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Encyclopedia > Book burning
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For other uses, see Censor. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... As with many Soviet-allied countries prior to the fall of the Berlin Wall, the government of the former German Democratic Republic (German: Deutsche Demokratische Republik) applied wide censorship during its existence from 1949 to 1990. ...

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Corporate censorship is a term used to denote either censorship through legal challenges, through refusal to sell a product, or refusal to advertise or allow air time. ... Censorship in Italy under Fascism Censorship in Italy was not created with Fascism, nor it ended with it, but it had a relevantly heavy importance in the life of Italians under the Regime. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Censorship by religion is a form of censorship where freedom of expression is controlled or limited using religious authority or on the basis of the teachings of the religion. ...

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Book burning is the practice of destroying by fire, often ceremoniously, one or more copies of a book or other written material. In modern times, other forms of media, such as phonograph records, video tapes, and CDs have also been ceremoniously burned, torched, or shredded. The practice, usually carried out in public, is generally motivated by moral, religious, or political objections to the material. Part of the ceremony of the Changing of the Guard in Whitehall, London. ... A 12-inch record (left), a 7-inch record (right), and a CD (above) Two 7 singles (left), two colored 7 singles (middle), and two 7 singles with large spindle holes (right). ... For other uses, see Video (disambiguation). ... CD redirects here. ... Morality (from the Latin manner, character, proper behavior) has three principal meanings. ... Various Religious symbols, including (first row) Christian, Jewish, Hindu, Bahai, (second row) Islamic, tribal, Taoist, Shinto (third row) Buddhist, Sikh, Hindu, Jain, (fourth row) Ayyavazhi, Triple Goddess, Maltese cross, pre-Christian Slavonic Religion is the adherence to codified beliefs and rituals that generally involve a faith in a spiritual... For other uses, see Politics (disambiguation). ...


Some particular cases of book burning are long and traumatically remembered - because the books destroyed were irreplaceable and their loss constituted a severe damage to cultural heritage, and/or because this instance of book burning has become emblematic of a harsh and oppressive regime. Such were the destruction of the Library of Alexandria, the burning of books and burying of scholars under China's Qin Dynasty, the destruction of Mayan codices by Spanish Conquistadors and priests, and in more recent times, Nazi book burnings. Inscription regarding Tiberius Claudius Balbilus of Rome (d. ... Burning of the books and burial of the scholars (Traditional Chinese: , Simplified Chinese: , pinyin: FénshÅ« KÄ“ngrú) is a phrase that refers to a policy and a sequence of events in the Qin Dynasty of China, between the period of 213 BC and 206 BC. // According to the Records... Qin Dynasty in 210 BC Capital Xianyang Language(s) Chinese Government Monarchy History  - Unification of China 221 BC  - Death of Qin Shi Huangdi 210 BC  - Surrender to Liu Bang 206 BC The Qin Dynasty (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Chin Chao) (221 BC - 206 BC) was preceded by the... Page 9 of the Dresden Codex (from the 1880 Förstermann edition) Maya codices (singular codex) are folding books stemming from the pre-Columbian Maya civilization, written in Maya hieroglyphic script on Mesoamerican paper, made from the inner bark of certain trees, the main being the wild fig tree or... In 1933, Nazi Minister for Popular Enlightenment and Propaganda Joseph Goebbels began the synchronization of culture, by which the arts were brought in line with Nazi goals. ...

Contents

Historical background

Books burned by the Nazis on display at Yad Vashem.
Books burned by the Nazis on display at Yad Vashem.

From China's 3rd century BC Qin Dynasty to the present day, the burning of books has a long history as a tool wielded by authorities both secular and religious, in efforts to suppress dissenting or heretical views that are perceived as posing a threat to the prevailing order. The Hall of Names containing books of all those who perished in the Holocaust. ... Qin Dynasty in 210 BC Capital Xianyang Language(s) Chinese Government Monarchy History  - Unification of China 221 BC  - Death of Qin Shi Huangdi 210 BC  - Surrender to Liu Bang 206 BC The Qin Dynasty (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Chin Chao) (221 BC - 206 BC) was preceded by the... Civil authority is that apparatus of the State other than its military units that enforces law and order. ... Various Religious symbols, including (first row) Christian, Jewish, Hindu, Bahai, (second row) Islamic, tribal, Taoist, Shinto (third row) Buddhist, Sikh, Hindu, Jain, (fourth row) Ayyavazhi, Triple Goddess, Maltese cross, pre-Christian Slavonic Religion is the adherence to codified beliefs and rituals that generally involve a faith in a spiritual... For the political magazine, see Dissent (magazine). ... For other uses, see Heresy (disambiguation). ... A threat is a declaration of intention to inflict punishment or harm on another. ...


When books are ordered collected by the authorities and disposed of in private, it may not be book burning, strictly speaking — but the destruction of cultural and intellectual heritage is the same.


According to scholar Elaine Pagels, "In AD 367, Athanasius, the zealous bishop of Alexandria… issued an Easter letter in which he demanded that Egyptian monks destroy all such unacceptable writings, except for those he specifically listed as 'acceptable' even 'canonical' — a list that constitutes the present 'New Testament'".[citation needed] Although Pagels cites Athanasius's Paschal letter (letter 39) for 367 AD, there is no order for monks to destroy heretical works contained in that letter [1]. Elaine Pagels, née Hiesey, (born February 13, 1943), is the Harrington Spear Paine Professor of Religion at Princeton University. ... Athanasius of Alexandria (also spelled Athanasios) was a Christian bishop of Alexandria in the fourth century. ... This article is about the city in Egypt. ... Jesus Christ in a Coptic icon The Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria (Coptic: , literally: the Egyptian Orthodox Church of Alexandria) is the official name for the largest Christian church in Egypt. ... Look up improper in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Thus, heretical texts do not turn up as palimpsests, washed clean and overwritten, as pagan ones do; many early Christian texts have been as thoroughly "lost" as if they had been publicly burnt. A palimpsest is a manuscript page, scroll, or book that has been written on, scraped off, and used again. ... Pagan and heathen redirect here. ... For other uses, see Christian (disambiguation). ...


In his 1821 play, Almansor, the German writer Heinrich Heine — referring to the burning of the Muslim holy book, the Qur'an, during the Spanish Inquisition — famously wrote: Christian Johann Heinrich Heine (December 13, 1797 – February 17, 1856) was a journalist, an essayist, and one of the most significant German romantic poets. ... There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ... The Qur’ān [1] (Arabic: , literally the recitation; also sometimes transliterated as Quran, Koran, or Al-Quran) is the central religious text of Islam. ... This article is about one of the historical Inquisitions. ...

“Where they burn books, so too will they in the end burn human beings.” (“Dort, wo man Bücher verbrennt, verbrennt man auch am Ende Menschen.”)

One century later, Heine's books were among the thousands of volumes that were torched by the Nazis in Berlin's Opernplatz in an outburst that did, in fact, foreshadow the blazing ovens of the Holocaust. Nazism in history Nazi ideology Nazism and race Outside Germany Related subjects Lists Politics Portal         Nazism or National Socialism (German: Nationalsozialismus), refers primarily to the ideology and practices of the Nazi Party (National Socialist German Workers Party, German: Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei or NSDAP) under Adolf Hitler. ... This article is about the capital of Germany. ... The Bebelplatz looking north towards the Unter den Linden. ... “Shoah” redirects here. ...

Symbol of the "New York Society for the Suppression of Vice", advocating book-burning.
Symbol of the "New York Society for the Suppression of Vice", advocating book-burning.

Anthony Comstock's New York Society for the Suppression of Vice, founded in 1873, inscribed book burning on its seal, as a worthy goal to be achieved (see illustration at right). Comstock's total accomplishment in a long and influential career is estimated to have been the destruction of some 15 tons of books, 284,000 pounds of plates for printing such 'objectionable' books, and nearly 4,000,000 pictures. All of this material was defined as "lewd" by Comstock's very broad definition of the term — which he and his associates successfully lobbied the United States Congress to incorporate in the Comstock Law. Image File history File links NewYorkSocietyForTheSuppressionOfVice. ... Portrait of Anthony Comstock Anthony Comstock (March 7, 1844 - September 21, 1915) was a former United States Postal Inspector and politician dedicated to ideas of Victorian morality. ... The New York Society for the Suppression of Vice (SSV) was founded in 1873 by Anthony Comstock and his supporters in the Young Mens Christian Association. ... In general use, lascivious is synonymous with lustful. ... Type Bicameral Houses Senate House of Representatives President of the Senate President pro tempore Dick Cheney, (R) since January 20, 2001 Robert C. Byrd, (D) since January 4, 2007 Speaker of the House Nancy Pelosi, (D) since January 4, 2007 Members 535 plus 4 Delegates and 1 Resident Commissioner Political... The Comstock Law was a 19th century United States law that made it illegal to send any obscene, lewd, or lascivious books through the mail. ...


The Ray Bradbury novel Fahrenheit 451 is about a fictional future society that has institutionalized book burning. In Orwell's Nineteen Eighty-Four, the euphemistically-called "memory hole" is used to burn any book or written text which is inconvenient to the regime, and there is mention of "the total destruction of all books published before 1960". Ray Douglas Bradbury (born August 22, 1920) is an American literary, fantasy, horror, science fiction, and mystery writer best known for The Martian Chronicles, a 1950 book which has been described both as a short story collection and a novel, and his 1953 dystopian novel Fahrenheit 451. ... This article is about the novel. ... Orwell (or Orwellian) can refer to: The writer George Orwell (pen name for Eric Blair). ... This article is about the Orwell novel. ... The memory hole, as in the phrase Going down the memory hole, refers to George Orwells novel, 1984. ...


The advent of the digital age has resulted in an immense collection of written work being catalogued exclusively or primarily in digital form. The intentional deletion or removal of these works has been often referred to as a new form of book burning.[citation needed]


This reference is more closely related to the relationship between book burning and censorship than the systematic and categorical elimination of a particular body of literary work. In general, book burning does not refer to individual censorship, but rather to an act of mass censorship, and the term is applied appropriately only when these types of digital cases are suspected to be epidemic or widespread and systemic.[citation needed]


Some supporters have celebrated book burning cases in art and other media. Such is the bas-relief by Giovanni Battista Maini of The Burning of Heretical Books over a side door on the façade of Santa Maria Maggiore, Rome, which depicts the burning of 'heretical' books as a triumph of righteousness.[1] Giovanni Battista Maini (February 6, 1690 – July 29, 1752) was an Italian sculptor of the Late-Baroque period, active mainly in Rome. ... Saint Mary Major, in Italian, Santa Maria Maggiore, is one of the five great ancient basilicas of Rome, Italy. ...


Chronology of notable book burning incidents

Headings indicate the books or libraries burned, with perpetrator and/or location in parentheses.


Chinese Philosophy books (by Emperor Qin Shi Huang)

Following the advice of minister Li Si, Emperor Qin Shi Huang ordered the burning of all philosophy books and history books from states other than Qin — beginning in 213 BC. This was followed by the live burial of a large number of intellectuals who did not comply with the state dogma. Burning of the books and burial of the scholars (Traditional Chinese: , Simplified Chinese: , pinyin: FénshÅ« KÄ“ngrú) is a phrase that refers to a policy and a sequence of events in the Qin Dynasty of China, between the period of 213 BC and 206 BC. // According to the Records... Li Si (Chinese: 李斯; Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Li Ssu) (ca. ... The monarch known now as Qin Shi Huang (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Chin Shih-huang) (259 BCE – September 10, 210 BCE),[1] personal name Yíng Zhèng, was king of the Chinese State of Qin from 247 BCE to 221 BCE (officially still under the Zhou Dynasty), and... Qin or Chin (Wade-Giles) (秦), pronounced something like Shin, (778 BC-207 BC) was a state during the Spring and Autumn and Warring States Periods of China. ...


The damage to Chinese culture was compounded during the revolts which ended the short rule of Qin Er Shi, Qin Shi Huang's son. The imperial palace and state archives were burned, destroying many of the remaining written records that had been spared by the father. Qin Er Shi (229 BC - beginning October 207 BC), literally Second Emperor of Qin Dynasty, personal name Huhai, was emperor of the Qin Dynasty in China from 210 BC until 207 BC. Qin Er Shi was the son of Qin Shi Huang (the First Emperor of Qin), but he was... The quintessential medieval European palace: Palais de la Cité, in Paris, the royal palace of France. ... Archive of the AMVC An archive refers to a collection of historical records, and also refers to the location in which these records are kept. ...


Jewish writings and 'books of the law' (by King Jehoiakim of Judah and the Seleucid monarch Antiochus IV)

According to the Torah in the fourth year of the reign of King Jehoiakim of Judah the prophet Jeremiah dictated the words of the Lord to Baruch, who wrote them in ink upon a roll of a book. The following year three or four leaves were read in the presence of the king and princes, whereupon Jehoiakim cut the roll with a knife and ‘cast it into the fire that was on the hearth’ (Jeremiah 36:1–26). Template:Jews and Jewdaism Template:The Holy Book Named TorRah The Torah () is the most valuable Holy Doctrine within Judaism,(and for muslims) revered as the first relenting Word of Ulllah, traditionally thought to have been revealed to Blessed Moosah, An Apostle of Ulllah. ... King Jehoiakim (he whom God has set up, Hebrew language: יהוֹיָקִים) is a biblical character, whose original name was Eliakim. ... This entry incorporates text from Eastons Bible Dictionary, 1897, with some modernisation. ...


Far more destructive was the Seleucid monarch Antiochus IV, who in 168 BC ordered Jewish ‘books of the law’ found in Jerusalem to be ‘rent in pieces’ and burned (1 Maccabees 1:56). The Seleucid Empire was one of several political states founded after the death of Alexander the Great, whose generals squabbled over the division of Alexanders empire. ... There are several monarchs known by the title of Antiochus IV: Antiochus IV of Syria, who ruled during the time of Caligula; Antiochus Epiphanes, the Seleucid oppressor of the Jews who provoked the revolt of the Maccabees. ... For other uses, see Jerusalem (disambiguation). ... Wojciech Stattlers Machabeusze (Maccabees), 1844 The Maccabees (Hebrew: מכבים or מקבים, Makabim) were Jewish rebels who fought against the rule of Antiochus IV Epiphanes of the Hellenistic Seleucid dynasty, who was succeeded by his infant son Antiochus V Eupator. ...


Roman history book (by the aediles)

The senator Aulus Cremutius Cordus’ History was burned by the aediles in 25 AD. Aulus Cremutius Cordus (c. ... Ordinary Magistrates Extraordinary Magistrates Dictator Titles and Honors Emperor Politics and Law Aedile (Latin Aedilis, from aedes, aedis temple, building) was an office of the Roman Republic. ...


Sorcery scrolls (by Early converts to Christianity at Ephesus)

According to the New Testament book of Acts, early converts to Christianity in Ephesus who had previously practiced sorcery burned their scrolls: "A number who had practised sorcery brought their scrolls together and burned them publicly. When they calculated the value of the scrolls, the total came to fifty thousand drachmas." (Acts 19:19, NIV) [2] This article is about the Christian scriptures. ... For the literature genre, see Acts of the Apostles (genre). ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in the New Testament. ... For the town in the southern United States, see Ephesus, Georgia. ... The New International Version (NIV) is an English translation of the Christian Bible which is the most popular of the modern translations of the Bible made in the twentieth century. ...


Epicurus' book (in Paphlagonia)

Established beliefs of Epicurus was burned in a Paphlagonian marketplace by order of the charlatan Alexander, supposed prophet of Ascapius ca 160 (Lucian, Alexander the false prophet) Epicure redirects here. ... Paphlagonia was an ancient area on the Black Sea coast of north central Anatolia, situated between Bithynia and Pontus, and separated from Phrygia (later, Galatia) by a prolongation to the east of the Bithynian Olympus. ... For other uses, see Lucian (disambiguation). ...


Egyptian alchemy texts (by Diocletian)

The Egyptian alchemical books of Alexandria were burnt by the emperor Diocletian in 292. For other uses, see Alchemy (disambiguation). ... This article is about the city in Egypt. ... Gaius Aurelius Valerius Diocletianus (c. ...


Christian books (by Diocletian)

Christian books by a decree of emperor Diocletian in 303, calling for an increased persecution of Christians. For other uses, see Christian (disambiguation). ... Gaius Aurelius Valerius Diocletianus (c. ... A Christian Dirce, by Henryk Siemiradzki. ...


Books of Arianism (after Council of Nicaea)

The books of Arius and his followers, after the first Council of Nicaea (325), for heresy. Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Athanasius · Augustine · Constantine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas Arminius · Calvin · Luther · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box... The First Council of Nicaea, held in Nicaea in Bithynia (present-day Iznik in Turkey), convoked by the Roman Emperor Constantine I in 325, was the first Ecumenical council[1] of the early Christian Church, and most significantly resulted in the first uniform Christian doctrine, called the Nicene Creed. ... For other uses, see Heresy (disambiguation). ...


The Sibylline Books (by Flavius Stilicho)

The Sibylline Books were burnt by Flavius Stilicho (died 408). The Sibylline Books or Sibyllae were a collection of oracular utterances, set out in Greek hexameters, purchased from a sibyl by the semi-legendary last king of Rome, Tarquinius Superbus, and consulted at momentous crises through the history of the Republic and the Empire. ... Stilicho (right) with his wife Serena and son Eucherius Flavius Stilicho (occasionally written as Stilico) (ca. ...


Egyptian non-conforming Christian texts (by Athanasius)

According to Elaine Pagels, in 367, Athanasius, bishop of Alexandria called in all non-conforming texts from the Christian monasteries of Egypt during his Paschal letter for that year. No such order is found in that work. Elaine Pagels, née Hiesey, (born February 13, 1943), is the Harrington Spear Paine Professor of Religion at Princeton University. ... Athanasius of Alexandria (also spelled Athanasios) was a Christian bishop of Alexandria in the fourth century. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      This article... This article is about the city in Egypt. ... This article concerns the buildings occupied by monastics. ...


Writings of Priscillian

In 383, the theologian Priscillian of Ávila became the first Christian to be executed by fellow-Christians as a heretic. Some (though not all) of his writings were condemned as heretical and burned. For many centuries they were considered irreversibly lost - but surviving copies were discovered in the 19th century. Priscillian of Avila (died 385) was a Spanish theologian and the founder of a party which advocated strong asceticism. ... This article is about the Spanish city. ... For other uses, see Heresy (disambiguation). ...


Repeated destruction of Alexandria libraries

Main article: Library of Alexandria#Destruction of the Library

The library of the Serapeum in Alexandria was trashed, burned and looted, 392, at the decree of Theophilus of Alexandria, who was ordered so by Theodosius I. Around the same time, Hypatia was murdered. One of the largest destruction of books occurred at the Library of Alexandria, traditionally held to be in 640, however the precise years are unknown as are whether the fires were intentional or accidental.[3][4] Inscription regarding Tiberius Claudius Balbilus of Rome (d. ... A Serapeum is a temple or other religious institution dedicated to the syncretic Hellenistic-Egyptian god Serapis, who combined aspects of Osiris and Apis in a humanized form that was palatable to the Ptolemaic Greeks of Alexandria. ... Theophilus and the Serapeum Theophilus of Alexandria, (died 412) was the Nicene patriarch of Alexandria, Egypt (385 - 412). ... An engraving depicting what Theodosius may have looked like, ca. ... Hypatia could refer to: Hypatia of Alexandria (?370–415), a neo-Platonic philosopher, mathematician, and teacher. ... Inscription regarding Tiberius Claudius Balbilus of Rome (d. ...


Etrusca Disciplina

Etrusca Disciplina, the Etruscan books of cult and divination, collected and burned in the 5th century. Extent of Etruscan civilization and the twelve Etruscan League cities. ...


Nestorius' books (by Theodosius II)

The books of Nestorius, after an edict of Theodosius II, for heresy (435). Nestorius - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Theodosius II Flavius Theodosius II (April, 401 - July 28, 450 ). The eldest son of Eudoxia and Arcadius who at the age of 7 became the Roman Emperor of the East. ... For other uses, see Heresy (disambiguation). ...


Qur'anic texts (ordered by the 3rd Caliph, Uthman)

Main article: Origin and development of the Qur'an#First standardization of Qur'an

Uthman ibn ‘Affan, the third Caliph of Islam after Muhammad, who is credited with overseeing the creation of the authoritative written version of the Qur'an, also ordered the destruction of competing versions, circa 650. Although the Qur'an had mainly been propagated through oral transmission, it also had already been recorded in at least three codices, most importantly the codex of Abdullah ibn Mas'ud in Kufa, and the codex of Ubayy ibn Ka'b in Syria. Sometime between 650 and 656, a committee appointed by Uthman is believed to have produced a singular version in seven copies, and Uthman is said to have "sent to every Muslim province one copy of what they had copied, and ordered that all the other Qur'anic materials, whether written in fragmentary manuscripts or whole copies, be burnt." [5] The study of the origins and development of the Qur’an can be said to fall into two major schools of thought, the first being a traditionalist Muslim view and the later being a more skeptic view. ... Uthman, Othman, Osman, Usman, or Ozman (Arabic: عثمان) is a male Arabic given name meaning the chosen one amongst the tribe of brave and noble people, honest, caring, sincere, genuine, and attractive. The following people share this name: Uthman Ibn Affan Osman I Uthman I, a Marinid caliph Usman dan Fodio... For main article see: Caliphate The Caliph (pronounced khaleef in Arabic) is the head of state in a Caliphate, and the title for the leader of the Islamic Ummah, an Islamic community ruled by the Sharia. ... Muhammad in a new genre of Islamic calligraphy started in the 17th century by Hafiz Osman. ... The Qur’ān [1] (Arabic: , literally the recitation; also sometimes transliterated as Quran, Koran, or Al-Quran) is the central religious text of Islam. ... First page of the Codex Argenteus A codex (Latin for block of wood, book; plural codices) is a handwritten book, in general, one produced from Late Antiquity through the Middle Ages. ... Kufa (الكوفة al-Kufa in Arabic) is a city in Iraq, about 170 km south of Baghdad, and 10 km northeast of Najaf. ...


Competing prayer books (at Toledo)

After the conquest of Toledo, Spain (1085) by the king of Castile, it was being disputed on whether Iberian Christians should follow the foreign Roman rite or the traditional Mozarabic rite. After other ordeals, it was submitted to the trial by fire: One book for each rite was thrown into a fire. The Toledan book was little damaged after the Roman one was consumed. Henry Jenner comments in the Catholic Encyclopedia:[2] "No one who has seen a Mozarabic manuscript with its extraordinarily solid vellum, will adopt any hypothesis of Divine Interposition here." For other uses, see Toledo (disambiguation). ... Latin Rite, in the singular and accompanied, in English, by the definite article, refers to the sui juris particular Church of the Roman Catholic Church that developed in the area of western Europe and northern Africa where Latin was for many centuries the language of education and culture. ... The Mozarabic rite is a form of Catholic worship within the Latin Rite of the Catholic Church. ... Trial by ordeal is a quasi-judicial practice by which the guilt or innocence of the accused is determined by subjecting them to a painful task. ... Trial by fire refers to: A form of trial by ordeal; An album by Bachman-Turner Overdrive An album by Journey; Trial by Fire An album by Yngwie J. Malmsteen; see Trial by Fire An episode of The Outer Limits television show The second game in the Quest for Glory... Henry Jenner ( 1848- 1934) was a Celtic scholar, Cornish cultural activist, and the chief originator of the Cornish language revival. ... Not to be confused with New Catholic Encyclopedia. ... Vellum (from the Old French Vélin, for calfskin[1]) is a sort of parchment, a material for the pages of a book or codex, characterized by its thin, smooth, durable properties. ...


Abelard forced to burn his own book (at Soissons)

The provincial synod held at Soissons (in France) in 1121 condemned the teachings of the famous theologian Peter Abelard as heresy; he was forced to burn his own book before being shut up inside the convent of St. Medard at Soissons. A synod (also known as a council) is a council of a church, usually a Christian church, convened to decide an issue of doctrine, administration or application. ... Soissons is a town and commune in the Aisne département, Picardie, France, located on the Aisne River, about 60 miles northeast of Paris. ... Theology finds its scholars pursuing the understanding of and providing reasoned discourse of religion, spirituality and God or the gods. ... Abaelardus and Heloïse surprised by Master Fulbert, by Romanticist painter Jean Vignaud (1819) Pierre Abélard (in English, Peter Abelard) or Abailard (1079 – April 21, 1142) was a French scholastic philosopher, theologian, and logician. ... For other uses, see Heresy (disambiguation). ... A Beguine convent in Amsterdam. ...


Samanid Dynasty Library

The Royal Library of the Samanid Dynasty was burned at the turn of the 11th century during the Turkic invasion from the east. Avicenna was said to have tried to save the precious manuscripts from the fire as the flames engulfed the collection. The Samanid dynasty (819-999) was a Persian dynasty in Central Asia, named after its founder Saman Khuda. ... For the lunar crater, see Avicenna (crater). ...


Destruction of Cathar texts (Languedoc region of France)

A detail a Pedro Berruguete painting of a disputation between Saint Dominic of Guzman and the Albigensians (Cathars) in which the books of both were thrown on a fire, with St. Dominic's books miraculously preserved from the flames. See the whole picture.
A detail a Pedro Berruguete painting of a disputation between Saint Dominic of Guzman and the Albigensians (Cathars) in which the books of both were thrown on a fire, with St. Dominic's books miraculously preserved from the flames. See the whole picture.

During the 13th century, the Catholic Church waged a brutal campaign against the Cathars of Languedoc (smaller numbers also lived elsewhere in Europe), culminating in the Albigensian Crusade. Nearly every Cathar text that could be found was destroyed, in an effort to completely extirpate their heretical beliefs; only a few are known to have survived. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1300x1167, 2061 KB) es Santo Domingo de Guzmán y los albigenses (detalle) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Book burning Lope de Barrientos Metadata This file... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1300x1167, 2061 KB) es Santo Domingo de Guzmán y los albigenses (detalle) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Book burning Lope de Barrientos Metadata This file... Saint Dominic Presiding over an Auto-da-fe by Pedro Berruguete (1475), at the Prado Museum, Madrid. ... For other saints named Dominic, see the disambiguation page for Dominic Saint Dominic (Spanish: Domingo), also known as Dominic of Osma, often called Dominic de Guzmán and Domingo de Guzmán Garcés (1170 – August 6, 1221) was the founder of the Friars Preachers, popularly called the Dominicans or... Albigensians A name that is usually used in reference to a later group of Cathari which was a religious movement of southern France in the 12th and 13th centuries. ... Cathars being expelled from Carcassonne in 1209 Catharism was a name given to a religious sect with dualistic and gnostic elements that appeared in the Languedoc region of France in the 11th century and flourished in the 12th and 13th centuries. ... Trial by fire refers to: A form of trial by ordeal; An album by Bachman-Turner Overdrive An album by Journey; Trial by Fire An album by Yngwie J. Malmsteen; see Trial by Fire An episode of The Outer Limits television show The second game in the Quest for Glory... Image File history File links 1239, Pope Gregory orders the Talmud to be put on trial and burned. ... The name Catholic Church can mean a visible organization that refers to itself as Catholic, or the invisible Christian Church, viz. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Catharism. ... For the language called Langue doc, see Occitan language. ... The Albigensian Crusade or Cathar Crusade (1209 - 1229) was a 20-year military campaign initiated by the Roman Catholic Church to eliminate the heresy of the Cathars of Languedoc. ... Cathars being expelled from Carcassonne in 1209 Catharism was a name given to a religious sect with dualistic and gnostic elements that appeared in the Languedoc region of France in the 11th century and flourished in the 12th and 13th centuries. ...


Maimonides' philosophy (at Montpellier)

In 1233 Maimonides' "Guide for the Perplexed" was burnt at Montpellier, Southern France (see #Medieval burning of Jewish Literature). Commonly used image indicating one artists conception of Maimonidess appearance Maimonides (March 30, 1135 or 1138–December 13, 1204) was a Jewish rabbi, physician, and philosopher in Spain, Morocco and Egypt during the Middle Ages. ... The Guide for the Perplexed (Hebrew:מורה נבוכים, translit. ... Montpellier (Occitan Montpelhièr) is a city in the south of France. ...


The Talmud (at Paris)

In 1242, The French crown burned all Talmud copies in Paris, after the book was "charged" and "found guilty" in the Paris trial sometimes called "the Paris debate") (see #Medieval burning of Jewish Literature). The Talmud (Hebrew: ) is a record of rabbinic discussions pertaining to Jewish law, ethics, customs, and history. ...


The House of Wisdom library (at Baghdad)

the House of Wisdom was destroyed during the Mongol invasion of Baghdad in 1258, along with all other libraries in Baghdad. It was said that the waters of the Tigris ran black for six months with ink from the enormous quantities of books flung into the river. The House of Wisdom (Arabic بيت الحكمة Bayt al-Hikma) was a library and translation institute in Abbassid-era Baghdad. ... Combatants Mongols Abbasid Caliphate Commanders Hulagu Khan Guo Kan Caliph Al-Mustasim Strength Unknown Unknown Casualties Unknown, but believed minimal Military, 50,000(est. ... Baghdad (Arabic: ) is the capital of Iraq and of Baghdad Governorate. ... The Tigris is the eastern member of the pair of great rivers that define Mesopotamia, along with the Euphrates, which flows from the mountains of Anatolia through Iraq. ...


Wycliffe's books (at Prague)

In 1410 John Wycliffe's books were burnt by the illiterate Prague archbishop Zbynek Zajic z Házmburka in the court of his palace in Lesser Town of Prague to hinder the spread of Jan Hus's teaching. Insert non-formatted text here Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity... For other uses, see Prague (disambiguation). ... Malá Strana in Prague Malá Strana  listen? (in English literally Little Side, though more frequently described as Lesser Quarter or Lesser Side) is originally a popular and nowadays also official name for former Menší mÄ›sto pražské (The Lesser Town of Prague), one of Pragues historical and oldest... Jan Hus ( ) (IPA: , alternative spellings John Hus, Jan Huss, John Huss) (c. ...


Non-Catholic books (by Torquemada)

In the 1480s Tomas Torquemada promoted the burning of non-Catholic literature, especially Jewish Talmuds and, after the final defeat of the Moors at Granada in 1492, Arabic books also. Grand Inquisitor Torquemada Tomás de Torquemada (1420 - September 16, 1498) was a fifteenth century Spanish Dominican, and an Inquisitor General. ... For other uses, see Granada (disambiguation). ...


Decameron, Ovid and other "lewd" books (by Savonarola)

In 1497, followers of the Italian priest Girolamo Savonarola collected and publicly burned pornography, lewd pictures, pagan books, gaming tables, cosmetics, copies of Boccaccio's Decameron, and all the works of Ovid which could be found in Florence. Bonfire of the Vanities refers to an event on 7 February 1497 when followers of the priest Girolamo Savonarola collected and publicly burned thousands of objects in Florence, Italy, on the Shrove Tuesday festival. ... Girolamo Savonarola by Fra Bartolomeo, c. ... Porn redirects here. ... Pagan may refer to: A believer in Paganism or Neopaganism Bagan, a city in Myanmar also known as Pagan Pagan (album), the 6th album by Celtic metal band Cruachan Pagan Island, of the Northern Mariana Islands Pagan Lorn, a metal band from Luxembourg, Europe (1994-1998) Pagans Mind, is... Giovanni Boccaccio (June 16, 1313 – December 21, 1375) was an Italian author and poet, a friend and correspondent of Petrarch, an important Renaissance humanist in his own right and author of a number of notable works including On Famous Women, the Decameron and his poetry in the vernacular. ... The Decameron is a collection of novellas that was finished by Giovanni Boccaccio in 1353. ... For other uses, see Ovid (disambiguation). ... Florence (or Firenze, Florentia and Fiorenza) is the capital city of the Italian region of Tuscany, and of the province of Florence. ...


Arabic and Hebrew books (at Andalucia)

In 1490 a number of Hebrew Bibles and other Jewish books were burned at the behest of the Spanish Inquisition. In 1499 about 5000 Arabic manuscripts were consumed by flames in the public square at Granada on the orders of Ximénez de Cisneros, Archbishop of Toledo [3][4].Many of the poetic works were allegedly destroyed on account of their symbolized homoeroticism.[5] The German Romantic poet Heinrich Heine wrote about this, stating "Dort, wo man Bücher verbrennt, verbrennt man am Ende auch Menschen" - "Where they burn books, they will also, in the end, burn humans" - a quote written on the monument for the Nazi Book Burnings today. An example of lesbian erotica by Édouard-Henri Avril. ... Christian Johann Heinrich Heine (December 13, 1797 – February 17, 1856) was a journalist, an essayist, and one of the most significant German romantic poets. ...


Tyndale's New Testament (in England)

In October 1526 William Tyndale's English translation of the New Testament was burned in London by Cuthbert Tunstal, Bishop of London. William Tyndale (sometimes spelled Tyndale,Tindall or Tyndall) (ca. ... This article is about the Christian scriptures. ... Cuthbert Tunstall (or Tonstall) (1474 - November 18, 1559) was an English church leader, twice Bishop of Durham. ...

A book being burned.

Servetus's writings (burned with their author at Geneva)

In 1553, Servetus was burned as an heretic at the order of the city council of Geneva on a remark in his translation of Ptolemy's Geography. "Around his waist were tied a large bundle of manuscript and a thick octavo printed book", his Christianismi Restitutio, three copies of which have survived [6]. Michael Servetus. ... This article is about the geographer, mathematician and astronomer Ptolemy. ... Octavo has more than one meaning: Octavo is a bookbinding term for a sheet printed to form eight pages of a book when folded, and also a particular size of book. ...


Maya sacred books (at Yucatan)

1562 Fray Diego de Landa, acting bishop of the Yucatan, threw into the fires the sacred books of the Maya.[6] This article is about the pre-Columbian Maya civilization. ...


Medieval burning of Jewish Literature


The burnings of Hebrew books were initiated by Pope Gregory IX. He persuaded French King Louis IX to burn some 12,000 copies of the Talmud in Paris in 1243. He was followed by subsequent Popes. The Church and Christian states viewed the Talmud as a book hateful and insulting toward Christ and Gentiles. The most ferocious haters of Judaism and Jewish books among them were Innocent IV (1243–1254), Clement IV (1256–1268), John XXII (1316–1334), Paul IV (1555–1559), Pius V (1566–1572) and Clement VIII (1592–1605). They almost succeeded in stamping out Jewish books entirely. Yet Jews continued to pen their holy books without cease, and once the printing press was invented, the Church found it impossible to destroy entire printed editions of the Talmud and other sacred books. Johann Gutenberg, the German who invented the printing press around 1450, certainly helped stamp out the effectiveness of further book burnings. The tolerant (for its time) policies of Venice made it a center for the printing of Jewish books (as of books in general), yet the Talmud was publicly burned in 1553 and there was a lesser known burning of Hebrew book in 1568.[19]


Luther's Bible translation (in Germany)

Martin Luther's German translation of the Bible was burned in Germany in 1624 by order of the Pope. Martin Luther (November 10, 1483 – February 18, 1546) was a German monk,[1] priest, professor, theologian, and church reformer. ... For other uses, see Bible (disambiguation). ...


Books burned by civil, military and ecclesiastical authorities between 1640 and 1660 (England)

60 identified printed books, pamphlets and broadsheets, and 3 newsbooks were ordered to be burned during this period (see: A. Hessayon, «Incendiary texts: book burning in England, c.1640 – c.1660», Cromohs, 12 (2007): 1-25)[7]


Hobbes books (at Oxford University)

In 1683 several books by Thomas Hobbes and other authors were burnt in Oxford University. Hobbes redirects here. ...


Anti-Wilhelm Tell tract (at Canton of Uri)

The 1760 tract by Simeon Uriel Freudenberger from Luzern, arguing that Wilhelm Tell was a myth and the acts attributed to him had not happened in reality, was publicly burnt in Altdorf, capital of the Swiss canton of Uri - where, according to the legend, William Tell shot the apple from his son's head. Lucerne (German: Luzern) is a city in Central Switzerland with a population of 60,274 (31 December 2003), capital of the canton of Lucerne. ... William Tell (German Wilhelm Tell) was a legendary hero of disputed historical accuracy said to have lived in the Canton of Uri in Switzerland in the early 14th century. ... For the municipality in the canton of Schaffhausen, see Altdorf, Schaffhausen. ... The twenty-six cantons of Switzerland are the states of the federal state of Switzerland. ... Uri (German:  ) is one of the 26 cantons of Switzerland. ... For other uses, see William Tell (disambiguation). ...


Vernacular Catholic hymn books (at Mainz)

In 1787, an attempt by the Catholic authorities at Mainz to introduce vernacular hymn books encountered strong resistance from conservative Catholics, who refused to abandon the old Latin books and who seized and burned copies of the new German-language books.[7] Mainz is a city in Germany and the capital of the German federal state of Rhineland-Palatinate. ... Look up Vernacular in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Religious libraries (by Robespierre)

In 1793 Robespierre ordered the destruction by fire of religious libraries, as well as the burning of those books defending or glorifying royalism or the French Kings. The books were considered "inimical towards reformed France".[citation needed] Maximilien François Marie Isidore de Robespierre, (May 6, 1758–July 28, 1794), known also to his contemporaries as the Incorruptible, is one of the best known of the leaders of the French Revolution. ... Also see:  Early Modern France The House of Bourbon is an important European royal house, a branch of the Capetian dynasty. ...


Early braille books (in Paris)

In 1842, officials at the school for the blind in Paris France, were ordered by its new director, Armand Dufau, to burn books written in the new braille code. After every braille book at the institute that could be found was burned, supporters of the code's inventor, Louis Braille, rebelled against Dufau by continuing to use the code, and braille was eventually restored at the school. Listen to this article ( info/dl) This audio file was created from a revision dated 2006-09-06, and may not reflect subsequent edits to the article. ... Louis Braille (January 4, 1809 – January 6, 1852) was the inventor of braille[1], a world-wide system used by blind and visually impaired people for reading and writing. ...


"Valley of the Squinting Windows" (at Delvin, Ireland)

In 1918 the Valley of the Squinting Windows in Delvin, Ireland. The book criticised the village's inhabitants for being overly concerned with their image towards neighbours. Valley of the Squinting Windows is a novel by Brinsley MacNamara, set in the village of Delvin, County Westmeath, Ireland. ... Delvin (Irish: Dealbhna) is a small town in north County Westmeath, Ireland located on the N52 road at a junction with the N51 to Navan. ...


Jewish, anti-Nazi and "degenerate" books (by the Nazis)

Main article: Nazi book burnings
In 1933, Nazis burned works of Jewish authors, and other works considered "un-German", at the library of the Institut für Sexualwissenschaft in Berlin.
In 1933, Nazis burned works of Jewish authors, and other works considered "un-German", at the library of the Institut für Sexualwissenschaft in Berlin.

The works of Jewish authors and other so-called "degenerate" books were burnt by the Nazis in the 1930s and 1940s. Richard Euringer, director of the libraries in Essen, identified 18,000 works deemed not to correspond with Nazi ideology, which were publicly burned. In 1933, Nazi Minister for Popular Enlightenment and Propaganda Joseph Goebbels began the synchronization of culture, by which the arts were brought in line with Nazi goals. ... Image File history File links 1933-may-10-berlin-book-burning. ... Image File history File links 1933-may-10-berlin-book-burning. ... For other uses, see Jew (disambiguation). ... Nazism in history Nazi ideology Nazism and race Outside Germany Related subjects Lists Politics Portal         Nazism or National Socialism (German: Nationalsozialismus), refers primarily to the ideology and practices of the Nazi Party (National Socialist German Workers Party, German: Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei or NSDAP) under Adolf Hitler. ... Richard Euringer (1891 - 1953), author of Als Flieger in zwei Kriegen, published in 1941 by Philipp Reclam Jr. ... Essen is a city in the center of the Ruhr Area in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. ...


On May 10, 1933 on the Opernplatz in Berlin, S.A. and Nazi youth groups burned around 20,000 books from the Institut für Sexualwissenschaft and the Humboldt University; including works by Heinrich Heine, Thomas Mann, Karl Marx, Erich Maria Remarque, and H.G. Wells. Student groups throughout Germany also carried out their own book burnings on that day and in the following weeks. Erich Kästner wrote an ironic account (published only after the fall of Nazism) of having witnessed the burning of his own books on that occasion. is the 130th day of the year (131st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1933 (MCMXXXIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Bebelplatz looking north towards the Unter den Linden. ... This article is about the capital of Germany. ... The seal of SA The  , abbreviated SA, (German for Storm division or Storm section, usually translated as stormtroop(er)s), functioned as a paramilitary organization of the NSDAP — the German Nazi party. ... The Institut für Sexualwissenschaft was an early private sexology research institute in Germany from 1919 to 1933. ... Alternative meaning: Humboldt State University, located in Arcata, California Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin The Humboldt University of Berlin (German Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin) is the successor to Berlins oldest university, the Friedrich Wilhelm University (Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität), founded in 1810 by the liberal Prussian educational reformer... Christian Johann Heinrich Heine (December 13, 1797 – February 17, 1856) was a journalist, an essayist, and one of the most significant German romantic poets. ... For other persons named Thomas Mann, see Thomas Mann (disambiguation). ... Karl Heinrich Marx (May 5, 1818 – March 14, 1883) was a 19th century philosopher, political economist, and revolutionary. ... Erich Maria Remarque (June 22, 1898 – September 25, 1970) was the pseudonym of Erich Paul Remark, a German author. ... H. G. Wells at the door of his house at Sandgate Herbert George Wells (September 21, 1866 - August 13, 1946) was an English writer best known for his science fiction novels such as The War of the Worlds and The Time Machine. ... Erich Kästner (February 23, 1899 - July 29, 1974) is one of the most famous German authors of the 20th century. ...


Theodore Dreiser's works (at Warsaw, Indiana)

Trustees of Warsaw, Indiana ordered the burning of all the library's works by Theodore Dreiser [8]. Warsaw is a city in, and the county seat of, Kosciusko County, Indiana, United StatesGR6. ... Theodore Herman Albert Dreiser (August 27, 1871 – December 28, 1945) was an American author of the naturalist school, known for dealing with the gritty reality of life. ...


Jorge Amado's novels (by Brazilian dictatorship)

In 1937 the dictatorial regime of Getulio Vargas in Brazil ordered the public burning of the novels O País do Carnaval, Cacau and Mar Morto by the noted author Jorge Amado, at the time an active member of the Brazilian Communist Party.[citation needed] Getúlio Dornelles Vargas (April 19, 1883 - August 24, 1954) was the president of Brazil from 1930 to 1945 and from 1950 to his suicide in 1954. ... O País do Carnaval is a Brazilian Modernist novel. ... Cacau (Cacao) is a Brazilian Modernist novel. ... Mar Morto (Sea of Death) is a Brazilian Modernist novel. ... Jorge Amado de Faria (August 10, 1912 – August 6, 2001) was a Brazilian writer of the Modernist school. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Brazilian Communist Party (1992). ...


Pompeu Fabra's library (by Spanish fascist troupes)

In 1939, shortly after the surrendering of Barcelona, Franco's fascists troupes burned the entire library of Pompeu Fabra, the main author of the normative reform of contemporary Catalan language, while shouting "¡Abajo la inteligencia!" (Down with the intelligence!). De la destrucció de la biblioteca de Pompeu Fabra..[citation needed] Location Coordinates : Time Zone : CET (GMT +1) - summer: CEST (GMT +2) General information Native name Barcelona (Catalan) Spanish name Barcelona Nickname Ciutat Comtal (City of Counts) Postal code 08001–08080 Area code 34 (Spain) + 93 (Barcelona) Website http://www. ... Pompeu Fabra i Poch, (Barcelona 1868 - Prada de Conflent 1948) was a Catalan grammarian, the main author of the normative reform of contemporary Catalan language. ... Catalan IPA: (català IPA: or []) is a Romance language, the national language of Andorra, and a co-official language in the Spanish autonomous communities of Balearic Islands, Catalonia and Valencia, and in the city of LAlguer in the Italian island of Sardinia. ...


Comic books (at Binghamton, New York)

In 1948, at Binghamton, New York children - overseen by priests, teachers, and parents - publicly burned several hundred comic books[9]. This article is about the City of Binghamton, New York. ... A comic book is a magazine or book containing the art form of comics. ...


Judaica collection at Birobidzhan (by Stalin)

As part of Joseph Stalin's efforts to stamp out Jewish culture in the Soviet Union in the late 1940s and early 1950s, the Judaica collection in the library of Birobidzhan, capital of the Jewish Autonomous Oblast on the Chinese border, was burned.[citation needed] Josef Vissarionovich Dzhugashvili (Georgian: , Ioseb Besarionis Dze Jughashvili; Russian: , Iosif Vissarionovich Dzhugashvili) (December 18 [O.S. December 6] 1878[1] – March 5, 1953), better known by his adopted name, Joseph Stalin (alternatively transliterated Josef Stalin), was General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Unions Central Committee from... The word Jew ( Hebrew: יהודי) is used in a wide number of ways, but generally refers to a follower of the Jewish faith, a child of a Jewish mother, or someone of Jewish descent with a connection to Jewish culture or ethnicity and often a combination of these attributes. ... For a discussion of Jews as an ethnicity or ethnic group see the article on Jew. ... Birobidzhan (ru: Биробиджа́н, yi: ביראָבידזשאן) is the capital of the Jewish Autonomous Oblast in Russia; the name is sometimes also used to refer to the entire oblast. ... , Capital Birobidzhan Area - total - % water Ranked 61st - 36,000 km² - no data Population - Total - Density Ranked 80th - est. ...


Communist and "fellow traveller" books (by Senator McCarthy)

In 1953 United States Senator Joseph McCarthy recited before his subcommittee and the press a list of supposedly pro-communist authors whose works his aide Roy Cohn found in the State Department libraries in Europe. The Eisenhower State Department bowed to McCarthy and ordered its overseas librarians to remove from their shelves "material by any controversial persons, Communists, fellow travelers, etc." Some libraries burned the newly-forbidden books. President Eisenhower agreed that the State Department should dispose of books advocating communism: "I see no reason for the Federal government to be supporting something that advocated its own destruction. That seems to be the acme of silliness."[citation needed] This article is about the U.S. senator from Wisconsin (1947-1957). ... Roy Marcus Cohn (February 20, 1927 – August 2, 1986) was an American lawyer who came to prominence during the investigations by Senator Joseph McCarthy into Communism in the government and especially during the Army-McCarthy Hearings. ... Department of State redirects here. ... A fellow traveller is a person who sympathizes with the beliefs of a particular organization, but does not belong to that organization. ...


At Dartmouth College in June 1953, President Dwight D. Eisenhower urged Americans concerning libraries: "Don't join the book burners. Don't be afraid to go in your library and read every book . . . ."[citation needed] Dwight David Eisenhower, born David Dwight Eisenhower (October 14, 1890 – March 28, 1969), nicknamed Ike, was a five-star General in the United States Army and U.S. politician, who served as the thirty-fourth President of the United States (1953–1961). ...


Wilhelm Reich's publications (by U.S. Food and Drug Administration)

Main article: Wilhelm Reich

Noted psychiatrist Wilhelm Reich was prosecuted in 1954, following an investigation by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration in connection with his use of orgone accumulators. Reich refused to defend himself, and a Federal judge ordered all of his orgone energy equipment and publications to be seized and destroyed. In June 1956, Federal agents burned many of the books at Reich's estate near Rangeley, Maine. Later that year, and in March 1960, an additional 6 tons of Reich's books, journals and papers were burned in a public incinerator in New York. Reich died of heart failure while in Federal prison in November 1957.[citation needed] Wilhelm Reich (March 24, 1897 – November 3, 1957) was an Austrian psychiatrist and psychoanalyst. ... For other uses, see Psychiatrist (disambiguation). ... FDA redirects here. ... For the record label, see Orgone Recordings. ... Rangeley is a town located in Franklin County, Maine. ... This article needs cleanup. ...


Library of writer Pramoedya Ananta Toer (by Suharto's "New Order")

Following the late-1960's establishment of Suharto's New Order in Indonesia, the left-wing writer Pramoedya Ananta Toer was imprisoned. His entire library was burned, including extensive materials which he had collected in preparatory research for a new book. Toer nevertheless composed the book, This Earth of Mankind, from memory while imprisoned: deprived of so much as a pencil, he narrated his text orally to fellow prisoners. (By 2005 the book had been published and translated into 33 languages).[citation needed] Indonesias Transition to the New Order occurred over 1965-67. ... Pramoedya Ananta Toer (February 6 1925 - April 30 2006) was an Indonesian author of novels, short stories, essays, polemics, and histories of his homeland and its people. ... This Earth of Mankind is the first book in Pramoedya Ananta Toers Buru Quartet, first published by Hasta Mitra in 1980. ...


Burning of Jaffna library

In May 1981 a mob composed of thugs and plainclothes police officers went on a rampage in minority Tamil-dominated northern Jaffna, Sri Lanka, and burned down the Jaffna Public Library. At least 95,000 volumes — the second largest library collection in South Asia — were destroyed, including a very rare collection of ancient palm leaf volumes.[10] Burning of Jaffna library was a watershed event in the ongoing Sri Lankan civil war. ... Sri Lankan Tamils also, Ceylonese or Ilankai Tamils are today a trans-national minority, and are Tamil people from Sri Lanka. ... Jaffna District. ... Map of South Asia (see note on Kashmir). ...


Anti-Pinochet Dictatorship books (at Valparaiso)

In February 1987 the Chilean Interior Ministry admitted that 15,000 copies of the Spanish edition of Clandestine in Chile:The Adventures of Miguel Littin were impounded and burned on November 28, 1986, in Valparaiso following direct orders from Augusto Pinochet.[citation needed] is the 332nd day of the year (333rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1986 (MCMLXXXVI) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link displays 1986 Gregorian calendar). ... Valparaiso is the name of at least three cities and a village: Valparaíso, Chile Valparaiso, Florida Valparaiso, Indiana Valparaiso, Nebraska This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Augusto José Ramón Pinochet Ugarte[1] (November 25, 1915 – December 10, 2006) was President of Chile from 1974 to 1990, and was the President of the military junta from 1973 to 1981. ...


The Satanic Verses (in the United Kingdom)

The 1988 publication of the novel The Satanic Verses, by Salman Rushdie, provoked angry demonstrations and riots around the world by foollowers of Political Islam, some of whom considered it blasphemous. In the United Kingdom, bookburnings were staged in the cities of Bolton and Bradford. In addition, five U.K. bookstores selling the novel were the target of bombings, and two bookstores in Berkeley, California were firebombed.[citation needed] For the verses known as Satanic Verses, see Satanic Verses. ... Sir Ahmed Salman Rushdie (born June 19, 1947) is an Indian-British novelist and essayist. ... For the verses known as Satanic Verses, see Satanic Verses. ... Islam as a political movement has a diverse character that has at different times incorporated elements of many other political movements, while simultaneously adapting the religious views of Islamic fundamentalism. ... For the black metal band, see Blasphemy (band). ... For the larger local government district, see Metropolitan Borough of Bolton. ... For other uses, see Bradford (disambiguation). ... Berkeley is a city on the east shore of San Francisco Bay in Northern California, in the United States. ... Molotov cocktail is the generic name for a variety of crude incendiary weapons. ...


Oriental Institute Library, Sarajevo (by Serb nationalists)

In 1992, during the Bosnian Civil War, Serb nationalist forces attacked the Oriental Institute (Orijentalni institut) in Sarajevo with incendiary grenades. The entire collection of books and manuscripts was burned in the largest single act of book-burning in modern history. [8]. Combatants  Bosnia and Herzegovina Volunteers from Islamic countries Croatian Community of Herzeg-Bosnia  Croatia Volunteers from Western Europe  Republika Srpska  Yugoslavia Various paramilitary units from FR Yugoslavia Volunteers from Eastern Europe Commanders Alija Izetbegović (President of Bosnia and Herzegovina) Sefer Halilović (Army chief of staff 1992-1993) Rasim Delić (Army... Languages Serbian Religions Predominantly Serbian Orthodox Christian Related ethnic groups Other Slavic peoples, especially South Slavs See Cognate peoples below (* many Serbs opted for Yugoslav ethnicity) [27] Serbs (Serbian: Срби or Srbi) are a South Slavic people who live mainly in Serbia, Montenegro, Bosnia-Herzegovina, and, to a lesser extent, in... Map of Bosnia and Herzegovina (Sarajevo) Coordinates: , Country Entity Canton Sarajevo Canton Government  - Mayor Semiha Borovac (SDA) Area [1]  - City 141. ... hey hey you no i rock at soccer cuz no i made the school team!! yay me aka katelyn ♥ Incendiary devices or incendiary bombs are bombs designed to start fires or destroy sensitive equipment using materials such as napalm, thermite, chlorine trifluoride, or white phosphorus. ... A manuscript (Latin manu scriptus, written by hand), strictly speaking, is any written document that is put down by hand, in contrast to being printed or reproduced some other way. ...


Books "contrary to the teachings of God" (at Grande Cache, Alberta)

In the 1990s congregants of the Full Gospel Assembly in Grande Cache, Alberta, Canada burned books with ideas in them that they did not agree with, or that they deemed to contain ideas contrary to the teachings of God.[citation needed] For other uses, see Alberta (disambiguation). ...


Books of Falun Dafa Teachings

Falun Dafa books were burned in 1999 by the government of the People's Republic of China. The books were teaching the principles of the Falun Dafa practice. According to the practice, they are Zhen-Shan-Ren, or Truthfulness-Compassion-Forbearance.[11] As part of its anti-Falun Gong campaign, the government repeatedly claimed the practice to be an "evil cult" which brought "instability to the country".[12][13][14] Falun emblem Falun Gong (Traditional Chinese: 法輪功; Simplified Chinese: 法轮功; pinyin: Fǎlún Gōng; literally Practice of the Wheel of Law) or Falun Dafa (Traditional Chinese: 法輪大法; Simplified Chinese: 法轮大法; pinyin: Fǎlún dàfǎ; lit. ... Falun emblem Falun Gong (Traditional Chinese: 法輪功; Simplified Chinese: 法轮功; pinyin: Fǎlún Gōng; literally Practice of the Wheel of Law) or Falun Dafa (Traditional Chinese: 法輪大法; Simplified Chinese: 法轮大法; pinyin: Fǎlún dàfǎ; lit. ...


Abu Nuwas homoerotic poetry (by Egyptian Ministry of Culture)[citation needed]

In January 2001 the Egyptian Ministry of Culture burned 6,000 books of homoerotic poetry by Abu Nuwas, after pressure from Islamic fundamentalists[citation needed] . An example of lesbian erotica by Édouard-Henri Avril. ... A drawing of Abu Nuwas Abu-Nuwas al-Hasan ben Hani al-Hakami (750?–815?) was a renowned Arabic poet. ... Islam (Arabic: ; ( ▶ (help· info)), the submission to God) is a monotheistic faith, one of the Abrahamic religions and the worlds second-largest religion. ... Fundamentalism is a movement to maintain strict adherence to founding principles. ...


Harry Potter books (in various American cities)

There have been several incidents of Harry Potter books being burned, including those directed by churches at Alamogordo, New Mexico, Charleston, South Carolina, and Cedar Rapids, Iowa.[15] See Controversy over Harry Potter. This article is about the Harry Potter series of novels. ... Alamogordo is a city located in Otero County, New Mexico, United States of America. ... Official language(s) None Spoken language(s) English 68. ... Nickname: Motto: Aedes Mores Juraque Curat (She cares for her temples, customs, and rights) Location of Charleston in South Carolina. ... Nickname: Location in the State of Iowa Coordinates: , Country State County Linn Incorporated 1849 Government  - Mayor Kay Halloran (D) Area  - City 64. ... The Harry Potter series of books by J. K. Rowling has faced a number of controversies. ...


Iraq's national library, Baghdad 2003

Following the 2003 invasion of Iraq, Iraq's national library and the Islamic library in central Baghdad were burned and destroyed. The national library housed several rare volumes and documents from as far back as the 16th century, including entire royal court records and files from the period when Iraq was part of the Ottoman Empire. The destroyed Islamic library of Baghdad included one of the oldest surviving copies of the Qoran.[16] This article is about the 2003 invasion of Iraq. ... Baghdad (Arabic: ) is the capital of Iraq and of Baghdad Governorate. ... Motto دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1683, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299–1326) Bursa (1326–1365) Edirne (1365–1453) Ä°stanbul (1453–1922) Government Monarchy Sultans  - 1281–1326 (first) Osman I  - 1918–22 (last) Mehmed VI Grand Viziers  - 1320... The Quran (Arabic , literally the recitation; also called or The Noble Quran; also transliterated Quran, Koran, and less commonly Alcoran) is the holy book of Islam. ...


Anti-copyright anthology "Copy Me" (by Piratbyrån)

Piratbyrån, a group of Swedish anti-copyright activists, in 2005 published the anthology Copy Me with their own writings. At Walpurgis Night the last of April 2007, as they declared that "the so-called file-sharing debate has served its time"[17] they burnt the remaining books on the mountain Vårbergstoppen in South Stockholm, while reading a declaration motivating the ritual.[18] PiratbyrÃ¥n (The Piracy Bureau) is a Swedish organization (or think tank) established to support people opposed to current ideas about intellectual property — by freely sharing information and culture. ... Walpurgis Night in Sweden. ... South Stockholm (Söderort) is the southern part of the City of Stockholm in Sweden. ... For other senses of this word, see ritual (disambiguation). ...


Inventory of Prospero's Books (by proprietors Tom Wayne and W.E. Leathem)

On May 27, 2007, Tom Wayne and W.E. Leathem, the proprietor of Prospero's Books, a used book store in Kansas City, Mo., publicly burned a portion of his inventory to protest society's increasing indifference to the printed word. The protest was interrupted by the Kansas City Fire Department on the grounds that Wayne & Leathem had failed to obtain the required permits.[9] is the 147th day of the year (148th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Official language(s) English Capital Jefferson City Largest city Kansas City Largest metro area St Louis[1] Area  Ranked 21st  - Total 69,709 sq mi (180,693 km²)  - Width 240 miles (385 km)  - Length 300 miles (480 km)  - % water 1. ...


New Testaments in City of Or-Yehuda, Israel

In May 2008, a "fairly large" number of New Testaments were burned in Or-Yehuda, Israel. Conflicting accounts have the deputy mayor of Or-Yehuda, Uzi Aharon, claiming to have organized the burnings or to have stopped them. He admitted involvement in collecting New Testaments and "Messianic propaganda" that had been distributed in the city. The burning apparently violated Israeli laws about destroying religious items.[10]


For a different motive: Guru Granth Sahib

An example of ceremonial book burning with a completely different motive is that, in the Sikh religion, any copies of their sacred book Guru Granth Sahib which are too badly damaged to be used, and any printer's waste which has any of its text on, are cremated with a similar ceremony as cremating a deceased man. Such burning is called Agan Bhet. Religions Sikhism Scriptures Guru Granth Sahib Languages English, Punjabi] A Sikh (English: or ; Punjabi: , , IPA: ) is an adherent to Sikhism. ... The Adi Sri Guru Granth Sahib (Punjabi: , ), or Guru Granth Sahib, is the holy book, or scriptures, of the Sikhs. ...

New Orleans is the largest city in the state of Louisiana, United States of America. ... This article is about the Atlantic hurricane of 2005. ... The Adi Sri Guru Granth Sahib (Punjabi: , ), or Guru Granth Sahib, is the holy book, or scriptures, of the Sikhs. ... Map of Nicobar Islands The Nicobar Islands are an island chain in the eastern Indian Ocean, and are part of the Union Territory of Andaman and Nicobar Islands, India. ... The 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake was an undersea (subduction) earthquake that occurred at 00:58:53 UTC December 26, 2004, with an epicentre off the west coast of Sumatra, Indonesia. ...

In fiction

  • The short story Earth's Halocaust from Nathaniel Hawthorne's Mosses from an Old Manse, is about about a society that burns everything that it finds offensive, including its literature.
  • The first part of Don Quixote has a scene in which the priest and the housekeeper of the eponymous knight go through the chivalry books that have turned him mad. In a kind of auto de fe, they burn most of them. The comments of the priest express the literary tastes of the author, though he offers some sharp criticisms of Cervantes' works as well. It is notable that he saves Tirant lo Blanch.
  • In Part II of the play Tamburlaine, by Christopher Marlowe, Tamburlaine (the protagonist) burns a copy of the Quran after having conquered Asia Minor and Egypt. His book-burning and declaration of independence from any deity leads to his fatal illness, and subsequently the end of the play.
  • In the introduction of the 1967 Simon and Schuster book club edition of Fahrenheit 451, Ray Bradbury implies that the Nazi book burnings drove him to write the short story/novella the Fireman which was the precursor along with the foundation for his novel Fahrenheit 451 (451 °F being the temperature at which paper autoignites), stating "It follows then that when Hitler burned a book I felt it as keenly, please forgive me, as his killing a human, for in the long sum of history they are one in the same flesh."
  • In one episode of The Simpsons, Lisa Simpson sees a Book-Mobile being driven by Reverend Lovejoy, however the letters behind a tree reveal that it actually reads Book-Burning-Mobile.
  • In "Anne of Green Gables", Anne watches in horror as her caretaker burns her book containing the poem "Lady of Shallot" as punishment for reading instead of doing her chores.
  • In the Myst series of computer games and books, the only way to destroy the link to an Age is to destroy its Descriptive Book, usually by burning it.
  • In the film Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade, Indiana Jones journeys to Berlin in order to retrieve his father's diary, which gives information about finding the Holy Grail. He retrieves it during a Nazi book burning rally (although it was not targeted for burning itself), where it is inadvertently signed by Hitler himself. At another point, his father makes a comment to a Nazi interrogator: "Goose-Stepping morons like yourself should try reading books instead of burning them."
  • In the film Pleasantville, the people who are still black-and-white burn all the books in the library to keep people from becoming colored.
  • In the future depicted in Brian Stableford's "The Halcyon Drift", one of the leading planets in the Galaxy is "New Alexandria", whose inhabitants are dedicated to the preservation and extension of knowledge, and are brought up to regard the destruction of books as the most heinous of deeds. Nevertheless, a protagonist agrees to help the Khor-Monsa, an alien species, in destroying books and records of their remote ancestors which were found in a drifing spaceship - since the books contained a shameful secret whose publication might have led to the present Khor-Monsa losing their social status and becoming discriminated.
  • In an episode of Dr. Quinn Medicine Woman, the townspeople burn some of the books from Dr. Quinn's library.
  • The Crusade episode The Needs of Earth depicts a world that has burned its entire cultural heritage - all art, music, and literature - and hunts the person who has the last remaining copies.
  • The 2002 film Equilibrium depicts a dystopian society which has eliminated human emotion, and burned all cultural influences that can cause emotion.
  • In the 2004 film The Day after Tomorrow, to avoid freezing to death, the main character suggests burning books to survive, much to the horror of two librarians, with the main characters choosing to avoid the wooden furniture, which would have burned hotter and longer, for plot reasons.

Nathaniel Hawthorne (born Nathaniel Hathorne; July 4, 1804 – May 19, 1864) was a 19th century American novelist and short story writer. ... Mosses from an Old Manse was a short story collection by Nathaniel Hawthorne. ... This article is about the fictional character and novel. ... As a literary genre, romance refers to a style of heroic prose and verse narrative current in Europe from the Middle Ages to the Renaissance. ... Representation of an Auto de fe, as depicted by Pedro Berruguete (around 1495[1]). The phrase auto de fé refers to the ritual of public penance of condemned heretics and apostates that took place when the Spanish Inquisition or the Portuguese Inquisition had decided their punishment (that is, after the... Tirant lo Blanc, written by the Valencian knight Joanot Martorell, finished by Martí Joan De Galba and published in Valencia in 1490, is an epic romance and one of the key works in the evolution of the Western novel. ... This article is about the English dramatist. ... For the chess engine Tamerlane, see Tamerlane. ... The Quran (Arabic al-qurʾān أَلْقُرآن; also transliterated as Quran, Koran, and less commonly Alcoran) is the holy book of Islam. ... This article is about two nested areas of Turkey, a plateau region within a peninsula. ... Jean-François Millet Le Semeur (The Sower) Simon & Schuster logo, circa 1961. ... A book sales club is a subscription-based method of selling and purchasing books. ... This article is about the novel. ... Ray Douglas Bradbury (born August 22, 1920) is an American literary, fantasy, horror, science fiction, and mystery writer best known for The Martian Chronicles, a 1950 book which has been described both as a short story collection and a novel, and his 1953 dystopian novel Fahrenheit 451. ... Categories: Pages needing attention | Chemistry stubs | Chemistry ... Simpsons redirects here. ... Lisa Marie Simpson is a character in the animated television series The Simpsons, voiced by Yeardley Smith; Lisa is the only character Smith voices on a regular basis. ... This article contains a list of recurring characters from The Simpsons with descriptions. ... Anne of Green Gables is a book written by Canadian author Lucy Maud Montgomery; it was first published in 1908. ... Lady of Shalott, The---- A poem written by Alfred, Lord Tennyson in 1843, based on Arthurian legend. ... This article is about the Myst franchise. ... This article is about the film. ... This article is about the fictional character. ... For other uses, see Holy Grail (disambiguation). ... Professor Henry Jones, Sr. ... This article is about about the marching step. ... Pleasantville is a New Line Cinema film first released in Canada on September 17, 1998 starring Tobey Maguire, Reese Witherspoon, William H. Macy, Joan Allen, and Jeff Daniels. ... Brian Stableford (born July 25, 1948) is a British science fiction writer who has published more than 50 novels. ... The Hooded Swan Series (or Star Pilot Grainger Series) is a series of science fiction novels by Brian Stableford in the early 1970s, starting with The Halcyon Drift. ... Dr. Quinn, Medicine Woman was an American multi-Emmy Award winning dramatic television series created by Beth Sullivan, that ran on CBS for six seasons (1993-1998). ... Crusade is a spin-off TV show from J. Michael Straczynskis Babylon 5. ... The Needs of Earth is an episode from the first season of the television series Crusade. ... Equilibrium is a 2002 action/science fiction film written and directed by Kurt Wimmer. ... A dystopia (or alternatively cacotopia) is a fictional society, usually portrayed as existing in a future time, when the conditions of life are extremely bad due to deprivation, oppression, or terror. ... In psychology and common terminology, emotion is the language of a persons internal state of being, normally based in or tied to their internal (physical) and external (social) sensory feeling. ... This article is about the 2004 theatrical disaster film dealing with global warming. ...

References

  1. ^ Noted in Touring Club Italiano, Roma e Dintorni 1965:344.
  2. ^ Mozarabic Rite, by Henry Jenner in the Catholic Encyclopedia.
  3. ^ The Spanish Inquisition, Henry Kamen, London, White Lion, 1965, p.98
  4. ^ Eastern Wisdome and Learninge. The Study of Arabic in Seventeenth-Century England, G.J. Toomer, Oxford, 1996, p.17
  5. ^ In Praise of Boys: Moorish Poems from Al-Andalus, Erskine Lane, 1975
  6. ^ Baldwin, Neil: Legends of the Plumed Serpent: Biography of a Mexican God, HarperCollins Canada, 1998 ISBN 978-1891620034
  7. ^ Tim Balnning, "The Pursuit of Glory - Europe 1648–1815", Penguin, 2007, p.388
  8. ^ ALA | 20th Century
  9. ^ Hajdu, David. 2008. The Ten-Cent Plague: The Great Comic-Book Scare and How It Changed America. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, p.125
  10. ^ www.ifla.org/IV/ifla72/papers/119-Knuth-en.pdf (PDF).
  11. ^ http://www.falundafa.org/eng/index.htm - Second paragraph of the introduction on the FalunDafa.org English website
  12. ^ http://video.google.com/videoplay?docid=6496387179590312647&q=nine+commentaries+duration%3Along at 38min:49sec;
  13. ^ http://video.google.com/videoplay?docid=-2786130251132064178&q=falun+dafa at 5min 40 seconds;
  14. ^ http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-srv/WPcap/1999-11/02/080r-110299-idx.html " China's Rule of Law"
  15. ^ http://www.forbes.com/2006/11/30/book-burnings-potter-tech-media_cz_ds_books06_1201burn.html.
  16. ^ BBC NEWS | World | Middle East | Prized Iraqi annals lost in blaze
  17. ^ nettime.freeflux.net/blog/archive/2007/05/05/nettime-four-shreddings-and-a-funeral.html.
  18. ^ Four Shreddings and a Funeral.

Henry Jenner ( 1848- 1934) was a Celtic scholar, Cornish cultural activist, and the chief originator of the Cornish language revival. ... Not to be confused with New Catholic Encyclopedia. ...

See also

Many societies have banned certain books. ... For other uses, see Censor. ... Marc Drogin is a writer and illustrator born in New York City in 1936. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Book Burning (596 words)
In a symbolic act of ominous significance, on May 10 the students burned upwards of 25,000 volumes of “un-German” books, presaging an era of state censorship and control of culture.
At the meeting places, students threw the pillaged and unwanted books into the bonfires with great joyous ceremony, band-playing, songs, “fire oaths,” and incantations.
The works of leading German writers such as Bertolt Brecht, Lion Feuchtwanger, and Alfred Kerr were consigned to flames in a book burning ceremony in Berlin.
AbeBooks: 75th Anniversary of the Nazi Book Burnings (939 words)
Burning a book is a symbolic act – words are not just being suppressed, they are being destroyed by fire.
Rebecca Knuth – a professor at the University of Hawaii – author of Burning Books and Leveling Libraries: Extremist Violence and Cultural Destruction and Libricide: The Regime-Sponsored Destruction of Books and Libraries in the Twentieth Century.
His 1908 novel The Iron Heel depicts the rise of fascism in the USA with a socialist hero, and was one of three of his books to be burned.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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