslim mathematician; he is sometimes called al-Basri, after his birthplace. ... For the book by Sir Isaac Newton, see Opticks. ... Scientific method is a body of techniques for investigating phenomena and acquiring new knowledge, as well as for correcting and integrating previous knowledge. ... This is a subarticle to Islamic studies and science. ... Science is a body of empirical and theoretical knowledge, produced by a global community of researchers, making use of specific techniques for the observation and explanation of real phenomena, this techne summed up under the banner of scientific method. ...

References

  1. ^ Bradley Steffens (2006), Ibn al-Haytham: First Scientist, Morgan Reynolds Publishing, ISBN 1599350246. (cf. Reviews of Ibn al-Haytham: First Scientist, The Critics, Barnes & Noble.)
  2. ^ Richard Power (University of Illinois), Best Idea; Eyes Wide Open, New York Times, April 18, 1999.
  3. ^ R. S. Elliott (1966). Electromagnetics, Chapter 1. McGraw-Hill.
  4. ^ Rosanna Gorini (2003). "Al-Haytham the Man of Experience. First Steps in the Science of Vision", International Society for the History of Islamic Medicine. Institute of Neurosciences, Laboratory of Psychobiology and Psychopharmacology, Rome, Italy.
  5. ^ Dr. A. Zahoor and Dr. Z. Haq (1997). Quotations from Famous Historians of Science, Cyberistan.
  6. ^ D. C. Lindberg, Theories of Vision from al-Kindi to Kepler, (Chicago, Univ. of Chicago Pr., 1976), pp. 60-7.
  7. ^ a b c d e Dr. Mahmoud Al Deek. "Ibn Al-Haitham: Master of Optics, Mathematics, Physics and Medicine, Al Shindagah, November-December 2004.
  8. ^ Albrecht Heeffer. Kepler’s near discovery of the sine law: A qualitative computational model, Ghent University, Belgium.
  9. ^ A. I. Sabra (1981), Theories of Light from Descartes to Newton, Cambridge University Press. (cf. Pavlos Mihas, Use of History in Developing ideas of refraction, lenses and rainbow, p. 5, Demokritus University, Thrace, Greece.)
  10. ^ Nicholas J. Wade, Stanley Finger (2001), "The eye as an optical instrument: from camera obscura to Helmholtz's perspective", Perception 30 (10), p. 1157-1177.
  11. ^ a b Sami Hamarneh (March 1972). Review of Hakim Mohammed Said, Ibn al-Haitham, Isis 63 (1), p. 119.
  12. ^ J. J. O'Connor and E. F. Robertson (2002). Light through the ages: Ancient Greece to Maxwell, MacTutor History of Mathematics archive.
  13. ^ a b c Bradley Steffens (2006). Ibn al-Haytham: First Scientist, Chapter 5. Morgan Reynolds Publishing. ISBN 1599350246.
  14. ^ Victor J. Katz (1995). "Ideas of Calculus in Islam and India", Mathematics Magazine 68 (3), p. 163-174.
  15. ^ John D. Smith (1992). "The Remarkable Ibn al-Haytham", The Mathematical Gazette 76 (475), p. 189-198.
  16. ^ A. C. Crombie, Robert Grosseteste and the Origins of Experimental Science, 1100 - 1700, (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1971), p. 147, n. 2.
  17. ^ Smith, A Mark (2001). Alhacen's theory of visual perception: a critical edition, with English translation and commentary, of the first three books of Alhacen's De aspectibus, the medieval Latin version of Ibn al-Haytham's Kitab al-Manazir. Vol 1. Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society, xxi. ISBN 9780871699145. .
  18. ^ O. S. Marshall (1950). "Alhazen and the Telescope", Astronomical Society of the Pacific Leaflets 6, p. 4.
  19. ^ Falco, Charles M. "Ibn al-Haytham and the Origins of Modern Image Analysis", presented at a plenary session at the International Conference on Information Sciences, Signal Processing and its Applications, 12–15 February 2007. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates (U.A.E.). [1]

 
 

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