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Encyclopedia > Book
open book with black and white drawings
open book with black and white drawings
open book with color drawings and with photos
a reader reading a book (Taslima Nasrin reading her book)
a reader reading a book (Taslima Nasrin reading her book)

A book' is a set or collection of written, printed, illustrated, or blank sheets, made of paper, parchment, or other material, usually fastened together to hinge at one side. A single sheet within a book is called a leaf, and each side of a sheet is called a page. A book produced in electronic format is known as an e-book. Books are very useful and extremely popular, as discovered in a recent survey, but it was also discovered that TV is close to overtaking books in popularity'Bold text Look up book in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 512 pixelsFull resolution‎ (1,450 × 928 pixels, file size: 293 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Sample book pages (the book contents, possibly still under copyright, is not disclosed by this perspective photo), Heinrich Dubbel, Taschenbuch für den Maschinenbau... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 512 pixelsFull resolution‎ (1,450 × 928 pixels, file size: 293 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Sample book pages (the book contents, possibly still under copyright, is not disclosed by this perspective photo), Heinrich Dubbel, Taschenbuch für den Maschinenbau... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 538 pixelsFull resolution‎ (837 × 563 pixels, file size: 70 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) (All user names refer to nl. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 538 pixelsFull resolution‎ (837 × 563 pixels, file size: 70 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) (All user names refer to nl. ... Image File history File links Taslima_nasrin. ... Image File history File links Taslima_nasrin. ... This article is about the learning activity. ... The word leaf may refer to: Leaf, an organ of a plant. ... A page is one side of a leaf of paper. ... A user viewing an electronic page on an eBook reading device An e-book (for electronic book: also eBook, ecoBook) is the digital media equivalent of a conventional printed book. ...


Books may also refer to a literature work, or a main division of such a work. In library and information science, a book is called a monograph, to distinguish it from serial periodicals such as magazines, journals or newspapers. The body of all written works including books is literature. Library and information science (LIS) is the study of issues related to libraries and the information fields. ... A monograph is a scholarly book or a treatise on a single subject or a group of related subjects. ... This article is about the magazine as a published medium. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... This article is about the journal as a written medium. ... For other uses, see Literature (disambiguation). ...


In novels, a book may be divided into several large sections, also called books (Book 1, Book 2, Book 3, etc). This article is about the literary concept. ...


A lover of books is usually referred to as a bibliophile, a bibliophilist, or a philobiblist, or, more informally, a bookworm. Bibliophilia is the love of books; a bibliophile is a lover of books. ... Bookworm can refer to: The insect of that name. ...


A store where books are bought and sold is a bookstore. Books can be borrowed from libraries or obtain to read by bookCrossing. This article needs to be wikified. ... Julio Pérez Ferrero Library - Cúcuta, Colombia A modern-style library in Chambéry A library is a collection of information, sources, resources, and services: it is organized for use and maintained by a public body, an institution, or a private individual. ... BookCrossing, BC, BCing, or BXing, is defined as the practice of leaving a book in a public place to be picked up and read by others, who then do likewise. ...

Contents

Etymology

The word book comes from Old English "bōc" which comes from Germanic root "*bōk-", cognate to beech.[1] Old English (also called Anglo-Saxon[1], Old English: ) is an early form of the English language that was spoken in parts of what is now England and southern Scotland between the mid-fifth century and the mid-twelfth century. ... Look up cognate in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Beech (disambiguation). ...


Similarly, in Slavic languages (e.g. Russian and Bulgarian "буква" (bukva)—"letter") is cognate to "beech". It is thus conjectured that the earliest Indo-European writings may have been carved on beech wood.[2]  Countries where a West Slavic language is the national language  Countries where an East Slavic language is the national language  Countries where a South Slavic language is the national language The Slavic languages (also called Slavonic languages), a group of closely related languages of the Slavic peoples and a subgroup... For other uses, see Indo-European. ... For other uses, see Beech (disambiguation). ...


A similar word blook is either an object manufactured to imitate a bound book, an on-line book published via a blog, or a printed book that contains or is based on content from a blog. A blook can refer to either an object manufactured to imitate a bound book, an online book published via a blog, or a printed book that contains or is based on content from a blog. ... An on-line book is an ebook that is available online through the Internet, whether or not distributed free. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


Book structure

Main article: Book design
scheme of common book design 1 - 2 - flap 3 - endpaper 4 - book cover 5 - top edge 6 - fore edge 7 - tail edge 8 - 9 - 10 - gutter
scheme of common book design
1 -
2 - flap
3 - endpaper
4 - book cover
5 - top edge
6 - fore edge
7 - tail edge
8 -
9 -
10 - gutter

The common structural parts of a book include: Book design refers to the art of incorporating the content, style, format, design, and sequence of the various components of a book into a coherent whole. ... Image File history File links Bookinfo. ... Image File history File links Bookinfo. ... The word Flap can refer to several things. ... The endpapers of a book are the sheets of paper pasted onto the inside of a books boards, the stiff binding material that a book cover is made of. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ...

  • Front cover: hardbound or softcover (paperback); the spine is the binding that joins the front and rear covers where the pages hinge
  • Front endpaper
  • Flyleaf
  • Body: the text or contents, the pages often collected or folded into signatures; the pages are usually numbered sequentially, and often divided into chapters.

A thin marker, commonly made of paper or card, used to keep one's place in a book is bookmark. Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Old book binding and cover Bookbinding is the process of physically assembling a book from a number of folded or unfolded sheets of paper or other material. ... The endpapers of a book are the sheets of paper pasted onto the inside of a books boards, the stiff binding material that a book cover is made of. ... Book design is the art of incorporating the content, style, format, design, and sequence of the various components of a book into a coherent whole. ... In architecture, a frontispiece constitutes the elements that frame and decorate the main, or front, door to a building; especially when the main entrance is the chief face of the building, rather than being kept behind columns or a portico. ... The title page of a book, thesis or other written work is the page at or near the front which displays its title, and author, as well as other information. ... Not to be confused with copywriting. ... A table of contents, usually headed simply Contents, is a list of the parts of a book or document organized in the order in which the parts appear. ... A foreword is a literary device that is often found in the beginning of a piece of literature, before the introduction. ... A preface is an introduction to a book written by the author of the book. ... In an essay or article, an introduction is a beginning section which states the purpose and goals of the following writing. ... For use of the term in mathematics, see signature (mathematics). ... A chapter is one of the main divisions of a piece of writing of relative length, such as a book, being comprised of multiple pages. ... Book design is the art of incorporating the content, style, format, design, and sequence of the various components of a book into a coherent whole. ... Look up appendix in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Look up glossary in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... An index is a detailed list, usually arranged alphabetically, of the specific information in a publication, whether a book, periodical, database or multimedia collection. ... In publishing, a colophon describes details of the production of a book. ... The endpapers of a book are the sheets of paper pasted onto the inside of a books boards, the stiff binding material that a book cover is made of. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... A book with a bound bookmark Book with florentine paper bookmark A bookmark is a thin marker, commonly made from paper or leather, used to keep ones place in a printed work and so be able to return to it with ease. ...


Sizes

real-size facsimile of Codex Gigas
real-size facsimile of Codex Gigas
the world's largest book
the world's largest book
Main article: Book size

The size of a modern book is based on the printing area of a common flatbed press. The pages of type were arranged and clamped in a frame, so that when printed on a sheet of paper the full size of the press, the pages would be right side up and in order when the sheet was folded, and the folded edges trimmed. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution‎ (2,304 × 1,728 pixels, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution‎ (2,304 × 1,728 pixels, file size: 1. ... Insert non-formatted text here For the machine that sends, receives, and produces facsimiles, see fax. ... The Codex Gigas is one of the largest manuscripts in the world, said to require two men to lift (hence Gigas, Greek for giant). It includes the entire Latin Bible, Isidore of Sevilles Etymologiae, a Latin translation of Josephus Antiquities of the Jews, Cosmas of Pragues Chronicle of... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution‎ (1,200 × 1,600 pixels, file size: 764 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) One of the stone inscriptions or kyuaksa at the Kuthodaw Pagoda, Mandalay, Myanmar. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution‎ (1,200 × 1,600 pixels, file size: 764 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) One of the stone inscriptions or kyuaksa at the Kuthodaw Pagoda, Mandalay, Myanmar. ... Some of the 729 stupas at Kuthodaw Temple The worlds largest book stands upright, set in stone, in the grounds of the Kuthodaw (literally - royal merit) pagoda at the foot of Mandalay Hill in Mandalay, Myanmar (formerly Burma). ... The size of a specific book is measured from the head to tail of the spine, and from edge to edge across the covers. ...


The most common book sizes are:

  • Quarto (4to): the sheet of paper is folded twice, forming four leaves (eight pages) approximately 11-13 inches (ca 30 cm) tall
  • Octavo (8vo): the most common size for current hardcover books. The sheet is folded three times into eight leaves (16 pages) up to 9 ¾" (ca 23 cm) tall.
  • DuoDecimo (12mo): a size between 8vo and 16mo, up to 7 ¾" (ca 18 cm) tall
  • Sextodecimo (16mo): the sheet is folded four times, forming sixteen leaves (32 pages) up to 6 ¾" (ca 15 cm) tall

Sizes larger than quarto are:

  • Folio: up to 15" (ca 38 cm) tall.
  • Elephant Folio: up to 23" (ca 58 cm) tall.
  • Atlas Folio: up to 25" (ca 63 cm) tall.
  • Double Elephant Folio: up to 50" (ca 127 cm) tall.

Sizes smaller than 16mo are:

  • 24mo: up to 5 ¾" (ca 13 cm) tall.
  • 32mo: up to 5" (ca 12 cm) tall.
  • 48mo: up to 4" (ca 10 cm) tall.
  • 64mo: up to 3" (ca 8 cm) tall.

The largest extant medieval manuscript in the world is Codex Gigas 92 × 50 × 22 cm. The world's largest book made of stone is in Kuthodaw Pagoda (Myanmar). The Codex Gigas is one of the largest manuscripts in the world, said to require two men to lift (hence Gigas, Greek for giant). It includes the entire Latin Bible, Isidore of Sevilles Etymologiae, a Latin translation of Josephus Antiquities of the Jews, Cosmas of Pragues Chronicle of... Some of the 729 stupas at Kuthodaw Temple The worlds largest book stands upright, set in stone, in the grounds of the Kuthodaw (literally - royal merit) pagoda at the foot of Mandalay Hill in Mandalay, Myanmar (formerly Burma). ... Kuthodaw Pagoda (Burmese: , officially titled ) is a Theravada Buddhist stupa located in Mandalay, Myanmar (Burma) that contains the worlds largest book. ...


Bookbinding

binding of a book from separate papers
binding of a book from separate papers
Main article: Bookbinding
An uncut book after bookbinding from folded papers. The pages must be separated before reading.
An uncut book after bookbinding from folded papers. The pages must be separated before reading.

The process of physically assembling a book from a number of folded or unfolded sheets of paper is bookbinding. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution‎ (2,304 × 1,728 pixels, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution‎ (2,304 × 1,728 pixels, file size: 1. ... Old book binding and cover Bookbinding is the process of physically assembling a book from a number of folded or unfolded sheets of paper or other material. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 497 × 599 pixel Image in higher resolution (1864 × 2248 pixel, file size: 656 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) an uncut book (notice that the pages are still jointed; in order to read this book one should separate the pages using a... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 497 × 599 pixel Image in higher resolution (1864 × 2248 pixel, file size: 656 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) an uncut book (notice that the pages are still jointed; in order to read this book one should separate the pages using a... Old book binding and cover Bookbinding is the process of physically assembling a book from a number of folded or unfolded sheets of paper or other material. ...


Types of books

Small books can be called booklets. A booklet is a small book. ...


Notebooks are blank books to be written in by the user. Students use them for taking notes. Scientists and other researchers use lab notebooks to record their work. Many notebooks are simply bound by a spiral coil at the edge so that pages can be easily torn out. Books to be partly filled in by the user include a personal address book, phone book, or calendar book for recording appointments, etc. A spiral-bound notebook with pen A notebook (also notepad, writing pad, legal pad etc. ... For other uses, see Student (disambiguation). ... This article is about the profession. ... A lab notebook is a primary record of research. ...


Albums are books for holding collections of memorabilia, pictures or photographs. They are often made so that the pages are removable. albums hold collections of stamps. A classical photo album A photographic album, or photo album, is a collection of a series of photographs, generally in a book. ... For other uses, see Photograph (disambiguation). ... A stamp album is a book, often loose-leafed (to allow for expansion), in which a collection of postage stamps may be stored and displayed. ... This 1974 stamp from Japan depicts a Class 8620 steam locomotive. ...


Books for recording periodic entries by the user, such as daily information about a journey, are called logbooks or simply logs. A similar book for writing daily the owner's private personal events and information is called a diary. logbook aboard the frigate Grand Turk A Logbook is a book for recording readings from the log (see also maritime log). ... == c programming[[a--203. ...


Businesses use accounting books such as journals and ledgers to record financial data in a practice called bookkeeping. In economics, a business is a legally-recognized organizational entity existing within an economically free country designed to sell goods and/or services to consumers, usually in an effort to generate profit. ... It has been suggested that Accounting scholarship be merged into this article or section. ... A ledger (from the English dialect forms liggen or leggen, to lie or lay; in sense adapted from the Dutch substantive logger), is the principal book for recording transactions. ...


Pre-printed school books for students to study are commonly called textbooks and Schoolbooks. Elementary school pupils often use workbooks which are published with spaces or blanks to be filled by them for study or homework. Three textbooks. ... For other uses, see Textbook (disambiguation). ... Primary or elementary education is the first years of formal, structured education that occurs during childhood. ... For the Daft Punk album, see Homework (album). ...


A book with written prayers is called a prayerbook or missal. A book with a collection of hymns is called a hymnal. For other uses, see Prayer (disambiguation). ... A prayer book is a book outlining the liturgy of religious services. ... Missal, in the Roman Catholic Church, is a liturgical book containing all instructions and texts necessary for the celebration of Masses throughout the year. ... For other uses, see Hymn (disambiguation). ... See also hymn - a program to decrypt iTunes music files. ...


In a library, a general type of non-fiction book which provides information as opposed to telling a story, essay, commentary, or otherwise supporting a point of view, is often referred to as a reference book. A very general reference book, usually one-volume, with lists of data and information on many topics is called an almanac. A more specific reference book with tables or lists of data and information about a certain topic, often intended for professional use, is often called a handbook. Books with technical information on how to do something or how to use some equipment are called manuals. A reference work is a compendium of information, usually of a specific type, compiled in a book for ease of reference. ... An almanac (also spelled almanack, especially in Commonwealth English) is an annual publication containing tabular information in a particular field or fields often arranged according to the calendar. ... A handbook is a small manual, reference work, or other collection of instructions, intended to provide ready reference. ... Look up manual in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


An encyclopedia is a book or set of books with articles on many topics. A book listing words, their etymology, meanings, etc. is called a dictionary. A book which is a collection of maps is an atlas. Books which try to list references and abstracts in a certain broad area may be called an index, such as Engineering Index, or abstracts such as Chemical Abstracts, Biological Abstracts, etc. Cyclopedia redirects here. ... For other uses, see Word (disambiguation). ... Etymologies redirects here. ... For other uses, see Dictionary (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Map (disambiguation). ... Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Atlas An atlas is a collection of maps or manifolds, traditionally bound into book form, but also found in multimedia formats. ... Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) is a division of the American Chemical Society which produces the Chemical Abstracts, an index of the scientific literature in chemistry and related fields. ...


Bookmarks were used throughout the medieval period,[1] consisting usually of a small parchment strip attached to the edge of folio (or a piece of cord attached to headband). Bookmarks in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries were narrow silk ribbons bound into the book and become widespread in the 1850's. They were usually made from silk, embroidered fabrics or leather. Not until the 1880's, did paper and other materials become more common. A book with a bound bookmark Book with florentine paper bookmark A bookmark is a thin marker, commonly made from paper or leather, used to keep ones place in a printed work and so be able to return to it with ease. ...

paperback books
paperback books

Books may also be categorized by their binding or cover. Hardcover books have a stiff binding. Paperback books have cheaper, flexible covers which tend to be less durable. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1408x1120, 805 KB) A multi-volume Latin dictionary (Egidio Forcellini: Totius Latinitatis Lexicon, 1858-87) in a table in the main reading room of the University Library of Graz. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1408x1120, 805 KB) A multi-volume Latin dictionary (Egidio Forcellini: Totius Latinitatis Lexicon, 1858-87) in a table in the main reading room of the University Library of Graz. ... Hardcover books A hardcover (or hardback or hardbound) is a book bound with rigid protective covers (typically of cardboard covered with cloth, heavy paper, or sometimes leather). ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 796 × 599 pixelsFull resolution‎ (1,000 × 753 pixels, file size: 661 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) (All user names refer to en. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 796 × 599 pixelsFull resolution‎ (1,000 × 753 pixels, file size: 661 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) (All user names refer to en. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article may require cleanup. ... Hardcover books A hardcover (or hardback or hardbound) is a book bound with rigid protective covers (typically of cardboard covered with cloth, heavy paper, or sometimes leather). ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article may require cleanup. ...


Publishing is a process for producing books, magazines, newspapers, etc. pre-printed for the reader/user to buy, usually in large numbers by a publishing company. Such books can be categorized as fiction (made-up stories) or non-fiction (information written as fact). A book-length fiction story is called a novel. “Publisher” redirects here. ... For other uses, see Fiction (disambiguation). ... This article is about the literary concept. ...


Publishers may produce low-cost, pre-publication copies known as galleys or 'bound proofs' for promotional purposes, such as generating reviews in advance of publication. Galleys are usually made as cheaply as possible, since they are not intended for sale. Movable type on a composing stick In printing, galley proofs are preliminary versions of publications. ...


History of books

Main article: History of the book
Sumerian language cuneiform script clay tablet, 2400–2200 BC.
Sumerian language cuneiform script clay tablet, 2400–2200 BC.

The history of the book is the story of a suite of technological innovations that improved the quality of text conservation, the access to information, portability, and the cost of production. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (594x601, 118 KB) Please see the file description page for further information. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (594x601, 118 KB) Please see the file description page for further information. ... Sumerian ( native tongue) was the language of ancient Sumer, spoken in Southern Mesopotamia from at least the 4th millennium BCE. It was gradually replaced by Akkadian as a spoken language in the beginning of the 2nd millenium BCE, but continued to be used as a sacred, ceremonial, literary and scientific... Small tablets made out of clay were used from late 4th millennium BC onwards as a writing medium in Sumerian, Mesopotamian, Hittite, and Minoan/Mycenaean civilizations. ...

Antiquity

When writing systems were invented in ancient civilizations, nearly everything that could be written upon—stone, clay, tree bark, metal sheets—was used for writing. Alphabetic writing emerged in Egypt around 1800 BC. At first the words were not separated from each other (scripta continua) and there was no punctuation. Texts were written from right to left, left to right, and even so that alternate lines read in opposite directions. The technical term for this type of writing is 'boustrophedon,' which means literally 'ox-turning' for the way a farmer drives an ox to plough his fields. Writing systems evolved in the Early Bronze Age (late 4th millennium BC) out of neolithic proto-writing. ... The span of recorded history is roughly 5,000-5,500 years, with cuneiform possibly being the oldest form of writing. ... Small tablets made out of clay were used from late 4th millennium BC onwards as a writing medium in Sumerian, Mesopotamian, Hittite, and Minoan/Mycenaean civilizations. ... The history of the alphabet begins in Ancient Egypt, more than a millennium into the history of writing. ... The term punctuation has two different linguistic meanings: in general, the act and the effect of punctuating, i. ... Boustrophedon is an ancient way of writing manuscripts and other inscriptions in which, rather than going from left to right as in modern English, or right to left as in Arabic, alternate lines must be read in opposite directions. ...


Scroll

Main article: Scroll
Egyptian papyrus showing the god Osiris and the weighing of the heart.
Egyptian papyrus showing the god Osiris and the weighing of the heart.

Papyrus, a thick paper-like material made by weaving the stems of the papyrus plant, then pounding the woven sheet with a hammer-like tool, was used for writing in Ancient Egypt, perhaps as early as the First Dynasty, although the first evidence is from the account books of King Neferirkare Kakai of the Fifth Dynasty (about 2400 BC).[2] Papyrus sheets were glued together to form a scroll. Tree bark such as lime (Latin liber, from there also library) and other materials were also used.[3] For other uses, see Scroll (disambiguation). ... Image:Egypt. ... Image:Egypt. ... For other uses, see Osiris (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Papyrus (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Paper (disambiguation). ... Khafres Pyramid and the Great Sphinx of Giza, built about 2550 BC during the Fourth Dynasty of the Old Kingdom,[1] are enduring symbols of the civilization of ancient Egypt Ancient Egypt was a civilization in Northeastern Africa concentrated along the middle to lower reaches of the Nile River... The First and second Dynasties of Ancient Egypt are often combined under the group title of the Early Dynastic Period of Egypt. ... Neferirkare Kakai was Pharaoh of Egypt during the Fifth dynasty. ... Known rulers, in the History of Egypt, for the Fifth Dynasty. ... A scroll is a roll of parchment, papyrus, or paper which has been written upon. ... Species About 30; see text A lime-lined avenue in Alexandra Park, London Tilia leaf Tilia is a genus of about 30 species of trees, native throughout most of the temperate Northern Hemisphere, in Asia (where the greatest species diversity is found), Europe and eastern North America; it is absent... Julio Pérez Ferrero Library - Cúcuta, Colombia A modern-style library in Chambéry A library is a collection of information, sources, resources, and services: it is organized for use and maintained by a public body, an institution, or a private individual. ...


According to Herodotus (History 5:58), the Phoenicians brought writing and papyrus to Greece around the tenth or ninth century BC. The Greek word for papyrus as writing material (biblion) and book (biblos) come from the Phoenician port town Byblos, through which papyrus was exported to Greece.[4] From Greeks we have also the word tome (Greek: τόμος) which originally meant a slice or piece and from there it became to denote "a roll of papyrus". Tomus was used by the Latins with exactly the same meaning as volumen (see also below the explanation by Isidore of Seville). Herodotus of Halicarnassus (Greek: HÄ“rodotos Halikarnāsseus) was a Greek historian from Ionia who lived in the 5th century BC (ca. ... Phoenicia was an ancient civilization in the north of ancient Canaan, with its heartland along the coastal plain of what is now Lebanon and Syria. ... The ruins of the Crusader castle in Byblos. ...


Whether made from papyrus, parchment, or paper in East Asia, scrolls were the dominant form of book in the Hellenistic, Roman, Chinese and Hebrew cultures. The more modern codex book format form took over the Roman world by late antiquity, but the scroll format persisted much longer in Asia. German parchmenter, 1568 Parchment is a material for the pages of a book or codex, made from fine calf skin, sheep skin or goat skin. ... First page of the Codex Argenteus A codex (Latin for block of wood, book; plural codices) is a handwritten book, in general, one produced from Late Antiquity through the Middle Ages. ... Late Antiquity is a rough periodization (c. ...


Codex

Main article: Codex
Woman holding a book (or wax tablets) in the form of the codex. Wall painting from Pompeii, before 79 AD.

Papyrus scrolls were still dominant in the first century AD, as witnessed by the findings in Pompeii. The first written mention of the codex as a form of book is from Martial, in his Apophoreta CLXXXIV at the end of the century, where he praises its compactness. However the codex never gained much popularity in the pagan Hellenistic world, and only within the Christian community did it gain widespread use.[5] This change happened gradually during the third and fourth centuries, and the reasons for adopting the codex form of the book are several: the format is more economical, as both sides of the writing material can be used; and it is portable, searchable, and easy to conceal. The Christian authors may also have wanted to distinguish their writings from the pagan texts written on scrolls. First page of the Codex Argenteus A codex (Latin for block of wood, book; plural codices) is a handwritten book, in general, one produced from Late Antiquity through the Middle Ages. ... So-called Sappho, fourth style fresco; Pompeii, Region VI, Insula occidentalis. ... So-called Sappho, fourth style fresco; Pompeii, Region VI, Insula occidentalis. ... First page of the Codex Argenteus A codex (Latin for block of wood, book; plural codices) is a handwritten book, in general, one produced from Late Antiquity through the Middle Ages. ... For other uses, see Pompeii (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Papyrus (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Pompeii (disambiguation). ... Marcus Valerius Martialis, known in English as Martial, was a Latin poet from Hispania (the Iberian Peninsula) best known for his twelve books of Epigrams, published in Rome between AD 86 and 103, during the reigns of the emperors Domitian, Nerva and Trajan. ...

A Chinese bamboo book
A Chinese bamboo book

Wax tablets were the normal writing material in schools, in accounting, and for taking notes. They had the advantage of being reusable: the wax could be melted, and reformed into a blank. The custom of binding several wax tablets together (Roman pugillares) is a possible precursor for modern books (i.e. codex).[6]The etymology of the word codex (block of wood) also suggests that it may have developed from wooden wax tablets.[7] Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 518 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (1866 × 2160 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 518 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (1866 × 2160 pixel, file size: 1. ... For other uses, see Bamboo (disambiguation). ... This page is a candidate for speedy deletion. ...


In the 5th century, Isidore of Seville explained the relation between codex, book and scroll in his Etymologiae (VI.13): "A codex is composed of many books; a book is of one scroll. It is called codex by way of metaphor from the trunks (codex) of trees or vines, as if it were a wooden stock, because it contains in itself a multitude of books, as it were of branches." Saint Isidore of Seville (Spanish: or ) (c. ...


Middle Ages

Manuscripts

Main article: Manuscript
Folio 14 recto of the 5th century Vergilius Romanus contains an author portrait of Virgil. Note the bookcase (capsa), reading stand and the text written without word spacing in rustic capitals.
Folio 14 recto of the 5th century Vergilius Romanus contains an author portrait of Virgil. Note the bookcase (capsa), reading stand and the text written without word spacing in rustic capitals.

The fall of the Roman Empire in the fifth century A.D. saw the decline of the culture of ancient Rome. Papyrus became difficult to obtain, due to lack of contact with Egypt, and parchment, which had been used for centuries, began to be the main writing material. A manuscript (Latin manu scriptus, written by hand), strictly speaking, is any written document that is put down by hand, in contrast to being printed or reproduced some other way. ... Image File history File links RomanVirgilFolio014rVergilPortrait. ... Image File history File links RomanVirgilFolio014rVergilPortrait. ... Folio 14 recto of the Vergilius Romanus contains an author portrait of Virgil. ... For other uses, see Virgil (disambiguation). ... A bookcase filled with books A bookcase is an article of furniture, forming a shelved receptacle, usually perpendicular or horizontal, for the storage of books. ... shoe ... For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... Julius Caesar, from the bust in the British Museum, in Cassells History of England (1902). ... German parchmenter, 1568 Parchment is a material for the pages of a book or codex, made from fine calf skin, sheep skin or goat skin. ...


Monasteries carried on the Latin writing tradition in the Western Roman Empire. Cassiodorus, in the monastery of Vivarium (established around 540), stressed the importance of copying texts[8]. St. Benedict of Nursia, in his Regula Monachorum (completed around the middle of the 6th century) later also promoted reading.[9] The Rule of St. Benedict (Ch. XLVIII), which set aside certain times for reading, greatly influenced the monastic culture of the Middle Ages, and is one of the reasons why the clergy were the predominant readers of books. The tradition and style of the Roman Empire still dominated, but slowly the peculiar medieval book culture emerged. Latin literature, the body of written works in the Latin language, remains an enduring legacy of the culture of ancient Rome. ... Motto Senatus Populusque Romanus The Western Roman Empire in 395. ... Cassiodorus at his Vivarium library ( in Codex Amiatinus, 8th century). ... Saint Benedict redirects here. ... St. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ...


Before the invention and adoption of the printing press, almost all books were copied by hand, making books expensive and comparatively rare. Smaller monasteries usually had only some dozen books, medium sized perhaps a couple hundred. By the ninth century, larger collections held around 500 volumes; and even at the end of the Middle Ages, the papal library in Avignon and Paris library of Sorbonne held only around 2,000 volumes.[10] The printing press is a mechanical device for printing many copies of a text on rectangular sheets of paper. ... City flag City coat of arms Location Coordinates Time Zone CET (GMT +1) Administration Country France Région Provence-Alpes-Côte dAzur Département Vaucluse (préfecture) Arrondissement Avignon Canton Chief town of 4 cantons Intercommunality Communauté dagglomération du Grand Avignon Mayor Marie-Josée Roig... The Sorbonne, Paris, in a 17th century engraving The historic University of Paris (French: ) first appeared in the second half of the 12th century, but was in 1970 reorganised as 13 autonomous universities (University of Paris I–XIII). ...

Burgundian scribe (portrait of Jean Miélot, from Miracles de Notre Dame), 15th century. The depiction shows the room's furnishings, the writer's materials, equipment, and activity.
Burgundian scribe (portrait of Jean Miélot, from Miracles de Notre Dame), 15th century. The depiction shows the room's furnishings, the writer's materials, equipment, and activity.

The scriptorium of the monastery was usually located over the chapter house. Artificial light was forbidden, for fear it may damage the manuscripts. There were five types of scribes: Image File history File links Escribano. ... Image File history File links Escribano. ... A Scriptorium was a room or building, usually within a Christian monastery where, during medieval times, manuscripts were written. ... A chapter house is a building or room attached to a cathedral or collegiate church in which meetings are held. ...

  • Copyists, who dealt with basic production and correspondence
  • Calligraphers, who dealt in fine book production
  • Correctors, who collated and compared a finished book with the manuscript from which it had been produced
  • Rubricators, who painted in the red letters
  • Illuminators, who painted illustrations

The bookmaking process was long and laborious. The parchment had to be prepared, then the unbound pages were planned and ruled with a blunt tool or lead, after which the text was written by the scribe, who usually left blank areas for illustration and rubrication. Finally the book was bound by the bookbinder.[11] This is about scribe, the profession. ... Detail from a rare Blackletter Bible (1497) printed and rubricated in Strasbourg by J.R.Grueninger. ... Bookbinding is the process of physically assembling a book from a number of separate sheets of paper or other material. ...

Desk with chained books in the Library of Cesena, Italy.
Desk with chained books in the Library of Cesena, Italy.

Different types of ink were known in antiquity, usually prepared from soot and gum, and later also from gall nuts and iron vitriol. This gave writing the typical brownish black color, but black or brown were not the only colours used. There are texts written in red or even gold, and different colours were used for illumination. Sometimes the whole parchment was coloured purple, and the text was written on it with gold or silver (eg Codex Argenteus).[12] Image File history File links Milkau_Bücherschrank_mit_angekettetem_Buch_aus_der_Bibliothek_von_Cesena_109-2. ... Image File history File links Milkau_Bücherschrank_mit_angekettetem_Buch_aus_der_Bibliothek_von_Cesena_109-2. ... Kalanchoë infected with crown-gall using Agrobacterium tumefaciens. ... Iron(II) sulfate is the chemical compound with the formula (FeSO4). ... first page of the Codex Argenteus The Codex Argenteus (or Silver Bible) is a 6th century manuscript, originally containing bishop Ulfilass 4th century translation of the bible into the Gothic language. ...


Irish monks introduced spacing between words in the seventh century. This facilitated reading, as these monks tended to be less familiar with Latin. However the use of spaces between words did not become commonplace before the 12th century. It has been argued,[13] that the use of spacing between words shows the transition from semi-vocalized reading into silent reading.


The first books used parchment or vellum (calf skin) for the pages. The book covers were made of wood and covered with leather. As dried parchment tends to assume the form before processing, the books were fitted with clasps or straps. During the later Middle Ages, when public libraries appeared, books were often chained to a bookshelf or a desk to prevent theft. The so called libri catenati were used up to 18th century. German parchmenter, 1568 Parchment is a material for the pages of a book or codex, made from fine calf skin, sheep skin or goat skin. ... Vellum was originally a translucent or opaque material produced from calfskin that had been soaked, limed and unhaired, and then dried at normal temperature under tension, usually on a wooden device called a stretching frame. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... A desk is a furniture form and a class of table. ...


At first books were copied mostly in monasteries, one at a time. With the rise of universities in the 13th century, the Manuscript culture of the time lead to an increase in the demand for books, and a new system for copying books appeared. The books were divided into unbound leaves (pecia), which were lent out to different copyists, so the speed of book production was considerably increased. The system was maintained by stationers guilds, which were secular, and produced both religious and non-religious material.[14] The transition of communication technology: Oral Culture, Manuscript Culture, Print Culture, and Information Age Manuscript culture refers to the development and use of the manuscript as a means of storing and disseminating information until the age of printing. ... Stationery is a general name given to paper and office supplies such as envelopes, notepads, pens, pencils, erasers, paper clips, staples, etc. ...


Wood block printing

The intricate frontispiece of the Diamond Sutra from Tang Dynasty China, 868 AD (British Museum)

In woodblock printing, a relief image of an entire page was carved into blocks of wood, inked, and used to print copies of that page. This method originated in China, in the Han dynasty (before 220AD), as a method of printing on textiles and later paper, and was widely used throughout East Asia. The oldest dated book printed by this method is The Diamond Sutra (868 AD). Image File history File links Jingangjing. ... Image File history File links Jingangjing. ... For the band, see Tang Dynasty (band). ... London museum | name = British Museum | image = British Museum from NE 2. ... Yuan Dynasty woodblock edition of a Chinese play For the use of the technique in art, see Woodcut on the technique, and Old master print for the history in Europe and woodblock printing in Japan. ... Han Dynasty in 87 BC Capital Changan (202 BC–9 AD) Luoyang (25 AD–190 AD) Language(s) Chinese Religion Taoism, Confucianism Government Monarchy History  - Establishment 206 BC  - Battle of Gaixia; Han rule of China begins 202 BC  - Interruption of Han rule 9 - 24  - Abdication to Cao Wei 220... For other uses, see Print. ... This article is about the type of fabric. ... For other uses, see Paper (disambiguation). ... East Asia Geographic East Asia. ... The Diamond Sutra (Vajracchedika-prajñāpāramitā-sūtra), The Perfection of Wisdom Sutra that Cuts like a Thunderbolt, is a short Mahayana sutra of the Perfection of Wisdom genre, which teaches the practice of the avoidance of abiding in extremes of mental attachment. ...


The method (called Woodcut when used in art) arrived in Europe in the early 14th century. Books (known as block-books), as well as playing-cards and religious pictures, began to be produced by this method. Creating an entire book was a painstaking process, requiring a hand-carved block for each page; and the wood blocks tended to crack, if stored for long. Four horsemen of the Apocalypse by Albrecht Dürer Ukiyo-e woodcut, Ishiyama Moon by Tsukioka Yoshitoshi (1889) Woodcut is a relief printing artistic technique in printmaking in which an image is carved into the surface of a block of wood, with the printing parts remaining level with the surface... Yuan Dynasty woodblock edition of a Chinese play For the use of the technique in art, see Woodcut on the technique, and Old master print for the history in Europe and woodblock printing in Japan. ... Some typical modern playing cards. ... The term Old Master Print is used to describe works of art produced by a printing process within the Western tradition (European or New World). ...


Movable type and incunabula

Main articles: Movable type and Incunabulum
"Selected Teachings of Buddhist Sages and Son Masters", the earliest known book printed with movable metal type, 1377. Bibliothèque Nationale de Paris.
"Selected Teachings of Buddhist Sages and Son Masters", the earliest known book printed with movable metal type, 1377. Bibliothèque Nationale de Paris.

The Chinese inventor Pi Sheng made movable type of earthenware circa 1045, but there are no known surviving examples of his printing. Metal movable type was invented in Korea during the Goryeo Dynasty (around 1230), but was not widely used: one reason being the enormous Chinese character set. Around 1450, in what is commonly regarded as an independent invention, Johannes Gutenberg invented movable type in Europe, along with innovations in casting the type based on a matrix and hand mould. This invention gradually made books less expensive to produce, and more widely available. For the weblog software, see Movable Type. ... A page from a rare Blackletter Bible (1497) printed in Strasbourg by J.R. Grueninger. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Pi Sheng was a person who invented the skills of the printing ... For the weblog software, see Movable Type. ... This article is about the Korean civilization. ... The Goryeo kingdom ruled Korea from the fall of Silla in 935 until the founding of Joseon in 1392. ... This article is about the inventor of printing in Europe; for other uses, see Guttenberg (disambiguation) and Gutenberg. ... A Hand mould is a two-part mould used for casting small metal objects that could be operated by hand. ...

A 15th century incunabulum. Notice the blind-tooled cover, corner bosses and clasps.
A 15th century incunabulum. Notice the blind-tooled cover, corner bosses and clasps.

Early printed books, single sheets and images which were created before the year 1501 in Europe are known as incunabula. A man born in 1453, the year of the fall of Constantinople, could look back from his fiftieth year on a lifetime in which about eight million books had been printed, more perhaps than all the scribes of Europe had produced since Constantine founded his city in A.D. 330.[15] Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1976x2708, 534 KB) Ex Bibliotheca Gymnasii Altonani (Hamburg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Book ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1976x2708, 534 KB) Ex Bibliotheca Gymnasii Altonani (Hamburg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Book ... A page from a rare Blackletter Bible (1497) printed in Strasbourg by J.R. Grueninger. ... A page from a rare Blackletter Bible (1497) printed in Strassburg by J.R.Grueninger. ...


Modern world

Steam-powered printing presses became popular in the early 1800s. These machines could print 1,100 sheets per hour, but workers could only set 2,000 letters per hour.


Monotype and linotype presses were introduced in the late 19th century. They could set more than 6,000 letters per hour and an entire line of type at once. Currently Monotype Imaging, Inc, a typesetting and typeface design company responsible for many developments in printing technology — in particular the Monotype machine which was the first fully mechanical typesetter — and the design and production of typefaces in the 19th and 20th centuries. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Linotype machine. ...


The centuries after the 15th century were thus spent on improving both the printing press and the conditions for freedom of the press through the gradual relaxation of restrictive censorship laws. See also intellectual property, public domain, copyright. In mid-20th century, Europe book production had risen to over 200,000 titles per year. Freedom of the Press (or Press Freedom) is the guarantee by a government of free public press for its citizens and their associations, extended to members of news gathering organizations, and their published reporting. ... For the 2006 film, see Intellectual Property (film). ... The public domain comprises the body of all creative works and other knowledge—writing, artwork, music, science, inventions, and others—in which no person or organization has any proprietary interest. ... Not to be confused with copywriting. ...


Transition to digital format

The term e-book (electronic book) in the broad sense is an amount of information like a conventional book, but in digital form. It is made available through internet, CD-ROM, etc. In the popular press the term e-Book sometimes refers to a device such as the Sony Librie EBR-1000EP, which is meant to read the digital form and present it in a human readable form. A user viewing an electronic page on an eBook reading device An e-book (for electronic book: also eBook, ecoBook) is the digital media equivalent of a conventional printed book. ... // Sony supplies the Librie EBR-1000EP, an ebook display device, to the public. ...


Throughout the 20th century, libraries have faced an ever-increasing rate of publishing, sometimes called an information explosion. The advent of electronic publishing and the Internet means that much new information is not printed in paper books, but is made available online through a digital library, on CD-ROM, or in the form of e-books. An on-line book is an e-book that is available online through the internet. In Library and Information Science, information explosion is a term used for the ever increasing rate of publication. ... Electronic publishing includes the digital publication of ebooks and electronic articles, and the development of digital libraries. ... A digital library is a library in which collections are stored in digital formats (as opposed to print, microform, or other media) and accessible by computers [1]. The digital content may be stored locally, or accessed remotely via computer networks. ... The CD-ROM (an abbreviation for Compact Disc Read-Only Memory (ROM)) is a non-volatile optical data storage medium using the same physical format as audio compact discs, readable by a computer with a CD-ROM drive. ... An on-line book is an ebook that is available online through the Internet, whether or not distributed free. ...


On the other hand, though books are nowadays produced using a digital version of the content, for most books such a version is not available to the public (i.e. neither in the library nor on the Internet), and there is no decline in the rate of paper publishing. There is an effort, however, to convert books that are in the public domain into a digital medium for unlimited redistribution and infinite availability. The effort is spearheaded by Project Gutenberg combined with Distributed Proofreaders. The public domain comprises the body of all creative works and other knowledge—writing, artwork, music, science, inventions, and others—in which no person or organization has any proprietary interest. ... Project Gutenberg, abbreviated as PG, is a volunteer effort to digitize, archive and distribute cultural works. ... Distributed Proofreaders (commonly abbreviated as DP or PGDP) is a project to support the development of e-texts for Project Gutenberg. ...


There have also been new developments in the process of publishing books. Technologies such as print on demand have made it easier for less known authors to make their work available to a larger audience. Print on demand (POD), sometimes mistakenly referred to as publish on demand, is a printing technology employed by publishers in which new copies of a book (or other document) are not printed until after an order for them has been received. ...


Collections of books

The Librarian, by Giuseppe Arcimboldo (1566), oil on canvas, at Skokloster Castle, Sweden.
The Librarian, by Giuseppe Arcimboldo (1566), oil on canvas, at Skokloster Castle, Sweden.
Main article: Library

Private or personal libraries made up of non-fiction and fiction books, (as opposed to the state or institutional records kept in archives) first appeared in classical Greece. In ancient world the maintaining of a library was usually (but not exclusively) the privilege of a wealthy individual. These libraries could have been either private or public, i.e. for individuals that were interested in using them. The difference from a modern public library lies in the fact that they were usually not funded from public sources. It is estimated that in the city of Rome at the end of the third century there were around 30 public libraries, public libraries also existed in other cities of the ancient Mediterranean region (e.g. Library of Alexandria).[16] Later, in the Middle Ages, monasteries and universities had also libraries that could be accessible to general public. Typically not the whole collection was available to public, the books could not be borrowed and often were chained to reading stands to prevent theft. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The Librarian, a 1556 painting by Giuseppe Arcimboldo A librarian is an information professional trained in library science and information science: the organization and management of information and service to people with information needs. ... Vertumnus, a portrait of Rudolf II. The Librarian, 1566, oil on canvas, Skoklosters Slott, Sweden Giuseppe Arcimboldo (also spelled Arcimboldi; 1527 - July 11, 1593) was an Italian painter best known for creating imaginative portrait heads made entirely of such objects as fruits, vegetables, flowers, fish, and books -- that is, he... Castle and surroundings ca 1690-1710. ... Julio Pérez Ferrero Library - Cúcuta, Colombia A modern-style library in Chambéry A library is a collection of information, sources, resources, and services: it is organized for use and maintained by a public body, an institution, or a private individual. ... Archive of the AMVC An archive refers to a collection of historical records, and also refers to the location in which these records are kept. ... Parthenon This article is on the term Classical Greece itself. ... Julio Pérez Ferrero Library - Cúcuta, Colombia A modern-style library in Chambéry A library is a collection of information, sources, resources, and services: it is organized for use and maintained by a public body, an institution, or a private individual. ... Librarians and patrons in a typical larger urban public library. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Inscription regarding Tiberius Claudius Balbilus of Rome (d. ...

Celsus Library was built in 135 A.D. and could house around 12,000 scrolls.
Celsus Library was built in 135 A.D. and could house around 12,000 scrolls.

The beginning of modern public library begins around 15th century when individuals started to donate books to towns.[17] The growth of a public library system in the United States started in the late 19th century and was much helped by donations from Andrew Carnegie. This reflected classes in a society: The poor or the middle class had to access most books through a public library or by other means while the rich could afford to have a private library built in their homes. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2592x1944, 1679 KB) Description: Facade of the Celsus-Library in Ephesos, Turkey. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2592x1944, 1679 KB) Description: Facade of the Celsus-Library in Ephesos, Turkey. ... Ruins of Celsus Library Celsus library is a monumental tomb for Gaius Julius Celsus Polemaeanus, built by his son Galius Julius Aquila in 135 in Ephesus. ... Librarians and patrons in a typical larger urban public library. ... Andrew Carnegie (last name pronounced IPA: )[1] (November 25, 1835 – August 11, 1919) was a Scottish industrialist, businessman, a major philanthropist, and the founder of Pittsburghs Carnegie Steel Company which later became U.S. Steel. ... A private library is a library held by a private owner or owners rather than by a public institution, usually only for the use of a small number of people or one person. ...


The advent of paperback books in the 20th century led to an explosion of popular publishing. Paperback books made owning books affordable for many people. Paperback books often included works from genres that had previously been published mostly in pulp magazines. As a result of the low cost of such books and the spread of bookstores filled with them (in addition to the creation of a smaller market of extremely cheap used paperbacks) owning a private library ceased to be a status symbol for the rich. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article may require cleanup. ... Pulp magazines, often called simply the pulps, were inexpensive text fiction magazines widely published in the 1920s through the 1950s. ...


In library and booksellers' catalogues, it is common to include an abbreviation such as "Crown 8vo" to indicate the paper size from which the book is made. Comparison of the most common paper sizes. ...


When rows of books are lined on a bookshelf, bookends are sometimes needed to keep them from slanting. Categories: Stub ...


Identification and classification

ISBN number with barcode.
ISBN number with barcode.

During the 20th century, librarians were concerned about keeping track of the many books being added yearly to the Gutenberg Galaxy. Through a global society called the International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions (IFLA), they devised a series of tools including the International Standard Bibliographic Description (ISBD). Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1501x805, 79 KB) La bildo estas kopiita de wikipedia:cy. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1501x805, 79 KB) La bildo estas kopiita de wikipedia:cy. ... The International Standard Book Number, or ISBN (sometimes pronounced is-ben), is a unique[1] identifier for books, intended to be used commercially. ... Wikipedia encoded in Code 128 Wikipedia encoded in Code 93 Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia encoded in the DataMatrix 2D barcode For the taxonomic method, see DNA barcoding. ... The Librarian, a 1556 painting by Giuseppe Arcimboldo A librarian is an information professional trained in library science and information science: the organization and management of information and service to people with information needs. ... The International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions (IFLA) is a worldwide organization created to provide librarians around the world with a forum for exchanging ideas, and promoting international cooperation, research and development in all fields of library activity. ... The International Standard Bibliographic Description or ISBD is a set of rules produced by the International Federation of Library Associations (IFLA) to describe a wide range of library materials, within the context of a catalog. ...


Each book is specified by an International Standard Book Number, or ISBN, which is unique to every edition of every book produced by participating publishers, world wide. It is managed by the ISBN Society. An ISBN has four parts: the first part is the country code, the second the publisher code, and the third the title code. The last part is a check digit, and can take values from 0–9 and X (10). The EAN Barcodes numbers for books are derived from the ISBN by prefixing 978, for Bookland, and calculating a new check digit. The International Standard Book Number, or ISBN (sometimes pronounced is-ben), is a unique[1] identifier for books, intended to be used commercially. ... A publisher is a person or entity which engages in the act of publishing. ... A typical EAN-13 barcode A European Article Number (EAN) is a barcoding standard which is a superset of the original 12-digit Universal Product Code (UPC) system developed in North America. ... Wikipedia encoded in Code 128 Wikipedia encoded in Code 93 Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia encoded in the DataMatrix 2D barcode For the taxonomic method, see DNA barcoding. ... Bookland is an imaginary place created in the 1980s in order to reserve an EAN Country Code for books, regardless of country of origin, so that the EAN space can catalog books by ISBN rather than maintaining a redundant parallel numbering system. ...


Commercial publishers in industrialized countries generally assign ISBNs to their books, so buyers may presume that the ISBN is part of a total international system, with no exceptions. However many government publishers, in industrial as well as developing countries, do not participate fully in the ISBN system, and publish books which do not have ISBNs.

Books on library shelves with bookends, and call numbers visible on the spines
Books on library shelves with bookends, and call numbers visible on the spines

A large or public collection requires a catalogue. Codes called "call numbers" relate the books to the catalogue, and determine their locations on the shelves. Call numbers are based on a Library classification system. The call number is placed on the spine of the book, normally a short distance before the bottom, and inside. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1280x960, 450 KB) Description: San Diego City College Learing Recource City retrieve a book Source: http://flickr. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1280x960, 450 KB) Description: San Diego City College Learing Recource City retrieve a book Source: http://flickr. ... Categories: Stub ... The card catalog at Yale Universitys Sterling Memorial Library goes almost completely unused, but adds to the austere atmosphere. ... Library classification forms part of the field of library and information science. ...


Institutional or national standards, such as ANSI/NISO Z39.41 - 1997, establish the correct way to place information (such as the title, or the name of the author) on book spines, and on "shelvable" book-like objects, such as containers for DVDs, video tapes and software. The American National Standards Institute or ANSI (pronounced an-see) is a nonprofit organization that oversees the development of standards for products, services, processes and systems in the United States. ... The National Information Standards Organization (NISO) is a United States non-profit standards organization that develops, maintains and publishes technical standards related to bibliographic and library applications. ... DVD (also known as Digital Versatile Disc or Digital Video Disc) is a popular optical disc storage media format. ... The video cassette recorder (or VCR, less popularly video tape recorder) is a type of video tape recorder that uses removable cassettes containing magnetic tape to record audio and video from a television broadcast so it can be played back later. ... Software redirects here. ...


One of the earliest and most widely known systems of cataloguing books is the Dewey Decimal System. This system has fallen out of use in some places, mainly because of a Eurocentric bias and other difficulties applying the system to modern libraries. However, it is still used by most public libraries in America. The Library of Congress Classification system is more popular in university libraries.[citation needed] The Dewey Decimal Classification (DDC, also called the Dewey Decimal System) is a system of library classification developed by Melvil Dewey (1851–1931) in 1876, and since greatly modified and expanded in the course of the twenty-two major revisions which have occurred up until 2004. ... Library of Congress reading room The Library of Congress Classification (LCC) is a system of library classification developed by the Library of Congress. ...


Information about books and authors can be stored in databases like online general-interest book databases. For other uses, see Author (disambiguation). ... Online general-interest book databases are bibliographic databases intended primarily for general rather than academic use, and are often constructed in a way resembling social networking sites. ...


Classification systems

The Dewey Decimal Classification (DDC, also called the Dewey Decimal System) is a proprietary system of library classification developed by Melvil Dewey in 1876, and has since then been greatly modified and expanded through twenty-two major revisions, the most recent in 2004. ... Library of Congress reading room The Library of Congress Classification (LCC) is a system of library classification developed by the Library of Congress. ... The Chinese Library Classification (CLC), also known as Classification for Chinese Libraries (CCL) is a library classification that is currently widely used in almost all of the libraries of primary and secondary schools, academic institutions, colleges, universities as well as public libraries throughout Mainland China in the Peoples Republic... The Universal Decimal Classification is a system of library classification developed by the Belgian bibliographers Paul Otlet and Henri la Fontaine at the end of the 19th century. ... Alfred Kaiming Chiu (1898-1977) was a pioneer of establishing a library classification system for Chinese language materials in the United States of America. ...

Paper and conservation issues

Halfbound book with leather and marbled paper.
Halfbound book with leather and marbled paper.
Main article: Paper

Though papermaking in Europe had begun around the 11th century, up until the beginning of 16th century vellum and paper were produced congruent to one another, vellum being the more expensive and durable option. Printers or publishers would often issue the same publication on both materials, to cater to more than one market. Image File history File links Please see the file description page for further information. ... Image File history File links Please see the file description page for further information. ... For other uses, see Paper (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Paper (disambiguation). ...


Paper was first made in China, as early as 200 B.C., and reached Europe through Muslim territories. At first made of rags, the industrial revolution changed paper-making practices, allowing for paper to be made out of wood pulp. The History of Islam involves the history of the Islamic faith as a religion and as a social institution. ... A Watt steam engine, the steam engine that propelled the Industrial Revolution in Britain and the world. ...


Paper made from wood pulp was introduced in the early-19th century, because it was cheaper than linen or abaca cloth-based papers. Pulp-based paper made books less expensive to the general public. This paved the way for huge leaps in the rate of literacy in industrialised nations, and enabled the spread of information during the Second Industrial Revolution. International Paper Company Wood pulp is the most common material used to make paper. ... Torn linen cloth, recovered from the Dead Sea Linen is a material made from the fibers of the flax plant. ... Binomial name Musa textilis Categories: Plant stubs | Liliopsida ... The Second Industrial Revolution (1865–1900) is a phrase used by some historians to describe an assumed second phase of the Industrial Revolution. ...


However pulp paper contained acid, that eventually destroys the paper from within. Earlier techniques for making paper used limestone rollers, which neutralized the acid in the pulp. Books printed between 1850 and 1950 are at risk; more recent books are often printed on acid-free or alkaline paper. Libraries today have to consider mass deacidification of their older collections. The common (Arrhenius) definition of a base is a chemical compound that either donates hydroxide ions or absorbs hydrogen ions when dissolved in water. ... Mass deacidification is a term used in Library and Information Science for one possible measure against the degradation of paper in old books (the so-called slow fires). One technique proposed was to place books in an evacuated chamber, then introduce diethyl zinc (DEZ). ...


The proper care of books takes into account the possibility of physical and chemical damage to the cover and text. Books are best stored out of direct sunlight, in reduced lighting, at cool temperatures, and at moderate humidity. They need the support of surrounding volumes to maintain their shape, so it is desirable to shelve them by size.


Uses for books

Literature
Major forms

Epic · Romance · Novel
Tragedy · Comedy · Drama For other uses, see Literature (disambiguation). ... The epic is a broadly defined genre of narrative poetry, characterized by great length, multiple settings, large numbers of characters, or long span of time involved. ... As a literary genre, romance or chivalric romance refers to a style of heroic prose and verse narrative current in Europe from the Middle Ages to the Renaissance. ... This article is about the literary concept. ... For other uses, see Tragedy (disambiguation). ... A comedy is a dramatic performance of a light and amusing character, usually with a happy conclusion to its plot. ... For other uses, see Drama (disambiguation). ...

Media

Performance · Book Buskers perform in San Francisco A performance, in performing arts, generally comprises an event in which one group of people (the performer or performers) behave in a particular way for another group of people (the audience). ...

Techniques

Prose · Poetry Prose is writing distinguished from poetry by its greater variety of rhythm and its closer resemblance to everyday speech. ... This article is about the art form. ...

History and lists

Basic topics · Literary terms
History · Modern history
Books · Authors
Literary awards · Poetry awards Literature is prose, written or oral, including fiction and non-fiction, drama and poetry. ... The following is a list of literary terms; that is, those words used in discussion, classification, criticism, and analysis of literature. ... The history of literature is the historical development of writings in prose or poetry which attempt to provide entertainment, enlightenment, or instruction to the reader/hearer/observer, as well as the development of the literary techniques used in the communication of these pieces. ... This article is homosexual and should be burned the second in a series of The History of Literature. ... These are lists of books: List of books by title List of books by author Lists of authors List of anonymously published works (List of Hiberno-Saxon illustrated manuscripts) List of books by genre or type List of books by award or notoriety List of books by year of publication... The following are lists of authors and writers: By name A – B – C – D – E – F – G – H – I – J – K – L – M – N – O – P – Q – R – S – T &#8211... It has been suggested that the section Literature from the article List of prizes, medals, and awards be merged into this article or section. ... This is a list of awards that are, or have been, given out to writers of poetry, either for a specific poem, collection of poems, or body of work. ...

Discussion

Criticism · Theory · Magazines Literary criticism is the study, discussion, evaluation, and interpretation of literature. ... Literary theory is the theory (or the philosophy) of the interpretation of literature and literary criticism. ... A literary magazine is a periodical devoted to literature in a broad sense. ...

Aside from the primary purpose of reading them, books are also used for other ends:

  • A book may be studied by students as the subject of a writing and analysis exercise in the form of a book report.
  • A book may be evaluated by a professional writer in order to produce a published book review.
  • A book may be read by a group of people to use as a spark for social or academic discussion, as in a book club.
  • Books are sometimes used for their exterior appearance to decorate a room, such as a study.
  • Artists' Books
  • Audiobook

A book report is an exposition giving a short summary of a book and a reaction to it. ... A book review (or book report) is a form of literary criticism in which the work is analyzed based on content, style, and merit. ... A book discussion club is a group of people who meet to discuss a book or books that they have read and express their opinions, likes, dislikes, etc. ... Artists books (also called bookworks) are works of art realized in the form of a book. ... An audio book is a recording of the contents of a book read aloud. ...

See also

Find more information on Book by searching Wikipedia's sister projects
Dictionary definitions from Wiktionary
Textbooks from Wikibooks
Quotations from Wikiquote
Source texts from Wikisource
Images and media from Commons
News stories from Wikinews
Learning resources from Wikiversity

Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Image File history File links Wikibooks-logo. ... Image File history File links Wikiquote-logo. ... Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Image File history File links WikiNews-Logo. ... Image File history File links Wikiversity-logo-Snorky. ... These are lists of books: List of books by title List of books by author Lists of authors List of anonymously published works (List of Hiberno-Saxon illustrated manuscripts) List of books by genre or type List of books by award or notoriety List of best-selling books List of...

Notes and references

  1. ^ For a 9th century Carolingian bookmark see: Szirmai, J. A. (1999). The archaeology of medieval bookbinding. Aldershot: Ashgate, p. 123. ISBN 0859679047.  For a 15th century bookmark see Medeltidshandskrift 34, Lund University Library.
  2. ^ Avrin, Leila (1991). Scribes, script, and books: the book arts from antiquity to the Renaissance. Chicago; London: American Library Association; The British Library, p. 83. ISBN 9780838905227. 
  3. ^ Dard Hunter. Papermaking: History and Technique of an Ancient Craft New ed. Dover Publications 1978, p. 12.
  4. ^ Leila Avrin. Scribes, Script and Books, pp. 144–145.
  5. ^ The Cambridge History of Early Christian Literature. Edd. Frances Young, Lewis Ayres, Andrew Louth. Cambridge University Press 2004, pp. 8–9.
  6. ^ Leila Avrin. Scribes, Script and Books, p. 173.
  7. ^ Bischoff, Bernhard (1990). Latin palaeography antiquity and the Middle Ages. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, p. 11. ISBN 0521364736. 
  8. ^ Leila Avrin. Scribes, Script and Books, pp. 207–208.
  9. ^ Theodore Maynard. Saint Benedict and His Monks. Staples Press Ltd 1956, pp. 70–71.
  10. ^ Martin D. Joachim. Historical Aspects of Cataloguing and Classification. Haworth Press 2003, p. 452.
  11. ^ Edith Diehl. Bookbinding: Its Background and Technique. Dover Publications 1980, pp. 14–16.
  12. ^ Bernhard Bischoff. Latin Palaeography, pp. 16–17.
  13. ^ Paul Saenger. Space Between Words: The Origins of Silent Reading. Stanford University Press 1997.
  14. ^ Bernhard Bischoff. Latin Palaeography, pp. 42–43.
  15. ^ Clapham, Michael, "Printing" in A History of Technology, Vol 2. From the Renaissance to the Industrial Revolution, edd. Charles Singer et al. (Oxford 1957), p. 377. Cited from Elizabeth L. Eisenstein, The Printing Press as an Agent of Change (Cambridge University, 1980).
  16. ^ Miriam A. Drake, Encyclopedia of Library and Information Science (Marcel Dekker, 2003), "Public Libraries, History".
  17. ^ Miriam A. Drake, Encyclopedia of Library, "Public Libraries, History".

Dard Hunter, born William Joseph Hunter, (November 29, 1883 – February 20, 1966), was an American authority on printing, paper, and papermaking—especially by hand, using the tools and craft of four centuries prior. ...

External links

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