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Encyclopedia > Book of Judith
Judith with the Head of Holophernes, by Cristofano Allori, 1613 (Royal Collection, London)
Judith with the Head of Holophernes, by Cristofano Allori, 1613 (Royal Collection, London)

The Book of Judith is a deuterocanonical book, included in the Septuagint and in the Roman Catholic and Eastern Orthodox Christian Old Testament of the Bible, but excluded by Rabbinical Jews and Protestants. It has been said that the book contains numerous historical anachronisms, which is why many scholars now accept it as unreliable history; it has been considered a parable or perhaps the first historical novel.[1] Judith can refer to: The Book of Judith, a deuterocanonical book of the Old Testament Judith, an Old English poem about the heroine of the Book of Judith Judith, a character in the Book of Genesis Judith, a Frankish queen Judith Martel, a 9th century queen of Wessex Gudit, a... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 485 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2024 × 2503 pixel, file size: 369 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 485 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2024 × 2503 pixel, file size: 369 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Judith with the Head of Holofernes (1613) Oil on canvas, 139 x 116 cm. ... Shaped by the personal tastes of kings and queens over more than 500 years, the Royal Collection includes paintings, drawings and watercolours, furniture, ceramics, clocks, silver, sculpture, jewellery, books, manuscripts, prints and maps, arms and armour, fans, and textiles. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Note: Judaism... A biblical canon is a list of Biblical books which establishes the set of books which are considered to be authoritative as scripture by a particular Jewish or Christian community. ... This article is about the term Hebrew Bible. For the Jewish scriptures see Tanakh. ... For the musical collective, see Tanakh (band). ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is... For other uses, see Genesis (disambiguation). ... This article is about the second book in the Torah. ... Leviticus is the third book of the Hebrew Bible, also the third book in the Torah (five books of Moses). ... The Book of Numbers is the fourth of the books of the Pentateuch, called in the Hebrew ba-midbar במדבר, i. ... Deuteronomy (Greek deuteronomium, second, from to deuteronomium touto, this second law, pronounced ) is the fifth book of the Torah of the Hebrew bible and the Old Testament. ... The Book of Joshua is the sixth book in both the Hebrew Tanakh and the Old Testament of the Christian Bible. ... Book of Judges (Hebrew: Sefer Shoftim ספר שופטים) is a book of the Bible originally written in Hebrew. ... Naomi entreating Ruth and Orpah to return to the land of Moab by William Blake, 1795 Julius Schnorr von Carolsfeld: Ruth in Boazs Field, 1828 The Book of Ruth (Hebrew: מגילת רות, Megilat Rut, the Scroll of Ruth) is one of the books of the Ketuvim (Writings) of the Tanakh (the... The Books of Samuel (Hebrew: Sefer Shmuel ספר שמואל), are part of the Tanakh (part of Judaisms Hebrew Bible) and also of the Old Testament (of Christianity). ... The Books of Kings (‎) is a part of Judaisms Tanakh, the Hebrew Bible. ... The Book of Chronicles is a book in the Hebrew Bible (also see Old Testament). ... The Book of Ezra is a book of the Bible in the Old Testament and Hebrew Tanakh. ... 1. ... The Book of Nehemiah is a book of the Hebrew Bible, known to Jews as the Tanach and to Christians as the Old Testament. ... Megillah redirects here. ... The Book of Job (איוב) is one of the books of the Hebrew Bible. ... Psalms (from the Greek: Psalmoi) (originally meaning songs sung to a harp, from psallein play on a stringed instrument, Ψαλμοί; Hebrew: Tehilim, תהילים, or praises) is a book of the Hebrew Bible, Tanakh or Old Testament. ... The Book of Proverbs is one of the books of the Ketuvim of the Tanakh and of the Writings of the Old Testament. ... Ecclesiastes, Qohelet in Hebrew, is a book of the Hebrew Bible. ... Song of Solomon is also the title of a novel by Toni Morrison. ... This article is about the Book of Isaiah. ... The Book of Jeremiah, or Jeremiah (יִרְמְיָהוּ YirmÉ™yāhÅ« in Hebrew), is part of the Hebrew Bible, Judaisms Tanakh, and later became a part of Christianitys Old Testament. ... The Book of Lamentations (Hebrew מגילת איכה) is a book of the Bible Old Testament and Jewish Tanakh. ... Book Of Ezekiel is rapper Freekey Zekeys debut album and debut on Diplomat Records/Asylum. ... For other uses, see Book of Daniel (disambiguation). ... A minor prophet is a book in Minor Prophets section of the Hebrew Bible also known to Christians as the Old Testament. ... Tobias and the Angel, by Filippino Lippi The Book of Tobit (or Book of Tobias in older Catholic Bibles) is a book of scripture that is part of the Catholic and Orthodox and Anglican biblical canon, pronounced canonical by the Council of Carthage of 397 and confirmed for Roman Catholics... 1 Maccabees is a deuterocanonical book of the Bible which was written by a Jewish (pre-Christian) author, probably about 100 BC, after the restoration of an independent Jewish kingdom. ... 2 Maccabees is a deuterocanonical book of the Bible which focuses on the Jews revolt against Antiochus and concludes with the defeat of the Syrian general Nicanor in 161 BC by Judas Maccabeus, the hero of the work. ... Wisdom or the Wisdom of Solomon is one of the deuterocanonical books of the Bible. ... The Wisdom of Ben Sira (or The Wisdom of Jesus son of Sirach or merely Sirach), also called Ecclesiasticus (not to be confused with Ecclesiastes) by some Christians, is a book written circa 180–175 BC. The author, Yeshua ben Sira, was a Jew who had been living in Jerusalem... It has been suggested that Epistle of Jeremy be merged into this article or section. ... Letter of Jeremiah is an Apocryphal book consisting of a letter ascribed to Jeremiah to the Jews in exile in Babylon warning them against idolatry by demonstrating its unreasonableness. ... The Book of Jeremiah, or Jeremiah (יִרְמְיָהוּ YirmÉ™yāhÅ« in Hebrew), is part of the Hebrew Bible, Judaisms Tanakh, and later became a part of Christianitys Old Testament. ... The additions to Daniel comprise of three additional chapters appended to the Hebrew/Aramaic text of Daniel from the Greek Septuagint. ... Megillah redirects here. ... By far the most important of the many synods held at Jerusalem (see Wetzer and Welte, Kirchenlexikon, 2nd ed. ... 1 Esdras is a book from the Septuagint (LXX) translation of the Old Testament regarded as a deuterocanonical book in Eastern and Oriental Orthodoxy, but rejected as apocryphal by Jews, Catholics, and most Protestants. ... 1. ... The Biblical book 3 Maccabees is found in most Orthodox Bibles as a part of the deuterocanonical books. ... The book of 4 Maccabees is a homily or philosophic discourse praising the supremacy of pious reason over passion. ... This short work of only 15 verses purports to be the penitential prayer of the Judean king Manasseh, who is recorded in the Bible as one of the most idolatrous (2 Kings 21:1-18). ... This article or section is missing references or citation of sources. ... The Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahido Church is an Oriental Orthodox church in Ethiopia that was part of the Coptic Church until it was granted its own Patriarch by Cyril VI, the Coptic Pope, in 1959. ... In the Septuagint and for Eastern Orthodox Christians, 2 Esdras refers to the combination of Ezra and Nehemiah. ... The Book of Jubilees (ספר היובלים), sometimes called the Lesser Genesis (Leptogenesis), is an ancient Jewish religious work. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... A series of three books in the Ethiopian Biblical canon. ... 4 Baruch, also known as the Paraleipomena of Jeremiah when combined with the Epistle of Jeremy, is a text regarded as apocryphal by all Christian denominations except for the Ethiopian Orthodox Church. ... Syriac is an Eastern Aramaic language that was once spoken across much of the Fertile Crescent. ... The Peshitta is the standard version of the Bible in the Syriac language. ... Psalms 152 to 155 are additional Psalms found in the Syriac Peshitta, in Greek Septuagint manuscripts, and in the Qumran scrolls: 11QPs(a)154,155. ... 2 Baruch or the Syriac Apocalypse of Baruch is a Jewish pseudepigraphical text written in the late 1st century CE or early 2nd century CE, after the fall of Jerusalem to the Romans in 70 CE. It is not part of the canon of either the Jewish or most Christian... The deuterocanonical books are the books that Catholicism, Eastern Orthodoxy, and Oriental Orthodoxy include in the Old Testament that were not part of the Jewish Tanakh. ... The Septuagint: A column of uncial text from 1 Esdras in the Codex Vaticanus, the basis of Sir Lancelot Charles Lee Brentons Greek edition and English translation. ... The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... Eastern Orthodoxy (also called Greek Orthodoxy and Russian Orthodoxy) is a Christian tradition which represents the majority of Eastern Christianity. ... For other uses, see Christian (disambiguation). ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Note: Judaism... This Gutenberg Bible is displayed by the United States Library. ... Protestantism encompasses the forms of Christian faith and practice that originated with the doctrines of the Reformation. ... // For a comparison of parable with other kinds of stories, see Myth, legend, fairy tale, and fable. ...


The name Judith (Hebrew: יְהוּדִית, Standard Yəhudit Tiberian Yəhûḏîṯ ; "Praised" or "Jewess") is the feminine form of Judah. Hebrew redirects here. ... Hebrew redirects here. ... Tiberian Hebrew is an oral tradition of pronunciation for ancient forms of Hebrew, especially the Hebrew of the Tanakh, that was given written form by masoretic scholars in the Jewish community at Tiberias in the early Middle Ages, beginning in the 8th century. ... Look up Judah in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


The Book of Judith has a tragic setting that appealed to Jewish patriots and it warned of the urgency of adhering to Mosaic Law, generally speaking, but what accounted for its enduring appeal was the drama of its narrative.


The story revolves around Judith, a daring and beautiful widow, who is upset with her Jewish countrymen for being unwilling to engage their foreign conquerors. She goes with her loyal if reluctant maid Abra to the camp of the enemy general, Holofernes, to whom she slowly ingratiates herself, promising him both sexual favors and information on the Israelites. Gaining his trust (though not having delivered on either promise), she is allowed access to his tent one night as he lies in a drunken stupor. She decapitates him, then takes his head back to her fearful countrymen. The Assyrians, having lost their leader, disperse, and Israel is saved by the hand of a woman. Though she is courted by many, she remains unmarried and pure for the rest of her life. Artemisia Gentileschis painting Judith Beheading Holofernes. ...


As a historical tale, its scenes are enlivened and given immediacy by their setting in a definitely characterized (though anachronistic) setting and time, and connected, as all historical novels are, with important personages of history — here "Nebuchadnezzar" as a "King of Assyria" who reigns in Nineveh — features it shares with the Book of Esther, the Book of Daniel and its continuations, and the Book of Tobit. Nowhere are the "historical" details introduced in more profusion than in Judith. An engraving inside an onyx-stone-eye in a Marduk statue that might depict Nebechandrezzar II Nebuchadrezzar II, more often called Nebuchadnezzar () (c 630-562 B.C.E), was a ruler of Babylon in the Chaldean Dynasty, who reigned c. ... , For other uses, see Nineveh (disambiguation). ... Megillah redirects here. ... For other uses, see Book of Daniel (disambiguation). ... Tobias and the Angel, by Filippino Lippi The Book of Tobit (or Book of Tobias in older Catholic Bibles) is a book of scripture that is part of the Catholic and Orthodox and Anglican biblical canon, pronounced canonical by the Council of Carthage of 397 and confirmed for Roman Catholics...


With the very first words of the tale, "In the twelfth year of the reign of Nebuchadnezzar, who reigned over the Assyrians in Nineveh," it is argued by the compilers of the Jewish Encyclopedia that the narrator sets his story in "Once upon a time". The Jewish Encyclopedia was an encyclopedia originally published between 1901 and 1906 by Funk and Wagnalls. ... Look up Once upon a time in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


The city called "Bethulia," (properly "Betylua") and the narrow and strategic pass into Judea that it occupies (Judith IV:7ff VIII:21-24) are believed by many to be fictional settings, but some suggest that a city called Meselieh is Bethulia. Bethulia, in Greek Betuloua, is a Biblical city whose deliverance by Judith, when besieged by Holofernes, forms the subject of the Book of Judith. ...


The editors of the Jewish Encyclopedia identified Holofernes' encampment with Shechem. The Assyrians, instead of attempting to force the pass, lay siege to the city and cut off its water supply. Although Nebuchadnezzar conquers Judah in reality, it is foiled in the narrative of the Book of Judith. Shechem is a name of geographical places. ...


The Book of Judith was originally written in Hebrew. Though its oldest versions have been translated into Greek and have not been preserved in the original language, its Hebrew origin is revealed in details of vocabulary and phrasing. The extant Hebrew language versions, whether identical to the Greek, or in the shorter Hebrew version which contradicts the longer version in many specific details of the story, are medieval. Hebrew redirects here. ...


Even though the Book of Judith is not part of the official Jewish religious canon, many within Orthodox Judaism place it in the Hellenistic period when Judea battled the Seleucid monarchs. It is regarded as a story related to the events surrounding the military struggle of that time and is believed to be a true reference to the background events leading up to the Jewish holiday of Hanukkah. (See also 1 Maccabees and 2 Maccabees). Orthodox Judaism is the formulation of Judaism that adheres to a relatively strict interpretation and application of the laws and ethics first canonised in the Talmudic texts (Oral Torah) and as subsequently developed and applied by the later authorities known as the Gaonim, Rishonim, and Acharonim. ... The Seleucid Empire was one of several political states founded after the death of Alexander the Great, whose generals squabbled over the division of Alexanders empire. ... Grand Rabbi Israel Abraham Portugal of Skulen Hasidism lighting Hanukkah lights Hanukkah (‎, also spelled Chanukah), also known as the Festival of Lights, is an eight-day Jewish holiday beginning on the 25th day of Kislev according to the Hebrew calendar, which may fall anytime from late November to late December. ... 1 Maccabees is a deuterocanonical book of the Bible which was written by a Jewish (pre-Christian) author, probably about 100 BC, after the restoration of an independent Jewish kingdom. ... 2 Maccabees is a deuterocanonical book of the Bible which focuses on the Jews revolt against Antiochus and concludes with the defeat of the Syrian general Nicanor in 161 BC by Judas Maccabeus, the hero of the work. ...

Contents

Judith in later artistic renditions

The Anglo-Saxon abbot Aelfric wrote a homily about Judith. See Judith (homily). A poem Judith in Old English also treats the beheading of Holofernes. See Judith (poem). For other uses, see Anglo-Saxon. ... Ælfric of Eynsham (the Grammarian) (ca. ... In the Roman Catholic Church and in the Eastern Orthodox Church, a homily is usually given during Mass (or Divine Liturgy for Orthodox) at the end of the Liturgy of the Word. ... Judith is a homily written by abbot Aelfric of Eynsham around the year 1000. ... Old English redirects here. ... Artemisia Gentileschis painting Judith Beheading Holofernes. ... Judith is an Old English poem retelling the legend of the beheading of Holofernes, an Assyrian military leader, by the eponymous heroine, as recorded in the apocryphal book of Judith. ...


In the Renaissance, the story of Judith became an exemplum of the courage of local people against tyrannical rule from afar. The Dalmatian Humanist Marko Marulić (1450-1524) reworked the Judith story in his Renaissance literary work, Judita. His inspiration came from the contemporary heroic struggle of the Croats against the Ottomans in Europe. An Exemplum (latin for example, pl. ... Marko Marulić (Split, August 18, 1450 - Split, January 5, 1524), Croatian poet, apologist and Christian humanist is generally considered the father of vernacular Croatian literature. ... The Ottoman Empire at the height of its power Imperial motto El Muzaffer Daima The Ever Victorious (as written in tugra) Official language Ottoman Turkish Capital İstanbul ( Constantinople/Asitane/Konstantiniyye ) Sovereigns Sultans of the Osmanli Dynasty Population ca 40 million Area 12+ million km² Establishment 1299 Dissolution October 29...


Judith and Holofernes, the famous bronze sculpture by Donatello, bears the implied allegorical subtext that was inescapable in Early Renaissance Florence, that of the courage of the commune against tyranny. Michelangelo painted Judith in the corner of the Sistine chapel. Other Italian painters who took up the theme include Botticelli, Giorgione, Titian, Paolo Veronese, Caravaggio, Leonello Spada, Bartolomeo Manfredi and Artemisia Gentileschi. In the north, Lucas Cranach, Rembrandt and Peter Paul Rubens used the story. In European art, Judith is normally accompanied by her maid at her shoulder, which helps to distinguish her from Salome, who also carries her head on a silver charger (plate). However a Northern tradition developed whereby Judith had both a maid and a charger, famously taken by Erwin Panofsky as an example of the knowledge needed in the study of iconography. The bronze statue Judith and Holofernes (1460), created by Donatello at the end of his career, can be seen in the Hall of Lilies (Sala dei Gigli), in the Palazzo Vecchio, Florence, Italy. ... Statue of Habacuc (popularly known as Zuccone) for the Giottos Bell Tower. ... Defensive towers at San Gimignano, Tuscany, bear witness to the factional strife within communes. ... For other uses, see Michelangelo (disambiguation). ... The Sistine Chapel (Italian: ) is a chapel in the Apostolic Palace, the official residence of the Pope, in the Vatican City. ... Alessandro di Mariano Filipepi, better known as Sandro Botticelli (Florence March 1, 1445 - May 17, 1510) was an Italian painter of the Florentine school during the Early Renaissance (Quattrocento). ... A purported self-portrait of Giorgione, represented in the guise of David. ... Also see: Titian (disambiguation). ... The Feast in the House of Levi (1573), one of the largest canvases of the 16th century. ... For other uses, see Caravaggio (disambiguation). ... Leonello Spada (1576 - May 17, 1622) was an Italian painter of the Baroque period, active in Rome and his native city of Bologna, where he became known as one of the followers of Caravaggio. ... Bartolomeo Manfredi (born Ostiano, near Mantua, baptised 25 August, 1582 - died Rome 12 December, 1622) was an Italian artist, a leading member of the Caravaggisti (followers of Michelangelo Merisi da Caravaggio) of the early 16th century. ... Self-portrait (1630s) Artemisia Gentileschi (July 8, 1593 - 1653) was an Italian Early Baroque painter, today considered one of the most accomplished painters in the generation influenced by Caravaggio (Caravaggisti). ... Lucas Cranach the Elder (1472-1553) Lucas Cranach the Younger (1515-1586) This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... This article is about the Dutch artist. ... Peter Paul Rubens (June 28, 1577 – May 30, 1640) was a prolific seventeenth-century Flemish and European painter, and a proponent of an exuberant Baroque style that emphasized movement, color, and sensuality. ... Coin of Salome (daughter of Herodias), queen of Chalcis and Armenia Minor. ... Erwin Panofsky (1892-1968) was a German art historian and essayist often credited with the founding of the academic iconography. ... Look up Iconography in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


In the Renaissance, especially in Germany an interest developed in female "worthies" and heroines, to match the traditional male sets. Subjects combining sex and violence were also popular with collectors. Like Lucretia, Judith was the subject of a disproportionate number of old master prints, sometimes shown nude. Barthel Beham engraved three compositions of the subject, and other of the "Little Masters" did several more. Jacopo de' Barberi, Girolamo Mocetta after a Mantegna design, Parmigianino, and Jacques Callot also made prints of the subject. The first reproductive print of his work commissioned by Rubens was an engraving by Cornelius Galle of his violent "large Judith", now in the Palazzo Barberini.[2] Judith was one of the virtuous women whom Van Beverwijck mentioned in his published apology (1639) for the superiority of women to men.[3] Judith was depicted by Eglon van der Neer. Death of Lucretia by Sandro Botticelli Lucretia is a legendary figure in the history of the Roman Republic. ... The term Old Master Print is used to describe works of art produced by a printing process within the Western tradition (European or New World). ... Portrait of Ottheinrich, Prince of Pfalz, 1535, Alte Pinakothek, Germany. ... Jacopo de Barbari, sometimes known or referred to as: deBarbari, de Barberi, de Barbari, Barbaro, Barberino, Barbarigo or Barberigo etc. ... The Lamentation over the Dead Christ (c. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Les misères de la guerre Jacques Callot (c. ... In Palazzo Barberini, which still dominates Piazza Barberini, Rione Trevi, Rome, three great architects worked to create a harmonious whole: Carlo Maderno, who began it in 1627, his nephew and assistant Francesco Borromini, working on his first important commission, and a young sculptor, Gian Lorenzo Bernini. ... Eglon van der Neer (1643-1703) was a Dutch painter born at Amsterdam, and died at Düsseldorf on May 3, 1703. ...


Alessandro Scarlatti wrote an oratorio in 1693, La Giuditta; Juditha triumphans was written in 1716 by Antonio Vivaldi; Mozart composed in 1771 La Betulia Liberata (KV 118), to a libretto by Pietro Metastasio. Judith is by Russian composer Alexander Serov. Alessandro Scarlatti Alessandro Scarlatti (May 2, 1660 – October 24, 1725) was a Baroque composer especially famous for his operas and chamber cantatas. ... First edition of Juditha triumphans Juditha triumphans devicta Holofernis barbarie, Vivaldi catalogue number RV 644, is an oratorio by Antonio Vivaldi, the only survivor of the four that he is known to have composed. ... “Vivaldi” redirects here. ... “Mozart” redirects here. ... Pietro Trapassi (January 13, 1698 – April 12, 1782), Italian poet, is better known by his pseudonym of Metastasio. ... Judith (Юдифь in Cyrillic, Judif’ in transliteration -- stressed on the second syllable), is an opera in five acts, composed by Alexander Serov during 1861-1863. ... Composer Alexander Serov by Valentin Serov, 1887-1888 Alexander Nikolayevich Serov (Александр Николаевич Серов in Cyrillic; Aleksandr Nikolaevič Serov in transliteration) (11/23 Jan. ...


In 1841 Friedrich Hebbel published his closet drama Judith, but in the English language, blanket censorship of all biblical subjects on the stage set the theme off-limits until the twentieth century, when the British playwright Howard Barker examined the Judith story and its aftermath, first in the scene "The Unforeseen Consequences of a Patriotic Act," as part of his collection of vignettes, The Possibilities. Barker later expanded the scene into a short play Judith. Christian Friedrich Hebbel (March 18, 1813 – December 13, 1863), was a German poet and dramatist. ... A closet drama is a play that is not intended to be performed onstage, but read by a solitary reader or, sometimes, out loud in a small group. ... Howard Barker (born 1946) is a British playwright. ...


In 2007 Philippe Fénelon (French, born in 1952) composed Judith, an opera with one act and five pictures (monodrama), based on a booklet adaptated from the Friedrich Hebbel's drama, in German (creation on 28/11/07 at the Pleyel Room, Paris, ordered by the Opera National de Paris). For other uses, see Opera (disambiguation). ... Christian Friedrich Hebbel (March 18, 1813 – December 13, 1863), was a German poet and dramatist. ...


See also

  • List of women warriors in folklore, literature, and popular culture
Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Judith and Holofernes

Image File history File links Commons-logo. ...

References

  1. ^ See, for example, the 1913 Catholic Encyclopedia, which though committed to the historicity of the book, admits and lists "very serious difficulties": [1]
  2. ^ H Diane Russell;Eva/Ave; Women in Renaissance and Baroque Prints; Nos 20-32, National Gallery of Art, Washington, 1990; isbn 155861 0391
  3. ^ Loughman & J.M. Montias (1999) Public and Private Spaces. Works of Art in Seventeenth-Century Dutch Houses, p. 81.

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Book of Judith - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (681 words)
The Book of Judith is a deuterocanonical book, included in the Septuagint and in the Roman Catholic and Orthodox Christian Old Testament of the Bible, but excluded by Jews and Protestants.
The Book of Judith has a dramatic setting that appealed to Jewish patriots and it warned of the urgency of adhering to Mosaic law, generally speaking, but what accounted for its enduring appeal was the drama of its narrative.
Even though the Book of Judith is not part of the official Jewish religious canon, its narrative is associated by many within Orthodox Judaism who place it in the Hellenistic period when Judea battled the Seleucid monarchs.
Book of Judith (2143 words)
With regard to the Septuagint version of the Book of Judith it should be noted that it has come down to us in two recensions: Codex B or Vaticanus on the one hand, and Codex Alexandrinus with Codex Sinaiticus on the other.
Judith is no mythical personage, she and her heroic deed lived in the memory of the people; but the difficulties enumerated above seem to show that the story as we now have it was committed to writing at a period long subsequent to the facts.
The Book of Judith does not exist in the Hebrew Bible, and is consequently excluded from the Protestant Canon of Holy Scripture.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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